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# Problem 12.

1
Problem 12.2
Problem 12.4 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
T1 = 305 K
p1 = 200 kPa
V1 = 525 m/s
M2 = 2

c1 = 350 m/s

Then M1 = 1.50

## From M 1 and p 1, and Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M ,k ))

(12.7a)

p 01 = 734 kPa

p 02 = 734 kPa

## From M 2 and p 02, and Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M ,k ))

p2 = 93.8 kPa
Problem 12.5
Problem 12.6
Problem 12.8 (In Excel)

## Given: Data on flow in a passage

Find: Flow rate; area and pressure at downstream location; sketch passage shape

Solution

k = 1.4
2
A1 = 0.25 m
T1 = 283 K
p1 = 15 kPa
V1 = 590 m/s
T2 = 410
M2 = 0.75

c1 = 337 m/s

Then M1 = 1.75

## Because the flow decreases isentropically from supersonic to subsonic

the passage shape must be convergent-divergent

## From p 1 and T 1 and the ideal gas equation

3
ρ1 = 0.185 kg/m
The mass flow rate is m rate = ρ1A 1V 1

## From M 1 and A 1, and Eq. 12.7d

(using built-in function IsenA (M ,k ))

(12.7d)

2
A* = 0.180 m

## From M 2 and A *, and Eq. 12.7d

(using built-in function IsenA (M ,k ))

2
A2 = 0.192 m

## From M 1 and p 1, and Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M ,k ))

(12.7a)

p 01 = 79.9 kPa

p 02 = 79.9 kPa

## From M 2 and p 02, and Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M ,k ))

p2 = 55.0 kPa
Problem 12.9 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
T0 = 278 K
p0 = 304 kPa
pe = 101 kPa
m rate = 1 kg/s

(12.12d)

Me = 1.36

## Because the exit flow is supersonic, the passage must be a CD nozzle

We need a scale for the area.
From p 0, T 0, m flow, and Eq. 12.10

(12.10)

2
Then At = A* = 0.00136 m
For each M , and A *, and Eq. 12.7d
(using built-in function IsenA (M ,k )

(12.7d)

## From each M , and p 0, and Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M ,k )
we can compute each pressure p .

2
L (m) M A (m ) p (kPa)
0.40 0.11 0.00727 301
0.60 0.16 0.00489 298
0.80 0.22 0.00371 294
1.0 0.27 0.00302 289
1.2 0.33 0.00256 282
1.4 0.38 0.00225 275
1.6 0.44 0.00202 267
1.8 0.49 0.00185 258
2.0 0.54 0.00171 249
2.2 0.60 0.00161 239
2.4 0.65 0.00154 228
2.6 0.71 0.00148 218
2.8 0.76 0.00143 207
3.0 0.82 0.00140 196
3.2 0.87 0.00138 186
3.4 0.92 0.00136 175
3.68 1.00 0.00136 161
3.8 1.03 0.00136 154
4.0 1.09 0.00137 144
4.2 1.14 0.00138 135
4.4 1.20 0.00140 126
4.6 1.25 0.00142 117
4.8 1.31 0.00145 109
5.0 1.36 0.00148 101
Area Variation in Passage
0.008
0.007
0.006
0.005
A (m )
2

0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001
0.000
0 1 2 3 4 5
L (m)

## Pressure Variation in Passage

350

300

250
p (kPa)

200

150

100

50

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
L (m)
Problem 12.10
Problem 12.11
Problem 12.13 (In Excel)

## Given: Data on converging nozzle; isentropic flow

Find: Pressure and Mach number; throat area; mass flow rate

Solution

k = 1.4
2
A1 = 0.05 m
T1 = 276.3 K
V1 = 200 m/s
p atm = 101 kPa

c1 = 333 m/s

Then M1 = 0.60

## To find the pressure, we first need the stagnation pressure.

If the flow is just choked
pe = p atm = p* = 101 kPa

## From p e = p * and Eq. 11.21a

(11.21a)

p0 = 191 kPa
From M 1 and p 0, and Eq. 12.7a
(using built-in function Isenp (M ,k )

(12.7a)

3
ρ1 = 1.89 kg/m

## The throat area A t = A * because the flow is choked.

From M 1 and A 1, and Eq. 12.7d
(using built-in function IsenA (M ,k )

(12.7d)

2
A* = 0.0421 m

2
Hence At = 0.0421 m
Problem 12.14
Problem 12.15
Problem 12.17 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
T0 = 273 K
2
At = 0.001 m
m rate = 2 kg/s

## Equations and Computations:

Because p b = 0 pe = p*

Hence Te = T*

## From T 0, and Eq. 11.21b

(11.21b)

T* = 228 K

Te = 228 K
o
-45.5 C
Also Me = 1

Hence Ve = V* = ce

ce = 302 m/s

## To find the exit pressure we use the ideal gas equation

after first finding the exit density.
The mass flow rate is m rate = ρeA eV e

3
Hence ρe = 6.62 kg/m

pe = 432 kPa

(11.21a)

p0 = 817 kPa

## We can check our results:

From p 0, T 0, A t, and Eq. 12.10

(12.10)

2
Then m choked = 2.00 m
m choked = m rate Correct!
Problem 12.18
Problem 12.19
Problem 12.20
Problem 12.20 (cont'd)
Problem 12.21
Problem 12.25
Problem 12.26
Problem 12.28
Problem 12.28 (cont'd)
Problem 12.30
Problem 12.33 (In Excel)

## Find: Tank pressure; flow rate; throat area

Solution

o
The given or available data is: R = 53.33 ft.lbf/lbm. R
k = 1.4
o
T0 = 560 R
2
Ae = 1 in
pb = 14.7 psia
Me = 2

## Equations and Computations:

At design condition pe = pb

pe = 14.7 psia

## From M e and p e, and Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M ,k )

(12.7a)

p0 = 115 psia
From M e and A e, and Eq. 12.7d
(using built-in function IsenA (M ,k )

(12.7d)

2
A* = 0.593 in

2
Hence At = 0.593 in

(12.10)

## m choked = 1.53 lb/s

Problem 12.34
Problem 12.35
Problem 12.36
Problem 12.37
Problem 12.39
Problem 12.40
Problem 12.41
Problem 12.42
Problem 12.44 (In Excel)

## Find: Tank pressure to develop thrust of 3 lbf

Solution

o
The given or available data is: R = 35.11 ft.lbf/lbm. R
k = 1.29
o
T0 = 525 R
pb = 14.7 psia
Dt = 0.02 in

2
A t = 0.00031 in

R x = m flowV e

pe = 14.7 psia

## Once M e is known, the other exit conditions can be found.

Make a guess for p 0, and eventually use Goal Seek (see below).

p0 = 5604 psia
From p 0 and p e, and Eq. 12.7a
(using built-in function IsenMfromp (M ,k )

(12.7a)

Me = 4.40

## From M e and T 0 and Eq. 12.7b

(using built-in function IsenT (M ,k )

(12.7b)

o
Te = 138 R

ce = 449 ft/s

(12.10)

R x = m flowV e
= 3.00 lbf

## We need to set R x to 3 lbf. To do this use Goal Seek

to vary p 0 to 3 lbf!
Problem 12.45
Problem 12.46
Problem 12.47
Problem 12.48
Problem 12.49
Problem 12.50
Problem 12.51
Problem 12.52
Problem 12.53
Problem 12.54
Problem 12.55
Problem 12.56
Problem 12.57
Problem 12.63
Problem 12.66
Problem *12.67
Problem *12.68
Problem *12.69
Problem *12.71
Problem *12.71 (cont'd)
Problem 12.72
Problem 12.73
Problem 12.74
Problem 12.75
Problem 12.76
Problem 12.77
Problem 12.78
Problem 12.79
Problem 12.80
Problem 12.81
Problem 12.82
Problem 12.83
Problem 12.84
Problem 12.85
Problem 12.86
Problem 12.87
Problem 12.88
Problem 12.91
Problem 12.91 (cont'd)
Problem 12.92
Problem 12.92 (cont'd)
Problem 12.93
Problem 12.94
Problem 12.95
Problem 12.96
Problem 12.97
Problem 12.98
Problem 12.99
Problem 12.100
Problem 12.101
Problem 12.102
Problem 12.103
Problem 12.104
Problem 12.105
Problem 12.106
Problem 12.107
Problem 12.108
Problem 12.109
Problem 12.110
Problem 12.111
Problem 12.112
Problem 12.113
Problem 12.114
Problem 12.115
Problem 12.116
Problem 12.117
Problem 12.118
Problem 12.119
Problem 12.120
Problem 12.121
Problem 12.122
Problem 12.123
Problem 12.124
Problem 12.125
Problem *12.126
Problem *12.127
Problem *12.128
Problem 12.129 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
p1 = 75 kPa
M1 = 2.2
o
β= 30

M 1t = 1.91

## From M 1n and p 1, and Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

(12.48d)

p2 = 93.4 kPa

## The tangential velocity is unchanged

V t1 = V t2
Hence c t1 M t1 = c t2 M t2
1/2 1/2
(T 1) M t1 = (T 2) M t2
1/2
M 2t = (T 1/T 2) M t1

## From M 1n, and Eq. 12.48c

(using built-in function NormTfromM (M ,k ))

T 2/T 1 = 1.06

Hence M 2t = 1.85

## Also, from M 1n, and Eq. 12.48a

(using built-in function NormM2fromM (M ,k ))

(12.48a)

M 2n = 0.912

## The downstream Mach number is then

2 2 1/2
M 2 = (M 2t + M 2n )

M2 = 2.06

## Finally, from geometry

V 2n = V 2sin(β - θ)

## Hence θ = β - sin-1(V 2n/V 2)

or θ = β - sin-1(M 2n/M 2)

o
θ= 3.72
For the normal shock:
From M 1 and p 1, and Eq. 12.48d
(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

p2 = 411 kPa

## Also, from M 1, and Eq. 12.48a

(using built-in function NormM2fromM (M ,k ))

M2 = 0.547

## For the minimum β:

The smallest value of β is when the shock is a Mach wave (no deflection)

β = sin-1(1/M 1)

o
β= 27.0
Problem 12.130 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
M1 = 3

## Equations and Computations:

The smallest value of β is when the shock is a Mach wave (no deflection)

β = sin-1(1/M 1)

o
β= 19.5

o
The largest value is β= 90.0

## The normal component of Mach number is

M 1n = M 1sin(β) (12.47a)

## For each β, p 2/p 1 is obtained from M 1n, and Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

(12.48d)
Computed results:

o
β( ) M 1n p 2/p 1
19.5 1.00 1.00
20 1.03 1.06
30 1.50 2.46
40 1.93 4.17
50 2.30 5.99
60 2.60 7.71
70 2.82 9.11
75 2.90 9.63
80 2.95 10.0
85 2.99 10.3
90 3.00 10.3

## Pressure Change across an Oblique Shock

12.5

10.0

7.5
p 2/p 1

5.0

2.5

0.0
0 30 60 90
o
β( )
Problem 12.131 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
M1 = 2.75
T1 = 288 K
p 2 /p 1 = 4.5

## From p 2/p 1, and Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k )
and Goal Seek or Solver )

(12.48d)

For p 2 /p 1 = 4.50

M 1n = 2.00

## From M 1 and M 1n, and Eq 12.47a

M 1n = M 1sin(β) (12.47a)

o
β= 46.7
From M 1 and β, and Eq. 12.49
(using built-in function Theta (M ,β, k )

(12.49)

o
θ= 25.0

## To find M 2 we need M 2n. From M 1n, and Eq. 12.48a

(using built-in function NormM2fromM (M ,k ))

(12.48a)

M 2n = 0.577

## The downstream Mach number is then obtained from

from M 2n, θ and β, and Eq. 12.47b

M 2n = M 2sin(β - θ) (12.47b)

Hence M2 = 1.56
Problem 12.132 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
V1 = 1000 m/s
V2 = 500 m/s
o
θ= 30

o
β= 66.2

## (Alternatively, solve Eq. 3 using Goal Seek !)

For p 2/p 1, we need M 1n for use in Eq. 12.48d

(12.48d)

## We can compute M 1 from θ and β, and Eq. 12.49

(using built-in function Theta (M ,β, k ))

(12.49)

o
For θ= 30.0
o
β= 66.2

M1 = 2.53

## This value of M 1 was obtained by using Goal Seek :

Vary M 1 so that θ becomes the required value.
(Alternatively, find M 1 from Eq. 12.49 by explicitly solving for it!)

## We can now find M 1n from M 1. From M 1 and Eq. 12.47a

M 1n = M 1sin(β) (12.47a)

Hence M 1n = 2.31

## Finally, for p 2/p 1, we use M 1n in Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k )

p 2 /p 1 = 6.06
Problem 12.133 (In Excel)

o
Given: Airfoil with included angle of 20

Solution

k = 1.4
T1 = 293 K
o
θ= 10

## Equations and Computations:

From Fig. 12.29 the smallest Mach number for which an oblique shock exists
o
at a deflection θ = 10 is approximately M 1 = 1.4.

## By trial and error, a more precise answer is

(using built-in function Theta (M ,β, k )

M1 = 1.42
o
β= 67.4
o
θ= 10.00

## A suggested procedure is:

1) Type in a guess value for M 1
2) Type in a guess value for β
3) Compute θ from Eq. 12.49
(using built-in function Theta (M ,β, k ))

(12.49)

## 4) Use Solver to maximize θ by varying β

o
5) If θ is not 10 , make a new guess for M 1
o
6) Repeat steps 1 - 5 until θ = 10
Computed results:

o o
M1 β( ) θ( ) Error
1.42 67.4 10.0 0.0%
1.50 56.7 10.0 0.0%
1.75 45.5 10.0 0.0%
2.00 39.3 10.0 0.0%
2.25 35.0 10.0 0.0%
2.50 31.9 10.0 0.0%
3.00 27.4 10.0 0.0%
4.00 22.2 10.0 0.0%
5.00 19.4 10.0 0.0%
6.00 17.6 10.0 0.0%
7.00 16.4 10.0 0.0%

Sum: 0.0%

## To compute this table:

1) Type the range of M 1
2) Type in guess values for β
3) Compute θ from Eq. 12.49
(using built-in function Theta (M ,β, k )
o
4) Compute the absolute error between each θ and θ = 10
5) Compute the sum of the errors
6) Use Solver to minimize the sum by varying the β values
(Note: You may need to interactively type in new β values
if Solver generates β values that lead to no θ, or to
β values that correspond to a strong rather than weak shock)
Oblique Shock Angle as a Function of
Aircraft Mach Number
90

75

60
β( )
o

45

30

15

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
M
Problem 12.134 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
T1 = 276.5 K
p1 = 75 kPa
V1 = 1200 m/s
o
δ= 60

## From T 1 c1 = 333 m/s

Then M1 = 3.60
Computed results:

## α (o) β (o) θ (o) Needed θ (o) Error M 1n p 2 (kPa) T 2 (oC)

0.00 47.1 30.0 30.0 0.0% 2.64 597 357
2.00 44.2 28.0 28.0 0.0% 2.51 539 321
4.00 41.5 26.0 26.0 0.0% 2.38 485 287
6.00 38.9 24.0 24.0 0.0% 2.26 435 255
8.00 36.4 22.0 22.0 0.0% 2.14 388 226
10.00 34.1 20.0 20.0 0.0% 2.02 344 198
12.00 31.9 18.0 18.0 0.0% 1.90 304 172
14.00 29.7 16.0 16.0 0.0% 1.79 267 148
16.00 27.7 14.0 14.0 0.0% 1.67 233 125
18.00 25.7 12.0 12.0 0.0% 1.56 202 104
20.00 23.9 10.0 10.0 0.0% 1.46 174 84
22.00 22.1 8.0 8.0 0.0% 1.36 149 66
24.00 20.5 6.0 6.0 0.0% 1.26 126 49
26.00 18.9 4.0 4.0 0.0% 1.17 107 33
28.00 17.5 2.0 2.0 0.0% 1.08 90 18
30.00 16.1 0.0 0.0 0.0% 1.00 75 3

## To compute this table:

1) Type the range of α
2) Type in guess values for β
3) Compute θNeeded from θ = δ/2 - α
4) Compute θ from Eq. 12.49
(using built-in function Theta (M ,β, k )
5) Compute the absolute error between each θ and θNeeded
6) Compute the sum of the errors
7) Use Solver to minimize the sum by varying the β values
(Note: You may need to interactively type in new β values
if Solver generates β values that lead to no θ)
8) For each α, M 1n is obtained from M 1, and Eq. 12.47a
9) For each α, p 2 is obtained from p 1, M 1n, and Eq. 12.48d
(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))
10) For each α, T 2 is obtained from T 1, M 1n, and Eq. 12.48c
(using built-in function NormTfromM (M ,k ))
Pressure on an Airfoil Surface
as a Function of Angle of Attack
700

600

500
p 2 (kPa)

400

300

200

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
α (o)

## Temperature on an Airfoil Surface

as a Function of Angle of Attack
400
350
300
250
T 2 ( C)
o

200
150
100
50
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
α (o)
Problem 12.135 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
T1 = 276.5 K
p1 = 75 kPa
V1 = 1200 m/s
o
δ= 60

## From T 1 c1 = 333 m/s

Then M1 = 3.60

From Fig. 12.29, at this Mach number the smallest deflection angle for which
an oblique shock exists is approximately θ = 35o.
By using Solver , a more precise answer is
(using built-in function Theta (M ,β, k )

M1 = 3.60
o
β= 65.8
o
θ= 37.3

## A suggested procedure is:

1) Type in a guess value for β
2) Compute θ from Eq. 12.49
(using built-in function Theta (M ,β, k ))

(12.49)

## For a deflection angle θ the angle of attack α is

α = θ - δ/2
o
α= 7.31
Computed results:

## α (o) β (o) θ (o) Needed θ (o) Error M 1n p 2 (kPa) T 2 (oC)

0.00 47.1 30.0 30.0 0.0% 2.64 597 357
1.00 48.7 31.0 31.0 0.0% 2.71 628 377
2.00 50.4 32.0 32.0 0.0% 2.77 660 397
3.00 52.1 33.0 33.0 0.0% 2.84 695 418
4.00 54.1 34.0 34.0 0.0% 2.92 731 441
5.50 57.4 35.5 35.5 0.0% 3.03 793 479
5.75 58.1 35.8 35.7 0.0% 3.06 805 486
6.00 58.8 36.0 36.0 0.0% 3.08 817 494
6.25 59.5 36.3 36.2 0.0% 3.10 831 502
6.50 60.4 36.5 36.5 0.0% 3.13 845 511
6.75 61.3 36.8 36.7 0.0% 3.16 861 521
7.00 62.5 37.0 37.0 0.0% 3.19 881 533
7.25 64.4 37.3 37.2 0.0% 3.25 910 551
7.31 65.8 37.3 37.3 0.0% 3.28 931 564

## To compute this table:

1) Type the range of α
2) Type in guess values for β
3) Compute θNeeded from θ = α + δ/2
4) Compute θ from Eq. 12.49
(using built-in function Theta (M ,β, k )
5) Compute the absolute error between each θ and θNeeded
6) Compute the sum of the errors
7) Use Solver to minimize the sum by varying the β values
(Note: You may need to interactively type in new β values
if Solver generates β values that lead to no θ)
8) For each α, M 1n is obtained from M 1, and Eq. 12.47a
9) For each α, p 2 is obtained from p 1, M 1n, and Eq. 12.48d
(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))
10) For each α, T 2 is obtained from T 1, M 1n, and Eq. 12.48c
(using built-in function NormTfromM (M ,k ))
Pressure on an Airfoil Surface
as a Function of Angle of Attack
1000

900
p 2 (kPa)

800

700

600

500
0 2 4 6 8
α (o)

## Temperature on an Airfoil Surface

as a Function of Angle of Attack
600

550

500
T 2 ( C)
o

450

400

350

300
0 2 4 6 8
α (o)
Problem 12.136 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
p1 = 80 kPa
M1 = 2.5
o
δ= 10
c = 2 m

## The lift per unit span is

L = (p L - p U)c (1)

## (Note that p L acts on area c /cos(δ), but its

normal component is multiplied by cos(δ))

## For the upper surface:

pU = p1

pU = 80 kPa
For the lower surface:

We need to find M 1n

o
θ= 10

## From M 1 and θ, and Eq. 12.49

(using built-in function Theta (M , β,k ))

(12.49)

o
For θ= 10.0
o
β= 31.9

## From M 1n and p 1, and Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

(12.48d)

p2 = 149 kPa

pL= p2

## From Eq 1 L = 138 kN/m

Problem 12.137 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
p1 = 75 kPa
M1 = 2.75
o
δU = 5
o
δL = 15
c = 2 m

## The lift per unit span is

L = (p L - p U)c (1)

## (Note that each p acts on area c /cos(δ), but its

normal component is multiplied by cos(δ))

## The deflection angle is θU = δU

o
θU = 5
From M 1 and θU, and Eq. 12.49
(using built-in function Theta (M , β,k ))

(12.49)

o
For θU = 5.00
o
βU = 25.1

## From M 1n(U) and p 1, and Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

(12.48d)

p2 = 106 kPa

pU = p2

pU = 106 kPa

o
θL = 15

## From M 1 and θL, and Eq. 12.49

(using built-in function Theta (M , β,k ))

o
For θL = 15.00
o
βL = 34.3
(Use Goal Seek to vary βL so that θL = δL)

## From M 1n(L) and p 1, and Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

p2 = 198 kPa

pL= p2

## From Eq 1 L = 183 kN/m

Problem 12.138 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
p = 75 kPa
M = 2.5
o
θ1 = 10
o
θ2 = 10

(12.55)

and

o
ω= 39.1

Applying Eq. 1

θ1 = ω1 - ω
ω1 = θ1 + ω

o
ω1 = 49.1

## From ω1, and Eq. 12.55

(using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
For ω1 = 49.1
M1 = 2.97

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M 1 so that ω1 = 49.1 )

(12.7a)

## The approach is to apply Eq. 12.7a twice, so that

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p1 = 36.7 kPa

## We repeat the analysis of the first deflection

Applying Eq. 1

θ2 + θ1 = ω2 - ω

ω2 = θ2 + θ1 + ω

o
ω2 = 59.1

(Note that instead of working from the initial state to state 2 we could have
worked from state 1 to state 2 because the entire flow is isentropic)
From ω2, and Eq. 12.55
(using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
For ω2 = 59.1
M2 = 3.54

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M 2 so that ω2 = 59.1 )

## Hence for p 2 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

## p 2 = p (p 0/p )/(p 0/p 2)

p2 = 16.0 kPa
Problem 12.139 (In Excel)

and pressures

Solution

k = 1.4
p2 = 20 kPa
M2 = 3.5
o
θ1 = 10
o
θ2 = 10

(12.55)

and

## From M and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
ω2 = 58.5
For the second deflection:

Applying Eq. 1

ω1 = ω2 - θ2

o
ω1 = 48.5

## From ω1, and Eq. 12.55

(using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
For ω1 = 48.5
M1 = 2.94

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M 1 so that ω1 = 48.5 )

(12.7a)

## The approach is to apply Eq. 12.7a twice, so that

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p1 = 45.8 kPa

## We repeat the analysis of the second deflection

Applying Eq. 1

θ2 + θ1 = ω2 - ω

ω = ω2 - (θ2 + θ1)

o
ω= 38.5
(Note that instead of working from state 2 to the initial state we could have
worked from state 1 to the initial state because the entire flow is isentropic)

## From ω, and Eq. 12.55

(using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
For ω= 38.5
M = 2.47

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M so that ω = 38.5 )

## Hence for p we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

## p = p 2(p 0/p 2)/(p 0/p )

p = 93.1 kPa
Problem 12.140 (In Excel)

## Find: Lift per unit span

assuming isentropic flow

Solution

k = 1.4
p = 80 kPa
M = 2.5
o
δ= 10
c = 2 m

## The lift per unit span is

L = (p L - p U)c (1)

## (Note that p L acts on area c /cos(δ), but its

normal component is multiplied by cos(δ))

## For the upper surface:

pU = p

pU = 80 kPa
For the lower surface:

θ= −δ

o
θ= -10.0

(12.55)

and

o
ω= 39.1

Applying Eq. 2

θ= ωL - ω

ωL = θ+ω

o
ωL = 29.1

## From ωL, and Eq. 12.55

(using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
For ωL = 29.1
ML = 2.10

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M L so that ωL = 29.1 )
Hence for p L we use Eq. 12.7a

(12.7a)

## The approach is to apply Eq. 12.7a twice, so that

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

## From Eq 1 L = 139 kN/m

Problem 12.141 (In Excel)

## Given: Mach number and deflection angle

Find: Static and stagnation pressures due to: oblique shock; compression wave

Solution

k = 1.4
p1 = 50 kPa
M1 = 3.5
o
θ= 35

## For the oblique shock:

We need to find M 1n

o
The deflection angle is θ= 35

## From M 1 and θ, and Eq. 12.49

(using built-in function Theta (M , β,k ))

(12.49)

o
For θ= 35.0
o
β= 57.2

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary β so that θ = 35 )

## From M 1 and β M 1n = 2.94

From M 1n and p 1, and Eq. 12.48d
(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

(12.48d)

p2 = 496 kPa

## To find M 2 we need M 2n. From M 1n, and Eq. 12.48a

(using built-in function NormM2fromM (M ,k ))

(12.48a)

M 2n = 0.479

## The downstream Mach number is then obtained from

from M 2n, θ and β, and Eq. 12.47b

M 2n = M 2sin(β - θ) (12.47b)

Hence M2 = 1.27

## For p 02 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

(12.7a)

p 02 = p 2/(p 02/p 2)

p 02 = 1316 kPa
For the isentropic compression wave:

p 02 = p 01

## For p 01 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p 01 = 3814 kPa

p 02 = 3814 kPa

## (Note that for the oblique shock, as required by Eq. 12.48b

(12.48b)

p 02/p 01 = 0.345
(using built-in function Normp0fromM (M ,k )

p 02/p 01 = 0.345
(using p 02 from the shock and p 01)

o
θ= -35.0

(12.55)

and

## Deflection = ω2 - ω1 = ω(M 2) - ω(M 1) (1)

From M 1 and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
ω1 = 58.5

Applying Eq. 1 ω2 = ω1 + θ

o
ω2 = 23.5

## From ω2, and Eq. 12.55

(using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
For ω2 = 23.5
M2 = 1.90

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M 2 so that ω2 = 23.5 )

## Hence for p 2 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p 2 = p 02/(p 02/p 2)

p2 = 572 kPa
Problem 12.142 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
p1 = 50 kPa
M1 = 1.75
o
α= 12
c = 1 m

F = (p L - p U)c

## D = (p L - p U)c sin(α) (2)

For the lower surface (oblique shock):

We need to find M 1n

o
θ= 12

## From M 1 and θ, and Eq. 12.49

(using built-in function Theta (M , β,k ))

(12.49)

o
For θ= 12.0
o
β= 48.3

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary β so that θ = 12 )

## From M 1n and p 1, and Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

(12.48d)

p2 = 91.3 kPa

pL= p2

## pL= 91.3 kPa

For the upper surface (isentropic expansion wave):

p 02 = p 01

## For p 01 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

(12.7a)

p 01 = 266 kPa

p 02 = 266 kPa

o
θ= 12.0

(12.55)

and

## From M 1 and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
ω1 = 19.3

Applying Eq. 3 ω2 = ω1 + θ

o
ω2 = 31.3
From ω2, and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
For ω2 = 31.3
M2 = 2.18

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M 2 so that ω2 = 31.3 )

## Hence for p 2 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p 2 = p 02/(p 02/p 2)

p2 = 25.6 kPa

pU = p2

pU = 25.6 kPa

## From Eq. 2 D = 13.7 kN/m

Problem 12.143 (In Excel)

## Given: Mach number and airfoil geometry

Find: Plot of lift and drag and lift/drag versus angle of attack

Solution

k = 1.4
p1 = 50 kPa
M1 = 1.75
o
α= 12
c = 1 m

F = (p L - p U)c

## For the lower surface (oblique shock):

We need to find M 1n

Deflection θ= α

## From M 1 and θ, and Eq. 12.49

(using built-in function Theta (M , β,k ))

(12.49)

find β
(Use Goal Seek to vary β so that θ is the correct value)

## From M 1n and p 1, and Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

(12.48d)

find p2

and pL = p2

p 02 = p 01

## For p 01 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

(12.7a)

Deflection θ= α

(12.55)

and

o
find ω1 = 19.3

## From ω2, and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

From ω2 find M2
(Use Goal Seek to vary M 2 so that ω2 is the correct value)

## Hence for p 2 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p 2 = p 02/(p 02/p 2)

pU = p2

## Finally, from Eqs. 1 and 2, compute L and D

Computed results:

α (o) β (o) θ (o) Error M 1n p L (kPa) ω2 (o) ω2 from M 2 (o) Error M2 p U (kPa) L (kN/m) D (kN/m) L/D
0.50 35.3 0.50 0.0% 1.01 51.3 19.8 19.8 0.0% 1.77 48.7 2.61 0.0227 115
1.00 35.8 1.00 0.0% 1.02 52.7 20.3 20.3 0.0% 1.78 47.4 5.21 0.091 57.3
1.50 36.2 1.50 0.0% 1.03 54.0 20.8 20.8 0.0% 1.80 46.2 7.82 0.205 38.2
2.00 36.7 2.00 0.0% 1.05 55.4 21.3 21.3 0.0% 1.82 45.0 10.4 0.364 28.6
4.00 38.7 4.00 0.0% 1.09 61.4 23.3 23.3 0.0% 1.89 40.4 20.9 1.46 14.3
5.00 39.7 5.00 0.0% 1.12 64.5 24.3 24.3 0.0% 1.92 38.3 26.1 2.29 11.4
10.00 45.5 10.0 0.0% 1.25 82.6 29.3 29.3 0.0% 2.11 28.8 53.0 9.35 5.67
15.00 53.4 15.0 0.0% 1.41 106.9 34.3 34.3 0.0% 2.30 21.3 82.7 22.1 3.73
16.00 55.6 16.0 0.0% 1.44 113.3 35.3 35.3 0.0% 2.34 20.0 89.6 25.7 3.49
16.50 56.8 16.5 0.0% 1.47 116.9 35.8 35.8 0.0% 2.36 19.4 93.5 27.7 3.38
17.00 58.3 17.0 0.0% 1.49 121.0 36.3 36.3 0.0% 2.38 18.8 97.7 29.9 3.27
17.50 60.1 17.5 0.0% 1.52 125.9 36.8 36.8 0.0% 2.40 18.2 102.7 32.4 3.17
18.00 62.9 18.0 0.0% 1.56 133.4 37.3 37.3 0.0% 2.42 17.6 110 35.8 3.08

## To compute this table:

1) Type the range of α
2) Type in guess values for β
3) Compute θ from Eq. 12.49
(using built-in function Theta (M ,β, k )
4) Compute the absolute error between each θ and α
5) Compute the sum of the errors
6) Use Solver to minimize the sum by varying the β values
(Note: You may need to interactively type in new β values
if Solver generates β values that lead to no θ)
7) For each α, M 1n is obtained from M 1, and Eq. 12.47a
8) For each α, p L is obtained from p 1, M 1n, and Eq. 12.48d
(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))
9) For each α, compute ω2 from Eq. 4
10) For each α, compute ω2 from M 2, and Eq. 12.55
(using built-in function Omega (M ,k ))
11) Compute the absolute error between the two values of ω2
12) Compute the sum of the errors
13) Use Solver to minimize the sum by varying the M 2 values
(Note: You may need to interactively type in new M 2 values)
if Solver generates β values that lead to no θ)
14) For each α, p U is obtained from p 02, M 2, and Eq. 12.47a
(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))
15) Compute L and D from Eqs. 1 and 2

## Lift and Drag of an Airfoil

as a Function of Angle of Attack
120

100
L and D (kN/m)

80
Lift
60
Drag
40

20

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
α (o)

Lift/Drag of an Airfoil
as a Function of Angle of Attack
140

120

100

80
L/D

60

40

20

0
0 5 10 15 20
α (o)
Problem 12.144 (In Excel)

Solution

k = 1.4
p1 = 95 kPa
M1 = 2
o
α= 0
o
δ= 10

## (p F and p R are the pressures on the front and rear surfaces)

2
The drag coefficient is C D = D /(1/2ρV A ) (2)

## But it is can be shown that

2 2
ρV = pkM
Hence, from Eqs. 1 and 2

2
C D = (p F - p R)tan(δ/2)/(1/2pkM ) (3)

## For the frontal surfaces (oblique shocks):

We need to find M 1n

o
θ= 5

## From M 1 and θ, and Eq. 12.49

(using built-in function Theta (M , β,k ))

(12.49)

o
For θ= 5.0
o
β= 34.3

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary β so that θ = 5 )

## From M 1n and p 1, and Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

(12.48d)

p2 = 125.0 kPa

pF = p2

pF = 125.0 kPa
To find M 2 we need M 2n. From M 1n, and Eq. 12.48a
(using built-in function NormM2fromM (M ,k ))

(12.48a)

M 2n = 0.891

## The downstream Mach number is then obtained from

from M 2n, θ and β, and Eq. 12.47b

M 2n = M 2sin(β - θ) (12.47b)

Hence M2 = 1.82

## For p 02 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

(12.7a)

p 02 = 742 kPa

## Here: M 1 is the Mach number after the shock

and M 2 is the Mach number after the expansion wave
p 01 is the stagnation pressure after the shock
and p 02 is the stagnation pressure after the expansion wave

M 1 = M 2 (shock)

M1 = 1.82
p 01 = p 02 (shock)

p 01 = 742 kPa

p 02 = p 01

p 02 = 742 kPa

o
θ= 10.0

(12.55)

and

## From M 1 and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
ω1 = 21.3

Applying Eq. 3 ω2 = ω1 + θ

o
ω2 = 31.3

From ω2, and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega(M, k))

o
For ω2 = 31.3
M2 = 2.18

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M 2 so that ω2 = 31.3 )
Hence for p 2 we use Eq. 12.7a
(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p 2 = p 02/(p 02/p 2)

p2 = 71.2 kPa

pR = p2

pR = 71.2 kPa

## Finally, from Eq. 1 CD = 0.0177

Problem 12.145 (In Excel)

1
RU

FL
RL

Solution

k = 1.4
p1 = 95 kPa
M1 = 2
o
α= 12
o
δ= 10

## Following the analysis of Example Problem 12.14

the force component perpendicular to the major axis, per area, is

## F V/sc = 1/2{(p FL + p RL) - (p FU + p RU)} (1)

and the force component parallel to the major axis, per area, is

## using the notation of the figure above.

(s and c are the span and chord)
The lift force per area is

## F D/sc = (F Vsin(α) + F Hcos(α))/sc (4)

2
The lift coefficient is C L = F L/(1/2ρV A ) (5)

2 2
ρV = pkM (6)

## Hence, combining Eqs. 3, 4, 5 and 6

2
C L = (F V/sc cos(α) - F H/sc sin(α))/(1/2pkM ) (7)

## Similarly, for the drag coefficient

2
C D = (F V/sc sin(α) + F H/sc cos(α))/(1/2pkM ) (8)

## For surface FL (oblique shock):

We need to find M 1n

o
θ= 17

## From M 1 and θ, and Eq. 12.49

(using built-in function Theta (M , β,k ))

(12.49)
o
For θ= 17.0
o
β= 48.2

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary β so that θ = 17 )

## From M 1n and p 1, and Eq. 12.48d

(using built-in function NormpfromM (M ,k ))

(12.48d)

p2 = 230.6 kPa

p FL = p2

p FL = 230.6 kPa

## To find M 2 we need M 2n. From M 1n, and Eq. 12.48a

(using built-in function NormM2fromM (M ,k ))

(12.48a)

M 2n = 0.704

## The downstream Mach number is then obtained from

from M 2n, θ and β, and Eq. 12.47b

M 2n = M 2sin(β - θ) (12.47b)

Hence M2 = 1.36
For p 02 we use Eq. 12.7a
(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

(12.7a)

p 02 = 693 kPa

## Here: M 1 is the Mach number after the shock

and M 2 is the Mach number after the expansion wave
p 01 is the stagnation pressure after the shock
and p 02 is the stagnation pressure after the expansion wave

M 1 = M 2 (shock)

M1 = 1.36

p 01 = p 02 (shock)

p 01 = 693 kPa

p 02 = p 01

p 02 = 693 kPa

o
θ= 10.0
We use Eq. 12.55

(12.55)

and

## From M 1 and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
ω1 = 7.8

Applying Eq. 3 ω2 = ω1 + θ

o
ω2 = 17.8

From ω2, and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega(M, k))

o
For ω2 = 17.8
M2 = 1.70

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M 2 so that ω2 = 17.8 )

## Hence for p 2 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p 2 = p 02/(p 02/p 2)

p2 = 141 kPa

p RL = p2

p RL = 141 kPa
For surface FU (isentropic expansion wave):

M1 = 2.0

p 02 = p 01

## For p 01 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p 01 = 743
p 02 = 743 kPa

o
θ= 7.0

and

## From M 1 and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
ω1 = 26.4

Applying Eq. 3 ω2 = ω1 + θ

o
ω2 = 33.4

From ω2, and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega(M, k))

o
For ω2 = 33.4
M2 = 2.27

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M 2 so that ω2 = 33.4 )
Hence for p 2 we use Eq. 12.7a
(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p 2 = p 02/(p 02/p 2)

p2 = 62.8 kPa

p FU = p2

p FU = 62.8 kPa

## Flow is isentropic so we could analyse from region FU to RU

but instead analyse from region 1 to region RU.

M1 = 2.0

p 02 = p 01

p 01 = 743 kPa
p 02 = 743 kPa

o
θ= 17.0

and

## Deflection = ω2 - ω1 = ω(M 2) - ω(M 1) (3)

From M 1 and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega (M , k ))

o
ω1 = 26.4

Applying Eq. 3 ω2 = ω1 + θ

o
ω2 = 43.4

From ω2, and Eq. 12.55 (using built-in function Omega(M, k))

o
For ω2 = 43.4
M2 = 2.69

o
(Use Goal Seek to vary M 2 so that ω2 = 43.4 )

## Hence for p 2 we use Eq. 12.7a

(using built-in function Isenp (M , k ))

p 2 = p 02/(p 02/p 2)

p2 = 32.4 kPa

p RU = p2

p RU = 32.4 kPa

## The four pressures are:

p FL = 230.6 kPa
p RL = 140.5 kPa
p FU = 62.8 kPa
p RU = 32.4 kPa
From Eq 1 F V/sc = 138 kPa

## From Eq 7 CL= 0.503

From Eq 8 CD = 0.127