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Manual Lubrication:

Generally, grease is replenished periodically, fed through a grease nipple provided on the LM system, using a grease gun. (Fig. 10).

For systems that have many locations to be lubricated, establish a centralized piping system and periodically provide grease from a single point using a manual pump. (Fig. 11).

grease from a single point using a manual pump. (Fig. 11). Fig. 10: Lubrication Using a

Fig. 10: Lubrication Using a Grease Gun.

manual pump. (Fig. 11). Fig. 10: Lubrication Using a Grease Gun. Fig. 11: Lubrication through a

Fig. 11: Lubrication through a Centralized Piping System.

Forced Lubrication:

In this method, a given amount of lubricant is forcibly fed at a given interval. Normally, the lubricant is not collected after use. (Fig. 12) although a special lubrication system using a piping or the like needs to be designed, this method reduces the likelihood of forgetting to replenish lubricant.

This method is used mainly for oil lubrication. If using grease, it is necessary to examine the appropriate piping diameter and the required grease consistency.

piping diameter and the required grease consistency. Fig. 12: Forced lubrication method.  Splash Lubrication:

Fig. 12: Forced lubrication method.

Splash Lubrication:

The splash system is no longer used in automotive engines. It is widely used in small four-cycle engines for lawn mowers, outboard marine operation, and so on. In the splash lubricating system (fig. 13), oil is splashed up from the oil pan or oil trays in the lower part of the crankcase. The oil is thrown upward as droplets or fine mist and provides adequate lubrication to valve mechanisms, piston pins, cylinder walls, and piston rings. In the engine, dippers on the connecting-rod bearing caps enter the oil pan with each crankshaft revolution to produce the oil splash. A passage is drilled in each connecting rod from the dipper to the bearing to ensure lubrication. This system is too uncertain for automotive applications. One reason is that the level of oil in the crankcase will vary greatly the amount of lubrication received by the engine. A high level results in excess lubrication and oil consumption and a slightly low level results in inadequate lubrication and failure of the engine.

Fig. 13: Splash type lubrication system.  Oil/Air Lubrication: Using the oil/air lubricating method, a

Fig. 13: Splash type lubrication system.

Oil/Air Lubrication:

Using the oil/air lubricating method, a very small amount of oil is discharged intermittently by a constant-quantity piston into a pipe carrying a constant flow of compressed air. The oil flows along the wall of the pipe and approaches a constant flow rate.

The major advantages of oil/air lubrication are:

1. It is suitable for high speeds because the minimum necessary amount of oil is supplied and less heat is therefore generated.

2. Since the minimum amount of oil is fed continuously, bearing temperature remains stable. Also, because of the small amount of oil, there is almost no contamination of the bearing surroundings.

3. Since only fresh oil is fed to the bearings, oil deterioration need not be considered.

4. Since compressed air is always fed to the bearings, the internal pressure is high. As a result, dust, cutting fluid and other contaminants cannot enter.

For these reasons, this method is used in the main spindles of machine tools and other high speed applications.

Fig. 14: Oil/Air Lubrication.  Oil mist lubrication: In oil mist lubrication, also called oil

Fig. 14: Oil/Air Lubrication.

Oil mist lubrication:

In oil mist lubrication, also called oil fog lubrication, a fine oil mist is sprayed into the bearing. This method has the following advantages:

1. Because of the small quantity of oil required, the oil agitation resistance is small, and higher speeds are possible.

2. Contamination of the vicinity around the bearing is low because oil leakage is reduced.

3. It is relatively easy to continuously supply fresh oil; therefore, the bearing life is extended.

This lubricating method is used for bearings in the high-speed spindles of machine tools, high- speed pumps, and roll necks of rolling mills.

high-speed spindles of machine tools, high- speed pumps, and roll necks of rolling mills. Fig. 15:

Fig. 15: Oil mist Lubrication.