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De-pentanizer & De-butanizer 1

De-pentanizer & De-butanizer

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© 2004 AspenTech, Inc. - All Rights Reserved
1.3.3 De-pentanizer & De-butanizer.pdf
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Workshop
Separation of light products is typical of Refinery operations. In this
module, two columns will be modeled to separate pentanes and
butanes.

Because the Condenser temperature in the De-butanizer is below zero,


the process stream will need to be cooled. The Propane Refrigeration
Loop from the previous module will be used to cool the process stream,
showing how templates can be linked into HYSYS cases.

Learning Objectives
Once you have completed this section, you will be able to:

• Build columns using the Input Experts


• Use the Spreadsheet
• Link Templates

Prerequisites
Before beginning this module you need to have completed the Getting
Started and the Propane Refrigeration Loop modules.

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Process Overview
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Column Overview
De-pentanizer

De-butanizer

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De-pentanizer & De-butanizer 5

Building the Simulation


For this module you will continue building on the case you worked on in
Module 1 by adding two distillation columns.

1. Open the case you saved at the end of module 1.

Make sure the temperature, pressure and flowrate for Feed stream are
the following:

In this cell... Enter...


Temperature 30°C (86°F)
Pressure 700 kPa (100 psia)
Molar Flow 100 kgmole/h (220 lbmole/h)

Adding the First Column: De-Pentanizer


The De-pentanizer will be modelled with a Distillation column. The
Column is a special type of Sub-Flowsheet, which contains equipment
and streams, and exchanges information with the parent Flowsheet
through the connected streams.

HYSYS has several basic Column templates depending on the type of


equipment your Column requires:

Basic Column Types Description


Absorber Tray Section Only
Liquid-Liquid Extractor Tray Section Only
Reboiled Absorber Tray Section and a bottom stage reboiler
Refluxed Absorber Tray Section and an overhead condenser
Distillation Tray Section with both reboiler and
condenser

There are 12 ideal stages in the De-pentanizer, 10 in the tray section plus
the Reboiler and Condenser.

1. Double-click on the Distillation Column icon in the Object Palette.


Distillation Column icon
The first Input Expert view appears.

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2. Input the following information into the first input expert page.

In this field... Enter...


Column Name De-Pentanizer
Input Expert is a tool that Inlet Stream Feed
help to ensure all required
information is entered. Once Inlet Stage 5_Main TS
you are familiar with the Condenser Energy Stream Cond1 Q
column view, they can be
Condenser Type Full Reflux
turned off in your preference
file. Overhead Vapour Outlet Ovhd Vap Prod
Reboiler Energy Stream Reb1 Q
Bottoms Liquid Outlet Pentanes+

Figure 1

3. Click the Next button to proceed to the next page.

The Next button is only available when all of the necessary information
has been supplied.

4. Supply the following information to the Pressure Estimates page.

In this cell... Enter...


Condenser Pressure 650 kPa (94 psia)
Reboiler Pressure 700 kPa (101 psia)

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De-pentanizer & De-butanizer 7

Figure 2

5. Click the Next button to proceed to the next page.


6. On this page, enter the temperature estimates. The Condenser
temperature estimate will be 10°C (50°F), and the reboiler
temperature estimate will be 120°C (248°F).

Temperature estimates are not required for the column to solve but they
will aid in convergence.

Figure 3

7. Click the Next button to continue.

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8. On the last page supply a value of 2 for the Reflux Ratio.

Figure 4

9. Click the Done button. HYSYS will open the Column Property View
window. Access the Monitor page on the Design tab.

Figure 5

Two specifications must be filled so that the Degrees of Freedom are 0.


You already have specified the Reflux Ratio. In this case you will use the
i-C5 purity instead of the Ovhd Vap Rate.

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De-pentanizer & De-butanizer 9

10. You need to deactivate the Ovhd Vap Rate by clicking on the Active
check box. Now only the Reflux Ratio checkbox is checked and the
Degrees of Freedom is 1.
11. To add a specification, click the Add Spec… button.

Figure 6

12. Select Column Component Fraction and click the Add Spec(s)…
button.
13. Provide the following information.

In this cell... Enter...


Name iC5 Comp Fraction
Target Type Stream
Draw Pentanes+ @Col1
Basis Mole Fraction
Spec Value 0.27
Components i-Pentane

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Figure 7

14. When you are done, close the window to go back to the Monitor
page of the Design tab. Check the Active ratio button for the Comp
Fraction iC5 specification.
15. Click the Run button to begin calculations.

Once the column has converged, you can view the results on the
Performance tab.

Figure 8

What is the flowrate of the Pentanes+ stream?___________________________

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De-pentanizer & De-butanizer 11

Adding the Second Column: De-Butanizer


The De-butanizer column is also modelled as a distillation column, with
17 stages, 15 trays in the column, plus the reboiler and condenser. The
objective of this column is to produce a bottom product that has a molar
fraction of butanes (both i-C4 and n-C4) of 0.97.

1. Double click on the Distillation Column button on the Object


Palette and enter the following information:

In this cell... Enter...


Connections
Name De-butanizer
No. of Stage 15
Feed Stream/Stage Ovhd Vap Prod / 9
Condenser Type Full Reflux
Overhead Vapour Product Light Products
Bottom Product Butanes
Condenser Duty Cond2 Q
Reboiler Duty Reb2 Q
Pressure
Condenser 550 kPa (80 psia)
Reboiler 600 kPa (87 psia)
Temperature Estimates
Condenser -20°C (-4°F)
Reboiler 50°C (122°F)
Specification
Reflux Ratio 2
Component Recovery (i-butane) 0.97

What is the Molar Flow of Light Products stream?________________________


And the flowrate of i-C4 and n-C4 in Light Products? i-C4_____, n-C4_____
What is the molar fraction of butanes in Light Products?__________________
What is the recovery of butanes?_______________________________________

Save your case!

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Using the Spreadsheet


To answer the previous questions you had to add the fraction of i-C4 and
n-C4 somewhere outside the simulation. HYSYS has a Spreadsheet
operation, which allows you to import stream or operation variables,
perform calculations, and export calculated results.

You are going to create a spreadsheet to calculate the molar fraction


both of pentanes and butanes in their respectively streams and their
recoveries.

1. To install a Spreadsheet and display its property view, double-click


on the Spreadsheet icon in the Object Palette.
2. Click the Add Import button, and the Select Import view will appear.
Spreadsheet icon
3. Choose the Object, Variable, and Variable Specific as shown:

In this field... Select...


Object Feed
Variable Comp Molar Flow
Variable Specifics i-Pentane

Figure 9

Notice that HYSYS assigned the imported variable to Spreadsheet cell


A1, by default. Change this cell location to B1. The reason for doing so
will become apparent on the Spreadsheet tab.

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4. Before continuing you need to add more rows to the spreadsheet.


Do this by clicking in the Parameters tab and entering 16 in the
Number of Rows field.
5. In many ways, the HYSYS Spreadsheet behaves similarly to
commercial spreadsheets packages; you enter data in the cells, and
calculated results are returned. You can introduce the variables
directly in the spreadsheet. Change to the Spreadsheet tab.
6. Right-click in the cell where you want to import the variable. Do this
in cell D1. The following view will appear:

Figure 10

7. Select Import Variable.


8. Select the Object, Variable, and Variable Specific as shown:

In this field... Select...


Object Feed
Variable Comp Molar Flow
Variable Specifics n-Pentane

9. Enter the following names in the spreadsheet:

In this cell... Enter...


A3 PENTANES+
A4 iC5 Frac
A5 nC5 Frac
A6 iC5 Flow
A7 nC5 Flow
A10 iC4 Ovhd Vap Flow
A12 BUTANES
A13 iC4 Frac
A14 nC4 Frac
A15 iC4 Flow
A16 nC4 Flow
D5 Pentane Frac
D7 Pentane Recovery

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In this cell... Enter...


D14 Butane Frac
D16 Butane Recovery

10. Complete the rest of the spreadsheet by importing the following


values into the specified cell.

Cell Object Variable Variable Specifics


B4 Pentanes+ Comp Mole Frac i-Pentane
B5 Pentanes+ Comp Mole Frac n-Pentane
B6 Pentanes+ Comp Molar Flow i-Pentane
B7 Pentanes+ Comp Molar Flow n-Pentane
B10 Ovhd Vap Prod Comp Molar Flow i-Butane
B13 Butanes Comp Mole Frac i-Butane
B14 Butanes Comp Mole Frac n-Butane
B15 Butanes Comp Molar Flow i-Butane
B16 Butanes Comp Molar Flow n-Butane
D10 Ovhd Vap Prod Comp Molar Flow n-Butane

Figure 11

You can move to a cell by clicking it, or by clicking the arrow keys.

The values are those corresponding the variable named to the left.
Import them. Fractions and Flows are in molar basis

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11. To enter the formulas place the cursor on the cell and write it.
Remember to use a "+" symbol before mathematical operations.
Enter the following formulas

Cell Formula
D5 +b4+b5
D7 +(b6+b7)/(b1+d1)*100
D14 +b13+b14
D16 +(b15+b16)/(b10+d10)*100

Figure 12

Clicking in the Function Help button you can see all the operations that
are available in HYSYS.

Once the cell is completed, you can export the variable to the
simulation. This is done by clicking with the right button in the cell. The
spreadsheet allows you to use your own correlations, for example, for
pressures drop, etc.

What is the pentanes recovery?________________________________________


And that of butanes?__________________________________________________

Save your case!


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Linking Templates
Once you have completed the recovery fractionation train you can link it
to the Propane Loop Template, and use the Propane Loop to refrigerate
the De-butanizer.

The duty of the Condenser, Cond2 Q, in this module, will be linked to


the duty of the Chiller, Chill-Q in the Propane Refrigeration Loop
template.

1. Double-click on the Sub-Flowsheet icon on the Object Palette.


2. Select the Read an Existing Template button.
3. Open the template file saved in the Propane Refrigeration Loop
Sub-Flowsheet icon module, C3loop.tpl.
4. The Sub-Flowsheet Operation view appears. Click the Sub-
Flowsheet Environment button at the bottom of the view.
5. The PFD of the Propane Refrigeration Loop appears. Double-click
on the energy stream of the Chiller, Chill-Q.
6. Delete the Heat Flow value of the stream by pressing the DELETE key
on the keyboard.
To connect the template
without conflicts, the heat
Figure 13
flow value of Chiller-Q is
deleted in the template prior
to connecting the internal
and external energy stream.
This is to prevent over
specifying the flowsheet; if
the heat flow value of
Chiller-Q is not deleted, a
consistent error will occur as
there are two different heat
flow values for the same
energy stream.

7. Close the Energy stream view. Click the Enter Parent Simulation
Environment icon on the toolbar to return to the Sub-Flowsheet
Operation view.
Enter Parent Simulation
Environment icon

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8. In the Feed Connections to Sub-Flowsheet group, connect the


External Stream, Cond2 Q, to the Internal Stream Chill Q.

Figure 14

Once the connection is complete, both streams, (Internal and External)


will have the same name and heat flow value, that of the External
stream.

What is the flowrate of propane in the Refrigeration Loop?________________

What is the compressor duty? _________________________________________

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Advanced Modelling
The Column is a special type of SubFlowsheet in HYSYS. SubFlowsheets
contain equipment and streams, and exchange information with the
Parent Flowsheet through the connected streams. From the Main
Environment, the Column appears as a single, multi-feed multi-product
operation. In many cases, you can treat the Column in exactly that
manner.

The Column SubFlowsheet provides a number of advantages:

• Isolation of the Column Solver. The Column Build Environment


allows you to make changes and focus on the Column without the
re-calculation of the entire Flowsheet.
• Optional use of different Fluid Packages. HYSYS allows you to
specify a unique (different from the Main Environment) fluid
package for the Column SubFlowsheet. This may be useful in
instances when a different fluid package is better suited to the
Column (Gas Plant using PR may contain an Amine Contactor
that needs to use the Amines Property Package), or the Column
does not use all of the components used in the Main Flowsheet
and so by decreasing the number of components in the column
you may speed up column convergence.
• Construction of custom templates. In addition to the default
column configurations which are available as templates, you may
define column setups with varying degrees of complexity.
Complex custom columns and multiple columns may be
simulated within a single SubFlowsheet using various
combinations of SubFlowsheet equipment. Custom column
examples include replacement of the standard Condenser with a
Heat Exchanger, or the standard kettle reboiler with a
thermosyphon reboiler.
• Ability to solve multiple towers simultaneously. The Column
SubFlowsheet uses a simultaneous solver whereby all operations
within the SubFlowsheet are solved simultaneously. The
simultaneous solver permits the user to install multiple
interconnected columns within the SubFlowsheet without the
need for Recycle blocks.

The presence of the green "Up Arrow" button in the Button Bar and the
Environment: Name (COL1) indicates that you are in the Column
SubFlowsheet.

It is also written at the right in the Icons bar.

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Advanced Modelling 19

You can enter the Column SubFlowsheet by clicking the Column


Environment button on the Column Property View. Once inside the
Column Environment you can return to the Parent Environment by
clicking either the Parent Environment button on the Column Runner
view or the Enter Parent Simulation Environment icon in the toolbar.

Enter Parent Simulation


Environment icon
Exploring with the Simulation
Exercise 1
Study the influence of the number of stages on the propane fraction in
bottoms. Increase the number of stages until the propane recovery in
the tower overhead is higher than 0.995.

Exercise 2
What is the Molar Enthalpy for streams Reflux and Boilup?
Reflux___________________________, Boilup____________________________

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