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Satellite Communications Rai Fasih CTN-670 - Spring 2011 Lecture 1 Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 1

Satellite Communications

Rai Fasih CTN-670 - Spring 2011

Lecture 1

Satellite Communications Rai Fasih CTN-670 - Spring 2011 Lecture 1 Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 1

Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh

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Agenda
Agenda

Course Information

History

Overview and Basic concepts of Satellite Communications

Spectrum Allocation

Satellite Systems Applications

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Course Information
Course Information

Scope of the course

Satellite Communications

Practical information

• Course material

• Lay-out of the course in terms of Lectures, Tutorials, Quizzes, Assignments, Project, Exam

• Make a group for information and correspondence

• Marks Distribution

• Quizzes – 10%

• Assignments/Projects – 20%

• Midterm Examination – 20%

• Final Examination – 50%

Introduction to Satellite Communications

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Overview
Overview

Satellite technology has progressed tremendously over the last 50 years s i nce A rt h ur C . Cl ar k e fi rst since Arthur C. Clarke first proposed its idea in 1945 in his article in Wireless World.

Today, satellite systems can provide a variety of services including broadband communications, audio/video distribution networks, maritime navigation, worldwide customer service and support broadband communications, audio/video distribution networks, maritime navigation, worldwide customer service and support as well as military command and control.

Satellite systems are also expected to play an important role in the emerging 4G global infrastructure providing the wide area coverage necessary for the realization of the emerging 4G global infrastructure providing the wide area coverage necessary for the realization of the “Optimally Connected Anywhere, Anytime” vision that drives the growth of modern telecom industry.

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Text Book
Text Book

Title: Satellite Communications : Satellite Communications

Author: D enn is Ro dd y : Dennis Roddy

ISBN: 0071371761 : 0071371761

EAN: 9780071371766 : 9780071371766

Publisher: :

McGraw-Hill Professional

: D enn is Ro dd y ISBN : 0071371761 EAN : 9780071371766 Publisher : McGraw-Hill

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Reference Books
Reference Books

Title: The Satellite Communication Applications Handbook : The Satellite Communication Applications Handbook

Author: B ruce R . Elb er t : Bruce R. Elbert

ISBN: 1580534902 : 1580534902

EAN: 9781580534901 : 9781580534901

Publisher: :

: B ruce R . Elb er t ISBN : 1580534902 EAN : 9781580534901 Publisher :

Artech House Publishers

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Reference Books
Reference Books

Title: Satellite Communication Engineering : Satellite Communication Engineering

Author: Mich ae l O . Kolawole : Michael O. Kolawole

ISBN: 082470777X : 082470777X

EAN: 9780071371766 : 9780071371766

Publisher: :

: Mich ae l O . Kolawole ISBN : 082470777X EAN : 9780071371766 Publisher : Marcel

Marcel Dekker, Inc.

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Pioneers in Satellite Communication
Pioneers in Satellite Communication

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857 - 1935) Russian visionar y of s p ace fli g ht First described the multi-sta ge Russian visionary of space flight First described the multi-stage rocket as means of achieving orbit.

the multi-sta ge rocket as means of achieving orbit. Link: The life of Konstantin Eduardovitch Tsiolkovsky

Link: The life of Konstantin Eduardovitch Tsiolkovsky

Hermann Noordung (1892 - 1929) Postulated the geostationary orbit. Postulated the geostationary orbit.

Link : Th e Pro bl em of S pace Travel : Th e R nk: The Problem of Space Travel: The Rocket Motor

Arthur C. Clarke (1917 – 19 March 2008) Postulated the entire concept of intern ational satellite telecommunications from geostationary satellite orbit including Postulated the entire concept of international satellite telecommunications from geostationary satellite orbit including coverage, power, services, solar eclipse.

orbit including cov erage, power, services, solar eclipse. Link: "Wireless World" ( 1945 ) Fasih-ud-Din

Link: "Wireless World" (1945)

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Satellite History Calendar
Satellite History Calendar
1957

1957

October 4, 1957: - First satellite - the Russian Sputnik 011957 First living creature in space: Sputnik 02 1958 First American satellite: Explorer 01 First telecommunication

First living creature in space: Sputnik 02October 4, 1957: - First satellite - the Russian Sputnik 01 1958 First American satellite: Explorer

1958

1958

First American satellite: Explorer 01Sputnik 01 First living creature in space: Sputnik 02 1958 First telecommunication satellite: Th is satellite

First telecommunication satellite: This satellite broadcast a taped messa g e: Score is satellite broadcast a taped message: Score

1959

1959

First meteorology satellite: Explorer 07

First meteorology satellite: Explorer 07

1960

1960

First successful p assive satellite : Echo 1 passive satellite: Echo 1

First successful active satellite: Courier 1B07 1960 First successful p assive satellite : Echo 1 First NASA satellite: Explorer 08 April

First NASA satellite: Explorer 08: Echo 1 First successful active satellite: Courier 1B April 12, 1961: - First man in

April 12, 1961: - First man in space

April 12, 1961: - First man in space

1962

1962

First telep hone communication & TV broadcast via satellite: Echo 1 phone communication & TV broadcast via satellite: Echo 1

First telecommunication satellite, first real-time active, AT&T: Telstar 1 t real-time active, AT&T: Telstar 1

First Canadian satellite: Alouette 1satellite, firs t real-time active, AT&T: Telstar 1 On 7 t h June 1962 at 7:53p

On 7 t h June 1962 at 7:53p the two-stage rocket; Rehbar-I was successfully launched from Sonmiani th June 1962 at 7:53p the two-stage rocket; Rehbar-I was successfully launched from Sonmiani Rocket Range. It carried a payload of 80 pounds of sodium and soared to about 130 km into the atmosphere. With the launching of Rehbar-I, Pakistan had the honour of becoming the third country in Asia and the tenth in the world to conduct such a launching after USA, USSR, UK, France, Sweden, Italy, Canada, Japan and Israel.

Rehbar-II followed a successful launch on 9 t h June 1962 th June 1962

1963

1963

Real-time active: Telstar 2

Real-time active: Telstar 2

1964

1964

Creation of Intelsat of Intelsat

First geostationary satellite, second satellite in stationary orbit: Syncom 3 tellite in stationary orbit: Syncom 3

First Italian satellite: San Marco 1of Intelsat First geostationary satellite, second sa tellite in stationary orbit: Syncom 3 Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 9

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Satellite History Calendar
Satellite History Calendar
1965

1965

Intelsat 1 becomes first commercial comsat: Early Bird1965 First real-time active for USSR: Molniya 1A 1967 First geostationary meteorology payload: ATS 3 1968

First real-time active for USSR: Molniya 1A1965 Intelsat 1 becomes first commercial comsat: Early Bird 1967 First geostationary meteorology payload: ATS 3

1967

1967

First geostationary meteorology payload: ATS 3

First geostationary meteorology payload: ATS 3

1968

1968

First European satellite: ESRO 2B

First European satellite: ESRO 2B

July 21, 1969: - First man on the moon

July 21, 1969: - First man on the moon

1970

1970

First Japanese satellite: OhsumiESRO 2B July 21, 1969: - First man on the moon 1970 First Chinese satellite: Dong

First Chinese satellite: Dong Fang Hong 01 Dong Fang Hong 01

1971

1971

First UK launched satellite: ProsperoOhsumi First Chinese satellite: Dong Fang Hong 01 1971 ITU- WARC for Space Telecommunications INTELSAT IV

ITU-WARC for Space Telecommunications WARC for Space Telecommunications

INTELSAT IV LaunchedProspero ITU- WARC for Space Telecommunications INTERSPUTNIK - Soviet Union equi valent of INTELSAT formed

INTERSPUTNIK - Soviet Union equivalent of INTELSAT formed valent of INTELSAT formed

1974

1974

First direct broadcasting satellite: ATS 6

First direct broadcasting satellite: ATS 6

1976

1976

MARISAT - First civil maritime comm unications satellite service started

MARISAT - First civil maritime communications satellite service started

1977

1977

EUTELSAT - European regional satellitemaritime comm unications satellite service started 1977 ITU-WARC for Space Telecommunica tions in the Satellite

ITU-WARC for Space Telecommunications in the Satellite Service tions in the Satellite Service

1979

1979

Creation of Inmarsatregional satellite ITU-WARC for Space Telecommunica tions in the Satellite Service 1979 Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 10

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Satellite History Calendar
Satellite History Calendar
1980

1980

INTELSAT V launched - 3 axis stabilized satellite built by Ford Aerospace

INTELSAT V launched - 3 axis stabilized satellite built by Ford Aerospace

1983

1983

ECS (EUTELSAT 1) launched - built by Eu ropean consortium supervised by ESA

ECS (EUTELSAT 1) launched - built by European consortium supervised by ESA

1984

1984

UK's UNISAT TV DBS sate lli te pro j ect a b an doned s UNISAT TV DBS satellite project abandoned

First satellite repaired in orbit by the shuttle: SMMs UNISAT TV DBS sate lli te pro j ect a b an doned 1985 First

1985

1985

First Brazilian satellite: Brazilsat A1First satellite repaired in orbit by the shuttle: SMM 1985 First Mexican satellite: Morelos 1 1988

First Mexican satellite: Morelos 1shuttle: SMM 1985 First Brazilian satellite: Brazilsat A1 1988 First Luxemburg satellite: Astra 1A 1989 INTELSAT

1988

1988

First Luxemburg satellite: Astra 1A

First Luxemburg satellite: Astra 1A

1989

1989

INTELSAT VI - one of the last big "spinners" built by Hughes big "spinners" built by Hughes

Creation of Panamsat - Begins ServiceVI - one of the last big "spinners" built by Hughes On 16 Jul y 1990

On 16 July 1990 , Pakistan launched its first ex perimental satellite, BADR-I from China y 1990, Pakistan launched its first experimental satellite, BADR-I from China

1990

1990

IRIDIUM, TRITIUM, ODYSSEY and GLOBALSTAR S-PCN projects propos ed - CDMA designs more popular GLOBALSTAR S-PCN projects proposed - CDMA designs more popular

EUTELSAT IIS-PCN projects propos ed - CDMA designs more popular 1992 OLYMPUS finally launched - large European

1992

1992

OLYMPUS finally launched - large European development satellite wi th Ka-band, DBTV and Ku-band SS/TDMA

OLYMPUS finally launched - large European development satellite with Ka-band, DBTV and Ku-band SS/TDMA payloads - fails within 3 years

1993

1993

INMARSAT II - 39 dBW EIRP global beam mobile satellite - built by Hugh es/British

INMARSAT II - 39 dBW EIRP global beam mobile satellite - built by Hughes/British Aerospace

1994

1994

INTELSAT VIII launched - first INTELSAT satellite built to a contractor's design INTELSAT satellite built to a contractor's design

Hug hes describe SPACEWAY desi gn ghes describe SPACEWAY design

DirecTV begins Direct Broadcast to HomeVIII launched - first INTELSAT satellite built to a contractor's design Hu g hes describe SPACEWAY

1995

1995

Panamsat - First private company to provide global satellite services. provide global satellite services.

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Satellite History Calendar 1996
Satellite History Calendar
1996

INMARSAT III launched - first of the multibeam mobile satellites (built by GE/Marconi) m mobile satellites (built by GE/Marconi)

Echostar begins Diresct Broadcast Serviceof the multibea m mobile satellites (built by GE/Marconi) 1997 IRIDIUM launches first test satellites

1997

1997

IRIDIUM launches first test satellites1997 ITU-WRC'97 1999 AceS launch first of the L-band MSS Super-GSOs - built by Lockheed Martin

ITU-WRC'971997 IRIDIUM launches first test satellites 1999 AceS launch first of the L-band MSS Super-GSOs -

1999

1999

AceS launch first of the L-band MSS Super-GSOs - built by Lockheed MartinIRIDIUM launches first test satellites ITU-WRC'97 1999 Iridium Bankruptcy - the first major failure? 2000

Iridium Bankruptcy - the first major failure?of the L-band MSS Super-GSOs - built by Lockheed Martin 2000 Globalstar begins service Thuraya launch

2000

2000

Globalstar begins serviceMartin Iridium Bankruptcy - the first major failure? 2000 Thuraya launch L-b an d MSS S

Thuraya launch L-ban d MSS S uper- GSO and MSS Super-GSO

2001

2001

XM Satellite Radio begins servicebegins service Thuraya launch L-b an d MSS S uper- GSO 2001 Pakistan’s 2 n d

Pakistan’s 2 n d Satellite, BADR-B was launched on 10 Dec 2001 at 9:15a from Baikonour Cosmodrome, nd Satellite, BADR-B was launched on 10 Dec 2001 at 9:15a from Baikonour Cosmodrome, Kazakistan

2002

2002

Sirius Satellite Radio begins service2001 at 9:15a from Baikonour Cosmodrome, Kazakistan 2002 Paksat-1, was deployed at 38 degrees E orbital

Paksat-1, was deployed at 38 degrees E orbital slot in December 2002, Paksat-1, was deployed at 38 degrees E orbital slot in December ot in December 2002, Paksat-1, was deployed at 38 degrees E orbital slot in December 2002

2004

2004

Teledesic network planned to start operation

Teledesic network planned to start operation

2005

2005

Intelsat and Panamsat Merge2002 2004 Teledesic network planned to start operation 2005 VUSat OSCAR-52 (HAMSAT) Launched 2006 CubeSat-OSCAR 56

VUSat OSCAR-52 (HAMSAT) Launchedplanned to start operation 2005 Intelsat and Panamsat Merge 2006 CubeSat-OSCAR 56 (Cute-1.7) Launched K7RR-Sat launched

2006

2006

CubeSat-OSCAR 56 (Cute-1.7) Launchedand Panamsat Merge VUSat OSCAR-52 (HAMSAT) Launched 2006 K7RR-Sat launched by California Politechnic University 2007

K7RR-Sat launched by California Politechnic UniversityOSCAR-52 (HAMSAT) Launched 2006 CubeSat-OSCAR 56 (Cute-1.7) Launched 2007 Prism was launched by University of Tokyo

2007

2007

Prism was launched by University of Tokyo

Prism was launched by University of Tokyo

2008

2008

COMPASS-1; a project of Aachen University was launched from Satish Dawan Space Center, India. It failed iversity was launched from Satish Dawan Space Center, India. It failed

to achieve orbit.

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Propulsion
Propulsion

Rocket motors produce thrust in a process which can be explained by Newton's third law (for every action there is an equal but opposite reaction). In the case of rocket engines, the reactionary force is produced by the combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber. This force then acts upon the rocket nozzle, causing the reaction which propels the vehicle. Since rocket motors are designed to operate in space, they require an oxidizer in order for combustion to take place. This oxidizer is, in many cases, liquid oxygen. There are three different types of rocket engines:

1. Solid propelled rockets

2. Liquid propelled rockets

3. Nuclear rockets

The advantages and disadvantages of each type are shown below.

Solid Fueled Rockets In solid fueled rockets, the fuel and oxidizer both in solid form and thoroughly mixed during manufacture. The section where the fuel is stored is also the combustion chamber. One end of the chamber is closed (the payload of the rocket would be attached to this end) and the other end of the chamber is a rocket nozzle. Advantages of solid fuel rockets include simplicity and reliability, since there are no moving parts and high propellant density, which results in a smaller sized rocket. Among the disadvantages are these: once you turn on a solid rocket motor, you can't shut it off. You have to wait for the fuel to run out. Also, the thrust of a solid fuel rocket decreases greatly during its burn time.

Liquid Fueled Rockets In liquid fueled rockets the fuel and oxidizer are stored in liquid form and pumped into the combustion chamber. There are two types of liquid propellent rockets; bi-propellant rockets, which have separate fuel and oxidizer, and mono-propellant rockets, which have their fuel and oxidizer combined into a single liquid. Liquid fueled rockets are superior to solid fuel rockets in many respects; they can be shut off and subsequently restarted, they generally have a higher exhaust velocity, which means lower burn times are required, and they can be throttled to produce more or less thrust, as needed. However, liquid fuel rockets are highly complex, and therefore have a lower rate of reliability.

Nuclear Rockets Nuclear rockets work by routing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor. The reactor is at a high temperature, which causes the hydrogen fuel to expand as it leaves the nozzle, producing a high amount of thrust. Nuclear rockets do not need an oxidizer, and they require much less fuel per pound of payload than liquid or solid fuel rockets. This allows a vehicle using a nuclear rocket to be more versatile than one which uses chemical rockets. Disadvantages of nuclear rockets include radiation effects caused by the nuclear reactor, and the high weight of the engine assembly.

Od sseus

y

Recent studies have shown nuclear propulsion for Mars missions offers several major advantages over all-chemical propulsion systems. Therefore, a nuclear engine was selected for the Odysseus program. The Oddyseus II engine will produce 1,112,500 Newtons of thrust at a weight of 9100 kg. The engine will be approximately 3m in diameter and 6 meters long.

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Intelsat
Intelsat

INTELSAT is the original "Inter-governmental Satellite organization". It once owne d an d opera t e d mos t o f th It once owned and operated most of the World's satellites used for international communications, and still maintains a substantial fleet of satellites.

INTELSAT is mov i ng t owar d s " privatization " , w ith i s moving towards "privatization", with increasing competition from commercial operators (e.g. Panamsat, Loral Skynet, etc.).

INTELSAT Time li ne: meline:

Interim organization formed in 1964 by 11 countries(e.g. Panamsat, Loral Skynet, etc.). INTELSAT Ti me li ne: Permanent structure formed in 1973 Commercia

Permanent structure formed in 1973li ne: Interim organization formed in 1964 by 11 countries Commercia l " spin-o ff" ,

Commercial " spin-o ff" , New S k ies Sate ll ites in 1998 l "spin-off", New Skies Satellites in 1998

Full "privatization" by April 2001structure formed in 1973 Commercia l " spin-o ff" , New S k ies Sate ll

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Overvi ew an d B as i c concep t s o f Satellite Communications

Overview and Basic concepts of Satellite Communications

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Communication Satellite
Communication Satellite

A Communication Satellite can be looked upon as a l ar g e m i crowave repea t er upon as a large microwave repeater

It contains several transponders which li st ens to some por ti on o f spect rum, amplifies the incoming listens to some portion of spectrum, amplifies the incoming signal and broadcasts it in another frequency to avoid interference with incoming signals.

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Motivation to use Satellites
Motivation to use Satellites
Motivation to use Satellites Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 17

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Satellite Missions
Satellite Missions
Satellite Missions Source: Union of Concerned Scientists [www.ucsusa.org] Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 18

Source: Union of Concerned Scientists [www.ucsusa.org]

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Satellite Microwave Transmission
Satellite Microwave Transmission

Satellites can relay signals over a lon g distance Geostationary Satellites y signals over a long distance
Satellites can rela y signals over a lon g distance Geostationary Satellites Geostationary Satellites

Remain above the equator at a height of about 22300 miles (geosynchronous orbits) about 22300 miles (geosynchronous orbits)

Travel around the earth in exactly the same time, th e earth t a k es t o rotate , the earth takes to rotate

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Satellite System Elements
Satellite System Elements
Satellite System Elements Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 20

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Space Segment
Space Segment

Satellite Launching PhaseSpace Segment T ransfer Orbit Phase De p lo yment Operation T T&C - Tracking Telemetr

Transfer Orbit Phase ransfer Orbit Phase

Dep lo yment ployment

OperationLaunching Phase T ransfer Orbit Phase De p lo yment T T&C - Tracking Telemetr y

TT&C - Tracking Telemetr y and Command Station T&C - Tracking Telemetry and Command Station

SCC - Satellite Control Center:T T&C - Tracking Telemetr y and Command Station • OCC - Operations Control Center •

• OCC - Operations Control Center • SCF - Satellite Control Facility

Retirement Phase Phase

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Ground Segment
Ground Segment

Collection of facilities, Users and ApplicationsGround Segment Earth Station = Satellite Communication Station (Fixed or Mobile) Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 22

Segment Collection of facilities, Users and Applications Earth Station = Satellite Communication Station (Fixed or

Earth Station = Satellite Communication Station (Fixed or Mobile) (Fixed or Mobile)

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Satellite Uplink and Downlink
Satellite Uplink and Downlink

Downlink wnlink

Satellite Uplink and Downlink Do wnlink The link from a satellite down to one or more

The link from a satellite down to one or more ground stations or receivers

Upli nk link

The link from a ground station up to a satellite.down to one or more ground stations or receivers Up li nk S ome compan i

Some compan i es se ll up li n k an d d own li ome companies sell uplink and downlink services to

television stations, corporations, and to other telecommunication carriers.

television stations, corporations, and to other telecommunication carriers.

A company can specialize in providing uplinks,

A company can specialize in providing uplinks,

downlinks or both.

,

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Satellite Uplink and Downlink
Satellite Uplink and Downlink

Satellite

Uplink Source Tx Information
Uplink
Source
Tx
Information
and Downlink Satellite Uplink Source Tx Information Downlink Rx Earth Station E a r t h
and Downlink Satellite Uplink Source Tx Information Downlink Rx Earth Station E a r t h

Downlink

Rx
Rx

Earth

Station

Earth

Station

Output

Information

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Satellite Communication
Satellite Communication
Satellite Communication Source: Cryptome [Cryptome.org] WhenWhen usingusing aa satellitesatellite forfor longlong

Source: Cryptome [Cryptome.org]

WhenWhen usingusing aa satellitesatellite forfor longlong distancedistance communications,communications, thethe satellitesatellite actsacts asas aa repeater.repeater. AnAn earthearth stationstation transmitstransmits thethe signalsignal upup toto thethe satellitesatellite (uplink),(uplink), whichwhich inin turnturn retransmitsretransmits itit toto thethe receivingreceiving earthearth stationstation (downlink).(downlink). DiffDifferenerentt ffrequencrequenciieses areare useusedd fforor uplink/downlink.uplink/downlink.

(downlink).(downlink). DiffDifferenerentt ffrequencrequenciieses areare useusedd fforor uplink/downlink.uplink/downlink.
(downlink).(downlink). DiffDifferenerentt ffrequencrequenciieses areare useusedd fforor uplink/downlink.uplink/downlink.

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Satellite Transmission Links
Satellite Transmission Links

Earth stations Communicate by sendin g signals to the satellite on an uplink The satellite then repeats those y sending signals to the satellite on an uplink
Communicate b y sendin g signals to the satellite on an uplink The satellite then repeats The satellite then repeats those signals on a downlink

The b roa d cas t na t ure o f down li nk ma e broadcast nature of downlink makes it attractive for services such as the distribution of TV programs

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Direct to User Services
Direct to User Services
Direct to User Services One One way way Service Service (Broadcasting) (Broadcasting) Two Two way way

OneOne wayway ServiceService (Broadcasting)(Broadcasting)

One way way Service Service (Broadcasting) (Broadcasting) Two Two way way Service Service (Communication)

TwoTwo wayway ServiceService (Communication)(Communication)

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Satellite Signals
Satellite Signals
Satellite Signals Used to transmit si g nals and data over long distances W eat h

Used to transmit signals and data over long distances

Weat h er f orecast i ng eather forecasting

Television broadcastingand data over long distances W eat h er f orecast i ng Internet communication Global

Internet communication communication

Global Positioning Systemsover long distances W eat h er f orecast i ng Television broadcasting Internet communication Fasih-ud-Din

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Satellite Transmission Bands
Satellite Transmission Bands

Frequency Band

Downlink

Uplink

C

3,700-4,200 MHz

5,925-6,425 MHz

Ku

11.7-12.2 GHz

14.0-14.5 GHz

Ka

17.7-21.2 GHz

27.5-31.0 GHz

The C band is the most frequently used. The Ka and Ku bands are reserved exclusively for satellite communication but are subject to rain attenuation

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Types of Satellite Orbits
Types of Satellite Orbits

Based on the inclination, i, over the equatorial plane:Types of Satellite Orbits Equatorial Orbits above Earth’s equator (i=0°) Polar Orbits pass over both poles

Equatorial Orbits above Earth’s equator (i=0°)Based on the inclination, i, over the equatorial plane: Polar Orbits pass over both poles (i=90°)

Polar Orbits pass over both poles (i=90°)plane: Equatorial Orbits above Earth’s equator (i=0°) Oth er or bit s called i nc li

Other or bit s called i nc li ne d or bit s (0 °<i< er orbits called inclined orbits (0°<i<90°)

bit s called i nc li ne d or bit s (0 °<i< 90 °) B
bit s called i nc li ne d or bit s (0 °<i< 90 °) B

Base d on E ccen tric it y ased on Eccentricity

Circular with centre at the earth’s centrebit s (0 °<i< 90 °) B ase d on E ccen tric it y Elliptical

Elliptical with one foci at earth ’ s centre with one foci at earths centre

Circular with centre at the earth’s centre Elliptical with one foci at earth ’ s centre

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Types of Satellite based Networks
Types of Satellite based Networks
Types of Satellite based Networks Based on the Satellite Altitude GEO – Geostationary Orbits • 36000

Based on the Satellite Altitude

GEO – Geostationary Orbitsof Satellite based Networks Based on the Satellite Altitude • 36000 Km = 22300 Miles, equatorial,

• 36000 Km = 22300 Miles, equatorial, High latency

MEO – Medium Earth Orbits Medium Earth Orbits

• High bandwidth, High power, High latency

LEO – Low Earth Orbits Low Earth Orbits

• Low power, Low latency, More Satellites, Small Footprint

VSAT• Low power, Low latency, More Satellites, Small Footprint • V ery Sma ll A per

• Very Small Aperture Satellites

– Private WANs

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Satellite Orbits
Satellite Orbits
Satellite Orbits Source: Federation of Americ an Scientists [www.fas.org] GeosynchronousGeosynchronous OrbitOrbit

Source: Federation of American Scientists [www.fas.org]

GeosynchronousGeosynchronous OrbitOrbit (GEO):(GEO):

3636,,000000 kkmm aabboveove EEartarthh,, iincnclluuddeses commercialcommercial andand militarymilitary communicationscommunications satellites,satellites, satellitessatellites providingproviding earlyearly warningwarning ofof ballisticballistic mmiissssililee llauncaunchh MediumMedium EarthEarth OrbitOrbit (MEO):(MEO): fromfrom

50005000 toto 1500015000 km,km, theythey includeinclude navigationnavigation satellitessatellites (GPS,(GPS, Galileo,Galileo, Glonass).Glonass). LowLow EarthEarth OrbitOrbit (LEO):(LEO): fromfrom 500500 toto 10001000 kmkm aboveabove Earth,Earth, includesincludes militarmilitaryy intelliintelliggenceence satellitessatellites,, weatherweather satellites.satellites.

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Satellite Orbits
Satellite Orbits

GEO

36,000 km

MEO

5,000 – 15,000 km

LEO

500 -1000 km

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GEO - Geostationary Orbit
GEO - Geostationary Orbit

In the equatorial planeGEO - Geostationary Orbit Orbital Period = 23 h 56 min. 4.091 s = one Sidereal

Orbital PeriodGEO - Geostationary Orbit In the equatorial plane = 23 h 56 min. 4.091 s =

= 23 h

56 min.

4.091 s

= one Sidereal Day (defined as one complete rotation relative to the fixed stars)

Satellite appears to be stationary over a point on the equator to an observer appears to be stationary over a point on the equator to an observer

Radius of orbit, r , = 42 , 164 . 57 km r, = 42,164.57 km

NOTE: Radius = orbital height + radius of the earth Average radius of earth =
NOTE: Radius = orbital height + radius of the earth
Average radius of earth = 6,378.14 km

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NGSO - Non Geostationary Orbits
NGSO - Non Geostationary Orbits
NGSO - Non Geostationary Orbits Orbit should avoid Van Allen radiation belts: Region of charged particles

Orbit should avoid Van Allen radiation belts:

Region of charged particles that can cause d amage t o sa te llit e particles that can cause damage to satellite

Occur atcharged particles that can cause d amage t o sa te llit e • ~2000-4000 km

particles that can cause d amage t o sa te llit e Occur at • ~2000-4000

• ~2000-4000 km and

~13000-25000 km

that can cause d amage t o sa te llit e Occur at • ~2000-4000 km

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LEO - Low Earth Orbits
LEO - Low Earth Orbits
LEO - Low Earth Orbits Circular or inclined orbit with < 1400 km altitude Satellite travels

Circular or inclined orbit with < 1400 km altitude

Satellite travels across sky from horizon to horizon in 5 - 15 minutes => needs handoff travels across sky from horizon to horizon in 5 - 15 minutes => needs handoff

Earth stations must track satellite or have Omni directional antennas directional antennas

Large constellation of satellites is needed for contin uous co mm u ni cat io n (66 sate lli tes n eeded continuous communication (66 satellites needed to cover earth)

Requires complex architectureco mm u ni cat io n (66 sate lli tes n eeded to cover earth)

Requires tracking at ground tracking at ground

lli tes n eeded to cover earth) Requires complex architecture Requires tracking at ground Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh
lli tes n eeded to cover earth) Requires complex architecture Requires tracking at ground Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh
lli tes n eeded to cover earth) Requires complex architecture Requires tracking at ground Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh

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HEO - Highly Elliptical Orbits
HEO - Highly Elliptical Orbits

HEOs (i = 63.4°) are suitable to pro vi de cover age at hi g h l at i tudes (including North provide coverage at high latitudes (including North Pole in the northern hemisphere)

Dep endin g on selected orbit (e .g . Molniya, Tundra, etc.) two or three pending on selected orbit (e.g. Molniya, Tundra, etc.) two or three satellites are sufficient for continuous time coverage of the service area.

All traffic must be periodically transferred from the “setting” satellite to the “r ising” satellite (Satellite Handover) transferred from the “setting” satellite to the “rising” satellite (Satellite Handover)

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from the “setting” satellite to the “r ising” satellite (Satellite Handover) Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 37

37

MOLNIYA VIEW OF THE EARTH
MOLNIYA VIEW OF THE EARTH
MOLNIYA VIEW OF THE EARTH Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 38

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Molniya Variants (HEO’s)
Molniya Variants (HEO’s)

Tundra Orbit – Lies entirely above the Van Allen belts. belts.

The Russian Tundra system, which employs two satellites in two 24-hour orbits separated by 180 deg around the Earth, with an two satellites in two 24-hour orbits separated by 180 deg around the Earth, with an apogee of 53,622 km and a perigee of 17,951 km.

The Molniya orbit crosses the Van Allen belts twice f or eac h revo l ut i on, resu lti ng i n a for each revolution, resulting in a reduction of satellite life due to impact on electronics

the Russian Molniya system employs three satellites in three 12-hour orbits separated by 120 deg around the Earth, with an apogee satellites in three 12-hour orbits separated by 120 deg around the Earth, with an apogee of 39,354 km and a perigee of 1000 km.

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Satellite Orbits
Satellite Orbits
Satellite Orbits Source: Union of Concerned Scientists [www.ucsusa.org] Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 40

Source: Union of Concerned Scientists [www.ucsusa.org]

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Why Satellites remain in Orbits
Why Satellites remain in Orbits
Why Satellites remain in Orbits Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 41

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Parameters Determining Orbit Size and Shape
Parameters Determining Orbit Size and Shape

Parameter

Definition

Semimajor Axis

Half the distance between the two points in the orbit that are farthest apart

Apogee

The point farthest from earth. Apogee height is ha

Perigee

The point of closest approach to earth. The perigee height is hp

Period

The duration of one orbit, based on assumed two-body motion

Mean Motion

The number of orbits per solar day (86,400 sec/24 hour), based on assumed two-body motion

Line of Apsides

The line joining the perigee and apogee through the center of the earth.

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Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 43
Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 43

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Orientation of Orbital Plane in Space Parameter Definition
Orientation of Orbital Plane in Space
Parameter
Definition

Subsatellite path

Inclination

Right Ascension of the Ascending Node

Argument of Perigee

Longitude of the Ascending Node

This is the path traced out on the earth’s surface directly below the satellite.

The angle between the orbital plane and the Earth's equatorial plane (commonly used as a reference plane for Earth satellites)

The angle in the Earth's equatorial plane measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the ascending node of the orbit

The angle, in the plane of the satellite's orbit, between the ascending node and the perigee of the orbit, measured in the direction of the satellite's motion

The Earth-fixed longitude of the ascending node

The ascending node (referenced in three of the above definitions) is the point in the satellite's orbit where it crosses the Earth's equatorial plane going from south to north.

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Orientation of Orbital Plane in Space
Orientation of Orbital Plane in Space

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Orientation of Orbital Plane in Space
Orientation of Orbital Plane in Space

Parameters determining orbit orientation

Orientation of Orbital Plane in Space Parameters determining orbit orientation Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 46

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Satellite Location parameters To specify the satellite's location within its orbit at epoch.
Satellite Location parameters
To specify the satellite's location within its orbit at epoch.

Parameter

Definition

True Anomaly

The angle from the eccentricity vector (points toward perigee) to the satellite position vector, measured in the direction of satellite motion and in the orbit plane.

Mean Anomaly

The angle from the eccentricity vector to a position vector where the satellite would be if it were always moving at its angular rate.

Prograde orbit

An orbit in which the satellite moves in the same direction as the earth’s rotation. The prograde orbit is also known as a direct orbit. The inclination of a prograde orbit always lies between 0° and 90°. Most satellites are launched in a prograde orbit because the earth’s rotational velocity provides part of the orbital velocity with a consequent saving in launch energy.

Retrograde orbit

An orbit in which the satellite moves in a direction counter to the earth’s rotation. The inclination of a retrograde orbit always lies between 90° and 180°.

Time Past Ascending Node

The elapsed time since the last ascending node crossing.

Time Past Perigee

The elapsed time since last perigee passage.

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Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 48
Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 48

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Orbital Velocities and Periods
Orbital Velocities and Periods
Satellite Orbital System Orbital Height (km) Orbital Velocity (km/s) Period h min s INTELSAT 35,786.43
Satellite
Orbital
System
Orbital
Height (km)
Orbital
Velocity (km/s)
Period
h
min s
INTELSAT
35,786.43
3.0747
23 56 4.091
ICO-Global
10,255
4.8954
5
55 48.4
Skybridge
1,469
7.1272
1
55 17.8
Iridium
780
7.4624
1
40 27.0

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Hours

LEO, MEO and GEO Orbit Periods
LEO, MEO and GEO Orbit Periods
30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

0

5000

10000

15000

20000

Altitude [km]

25000

30000

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35000

40000

50

Spectrum Allocation Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 51

Spectrum Allocation

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Frequency Spectrum concepts
Frequency Spectrum concepts

Frequency: Rate at which an electromagnetic wave reverts its polarity (oscillates) in cycles per second or Hertz (Hz).

Wavelength: distance between wavefronts in space. Given in

meters as:

λ= c/f

Where: c = speed of light (3x10 8 m/s in vacuum)

f = frequency in Hertz

Frequency band: range of frequencies.

Bandwidth: Size or “width” (in Hertz) or a frequency band.

Electromagnetic Spectrum: full extent of all frequencies from zero to infinity.

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Radio Frequencies (RF)
Radio Frequencies (RF)
Radio Frequencies (RF) RF Frequencies: Part of the electromagnetic spectrum ran ging between 300 MHz and

RF Frequencies: Part of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. Interesting properties:

Efficient generation of signal powerging between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. Interestin g properties: Radiates into free space Efficient reception

Radiates into free spaceg properties: Efficient generation of signal power Efficient reception at a different point. Differences

Efficient reception at a different point.generation of signal power Radiates into free space Differences depending on the RF frequency used: -

Differences depending on the RF frequency used:

- Signal Bandwidth

- Propagation effects (diffraction, noise, fading)

- Antenna Sizes

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Microwave Frequencies
Microwave Frequencies

• Sub-range of the RF frequencies approximately from 1GHz to 30GHz. Main properties:

- Line of sight propagation (space and atmosphere).

- Blockage by dense media (hills, buildings, rain)

- Wide bandwidths compared to lower frequency bands.

- Compact antennas, directionality possible.

- Reduced efficiency of power amplification as frequency grows:

Radio Frequency Power OUT Direct Current Power IN

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Radio Frequency Spectrum
Radio Frequency Spectrum

Commonly Used Bands

 
  SHF  

SHF

  SHF  
 

AM

HF

VHF

UHF

L

S

 

C

X

   

KuKa

V

Q

0.1

1

S   C X     KuKa V Q 0.1 1 10 MHz 100 1 Terrestrial

10

MHz

100 1
100
1
C X     KuKa V Q 0.1 1 10 MHz 100 1 Terrestrial Bands Space
C X     KuKa V Q 0.1 1 10 MHz 100 1 Terrestrial Bands Space
C X     KuKa V Q 0.1 1 10 MHz 100 1 Terrestrial Bands Space

Terrestrial Bands

Space Bands

Shared (Terrestrial and Space)

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10

GHz

100

V Q 0.1 1 10 MHz 100 1 Terrestrial Bands Space Bands Shared (Terrestrial and Space)

55

Space-Earth Frequency Usability
Space-Earth Frequency Usability
Space-Earth Frequency Usability Energy absorption by atmospheric gases, which varies with the frequency of the radio

Energy absorption by atmospheric gases, which varies with the frequency of the radio waves. Two absorption peaks are observed (for 90º elevation angle):

22.3 GHz from resonance absorption in water vapor absorption in water vapor

(H O

2

)

60 GHz from resonance absorption in oxygen (O 2 ) absorption in oxygen (O 2 )

Atmospheric attenuation effects for Space-to-Earth as a function of frequency (clear air conditions). (a) Oxygen; (b) Water vapor. [Source: ITU © 1988]

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Insights on Frequency Selection:
Insights on Frequency Selection:

(Part 1: Lower frequencies, stronger links)

(P ar t 1 : L ower f requenc ies, st ronger li nks) LEO satellites

LEO satellites need lower RF frequencies:

Omni-directional antennas on handsets have low gain - typically G = 0 db = 1 - typically G = 0 db = 1

Flux densitantennas on handsets have low gain - typically G = 0 db = 1 y F

y F in W/m

2 at the earth’s surface in any

beam is independent of frequency

Received power is F x A watts , where A is effective area of antenna in square meters area of antenna in square meters

For an omni-directional antenna A = G λ 2 / 4 π = λ 2 / 4 π λ 2 / 4 π = λ 2 / 4 π

At 450 MHz, 450 MHz,

A

353 cm 2 ,

at

20 GHz, A

=

=

0.18 cm 2

Difference is 33 dB - so don’t use 20 GHz with an o m n i ! omni!

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Insights on Frequency Selection:
Insights on Frequency Selection:

(Part 2: Higher frequencies, higher capacity)

(P ar t 2 : Hi gh er f requenc ies, high er capac it y)

GEO satellites need more RF frequencies

High speed data links on GEO satellites need about 0.8 Hz of RF bandwidth per bit/sec. Hz of RF bandwidth per bit/sec.

A 155 Mbps data link requires 125 MHz bandwidthsatellites need about 0.8 Hz of RF bandwidth per bit/sec. Available RF bandwidth: C band Ku

Available RF bandwidth:per bit/sec. A 155 Mbps data link requires 125 MHz bandwidth C band Ku band Ka

C band

Ku band

Ka band

Q/V band

500 MHz

750 MHz

2000 MHz

?

(All GEO slots occupied)

(Most GEO slots occupied)

(proliferating)

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Satellite Systems Applications Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 59

Satellite Systems Applications

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Initial application of GEO Satellites:
Initial application of GEO Satellites:

Telephony

1965Initial application of GEO Satellites: Tel ep hony 1968 19 86 2000 Early Bird 34 k

1968Initial application of GEO Satellites: Tel ep hony 1965 19 86 2000 Early Bird 34 k

1986 86

2000application of GEO Satellites: Tel ep hony 1965 1968 19 86 Early Bird 34 k g

Early Bird

34 kg

Intelsat III 152 kg

Intelsat VI 1,800 kg

Large GEO 3000 kg

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240 telephone circuits 1500 circuits

33,000 circuits

8 - 15 kW power 1,200 kg payload

60

Current GEO Satellite Applications:
Current GEO Satellite Applications:

Broadcasting - mainly TV at present - mainly TV at present

Applications: Broadcasting - mainly TV at present DirecTV, PrimeStar, etc. Point to Multi-point

DirecTV, PrimeStar, etc.

Point to Multi-point communications communications

VSAT, Vid eo di s t r ib u ti on f or C a , Video distribution for Cable TV

Mo bil e S erv i ces obile Services

s t r ib u ti on f or C a bl e TV M o

Motient (former American Mobile Satellite), t

INMARSAT

, e c.

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Satellite Navigation:
Satellite Navigation:

GPS and GLONASS

GPS is a medium earth orbit (MEO) satellite system is a medium earth orbit (MEO) satellite system

GPS satellites broadcast pulse trains with veryGLONASS GPS is a medium earth orbit (MEO) satellite system accurate time signals A receiver able

accurate time signals

A receiver able to “see” four GPS satellites can calculate it s pos ition w ithi n 30 m anyw here i n wor calculate its position within 30 m anywhere in world

24 satellites in clusters of four, 12 hour orbital periodit s pos ition w ithi n 30 m anyw here i n wor ld “Y

“You never nee d b e l os t again” ou never need be lost again”

Every automobile and cellular phone will eventually have a GPS location read-out out

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LEO Satellites in year 2000
LEO Satellites in year 2000
LEO Satellites in year 2000 Several new systems are just starting service Circular or inclined orbit

Several new systems are just starting service

Circular or inclined orbit with < 1400 km altitudein year 2000 Several new systems are just starting service Satellite travels across sk y from

Satellite travels across sky from horizon to horizon in 5 - 15 minutes y from horizon to horizon in 5 - 15 minutes

Earth stations must track satellite or have omni- -

directional antennas

Constellation of satellites is needed for continuous of satellites is needed for continuous

communication.

Handoff needed . needed.

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System Design Considerations Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 64

System Design Considerations

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Basic Principles
Basic Principles
Satellite Downlink Uplink Earth Earth Station Station Source Output Tx Rx Information Information
Satellite
Downlink
Uplink
Earth
Earth
Station
Station
Source
Output
Tx
Rx
Information
Information

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Signals
Signals
Signals Sig na l s: Carried by wires as voltage or current Transmitted through space as

Signals:

Carried by wires as voltage or currentSignals Sig na l s: Transmitted through space as electromagnetic waves. Analog: • V olta ge

Transmitted through space as electromagnetic waves. space as electromagnetic waves.

Analog:Transmitted through space as electromagnetic waves. • V olta ge or Current prop ortional to si

• Voltage or Current proportional to signal; e.g., Telephone.

Digital: Generated by computers. Ex. Binary = 1 or 0 corresponding to +1V or –1V. Ex. Binary = 1 or 0 corresponding to +1V or –1V.

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Separating Signals
Separating Signals
Separating Signals Up and Down: FDD: Frequency Division Duplexing. f1 = Uplink f2 = Downlink TDD:

Up and Down:

FDD: Frequency Division Duplexing.Separating Signals Up and Down: f1 = Uplink f2 = Downlink TDD: Time Division Duplexing. t1=U

f1 = Uplink f2 = Downlink

TDD: Time Division Duplexing.Frequency Division Duplexing. f1 = Uplink f2 = Downlink t1=U p , t2=Down , t3=U p

t1=Up, t2=Down, t3=Up, t4=Down,….

PolarizationDuplexing. t1=U p , t2=Down , t3=U p , t4=Down ,…. V & H linear polarization

V & H linear polarization RH & LH circular polarizations

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What is Polarization?
What is Polarization?

Polarization is the property of electromagnetic waves th at describes th e di rec ti on o f th e t ransverse that describes the direction of the transverse electric field.

Since electromagnetic waves consist of an electric andth e di rec ti on o f th e t ransverse e lectric field. a

a

magnetic field vibrating at right angles to each other.

is necessary to adopt a convention to determine theit

it

polarization of the signal.

Conventionally, the magnetic field is ignored and the plane of the electric field is used. plane of the electric field is used.

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Types of Polarization
Types of Polarization
Types of Polarization Linear Polarisation Circular Polarisation Elliptical Polarization Linear Polarization (horizontal o

Linear Polarisation

Circular Polarisation

Elliptical Polarization

Linear Polarization (horizontal o r v ertical): or vertical):

the two orthogonal components of the electric field are in phase; components of the electric field are in phase;

The direction of the line in the plane depends on the relative amplitudes of the two direction of the line in the plane depends on the relative amplitudes of the two components.

Circular Polarization:depends on the relative amplitudes of the two components. The two components are exactly 90º out

The two components are exactly 90º out of phase and exactly 90º out of phase and

have exactl amplitude.

the same

Elliptical Polarization:components are exactly 90º out of phase and have exactl amplitude. the same All other cases.

All other cases.are exactly 90º out of phase and have exactl amplitude. the same Elliptical Polarization: Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh

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Satellite Communications
Satellite Communications

Alternating vertical and horizontal p olarization is widel y used on satellite communications polarization is widely used on satellite communications

This reduces interference between programs on the same frequency band transmitted from adjacent satellites (One uses vertical, the next programs on the same frequency band transmitted from adjacent satellites (One uses vertical, the next horizontal, and so on)

Allows for reduced ang ular separation between the satellites. gular separation between the satellites.

for reduced an g ular separation between the satellites. Information Resources for Tele communication Professionals

Information Resources for Telecommunication Professionals [www.mlesat.com]

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Separating Signals
Separating Signals

(so that many transmitters can use the same transponder simultaneously)

can use t h e same transpon d er s i mu l taneous l y)

Between Users or “Channels” (Multiple Access):

FDMA: F requency Di v i s i on M u lti p l e : Frequency Division Multiple Access; assigns each transmitter its own carrier frequency

f1 = User 1; f2 = User 2; f3 = User 3, …

TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access; each transmitter is g iven its own time slot transmitter is given its own time slot

t1=User_1, t2=User_2, t3=User_3, t4 = User_1,

CDMA: Code Division Multi p le Access ; each transmitter transmits simultaneously and at the : Code Division Multiple Access; each transmitter transmits simultaneously and at the same frequency and each transmission is modulated by its own pseudo randomly coded bit stream

Code 1 = User 1; Code 2 = User 2; Code 3 = User 3

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Digital Communication System
Digital Communication System
TRANSMITTER Source Source Channel Modulator Data Coding Coding Output Source Channel Demodulator Data
TRANSMITTER
Source
Source
Channel
Modulator
Data
Coding
Coding
Output
Source
Channel
Demodulator
Data
Decoding
Decoder
RECEIVER

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RF Channel

RF

Channel

RF Channel

72

Current D eve lopment s an d Future Trends Fasih-ud-Din Farrukh 73

Current Developments and Future Trends

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Current Trends in Satellite C ommun i cat i ons Bigger, heavier, GEO satellites with

Current Trends in Satellite Communications

Bigger, heavier, GEO satellites with multiple rolesCurrent Trends in Satellite C ommun i cat i ons More direct broadcast TV and Radio

More direct broadcast TV and Radio satellitesi ons Bigger, heavier, GEO satellites with multiple roles Expansion into Ka, Q, V bands (20/30,

Expansion into Ka, Q, V bands (20/30, 40/50 GHz)multiple roles More direct broadcast TV and Radio satellites Massive g rowth in data services fueled

Massive g rowth in data services fueled b y Internet growth in data services fueled by Internet

Mobile services:GHz) Massive g rowth in data services fueled b y Internet May be broadcast services rather

May be broadcast services rather than point to pointrowth in data services fueled b y Internet Mobile services: Make mobile services a successful business?

Make mobile services a successful business?services fueled b y Internet Mobile services: May be broadcast services rather than point to point

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The Future for Satellite Commun i cat i ons - 1 Growt h requi res

The Future for Satellite Communications - 1

Growth requi res new f requency b an ds h requires new frequency bands

Propagation through rain and clouds becomes a problem as RF f requency is i ncrease d as RF frequency is increased

Rain has little impact 99.99% availability is possible

C-band (6/4 GHz)has little impact 99 . 99% availabilit y i s poss ibl e Ku-band (10-12 GHz)

Ku-band (10-12 GHz)99 . 99% availabilit y i s poss ibl e C-band (6/4 GHz) Link margin of

Link margin of 3 dB needed for 99.8% availability

Ka-band (20 - 30 GHz) Link margin of ≥ 6 dB needed 6 dB needed

for 99 6% availabilit

.

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The Future for Satellite C ommun i cat i ons - 2 Low cost phased

The Future for Satellite Communications - 2

The Future for Satellite C ommun i cat i ons - 2 Low cost phased array

Low cost phased array antennas for mobiles are

needed

Mobil e systems are limi te d b y use o f omn i- di bile systems are limited by use of omni-directional

antennas

A self-phasing, self-steering phased array antenna with 6 dB gain can quadruple the capacity of a system 6 dB gain can quadruple the capacity of a system

Directional antennas allow frequency re-useself-steering phased array antenna with 6 dB gain can quadruple the capacity of a system Fasih-ud-Din

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Assignment #1
Assignment #1

Read the paper of Arthur C. Clark and summarize his suggestions to support Satellite for Communication purposes. summarize his suggestions to support Satellite for Communication purposes.

What is Q/ V band and which satellites are usin g this band? Q/V band and which satellites are using this band?

How many are the circuits in Recent Lar g e GEO Satellites? y are the circuits in Recent Large GEO Satellites?

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