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A Brief History of Atomic

Theory

This Section will focus on Scientists


who have had an impact on the
study of the atom.
Democritus proposed that
matter cannot be broken
down indefinitely. At some
point you end up with a
piece that can’t be divided.
That smallest piece he
called an atom, from the
Greek word atomos, which
470-380 B.C. means “indivisible”.
Democritus’ Model

“Atomos”

ATOMOS was the word Democritus used the


point, or stage where matter cannot be broken
down any further. ATOMOS literally means
“indivisible”
John Dalton was a
British chemist.He was
the first modern
scientist to propose the
existence of atoms.He
described an atom as an
invisible indestructible,
solid sphere, like a
billiard ball.
1766 - 1844
Dalton’s Model

The “Indivisible Sphere”


J.J. Thomson was a
British physicist who was
the first scientist to
propose the plum pudding
model. He was also the
first to propose the theory
of the negatively charged
electron. He was credited
1856 - 1940 for the discovery. He also
proposed the isotope.
Thomson “plum pudding” model

-
Ernest Rutherford
experiments proved
that atoms are mostly
empty space
Discovered the nuclear,
which contains
positively charged
particles .Was the first
to suggest that
electrons circle the
1871- 1937 dense nucleus.
Rutherford’s Model

Nucleus
It has a
+ charge

Electron Negative charge


Niels Bohr stated that
electrons move in
different orbits, or
energy levels, around the
nucleus like planets orbit
the sun. Each energy
level is located a specific
distance from the 1885 - 1962
nucleus and contains a
certain number of
electrons.
Bohr Model
Nucleus

Energy
levels

Electron-
negative charge
Current Model
This model is
based upon Bohr’s
model, except that
electrons orbit the
nucleus in random
patterns. The
region where these
particles are found
is referred to as
the electron cloud.
Electron Clouds

Nucleus
Demitri Mendeleev

Demitri Mendeleev was a


Russian scientist. He was
the first person to make
the periodic table. He also
wrote a chemistry
book.The periodic table is
a tool to help read
elements.
Mendeleev’s Table
Modern Periodic Table
How to Read the Table
Atomic
Number

6 2
Chemical
Symbol
C 4 Number of
carbon Electrons
in each
energy
field
Element
Name 12.01115

Atomic Mass
Calculating Atomic Mass
6
To find the Atomic
Mass, you look at the
bottom number in the
Atom tile and round it
C
to the nearest whole Carbon
number.
12.01115

Atomic
Mass
How to find number of protons

6
Atomic Number/
number of Protons
C
The number of Protons in CARBON
atom is also the Atomic
12.01115
number, so therefore the
Atomic number also
represents the amount of
Protons in the nucleus of
that Atom.
How to Find the Amount of
Neutrons in an Atom
To find the amount 2
16
of neutrons in an 8
atom you have to S
6
subtract the atomic
sulfur
mass from the
atomic number . 32.064
Atomic
Mass Number of
32
protons
Atomic 16
Number
16
To determine amount of electrons
To find the
number of
electrons in an
6 2 atom, look at the
numbers in the
4 right side. To
determine the
C number of energy
levels count the
number of side
numbers and
CARBON there you go!!!

12.01115
How to tell what period the
element is listed
33 2
8
AS 18
5

ARSENIC
74.9160

4APPEARS
ENERGY IN THE
LEVELS
4TH PERIOD
What's the BIG difference
The big difference between an element,
compound, and a molecule is……
For instance . . .

This is an atom of an
element. As you can
see, it is made up of
only one kind of atom

. . In this case
H Hydrogen
Now, with a compound

O
H

O
When two or more
atoms are put
together it makes a
compound.
Sulfur
Vocabulary
!   Electron !   Electron
!   Neutron fields
!   Proton !   Mass
!   Nucleus !   Atomic
!   Compound structure
!   Atom !   Periodic table
!   Isotope !   Chemical
symbol
!   element
Suggested Vocabulary
!  Element name !  Solid
!  chemist !  liquid
!  properties !  gas
!  matter !  noble gasses
!  electron cloud !  subatomic
!  synthetic !  Nonmetals
!  metal !  particles
!  metalloid
!  http://www.docstoc.com/docs/
42433280/A-Brief-History-of-Atomic-
Theory