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B7

Electrical and Associated Works


B7. Electrical and Associated Works .................................................................................. 7-1
B7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 7-1
B7.1.1 Electrical system design ..................................................................... 7-1
B7.1.2 Mode of operation .............................................................................. 7-4
B7.1.3 Arrangement of electrical equipment .................................................. 7-5
B7.1.4 Basic electrical design criteria ............................................................ 7-6
B7.2 Scope of supply and services......................................................................... 7-6
B7.2.1 General............................................................................................... 7-6
B7.2.2 Scope of supplies................................................................................ 7-7
B7.2.2.1 Main scope of supply.......................................................................... 7-7
B7.3 Special Technical Requirements ..................................................................7-10
B7.3.1 Transformers .....................................................................................7-11
B7.3.1.1 General..............................................................................................7-11
B7.3.1.2 Generator transformer .......................................................................7-12
B7.3.1.3 Unit auxiliary transformer .................................................................7-13
B7.3.1.4 Station service transformers...............................................................7-13
B7.3.1.5 Transformer high pressure spray water system...................................7-14
B7.3.1.6 Automatic voltage regulator ..............................................................7-14
B7.3.1.7 Neutral earthing resistors ...................................................................7-15
B7.3.2 Medium voltage switchgear (6.3 kV) .................................................7-15
B7.3.2.1 General..............................................................................................7-15
B7.3.2.2 Switchgear components .....................................................................7-17
B7.3.2.3 Automatic high speed transfer equipment ..........................................7-21
B7.3.3 Low voltage AC switchgear ..............................................................7-22
B7.3.3.1 General..............................................................................................7-22
B7.3.3.2 Switchgear components .....................................................................7-22
B7.3.4 DC and Safe AC systems and associated equipment ..........................7-27
B7.3.4.1 General..............................................................................................7-27
B7.3.4.2 Switchgear (DC, safe AC) .................................................................7-28
B7.3.4.3 Battery charging equipment ...............................................................7-30
B7.3.4.4 Batteries ............................................................................................7-30
B7.3.4.5 Inverter with electronic change-over equipment ................................7-31
B7.3.4.6 DC/DC Converters (if applicable)......................................................7-32
B7.3.5 Emergency AC power supply system ................................................7-33

I
B7.3.5.1 Diesel engine and auxiliaries .............................................................7-33
B7.3.5.2 Control and monitoring equipment ....................................................7-34
B7.3.5.3 Diesel Generator................................................................................7-35
B7.3.6 Cables and cable supporting structures ..............................................7-36
B7.3.6.1 Cables ...............................................................................................7-36
B7.3.6.2 Cable supporting structures ...............................................................7-36
B7.3.6.3 Terminal boxes and local control boxes .............................................7-37
B7.3.7 Lighting and small power installations...............................................7-37
B7.3.7.1 Lighting system .................................................................................7-37
B7.3.7.2 Power socket combinations ...............................................................7-41
B7.3.7.3 Portable isolating transformers ..........................................................7-42
B7.3.8 Grounding and lightning protection installations................................7-43
B7.3.8.1 Material .............................................................................................7-43
B7.3.8.2 Earthing system .................................................................................7-43
B7.3.8.3 Lightning protection system ..............................................................7-45
B7.3.9 Fire alarm system ..............................................................................7-46
B7.4 Technical Schedules ....................................................................................7-50

II
B7. Electrical and Associated Works

B7.1 General
This specification covers the design, manufacturing, supply, erection,
commissioning and handing over of the electrical systems for the Keban
Agung Power Plant in South Sumatera Province in Indonesia, consisting of
two (2) units with a capacity described in B0.

The following equipment is under the scope of supply:

• Transformers,
• Medium voltage switchgear,
• Low voltage switchgear,
• DC and safe AC switchgear, batteries, rectifiers, inverters, DC-DC-
converters,
• Emergency power supply system,
• Cabling and wiring, cable supporting structures,
• Small power and lighting installations,
• Grounding and lightning protection,
• Fire alarm system.

The scope of the whole project covers the following electrical systems
• A electrical works for the Power plant (-the facility-)
• B electrical works for the Interconnection facilities, covering the
connection to the 150 kV transmission line

For all electrical works for the Power plant, the contractor has to fulfill
requirements set by the utilities, among others the PT. PLN (Persero)
(TRANSCO) Transmission Code whenever it is applicable to the plant
equipment.

The electrical equipment to be provided shall be suitable for faultless and safe
operation of the entire plant during all phases of operation and shall be
suitable for the location in which they shall be mounted.

The Contractor must adhere to the functional requirements, design criteria


and system configuration contained in this document. Where there is a
conflict between the requirements of this specification and the Contractor’s
current standard system/technology, this must be clearly defined in writing
as a deviation to the specification. The Contractor may propose alternative
improved performance features as long as the system is made up of power
plant proven equipment and components, hardware and software modules.

B7.1.1 Electrical system design


The power plant units will be connected to the public utility network of PT.
PLN (Persero), TRANSCO.

B7-1
The power of the turbine generators will be stepped up by a generator
transformer and, via overhead line connections, be transmitted to a new
150 kV switchyard, which is connected to the public network of
TRANSCO, Indonesia.

Power for start up and shut down will be provided from the 150 kV network
via the generator transformers and unit auxiliary transformers, but also shall
be possible from the unit auxiliary transformer of another unit via the unit
interconnections or via an optional black start facility.

After start up and synchronization of a unit the auxiliary power is supplied


by the turbine generator via the unit auxiliary transformer.

Unit related auxiliaries will be supplied from unit related switchgear,


common auxiliaries will be supplied from a common auxiliary busbar.

The electrical system within the power plant shall be controlled and
monitored through the DCS from the central control room (CCR).

The electrical equipment shall be designed according to the IEC standards


(if not specified otherwise) and shall fulfill the requirements of the
TRANSCO Grid Code and local laws and regulation.

Unit related auxiliaries


Power to the 6.3 kV unit switchgear will be fed via the unit auxiliary
transformers, either from the turbine generator (during normal operation), or
via the generator transformer from the 150 kV network (during start up and
shut down).

The 6.3 kV switchgear will provide power for:


• Medium voltage transformers for 6.3 kV consumers
• Low voltage transformers for 0.40 kV consumers
• Large motors (≥ 1500 kW)
• Common auxiliary busbar

Motors > 200 kW will be supplied by a 6.3 kV medium voltage system,


which will be fed in via 13.8/6.3 kV transformers. Motors < 200 kW and
other electrical consumers will be supplied by the 380 V low voltage
system.

The 0.40 kV unit switchgear consists of main distribution, with two half-
busbars normally fed via two infeeds.

The 220 V DC main distributions are fed by 2 x 100% rectifiers and 2 x


100% batteries.

The 220 V DC system supplies the switchgear control, annunciation and


monitoring system, the emergency oil pump for turbine bearing lubrication,
other auxiliary drives, inverters DC/DC converters and emergency lighting.

B7-2
The 230 V Safe AC system comprises an inverter with static bypass switch
unit and a safe busbar. The inverter is supplied via coupling diodes from
both sections of the 220 V DC main distribution. The static bypass switch is
supplied from the 0.38 kV switchgear.

The 230 V Safe AC system supplies the equipment requiring uninterrupted


supply (UPS) e. g. measuring and control system, control actuators,
recorders, flame monitors, emergency valves, VDU.

The 220/26 V DC/DC converters serve as supply for I&C cabinets and other
consumers requiring 24 V DC supply. Each DC/DC converter is supplied
via coupling diodes from both sections of the 220 V DC main distribution.

All the required auto transfer between the busbar shall be provided.

Common auxiliaries
Common auxiliaries (e.g. auxiliary cooling water, water treatment, coal
handling, fire fighting system) will be supplied via 6.3 kV common
auxiliary switchgear. Metering systems shall be provided to separately
determine the common auxiliaries power consumption supplied from each
unit 1 and 2.

In general, the design and arrangement of the common auxiliary system is


similar to that of the unit related auxiliaries described above. However loss
of any infeed/supply shall not cause loss of any of the power units. All
required automatic transfer systems shall be provided. The main
components are:

• 6.3 kV switchgear with two bus sections


• Low voltage transformers
• 0.40 kV switchgear
• Emergency diesel generators
• 220 V DC system
• 230 V UPS system
• 220 V / 26 V DC/DC converters.
Each section of the 6.3 kV common auxiliary switchgear will be fed from
one of the 6.3kV unit auxiliary switchgear of Unit # 1 and Unit #2.

Each 6.3 kV and 0.40 kV switchgear of the common auxiliary system


consists of a main distribution with two sections and an automatic transfer
system. The switchgear shall be fed from the 6.3 kV common auxiliary
switchgear via 2 x 100% transformers.

The emergency diesel generators will be sized to supply all essential loads
in case of a "black out" to shut down the plant safely.

For the administration building and workshop/store buildings separate 1 x


100%, low voltage transformers and related switchgear shall be provided (if
required).

B7-3
Back up supply shall also be provided to the switchyard for the switchyard
lightings.

B7.1.2 Mode of operation


The following modes of operation shall be considered.

Generation mode
The main mode of operation shall be to dispatch electrical energy into the
public grid as required by the TRANSCO Load Despatch Center.

In general, the requirements of the TRANSCO Transmission Code have to


be fulfilled in addition to the specified requirements herein.

The main part of the power generated by the turbine generator of the plant is
fed into the public utility grid, while the other part is needed for the
auxiliary demand of the plant.

Start-up mode
For start-up of the power units, it will be necessary to import power from
the grid. The power imported will be fed via the generator transformer and
the generator main connection which energizes the unit auxiliary
transformer. When the generator is synchronized to the grid and sufficient
electrical energy is available, the system can be placed into generation
mode.

However, in case of one or two units already operating, it shall be possible


to start another unit from one of the running units. The following equipment
shall be designed to cover the load of the related unit, common load and
start-up power of one additional unit:
• Unit auxiliary transformers of Units #1 and #2
• 6.3 kV unit auxiliary switchgear of Units #1 and #2

The required 6.3 kV feeders including load transfer systems shall be


provided in the three units. 6.3kV cable interconnections between the three
units shall also be provided.

Mode of operation without turbo generator


This mode of operation may occur if the generator trips during part or full
load operation of the plant. In such a case immediately the energy flow
through the generator transformer will reverse and energy will be imported
from the public grid.

Mode of operation without the 150 kV grid

There are two cases to be considered:


a. At least one turbine generator is in operation in case the 150 kV
circuit breaker opens the unit will make a load rejection to the
minimum plant load and will operate in island operation. After grid

B7-4
voltage recovery, a quick re-synchronization of the unit is possible
via the 150 kV circuit breaker.
b. No turbine generator is in operation
Please refer to "Blackout mode of operation".

Blackout mode of operation


A total “Blackout” occurs when there is an unexpected power cut on the
public utility grid and there is also no electrical power output from the turbo
generators at the plant.

Under such conditions, the critical loads like the DC consumers, turbine
emergency oil pump, computers and I & C auxiliaries will continue to
receive their uninterrupted power supply from the DC batteries and
inverters.

When the blackout occurs, the in-house diesel generators will start
automatically to supply its relevant load within 30 seconds.

The emergency power supply program will be switched in automatically by


the DCS and power feed to the rectifiers, batteries, the inverters and all
other essential loads will be restored.

The emergency diesel generator will only maintain the necessary essential
services during the shut down of the plant, but its power is not sufficient to
start up the system in case of black-out.

Power unit out of operation


If the power unit is out of operation, it shall be possible to supply the
required auxiliaries via one of the generator and unit auxiliary transformers
of Unit #1 or Unit #2.

B7.1.3 Arrangement of electrical equipment


The connection between the generator and the generator transformer as well
as the unit auxiliary transformer shall be carried out by fully insulated single
phase busbar connection systems. The turbine generator starpoint
connection shall also be of the fully insulated busbar type.

The generator transformer and the unit auxiliary transformer are located
outdoor at the side of the turbine hall, separated from each other by a fire
protection wall.

The high voltage connection at the generator transformer HV bushings is


made by buried line conductors, which connect the transformer to the new
150 kV GIS, located in a substation of the power plant.

In general, the unit related electrical equipment (switchgear, station service,


transformers, DC- and UPS systems) shall be installed in unit related
electrical rooms, located in the bunker building at the lower levels. Hence
short cabling distances to all load centers of the units is maintained.

B7-5
Electrical equipment for common use will be installed mainly in the lower
levels of the central control building or in local electrical rooms.

Local electrical rooms for station service transformers, switchgear and


subdistribution panels in other areas of the power plant shall be provided as
required mainly for the common auxiliary systems (e.g. for coal handling,
cooling water intake, water treatment plant, etc.).

Electrical rooms will be forced ventilated.

B7.1.4 Basic electrical design criteria


The following general design criteria have been assigned to the basic
planning of the electrical system.
• The electrical system shall be designed in such a way that the outage of
one component does not require the shutdown of the associated unit
• Redundancy of electrical plant shall strictly follow the redundancies
applied for mechanical equipment
• Electrical equipment chosen shall be selected so that types and ratings
are in line with mass-produced electrical equipment, to be purchased
easily at the free market, with long-term secured spare parts availability
• Maintenance-free, easy-to-service equipment of the modular,
interchangeable type like motor control centers (MCC), gas-tight
batteries, shall be used
• Major electrical equipment shall be type tested and certified by approved
testing authorities.

B7.2 Scope of supply and services

B7.2.1 General
This section sets out the scope of supply of the installations covered by this
specification as well as requested supplies and services, but without
excluding other necessary components and services not mentioned.

The complete electrical equipment will be designed according to IEC


regulations or equivalent standards which fulfill at least the IEC
requirements (if not specified otherwise elsewhere).

B7-6
B7.2.2 Scope of supplies

B7.2.2.1 Main scope of supply

Transformers
• 2 (two) generator transformers, 2-windings type, with on-load tap
changer and automatic voltage regulator
• 2 (two) unit auxiliary transformer 13.8kV / 6.3 kV, 2-windings type,
• Several low voltage station service transformers 6.3 kV / 400 V for
common auxiliaries (2 x 100%),
• Several unit related low voltage station service transformers (2 x 100 %)
• Separate low voltage station service transformers for the administration
and workshop/store building (if required).
• Surge arrestors at generator transformer HV side
• Transformer spray high pressure water systems, complete for generator
and unit auxiliary transformer
• All required transformer neutral earthing resistors for the 13.8 kV and
6.3kV system
• Gas-in-oil on-line transformer condition monitoring system as specified
in Section B7.3.1.1 for generator and unit auxiliary transformer

Medium voltage switchgear (6.3 kV system)


• 2 (two) 6.3 kV unit auxiliary switchgear
• 1 (one) 6.3 kV common auxiliary switchgear
• 6.3kV subdistributions, as required

to be equipped with plug-in or draw-out type power switching devices

• Vacuum type circuit breakers with 220 V DC motor-driven stored energy


mechanism for power infeeds, transformer and large motor outfeeds, bus
couplers
• Vacuum contactors with HV fuses for smaller motor outfeeds
• Digital control and protection relays
• High speed automatic transfer systems (as far as required)

The switchgear will also contain:


• Subframes for mounting of the switchgear cubicles
• Cable paralleling arrangements in separate steel-clad cubicles with
auxiliary busbar systems, connecting bars and support structures together
with a sufficient number of earthing studs, for all feeders with more than
two parallel cables per phase.
• Monitoring and signaling equipment, mini circuit breakers for protection
and voltage transformer, switch position indicators, reporting and
operating facilities, mimic diagram
• Relay recess with the protection and monitoring relays, coupling relays,
mini circuit breakers, complete terminal boards, meters etc.
• 1 (one) fully equipped spare switchgear cubicle, however without the
withdrawable truck or module.

B7-7
Low voltage switchgear
• Several 0.40kV unit main distributions, each with two sections
• Several 0.40kV unit subdistributions,
• Several 0.40kV common auxiliaries main distributions each with two
sections,
• Several 0.40kV common auxiliaries subdistributions,
• Minimum 5 (five) percent fully equipped spare capacity and 10 % spare
terminals at the date of handing over,
• Separate 0.40kV distributions and subdistributions for the administration
and workshop/store building (if required).

The switchgears will also contain:


• The relay recess with the protection and supervisory relays, complete
terminal arrangements, meters etc.
• The connection compartment with current and voltage transformers,
cable sealing ends, etc.

All circuit breakers will be equipped for remote operation. Local control at
the switchgear will also be possible.

DC system, inverters and associated equipment


• 220 V unit related batteries, nickel-cadmium,
• 220 V unit related rectifiers,
• Minimum 1 (one) 220 V DC system for common auxiliaries consisting of
2 x 100 % NiCd batteries, 2 x 100 % rectifiers and distribution,
• 6 (six) 240 V unit related inverters with static bypass switch and manual
bypass,
• 3 (three) 220 V DC unit related main distribution,
• 3 (three) 230 V Safe AC unit related distributions,
• Minimum 1 (one) 240 V safe AC system for common auxiliaries
consisting of 2 x 100 % inverter with static and manual by-pass switch
and distribution
• Several 220 V/26 V DC/DC converters,
• At minimum 5 (five) percent fully equipped spare capacity and 5 % spare
terminals at the date of handing over.

Emergency AC power supply system


• As a minimum 2 (two) emergency diesel generators complete :
• Diesel engine, water-cooled, with exhaust gas turbo charger,
• Fully pressure-lubricated system,
• Fuel supply and injection system including day tank (only if required)
for 20 h unrestricted full load operation and refilling from the LFO
common tank,
• Air intake and exhaust system with exhaust gas pipe and silencers
according to local regulations,
• Control and monitoring equipment for normal operation, start-up and
shut-down,
• Synchronous generator complete with:

B7-8
•Excitation system,
•Generator protection,
• Automatic synchronizing unit,
• Completely equipped container for housing the emergency diesel
generator set, if not installed in a separate building.

Cables and cable trays


(According to the description in section B0 “Electrical Equipment and
Works”)
• Supply, laying and connection of power, control and measuring cables
for power plant specific equipment including all accessories and
supporting structures
• Supply and installation of all terminal boxes and cabinets,
• Supply and installation of all local control and level control boxes,
• All necessary fixing materials,
• All necessary fire protection materials for closing the cable openings
through walls and ceilings as well as between switchgear and control,
measuring and switchgear cubicles, operating panels and desks, etc.
• All necessary plastic protecting tubes for the cable runs,
• All necessary cable connections including compression cable lugs
• All necessary materials for laying the cables in the ground,
• Fixing and clamping materials etc,
• All necessary cable sealing ends and cable connecting sleeves including
fixing materials,
• All necessary compression connectors,
• All necessary number plates for identifying the cables.

Small power and lighting installations


• The necessary lighting subdistribution units for internal and external
lighting,
• The necessary emergency lighting distributions,
• The necessary lighting fixtures and installations for the internal lighting,
external lighting and street lighting,
• Any necessary fittings and installations for the emergency lighting,
• Foundations and poles for street lighting,
• Any necessary connecting and attachment materials for the whole
lighting system,
• Complete security lighting system around the entire plant site
• Aircraft warning lights

The complete power socket system including, but not limited to:
• All necessary domestic power outlets,
• All necessary power sockets each with 1 x 63 A, 1 x 32 A and 2 x 16 A
sockets,
• All the necessary power sockets 1 x 125 A,
• All the necessary material required for installation of the sockets.

• Isolating transformers for the purpose of producing the protective low


voltage for work in metal enclosures, boilers, tanks, etc.

B7-9
Grounding and lightning protection
• The necessary lead-sheathed stranded copper cables for the outdoor
earthing installations,
• The necessary tinned stranded copper cables for indoor earthing
installations,
• The necessary galvanized steel bars for the earthing ring inside the
buildings,
• The necessary round iron (reinforcement bar) inside the concrete
including flexible PVC single-core cables for being laid out of the
concrete,
• The necessary compression connectors or connections by Cadweld
system for the earthing conductor crossing point connections and
junctions,
• All connections to the housings of the electrical apparatus, steel frames,
pipes, steep strips, etc,
• All necessary disconnecting points for measuring purposes which must
be readily accessible,
• All the necessary lightning protection equipment for the protection of
persons and structures such as lightning collectors, roof bushings, stack
rings, chimney safety ladders, lightning rods, potential equalizing
systems, spark gaps, lightning arrestors, etc.
• The required connecting and fixing material.

Fire alarm system


• Fire alarm central station,
• Display board in the central control room,
• Automatic fire alarm detectors,
• Pushbutton fire alarms,
• Sirens,
• Complete cabling and wiring, suitable for fire alarm line cabling,

Tools and Gauges


The contractor shall supply all necessary special tools and gauges required
for maintenance. This should also include tools required for inserting and
racking out the withdrawable gear. A lockable metal clad tool box shall be
provided and installed in the switchgear room to house the tools of the
switchgear.

B7.3 Special Technical Requirements


The requirements specified in Section B0 “General Technical
Requirements” are to apply, where applicable as well as further regulations
from other sections of this specification.

B7-10
B7.3.1 Transformers

B7.3.1.1 General
The rated output of the generator transformer shall be defined by the
Contractor as follows:

SGT = SGenMCR - SUnit Aux.

The rated output of the unit auxiliary transformer for Unit #1 and #2 shall be
defined by the contractor as follows:

SAux = SUnit Aux - Sgen Aux.

The rated output of the unit auxiliary transformer for unit 3 shall be defined
by the contractor as follows:

SAux = SUnit Aux.

SGT: Rated output of Generator Transformer in MVA


SGenMCR: Maximum continuous rating of generator at nominal lagging
power factor in MVA
SUnit Aux.: Power requirements of one unit related auxiliaries
(not including power requirements for the general auxiliaries)
in MVA.
SAux. : Rated output of unit auxiliary transformer in MVA
SGenAux: Power requirements of general common auxiliaries at the
final configuration of the plant (3 power units) in MVA

The capacity of the unit auxiliary and station service transformers shall be
matched to the relevant auxiliary power requirements, under consideration
that with maximum basic load and start-up of the largest motor the voltage
drop at the busbars will not exceed 10%.

The transformer tanks, radiators and control and monitoring cabinets are to
be spray galvanized. An alternative painting system or an oil resistant
coating of tanks and radiators will be accepted as well.

The transformers shall comply with the IEC regulations, in particular IEC
60076 for design, manufacturer and test and IEC 60214 for tap changers
testing.

Main transformer condition monitoring system

An approved transformer on-line condition monitoring system shall be


implemented to show the momentary condition of the cooling oil
composition as well as long term trends.

B7-11
At least the following functions shall be included:
• Gas-in-oil monitoring
• gas-in-oil monitor of approved type i.e. HYDRAN-Sensor, sensor and
digital transmitter in single enclosure
• Necessary valves, pipes, anti-vibration mounting racks
• Complete cabling and wiring from sensor to terminal blocks up to the
connection to the data analysator set
• Computer-aided data analysis with laptop or external personal computer
including application software and accessories.

Monitoring shall be performed on the generator and on the unit auxiliary


transformer.

Data analysis shall be provided centrally by networking the individual


sensors.

The Tenderer is requested to propose any other monitoring functions, which


he deems necessary.

B7.3.1.2 Generator transformer


The generator transformer has to be designed as three-phase power
transformer for outdoor installation.

Transformer cooling shall be preferably of the ODAF/ONAN principle.

On the higher voltage side the transformer shall be connected by means of


buried line conductors to GIS and from there, via buried line, to the 150 kV
tower end in the Plant.

The high voltage bushings shall be provided with current transformers


(minimum 3 cores) for protection (transformer) and measuring.

The transformer neutral on the high voltage winding shall be resister


grounded.

The HV neutral bushing shall be equipped with current transformer


(2 cores) for over current and ground fault differential protection and surge
arrestors.

The low voltage side is to be equipped with connection flanges and a


connection frame to connect an isolated-phase generator main connection.

Oil- and winding temperature monitoring devices shall be provided.

The transformer shall be provided with motor-driven on-load tap changer.

The instruments and equipment necessary for tap changer control,


temperature-dependent control and monitoring of the transformer and of the
cooling system are to be housed in a cabinet to be mounted on the

B7-12
transformer. The necessary control and monitoring signals are to be wired to
terminal strips for remote control and monitoring through the DCS.

Each generator transformer shall be equipped with an automatic voltage


regulator (AVR) as specified in Section B7.3.1.6.

The AVR shall be active only if the generator circuit breaker is in OFF
position.

B7.3.1.3 Unit auxiliary transformer


The unit auxiliary transformer shall be designed as three-phase, three
winding transformer for outdoor installation.

The transformer shall be provided with flanged-on radiator cooling which is


of the ONAN/ONAF principle.

The high voltage side shall be equipped with connection flanges and a
connection frame to connect an isolated-phase generator main connection.

On the low voltage side a metal-clad auxiliary busbar system is to be


provided to which the feed-in cables for the 6.3 kV voltage switchgear
will be connected.

The busbar system housed inside the metal cladding must be designed to
permit testing of the cable and transformer connections at fixed screw
connections.

The instruments and equipment necessary for the temperature control and
monitoring are to be housed in a cabinet to be mounted on the transformer.
The necessary control and monitoring signals are to be wired to terminal
strips for remote control and monitoring through the DCS.

A five-step off-load tap changer (±2 x 2.5%) with manual drive mechanism
is to be provided. This shall be operated from outside and provision shall be
made for locking it.

B7.3.1.4 Station service transformers


Station service transformers (from 6.3 kV to 0.40 kV) shall be designed as
oil-cooled three-phase transformers. The cooling shall be of ONAN
principle. They shall be installed in transformer boxes in the immediate
vicinity of the medium or low voltage switchgear.

Cast-resin insulated dry-type transformers with suitable housing (protection


class minimum IP21) located indoor close to the L.V. switchgear may be
provided alternatively.

B7-13
Dry type transformers shall be provided with winding temperature
monitoring facilities.

The high and low voltage side is to be equipped with a metal-clad auxiliary
busbar system to which the input and output cables can be connected.

An off -load tap changer is to be provided on the high voltage side.


This will be operated from outside and must be capable of being locked.

The station service transformers shall be designed so that with the whole
plant running at full load, the transformers will be loaded as follows:
• 80% in case of 1 x 100% transformers,
• 40% in case of 2 x 100% transformers.

B7.3.1.5 Transformer high pressure spray water system


The generator and unit auxiliary transformers shall be fitted with the
equipment specified below:

One transformer high-pressure water spray system discharging on the


transformers. Each transformer shall be provided with one valve station and
one control and monitoring cabinet for the water spray system.

The water spray system shall be designed for manual, automatic or electrical
remote operation and shall be provided in free-standing and self-supporting
design, with the following basic equipment:

• The required number of triggering and fire extinguishing nozzles, with


galvanized pipes and mountings,
• The necessary galvanized connecting lines from the appropriate valve
station to the nozzle pipe network,
• The necessary drainage valves, struts, diaphragm sleeve valves, single
chamber valve stations with all fittings and connections, pressure-
sensitive switches for signaling and air pressure drop,
• The necessary tank feed pump,
• One brine control and monitoring cabinet, remote control from the
central control room
• A compressed-air, fire-fighting vessel for maintaining a reserve of fire-
fighting water for a minimum spraying time of 5 minutes.

B7.3.1.6 Automatic voltage regulator


For detailed requirements regarding the voltage regulation, see also B0-
2.11.1 Voltage and Reactive Power Control.

The generator transformers shall be provided with an automatic voltage


regulator (AVR), for maintaining the voltage on the LV side within
adjustable limits.

B7-14
It shall be possible to select following operation modes:
• Local electrical non-automatic
• Remote electrical non-automatic
• Remote automatic.
A digital type AVR of an approved design shall be provided. The set point
voltage shall be adjustable between 90% and 110% of the energizing
voltage.

The sensitivity of the AVR shall be suitable for adjustment at any value
between 0.5 % and 6% of the setpoint voltage.

A time delay adjustable between the limits of 10 and not less than 180
seconds shall be provided. This setting shall represent the maximum
operating time, which shall be reduced automatically as a function of the
amplitude and duration of the voltage deviation.

Additional, the AVR shall be blocked if the energizing voltage becomes too
low or too high. The low voltage blocking shall be adjustable between 70%
and 95% and the high voltage between 105% and 130%.

For remote control and equipment through the DCS all required interface
facilities shall be provided. Remote automatic control shall be included into
the plant unit level automatic start up sequence control.

B7.3.1.7 Neutral earthing resistors


The transformer neutral (star) points on the 13.8kV and 6.3kV windings are
to be earthed through resistors. The earthing resistors shall be of rustless
unbreakable material installed in a metal enclosure for outdoor installation
and shall comply with the "General Technical Requirements" Section B0.
For interconnection with the transformer MV single core cables with
suitable cable terminal boxes (IPW55) shall be provided. The resistor and
the enclosure shall be designed in such a way that the surface temperature is
not dangerous for personnel.

B7.3.2 Medium voltage switchgear (6.3 kV)


The following technical requirements shall apply for the 6.3 kV switchgear.

B7.3.2.1 General
The switchgear shall be of metal-clad compartmented design for indoor
installation with draw-out type switching devices.

All incoming and outgoing feeders of the switchgear are to be equipped


with withdrawable modules for

B7-15
• Circuit breakers (vacuum or SF6-type) with motor-driven stored energy
mechanism
• Vacuum contactor with HV fuses (for smaller motor outfeeds)

Permanently installed short-circuit-proof /make proof earthing switches are


to be provided in the lower part of the switchgear cubicle and these are to be
locked mechanically with the corresponding circuit breaker. In addition,
the earthing switches of the infeed panels are to be equipped with
interlocking relays wired to the terminal board in the relay recess preventing
closure of the earthing switches when the breaker at the remote end is
closed.

Bus bar earthing switches (short circuit proof/make proof) shall be provided
for each bus bar section.

In general, for all incoming and outgoing feeders requiring more than
2 parallel cables per phase, appropriate steel-enclosed paralleling
arrangements are to be provided. The cable sealing ends are to be fastened
side by side on a support structure in these steel enclosures. The connection
from the copper busbar paralleling arrangement to the switchgear cubicle is
to be made by short lengths of copper bar.

Earthing studs are to be provided in sufficient number on the copper busbars


for feeders without earthing switches.

Overvoltages on motor feeders which may occur in the event of switching


high voltage motors by vacuum contactors shall be prevented by suitable
measures (e.g. voltage limiters).

All circuit breakers must be lockable by padlock provisions in withdrawn


position.

Suitable automatic high speed transfer systems shall be provided between


the individual infeeds/bus couplers of the common auxiliaries switchgear.
Loss of one infeed to the 6.3 kV common auxiliary switchgear shall not
cause loss of any power unit.

Bulkheading
The individual cubicles are to be bulkheaded from one another by double
sheet metal partitions or approved equivalent system.

Within the cubicles, the compartments for circuit breakers, busbars,


instrument transformers and cable connections as well as the relay recesses
must be bulkheaded from one another. Sufficient pressure relief must be
provided for the case of fault arcs. For each bulkheaded compartment a
separate pressure relief must be provided. Care must be taken that in the
event of arcing no hot gases escape to the front of the cubicle (operational
side).

B7-16
Type test certificates by an approved testing authority shall be presented in
order to prove that the switchgear supplied is able to withstand fault arcs in
accordance with IEC 60 298, Appendix AA, criterion 1 to 6.

B7.3.2.2 Switchgear components


The switchgear and main equipment items shall comprise but not be
limited to:

• Steel-clad, bulkheaded design, the various functional compartments


(circuit breaker, busbar, cable connection and relay compartments) are
separated from one another by multiple bulkheading
• Single copper busbar system
• Withdrawable circuit breakers (vacuum type) with 220V DC motor-
driven energy mechanism,
• Withdrawable contactors or load break switches with HV fuses.
Provision are to be taken that when the switch is withdrawn, the insertion
contacts are automatically covered with sheet metal shutters so as to
prevent any danger of accidental contact
• Withdrawable isolators with 220V DC motor operation for the start-up
switchgear
• Universally interchangeable switchgear trucks or modules with defined
test position
• Cable connection compartment with the necessary current and voltage
transformers, the make proof earthing switch, including the necessary
fixing for high voltage cables
• Fuses and voltage transformers for busbar measurement and earth fault
protection
• Relay recess with the protection and monitoring relays, coupling relays,
measurement transducers, mini circuit breakers, complete terminal
boards, meters etc. including the illumination with fluorescent tubes
• Mimic diagram on the front of each cubicle consisting of graphical
symbol and position indication
• Load transfer/high speed transfer system
• Fire-proof closure to the floor of the switchgear panels to seal the
outgoing power cables
• Plug-in type connections for all auxiliary contacts between fixed and
withdrawable part of switchgear.

Current and voltage transformers


The thermal withstand capability of the instrument transformers is to be
based on a disconnection time of min. 0.5 sec in the outgoing circuits to the
consumers and of min. 1.0 sec in the infeeds. All current transformers must
be mounted in the fixed part of the switchgear cubicle.

The instrument transformers secondary circuits must be wired individually


to the switchgear cubicle terminal strip. In case of current transformers,
the necessary terminals are to be equipped with short-circuit links. Cast-
resin insulated, corona-free transformers are to be employed.

B7-17
Current transformers
Accuracy for metering class 0.5 M 5
Accuracy for measurement class 1.0 M 5
Accuracy for protection class 5 P 10
Accuracy for differential protection class 5 P 20.

The current transformers are to be designed capable to withstand the


dynamic and thermal short circuit stresses. Intermediate transformers are to
be avoided. For protection and measurement separate cores are to be
provided.

Voltage transformers
Accuracy for measurement class 1.0
Accuracy for metering class 0.5

In infeed and measuring cubicles, three single-phase insulated voltage


transformers are to be used.

The secondary sides of voltage transformers are in general to be safeguarded


by mini circuit breakers. If the same voltage transformer is used for several
purposes (e.g. measurement, protection, metering) then individual separate
mini circuit breakers with auxiliary contact are to be provided.

Protection relays
Digital protection relays fitted with test facilities are to be used throughout.

The Contractor must ensure that the electrical plant is sufficiently protected.
All protection relays have to be selective.

As a minimum, the digital protection relays shall be provided as follows:

Infeeds and bus ties: Three-phase, dependent and independent


(selectable between inverse time curves
and definite time ranges) over-current
time-lag relays with continuously
adjustable short circuit trip,
synchrocheck relays

Station service transformers: Two-phase, dependent and independent


(selectable between inverse time curves
and definite time ranges) over-current
time-lag relays, with continuously
adjustable short-circuit trip.
Intertripping circuit between MV and
LV circuit breaker.
Transformer Buchholz protection

B7-18
High voltage motors: Instantaneous overcurrent, thermal
overload, locked rotor, ground fault by
ring’s core CT’s.

Measuring cubicles: Three-phase earth fault measuring relays


for 6.3 kV switchgear undervoltage
monitoring relay (adjustable 50 .... 100%
voltage, 0.1 ..... 10 seconds time)

Mimic diagram and local indications


A colored mimic diagram or an equivalent display and control unit is to be
provided on the front of each switchgear cubicle with the necessary
graphical symbols and indications, containing at least the following items:

• Busbar
• Breaker position indication
• Breaker/ contactor operating buttons.
• Earthing switch position indication
• Transformer or motor symbol
• Breaker position indicator for the switchgear installation being fed.

Additionally as status indication, fault annunciation

• Switchgear truck in test position


• Switchgear truck in operating position
• Circuit breaker/load break switch/contactor tripped
• Fault indication, e.g.
• no control voltage
• no motor voltage
• MCB tripped.

Control of the switchgear installations


The control of the circuit breakers/load break switch/contactor is to be
carried out with 220V DC and shall be:

• Made available at least twice for each switchgear installation in the


measuring cubicle
• Diode decoupled
• Permanently wired from panel to panel
• Safeguarded by MCB’s in each panel
• Tripping of MCB’s shall be monitored and be indicated locally.

Each of the circuit breaker shall normally be controlled from remote, but
shall also be capable of being operated locally from the switchgear. If the
control voltage fails, the EMERGENCY OPEN operation of the switches
must be possible. In the test position of the truck, the circuit
breakers/contactors/load break switches must also be capable of being
operated locally and also remotely from the central control room.

B7-19
In the event of a protective trip of the circuit breaker/load break
switch/contactor, means must be provided to prevent reclosing which can
only be overridden again from the switchgear cubicle.

Mini circuit breakers are to be provided for:

• Local controls, interlocks


• Local annunciation and fault indications
• Power supply to motor-driven stored energy mechanism.

The circuit breakers, contactors and load break switches of the switchgear
installations are also to be remotely controlled from the central control room
through the DCS.

Local measuring instruments


As minimum scope, the following measurements are to be provided locally:

• Three-phase current indication in all infeeds and couplings


• Single-phase current indication in phase L2 of all the outgoing feeders
• Voltage indication moving coil type, cl. 1.5, with corresponding 4-way
voltmeter selector for measuring phase L1 - N, phase L2 - N,
phase L3 - N, phase L1 - L3 in all infeeds and in the measuring cubicles.
• A-meters shall be provided with one indicator for instantaneous current
indication (moving coil) cl. 1.5 with red mark at rated current and
maximum indicator with bimetallic moving cl. 3.0 and trailing pointer.

For each circuit breaker/contactor/load break switch:

• Operation counter.

Remote indications and measurements


The Contractor shall provide the following remote indications and
measurements to the CCR through the DCS:

Indications/Signals
• Switchgear truck not available for operation (in test position or not run in
as a group signal)
• Earthing switch ON and OFF, each separate
• Circuit breaker contactor/load break switch/isolator ON and OFF, each
separate
• Circuit breaker contactor/load break switch tripped through fault
• Miniature circuit breaker tripped (as group signal)
• No control voltage (as group signal)
• Earth fault
• Protection activated (as group signal)
• No busbar voltage
• Voltage transformer mini circuit breaker tripped (as group signal).

B7-20
Measurements
• Current (4....20mA) in all the infeeds (3-phase) and outgoing feeders
(1-phase)
• Voltage (4....20mA) in all infeeds and in the measuring panel (busbar
voltage).

B7.3.2.3 Automatic high speed transfer equipment


A high speed transfer system from one incoming feeder to the other
incoming feeder shall be provided for 6.3 kV common auxiliary switchgear.
The voltage and time safety margin before motor trip on undervoltage shall
match the residual voltage transfer and the process requirements.

The high-speed transfer system shall be started as follows:


• Manually (local or remote through the DCS)
• Automatic by protection relays.
Each high-speed transfer system shall comprise following:
• Logical analyzer for all required control, interlocking and monitoring
functions
• Phase comparison device for continuously monitoring the phase angle,
frequency and voltage
• Test facilities for testing the complete transfer system up to the closing
and trip coil of the circuit breakers whilst the system is ready for
operation.

According to the electrical system the high-speed transfer system shall


operate as follows:
• High speed transfer - the opening and closing command issued at the
same time
• Residual voltage transfer - the individual circuit breaker will be closed at
a residual voltage adjustable between 20 and 50% of the rated voltage
• Long time transfer - the circuit breakers are closed after an adjustable
time which insures that the residual voltage is lower than at the residual
voltage transfer.

If in case of a high speed transfer, the relevant circuit breaker does not open,
e.g. due to mechanical failures, the already closed circuit breaker shall be
tripped within an adjustable time.

The transfer shall be blocked in the following cases:


• Short circuit on the relevant 6.3kV busbar
• Incoming circuit breaker not in service conditions (withdrawn, spring not
charged, etc.)
• MCB trip
• Voltage on the stand-by source is not available

B7-21
• If the feeding transformer will be overloaded.
Each high-speed transfer system shall be installed in free standing cubicles
with the required control and monitoring equipment on the front door (e.g.
remote heat selector switch, test push button, fault indicating light, etc.).
The control voltage shall be 220 V DC with double infeeds, diode
decoupling and voltage monitoring.

Synchro-check relays shall be provided to prevent the respective circuit


breakers from closing during synchronization while the plant's normal
supply and the diesel generator's supply are out of synchronization.

B7.3.3 Low voltage AC switchgear

B7.3.3.1 General
The 0.40 kV switchgear shall be designed as indoor switchgear installation
of sheet-steel-clad, bulkheaded type, in the plug-in principle.

The switchgear and the individual components shall comply with IEC
60439, IEC 60044, IEC 60186, IEC 60947 and BS5486 or equivalent
standards.

The switchgear shall be a type-tested assembly in accordance with IEC


60439-1.

The incoming feeders to the main distributions and outgoing feeders to sub-
distributions are to be equipped with motor-driven circuit breakers equal or
larger than 630A. All remaining outgoing feeders to the rectifiers and
inverters etc. shall be equipped with load break switches and fuses.

The copper busbars shall be equipped with an adequate number of earthing


studs.

B7.3.3.2 Switchgear components


The switchgear installations shall comprise at least:

• Steel-clad switchgear cubicles, bulkheaded design, the various


components are separated from one another.
• Single copper busbar system.
• Busbar earthing studs including earthing fittings.
• Cable paralleling arrangements with auxiliary busbar systems,
connecting bars for all incoming and outgoing feeders which require
more than two parallel cables.

B7-22
• Fireproof enclosures to the base of the switchgear panels for sealing the
outgoing power cables.
• Automatic change – over system for the main and sub-distributions.

The switchgear cubicles shall be fitted with the following main items of
equipment:

• Plug-in units with circuit breakers, load break switches and motor
contactors, including all necessary monitoring, measuring and control
equipment.
• Shutters on the fixed part of the cubicles which prevent accidental
contact with busbars or outgoing contacts when the plug-in unit is not in
the connected position
• Busbars safeguarded against accidental contact.
• Current transformers either fixed in the infeed panels or mounted on the
plug-in unit.
• Relay recess with the protection and monitoring relays, the complete
terminal strips, etc. in the infeed panel.
• Cable connection compartment with the necessary cable connecting
fittings safe against accidental contact.

Plug-in units
The switchgear shall be supplied with plug-in units which shall be equipped
essentially with the following units:

• Circuit breaker plug-in units with motor-driven stored-energy mechanism


with auxiliary relays, plug-and-socket control connections, electronic
protection relays, mini circuit breaker for monitoring and protection, and
possibly current transformers, etc.
• Motor plug-in units either with fuses and hand-operated load-break
switch or with motor protection switch, motor contactor, auxiliary relays,
coupling relays, plug-and-socket control connections, bimetallic trip,
control voltage mini circuit breaker, etc.
For feeders of 150 kW and more only circuit breakers shall be used.
• Position indications, signals, and the designation plate shall be
accommodated on the front panels of the plug-in units.
• Plug-in units with hand operated load-break switches and line-side fuses.
The hand operated drive for the load-break switches shall be arranged on
the front panels of the plug-in units.

Withdrawal or engagement of the plug-in units must only be possible with


the power circuit open. To meet this requirement a mechanical/electrical
interlocking shall be provided for each plug-in unit.

Each plug-in unit shall be equipped with a defined operating, test and
inspection position. In the test position the power contacts must be
separated, so that safe testing of the remote and local control system is
ensured. In the inspection position the control circuits must also be
interrupted.

B7-23
Current transformers
The thermal withstand capability of the instrument transformers shall be
based on a disconnection time of min. 0.5 sec. in the outgoing feeders to
consumers and min. 1.0 sec. in the infeeds.

Accuracy for measurement class 1.0 M 5


Accuracy for protection class 10 P 10

Cast-resin insulated, corona-free transformers shall be used. The current


transformers must withstand the dynamic and thermal short-circuit stresses.

Separate cores for protection and measurement shall be provided.

Current transformer terminals must be equipped with short-circuiting links.

Protection relay design


The relays shall be arranged for panel installation behind the doors or
windows of the individual plug-in units or integrated in the circuit breaker.
Indicating devices shall be provided which enable it to be seen when a relay
has operated without the need to open the door.

Each circuit breaker shall be equipped with a three-phase, overcurrent time


relay with continuously variable short-circuit trip.

All protection relays have to be selective. The Contractor may offer


additional protection devices if he sees them necessary.

Mimic diagram and local indications


On the front of the switchgear cubicle of each main distribution infeed a
colored mimic diagram shall be provided, with the necessary switch
position indicators, symbols and signal lamps, containing at least the
following items:

• Infeed busbar
• Infeed switch position
• Infeed earthing switch with position indicator
• Transformer symbol
• 0.40 kV switch position indicator together with the necessary actuating
elements
• 0.40 kV busbar.

Each plug-in unit shall be equipped with individual signal lamps or position
indicators, which show the following switching conditions locally:

• Switch unit of plug-in unit ON/OFF


• Plug-in unit not available (not engaged/test)
• Plug-in unit OFF - due to fault.
• Indication of test, service, isolated, tripped by protection, earthed.

Each infeed panel of the switchgears

B7-24
• No control voltage.

For each circuit breaker

• Breaker operations counter.

Control of the circuit breakers


The control of the circuit breakers shall be effected with 220V DC.

It must be possible for each circuit breaker to be operated locally by means


of pushbuttons CLOSE and OPEN.

If the control voltage fails, EMERGENCY-OPEN actuation of the switches


must be possible.

An anti-reclosing device that can only be overridden at the switchgear


cabinet itself shall be provided. It shall be activated when the circuit breaker
is tripped by its protection relay.

In each circuit breaker plug-in unit mini circuit breakers shall be provided
for:

• Local controls and interlocks


• Local signals and fault indications
• Local power supply to motor-driven stored energy mechanism.

Tripping of the mini circuit breakers shall be indicated locally.

The circuit breakers of the switchgear installations shall be remotely


controlled from the central control room through the DCS. Appropriate load
transfer features shall be provided between the infeeds/bus couplers.

Control of the Motor Plug-in Units


The control of the motor plug-in units shall be effected with 230 V AC.
The control voltage is made by suitable transformers 380/240 V for each
half-bar of main switchgear and distribution.

The monitored control voltage shall be permanently wired from plug-in unit
to plug-in unit so that in each main switchgear and distribution each half-bar
has a separate control voltage circuit. In each motor plug-in unit the control
voltage shall be protected by a mini circuit breaker, auxiliary changeover
contacts of these shall be wired for trip indication to the central control
room.

The motor plug-in units are to be remotely controlled from the central
control room. Therefore, two coupling relays (ON/OFF, OPEN/CLOSE)
are to be provided.

B7-25
The self-holding of the contactors for continuously running motors must be
provided in the plug-in units.

An undervoltage monitoring device for monitoring the busbar voltage


shall be provided in each distribution and each half-bar of the main
switchgear. The response value of the monitoring devices must be
adjustable from 50 - 100% voltage, the delay time shall be adjustable from
1 to 15 seconds. This device shall provide necessary input to the DCS
system specified in Section B8 for the defined disconnection from the
automatic control level of all respective low voltage motors in the case of
the failure of the busbar voltage.

The emergency consumers shall be reconnected after the emergency diesel


generator has been started and emergency power is available.

Local measuring instruments


For measuring instruments only square flush-mounting types class 1.5
shall be used.

As a minimum requirement the following local measurements shall be


provided:
• Three-phase current indication of all infeeds and outgoing feeds
(including bus couplers) which are equipped with circuit breakers
• Single-phase current indication on the plug-in units with hand operated
load-break switches and line-side HRC fuses for outgoing feeds of 250
A or more and to the rectifiers and the electronic change-over units of
Subsection "DC and safe AC systems and associated equipment"
• Single-phase current indication on the plug-in units for motors equal to
or greater than 75 kW
• Voltage indication with suitable 4-way voltmeter selector for
measurement of phase L1 - N, phase L2 - N, and on each busbar phase
L3 - N, phase L1 - L2 in all infeeds of the switchgear installations

Remote indications and measurements


The Contractor shall provide the following remote measurements and
signals to the CCR trough DCS.

Indications/signals
For each remote controlled plug- in unit:
• Plug-in unit not available (in test position or withdrawn)
• Switch unit of plug-in unit ON/OFF, each separate
• Plug-in unit faulty

For each main distribution half bar and each subdistribution:


• No control voltage (as group signal)
• Protection activated (as group signal)
• No busbar voltage.

B7-26
Remote measurements (all measurements single phase):
• Current (4...20 mA) in all infeeds and bus couplers equipped with circuit
breakers
• Current (4...20 mA) in all feeders equipped with circuit breakers
• Voltage (4...20 mA) in all infeeds equipped with circuit breakers and in
all infeeds of distributions.
• Current (4...20 mA) in all motor plug-in units > 75 kW.

B7.3.4 DC and Safe AC systems and associated equipment

B7.3.4.1 General
The main distributions are to be provided as indoor, steel-enclosed cubicles
and are to be furnished with fix mounted equipment

The rectifiers and inverters are to be arranged in sheet steel cubicles, which
are to be matched to the distribution cubicles in respect of height and other
dimensions.

The rectifiers and inverters shall be designed for operation with natural
cooling. If air-cooling is required, then 2 x 100% air fans with monitoring
and alarm signal must be provided.

Main distributions for 220 V DC shall comprise two busbar sections. A


dedicated 100% rectifier-charger unit shall feed each busbar section. One
100% battery shall be provided to be fed by one rectifier unit.

The cubicle groups of DC consumers are supplied from each bar via 2 x
100% cable connections, which are decoupled by diodes in the consumer
cubicles.

The 230 V, 50Hz safe AC shall comprise a single busbar distribution feeded
by a 1 x 100% inverter equipped with static bypass switch and a manual
bypass switch.

The outgoing circuits in the safe AC main distributions are to be equipped


with fuse- and load-break switches, fuses and contactors, mini-circuit
breakers, etc.
The individual cubicles are to be bulkheaded against one another by sheet
metal walls or equivalent material.

B7-27
B7.3.4.2 Switchgear (DC, safe AC)
The 220 V DC switchgear and the 230 V Safe AC switchgear shall be
designed as indoor switchgear of sheet-steel-clad type however with fixed
installed equipment.

The infeed switches of the main distributions are to be provided as load


breaker switches. The infeeds from the battery are to be taken via isolating
fuses (fuses shall be monitored).

All outgoing feeders from the main switchgear distribution to consumers are
to be equipped with monitored fuses and hand-operated load-break switches
or with MCB’s with auxiliary contacts, unless remote control is required,
where in this case, motor-operated circuit breakers shall be provided.

A voltmeter, an undervoltage relay and an overvoltage relay shall be


provided for each busbar.

The 220 V DC systems shall each be equipped with an earth fault and
insulation monitoring device.

The cable connections between rectifiers and/or batteries and/or busbars are
to be carried out with single-conductor cables.

Mimic diagram and local indications


Colored mimic diagrams are to be provided in each case on the front of the
infeed cubicles with the necessary switch position indications, device
symbols and alarm lamps.

The mimic diagram for the DC systems has to contain at least the following:

• 0.40 kV busbar of the main switchgear with position indication for the
load break switch for the rectifier supply
• Symbols for rectifier and battery
• Infeed circuit breakers with position indication and the necessary
operating elements
• DC main distribution busbar.

The mimic diagram for the safe AC system has to contain at least the
following:

• 0.38 kV switchgear with position indication for the 0.40 kV load


break switch
• 220 V DC main distribution with position indication for the outgoing
load break switch for the inverter
• Inverter and change-over device symbols with ON-OFF position
indication in each case and the necessary operating elements
• Safe AC distribution
• Frequency indicator.

B7-28
Control signalization and position indication of the direct current and safe
AC installation is to be provided also in the central control room through the
DCS.

Each unit shall be equipped with individual signal lamps and position
indications that show the following switching conditions locally:

• Switch unit ON/OFF


• Unit not available (not engaged/test)
• Unit OFF - due to fault.

The following signals shall be additionally provided in the infeed panels of


the switchgear:

• No control voltage 220 V DC


• No busbar voltage
• Ground fault (for the 220 V DC system only).

Circuit breakers shall be equipped with operation counters.

Control and signalization


The control of the circuit breakers and motor units shall be carried out as
described in clause "Low Voltage AC Switchgear".

Local auxiliary relays and measuring instruments


All infeeds to DC switchgears shall be equipped with ammeters.

For the rectifiers and inverters, the incoming and outgoing currents and
voltages are to be indicated separately. The busbar voltages of the main
220 V DC distributions are also to be indicated.

The current and voltage measurements for the 230 V Safe AC is


to be executed in the same way as for the 0.38 kV distributions in Section
"Low Voltage AC Switchgear".

Remote indications and measurements

The remote indications of the circuit breakers and motor unit shall be
carried out as described in Section "Low Voltage AC Switchgear".
The minimum scope of measurement transducers for measurement in the
central control room are:

• Battery current and voltage


• Current measuring transducers for all infeeds
• Voltage measuring transducers for each half busbar voltage.

B7-29
B7.3.4.3 Battery charging equipment
Each battery charger must be suitable for the charging and floating of the
nickel-cadmium battery and for supplying of all the DC consumers and the
inverters for the 230 V Safe AC system at the same time. Above
requirements shall also be applicable if the battery was drained prior to start
of charging.

The rectifiers are to be provided as thyristor controlled devices with current-


voltage characteristic for stand-by parallel operation with the associated
batteries.

The following technical features and monitoring equipment is to be


provided for the individual battery chargers:

• Radio interference suppression of the battery chargers according to the


appropriate IEC regulations
• Monitoring the charging circuit for interruption
• Voltage monitoring of the incoming three-phase supply, with an
overvoltage of + 15% and an undervoltage of - 15%, automatic
disconnection of the battery charger must occur
• Voltage monitoring of the DC output, with an overvoltage of + 15%,
automatic disconnection of the battery charger must occur.

All cases of disconnection must be indicated as a fault alarm in the front


door of the unit.

The local fault alarms and disconnections are to be combined as a common


alarm - rectifier fault - to the central control room (DCS).

The battery chargers are to be equipped with high rate charging stages that
can be set at 1.7 V/cell between 1 to 6 hours after input failure.

On the front of the rectifier cubicles, the Contractor has to provide all the
necessary monitoring equipment, measuring instruments, other devices,
switches, indicator lamps and corresponding fixings for the cables.

Alternatively the Contractor may offer an integrated numeric control device


(visible during normal operation through inspection window in front door),
which combines all functions.

B7.3.4.4 Batteries
For the DC Systems, the Contractor shall supply batteries of the Ni – Cd
type.

Battery main fuses in a separate fuse box to be provided. The battery fuses
shall be monitored.

B7-30
The intercell connections shall be fully insulated. Welded intercell
connections are not permitted.

The batteries are to be mounted on insulated subframes with the necessary


consoles and fixing material.

Each battery shall have the capacity to supply the load for a period of at
least one (1) hour.

B7.3.4.5 Inverter with electronic change-over equipment


In order to be able to maintain an uninterruptable supply in the event of grid
and generating failure, an inverter with automatic static bypass -over
equipment and manual bypass switch/facility is to be provided.

The static inverter must be suitable for 100% of the power requirement.

The following features and monitoring equipment is to be provided for the


AC inverter:

• Radio interference suppression according to the appropriate IEC


publications
• DC undervoltage monitoring
• AC overvoltage monitoring
• AC undervoltage monitoring.

On activation of the above devices, switch-over to power supply from the


AC bus shall occur; the fault is to be individually indicated locally.

The local fault alarms are to be combined as a common alarm - inverter


fault - to the central control room (DCS).

The inverter is to be protected on the input and output sides and is to be


equipped with the necessary isolating points. It must be possible to block
the inverter on the input side in the case of high rate battery charging or they
must be so designed that no damage will occur during this phase of
charging.

In case of operation in bypass mode backfeeding into the 220V DC system


shall not be possible.

On the front of the inverter cubicles, the Contractor has to provide all the
necessary monitoring equipment, measuring instruments, other devices,
switches, indicator lamps and corresponding fixings for the cables.

Alternatively the Contractor may offer an integrated numeric control device


(visible during normal operation through inspection window in front door),
which combines all functions.

B7-31
In the case of a short circuit at a consumer on the safe busbar, the voltage
tolerances shall not be exceeded.

Sizing of fuses and inverter output in case of short circuits shall be properly
coordinated and shall be fully selective under all operating conditions.

A static bypass switch is to be provided and shall enable automatic,


uninterrupted, synchronous switchover to the consumer busbar in the event
of total inverter failure or high voltage dip on the safe busbar.

Automatic and manual activation of the static bypass switch shall be


possible.

The change-over device provided shall be equipped with thyristor switches,


control electronics and a check-out system. The checkout system must make
it possible to test the correct functioning of the unit without disturbing the
operation of the consumers.

B7.3.4.6 DC/DC Converters (if applicable)


I&C cabinets and other consumers requiring 24 V DC supply will be
supplied from the 220 V DC system via 220 V/26 V DC/DC converters.

Each 26 V consumer will be supplied from 2 x 100% DC/DC converters


that are decoupled by diodes in the consumer cubicles. In case of a failure of
one of the converters, the remaining one shall be capable of supplying the
complete load without interruption and within the required voltage
tolerances.

The DC/DC converters shall be of modular design and shall be integrated


into sheet steel cabinets.

Local indicators
The following indications shall be provided locally:

• Input fuse monitoring (for each DC/DC converter)


• Undervoltage input
• Undervoltage/overvoltage output
• Output current and output voltage
• Overload

Signalization of fault signals shall also be provided at the central control


room (DCS).

B7-32
B7.3.5 Emergency AC power supply system

General
An emergency power supply shall be provided by emergency diesel
generator(s) as a complete package, which shall supply AC power to all
essential consumers of the plant in case of a blackout. After a defined
voltage drop of the 0.40 kV common auxiliary busbar the diesel generator(s)
shall cut in automatically and shall supply all essential loads so that the
required controlled shut down procedure of the plant can be carried out
without damaging any of the plant equipment.

In case of a complete blackout of the auxiliary power supply, the emergency


diesel generator set shall be sufficient to meet the electrical demand of:

• All consumers connected to the 0.40 kV "essential" distribution boards


required for safe shutdown of the plant
• Additionally 20% safety margin.
The diesel generators shall preferably be supplied in a container, fully
installed, workshop tested and ready for operation.

B7.3.5.1 Diesel engine and auxiliaries

General
The engine shall be water-cooled, with a closed circuit radiator and fan and
shall be equipped with an exhaust gas turbo-charger for indoor installation.
LFO shall be the common fuel.

A suitable electrical heating of the cooling water during standstill of the


diesel generator set shall be provided to allow for the specified starting time.

Electrical motor and battery with charger shall start the diesel engine. The
capacity of the battery shall be such as to ensure three consecutive starts of
the diesel engine within 10 minutes.

The diesel engine shall be directly coupled to the generator and both
installed together on a common base frame. Vibration absorbers shall be
used to prevent transmission of vibrations to the surrounding area.

Lubrication system
The engine and the generator shall be fully pressure-lubricated. The main oil
pump shall be gear-driven from the main shaft. Where necessary, a suitable
periodic lubrication equipment shall be provided to keep the engine in
readiness to start at any time.

Fuel supply and injection system


An integrated fuel meter shall be installed, suitably connected to the fuel
admission and return system, to measure the actual consumption of the
engine.

B7-33
For the supply of the diesel engine with fuel the Contractor shall provide a
daily tank of adequate capacity (only if required) and refilling from the LFO
common tank.

The Contractor shall provide all necessary means such as pumps, pipes,
filters etc. to accomplish the filling of the daily tank from the LFO common
tank.

The daily tank shall be fitted with visual level indicator and level alarm
devices for remote indication.

The suction of the extraction line shall be arranged at least 10 cm above the
daily tank bottom or otherwise suitably positioned in order not to take in
sludge or water which may have accumulated. Furthermore, a flame trap
shall protect the ventilation openings of the tank.

Air intake and exhaust system


The engine shall be fitted with an outdoor installed oil wetted air filter.

Temperature-resistant materials shall be used for the exhaust piping and the
required expansion bellows. Exhaust silencers shall be galvanized.
Expansion joints in the exhaust pipe shall be made of metal.

Flexible connections to the air intake duct, exhaust line and all other
external pipework shall be provided.

B7.3.5.2 Control and monitoring equipment


The engine shall be equipped with all necessary local switches and control
equipment for starting, stopping and speed variations etc.

Start-up and shutdown of the set shall be possible from the local control
board and from the central control room through the DCS.

The set shall start-up automatically to the required load when the normal
busbar voltage (400 V AC) fails.

Only overspeed sensing element and shutdown mechanism separate from


the regular governor apparatus and governor drive shall be accepted. The
overspeed trip shall act on the injection pump independent of the governor
link and shall remain operative even if the governor would accidentally be
disconnected.

The following control, indication and alarm equipment shall be provided as


a minimum on the local control board:

• Level indication of the fuel tank with alarm at 20%


• Pressure indication of the lube oil with low pressure alarm and trip
signals
• Temperature indication of the bearings with high temperature alarm

B7-34
• Temperature alarms of the generator winding
• Emergency diesel generating set in operation (indication)
• Generator overload alarm
• Operating hour meter and start-up counter
• Speed indication with alarm and trip signals
• Generator voltage, current, frequency, active and reactive power
indication
• Automatic synchronizing equipment
• Manual synchronizing equipment such as double voltmeter, double
frequency meter, synchronoscope, etc.
• Manual/automatic synchronizing selector switch
• Start/stop push buttons
• Manual/automatic voltage regulator selector switch
• Switches for manual adjustment of generator voltage
• Generator circuit breaker ON/OFF control switch and indication
• Generator protection relays activation (individual alarm and trip signals
per each protection relay)
• Other alarm and trip signals.

Alarms shall be annunciated individually on the local annunciator unit on


the local control board and remotely in the central control room as a group
alarms.

After starting of the emergency diesel generator the emergency consumers


shall be connected to their switchgears in groups by the DCS.

B7.3.5.3 Diesel Generator


The generator shall be air-cooled with forced ventilation and shall comply
with IEC 60034.

A heater shall be provided to protect the generator against humidity during


stand-still (automatically initiated when the set is being out of service).

The generator winding insulation shall be according to class F. The


temperature rise, however, at rated load shall not exceed the figures for class
B insulation.

Six Pt 100 temperature sensors shall be provided within the stator windings,
wired to terminal boxes.

The generator shall tolerate the sudden application or rejection of 50% of its
rated power without unacceptably high voltage fluctuations in excess of
± 5%.

A static or brushless rotating diode rectifier excitation system shall be


provided. The rotating diodes shall be easily accessible for maintenance.

B7-35
A solid state type voltage regulator with automatic and manual control to
control the set within a deviation of ± 0.5% from no-load to full load at
rated frequency, shall be provided.

The diesel generator set shall be equipped with automatic synchronizing


device for parallel operation with the grid. This is for testing the engine
from time to time in the load condition and for switch-over to the normal
grid after an emergency operation of the diesel generator sets.
The protection relays of the digital type, as indicated below, shall be
regarded as the minimum scope, but shall not be limited to the following:

• Voltage controlled inverse time overcurrent protection


• Reverse power protection
• Overvoltage protection
• Overtemperature protection (stator windings)
• Overcurrent protection
• Overload protection.

B7.3.6 Cables and cable supporting structures

B7.3.6.1 Cables
The detailed requirements for power, control and measuring cable detailed
in Section B0 "General Technical Requirements" are to be regarded as basic
reference for this specification.

In addition, direct buried cables shall be of armoured type.

As much as possible, cables should be laid in overhead trays and in


exclusive structures, not along with pipes.

The cables shall be manufactured in accordance with IEC Standards, shall


be reliable and maintenance free.

B7.3.6.2 Cable supporting structures


The requirements for cable trays, cable risers, hanger rods, screws, clamps
and all fixing material, etc, detailed in Section B0 "General Technical
Requirements" are to be regarded as basic reference for this specification.

B7-36
B7.3.6.3 Terminal boxes and local control boxes
The requirements for local control and level control cabinets or boxes,
terminal boxes and cabinets are detailed in Section B0 "General Technical
Requirements" are to be regarded as basic reference for this specification.

B7.3.7 Lighting and small power installations

B7.3.7.1 Lighting system


General
For protection against contact with live components, all lighting fixtures
must be suitable for the following protection measures:

• Protective conductor connection, or


• Protective insulation
And must visibly carry the accepted symbol to indicate this.

In plant areas subject to danger of explosion the necessary explosion-proof


lighting fittings, cable connection boxes and pushbuttons are to be used.

The external and internal lighting is to be designed so that the lighting


illumination intensities as stated in the data sheets "Performance and Design
Data" shall be achieved.

The lighting intensities stipulated shall be verified both by calculation and


measurement.

Lighting subdistribution units


Metal-clad or plastic-clad subdistribution units suitable for flush or surface
mounting on the walls are to be provided. Each lighting subdistribution unit
must at least be equipped with:

• Manual feed-in change-over switches with I - 0 - II positions


• One ammeter in the feed-in system
• One voltmeter with 4-way change-over switch for measurements
between the individual phases and the neutral conductor and between two
phases to detect the busbar voltage
• 5 busbars for 3-phase system, neutral and earth
• The necessary MCBs for lighting circuits and control
• The necessary MCBs for domestic power outlets (sockets)
• The necessary current relays and contactors for pushbutton energizing,
de-energizing of lighting circuits
• The necessary daylight-controlled switching circuits for automatic
control of external lighting circuits in open-air installations and housed
areas exposed to direct daylight. The adjusting range of the daylight-
controlled switching circuits must be from 2 to 100 Lux.

B7-37
For indoor and outdoor lighting and for the emergency lighting separate
lighting distribution units shall be provided (i.e. separation of power
sources).

The lighting subdistribution units are to be designed so that after handing


over a complete 20 per cent spare space is still available.

External lighting
Cables with a cross-section of at least 2.5 mm² are to be laid as lighting
cable for fluorescent lamps.

The lights must be connected in a 3-phase circuit, so that in the event of


failure of one phase only each third lamp will fail. A 5-core power copper
cable with a minimum cross-section of 6 mm² is to be laid as lighting cable
for metal-vapor lamps.

Control of external lighting shall be effected automatically with daylight-


controlled switching circuits. For each lighting subdistribution unit of
external lighting purposes there must be provided one separate daylight-
controlled switching circuit.

The street lighting fittings are to be installed as totally enclosed anti-glare


column-top luminaries cut-off type angled at 15° to the horizontal with a
light source height and a light source spacing according to the required
minimum lighting intensity.

The housing of the lighting fitting, which is subdivided into a lamp


compartment and an auxiliary gear compartment, shall be fitted with
metal-vapor lamps of ellipsoidal or tubular shape.

The electrical components housed in the auxiliary gear compartment, such


as p.f. correction capacitors, stabilizing impedance, starter and suppressors
are to be mounted jointly on an insulating board capable of being swung
out, fixed in position and removed for maintenance purposes. Each lighting
column must contain the necessary internal wiring (3 x 2.5 mm² copper,
PVC) from each lighting fitting on the top of the lighting column to the
connection compartment above the ground.

For safety reasons the lamp housing shall be provided with a door switch to
disconnect the starter voltage on opening the fitting.

The p.f. correction equipment of the lighting fitting must achieve a power
factor of no less than 0.9.

Suitable starters are to be provided for the halogen lamps, so that hot lamps
can be restarted immediately or at any time during the cooling stage.

B7-38
The specular reflectors mounted in the lamp compartment shall be provided
with facilities for adjusting the focusing of the lamp in two perpendicular
axes.

For the external lighting installation, one-piece steel columns with


continuous taper and welded-on steel mounting plate are to be used.

The corrosion protection of the lighting columns shall be executed by hot-


dip galvanizing on the inner and outer faces.

The lighting columns are to be provided with the following equipment as


the minimum:

• Cable entry hole in the flange plate


• Cable connection compartment above ground, with welded-on mounting
bar including fixing screws for attachment of the lighting column boxes
• Lighting column connection boxes. These are to be made of
thermoplastic material with transparent cover, fitted with fuse base and
fuse, also connecting terminals for low voltage cables to a maximum of
three cables each 4 x 6 mm², including cable glands
• PVC copper cable 3 x 2.5 mm² between the lighting column connection
boxes and each lighting fitting
• Earthing screws with suitable bimetallic feature are to be provided for
attaching the lead-coated copper conductor of the earthing system
• Column top lighting fittings (one, two or four lighting fittings on one
lighting column according to the requirements) with halogen lamp.

Suitable column foundations are to be provided.

Aircraft warning lights


Aircraft warning lights shall be in accordance with ICAO and local
regulations.

Internal lighting
For rooms, either in the power station or surrounding buildings, where a
headroom of more than 7 m exists lighting fixtures must be provided with
3-phase terminals and compensated halogen lamps.

In the rooms with a headroom below 7 m fluorescent lamps with 3-phase


terminals must be provided. The p.f. correction equipment of the fluorescent
lamps must achieve a power factor not less than 0.9. The lighting fixtures
are to be selected so that they can be used for single or strip lighting.

In the central control room, office rooms, corridors to the office rooms,
kitchens, tea rooms, conference rooms, shower and wash rooms, laboratory
rooms and toilet rooms etc. flush-mounted fluorescent tube fittings are to be
provided.

To make it easier to keep stocks of spares, fluorescent lamps of e.g.


1 x 58 W are to be generally used. The halogen lighting fittings are to be

B7-39
fitted uniformly with halogen lamps of e.g. 1 x 250 W or 1 x 400 W or
1 x 700 W.

Internal lights are basically to be connected in 3-phase circuits, so that in the


event of failure of one phase only every third lamp will fail. A maximum of
15 lights per circuit may be connected to one phase.

The room lights shall generally be controlled via current relays for
pushbutton energizing/de-energizing of lighting circuits. The pushbuttons
are to be arranged by the access doors to the particular rooms concerned.
Single lighting fittings can be controlled also with a switch.

The lighting installation cables and fixtures in the central control room,
office rooms, corridors to the office rooms, kitchens, tea rooms, laboratory
rooms, toilets etc. will be concealed. In the other rooms the installation
shall be surface-mounted.

Domestic power outlets (sockets)


In rooms such as offices, central control room, tearooms, corridors to the
office rooms, laboratory rooms, kitchen etc. the domestic power outlets
(sockets) are to be provided in adequate quantity concealed mounted. In the
other rooms the installation shall be surface-mounted. The power outlets
must be 16 A, 3-pole type, i.e. phase, neutral and earth.

At least one power outlet is to be provided below each light switch. In the
offices and laboratory rooms two power outlets are to be fitted on the walls
at intervals not exceeding 3 m. In the case of open plan desk arrangements
two power outlets are to be provided on the floor adjacent to each desk.

In the corridors, relay room and tearooms one power outlet must be
arranged every 10 m. In the central control room, in each kitchen and
shower and wash room six power outlets must be provided. The power
outlets in the shower and washing room must have covers. In each toilet
room two power outlets (sockets) and one electric hand dryer, at least
1500 W, must be provided.

Generally plastic-insulated power outlets for 230 V AC are to be provided


in accordance with the relevant local standards.

The power outlets (sockets) shall be supplied via the single-pole MCB's of
the lighting distribution units via three-core cables. Not more than five
power outlets (sockets) may be supplied from one circuit.

Emergency lighting
This section deals with the emergency and panic lighting throughout the
rooms in the power station and in the outside installation.

The emergency lighting shall be supplied via the required emergency


lighting distributions from the 220 V DC system.

B7-40
Separate emergency lighting distributions must be allocated for the power
station unit and their associated external building.

Suitable fault signaling is to be provided on each emergency lighting


distribution and in the central control room.

With the exception of the central control room, the emergency lighting
is to be provided as purely escape route lighting. In all rooms at least one
emergency light must be visible from every point. In the worst case the
lighting density must be 1 Lux minimum on the centerline of the escape
routes. In the central control room part of the ceiling lighting is to be
supplied from the emergency lighting distribution, so that in the central
control room the service lighting density of a minimum of 200 Lux will still
be guaranteed.

The emergency lights are to be provided in the necessary number at least in


entrances, corridors, staircases, control room, offices, machine hall,
switchgear rooms, etc.

In addition, safety "EXIT" lights are to be provided at all building exits and
escape routes which are switched on together with the emergency lights in
the event of failure of the main power supply.
The safety lights must comprise a flame-resistant plastic casing for flush-
mounting, with a transparent, green, plastic cover and white lettering,
in protection type IP 54, equipped with bulb, reflector, cable connection
terminals etc.
In all the buildings only the color green may be used to identify the escape
routes.

B7.3.7.2 Power socket combinations


The power sockets are intended for the plug-in connection of mobile
electrical equipment for repairs or maintenance of any kind, and the mobile
electrical equipment must be fitted with the necessary three-phase sockets.

Generally, different power sockets are to be used, with stainless steel or


aluminum metal casings resistant to impact, sand, direct sun, etc. and
suitable for service wall mounting in accordance with IEC 60309.
The operational side of the power sockets are to be equipped with a
protection cover. All the sockets shall be of outdoor type and suitable for
indoor installation as well as outdoor installation and shall operate
satisfactorily under direct sunlight.

The Contractor shall supply and install power socket outlets complete with
matching plugs at strategic points located on a nominal 50 meter grid so that
all parts of the plant supplied can be reached using a maximum cable length
of 35 meters indoors and not more than 75 m outdoors.

B7-41
The Contractor shall supply and install and test all power outlets, conduit,
trunking and accessories to form a complete power installation.

These outlets shall be:


• 125 A, 400 V AC 3-phase, neutral and earth IEC 60309 socket outlets for
oil-filled transformer bay areas for connection to mobile oil purification
plant and other areas where similar mobile equipment will be required.
• 63A, 400 V AC 3-phase, neutral and earth IEC 60309 socket outlets in
all plant areas for connection to portable welding equipment
• 32A, 4000 V AC 3-phase, neutral and earth IEC 60309 socket outlets in
all plant areas for connection to portable welding equipment
• 16A, 230 V AC 1-phase-neutral and earth IEC 60309 socket outlets, at
least two.

They shall incorporate a load disconnector switch and a residual current


protection device rated at 30 mA including MCB.

The socket outlets shall be metal-clad to IPW 55, weatherproof and


incorporate spring-return flap cover.

The plug and socket shall be interlocked such that the unit cannot be
switched on until the matching plug is fully inserted, nor can the plug be
withdrawn with the switch closed.

Each unit shall be provided with the following:


• Facility for incoming supply cable looping, and
• Provision for padlocking the switch in the off position.
All sockets installed in the plant areas and workshops shall be of the
industrial type. The contractor shall supply matching plugs for all types. The
quantity of matching plugs shall be equal to the number of plugs + 20 %.

Installation and/or samples of all socket outlets and plugs which the
Contractor proposes to purchase shall be submitted to the Owner approval
before using any suborders.

B7.3.7.3 Portable isolating transformers


The contractor shall supply fifteen (15) portable safety transformers for
handlamps and small tools and fourty (40) handlamps, each with 30 m
extension cable. All handlamps shall be rated for 24 V AC service. The
transformation ratio shall be 240/24 V single-phase and the rated output 500
VA.

Transformers shall be of heavy-duty construction with encapsulated


windings, enclosed in a steel case. The steel case shall incorporate two
metal-clad 24 V socket outlets to IEC 60309. An extension lead of 15 m
shall be connected to the transformer unit complete with a plug for the
240 V supply.

B7-42
The 24 V windings shall be fully insulated from the 240 V primary winding,
the core and case of the transformer unit.

B7.3.8 Grounding and lightning protection installations

B7.3.8.1 Material
Earthing material
Lead-coated stranded copper conductor is to be used as earth conductor for
laying in the ground. The lead sheath must be at least 1 mm thick.
Galvanized steel bars and/or tinned stranded copper conductor shall be used
for the internal earthing ring inside the buildings, on cable trays and for the
earthing of HV motors, steel frames, etc. The earthing conductor inside the
concrete should be reinforcement bar (round iron) with a diameter of at least
15 mm. The connection material between this earthing conductor and the
internal earthing ring must be flexible PVC single-core cables.

The connection between the earthing ring inside the buildings and the
outdoor earthing ring (laying through the concrete wall) must be provided
with PVC sheathed stranded copper.

Lightning protection material


In case of buildings with steel structures and sheet steel cladding, the steel
columns and the sheet steel cladding shall be used as lightning conductor.
In case of buildings with concrete structure, galvanized round steel
embedded in the concrete columns shall be used as lightning conductor.
In case of masonry buildings, external lightning conductors made of
stainless steel shall be used. Lightning arrestors (arrestor tips and roof
conductors) shall also be made of stainless steel rods. The conductor
supports of the lightning protection system must be copper or bronze.
Nuts and bolts at isolating or other points which are to remain detachable
must be made of copper-nickel-silicon-bronze.

B7.3.8.2 Earthing system


Installations up to 1000 V shall be made safe by protective multiple
earthing, whereas for those above 1000 V protective earthing shall be used.
Both methods are intended to prevent the occurrence of excessive touch
potentials on conducting parts of the installation which are not part of the
electrical circuit.

The earthing installations shall be designed and constructed in accordance


with approved standards.

Generally, underneath the power station and switchgear buildings a grid


earth of lead-sheathed stranded copper cable must be installed.

B7-43
The Contractor must choose the size of the stranded copper conductor and
the size of mesh according to the maximum occurring earth currents.

The size of the stranded copper conductors used must be uniform


throughout the area under Contract as far as possible. For controlling the
potential and for protection against excessive contact-potentials, encircling
ring earths of lead-sheathed stranded copper cable must be laid at a distance
of 1 m and a depth of 0.7 m around the power station buildings and be
connected to the grid earth conductors.

Inside the power station buildings encircling, galvanized steel strips must be
installed on the walls. From the inner earthing ring the connections to the
switchgear, high voltage motors, cable trays, vertical cable runs, steelwork,
etc. are to be made using tinned stranded copper conductor. All the
electrical equipment, frames and mechanical apparatus must be fitted with
earthing screws and studs.

The copper conductors can be laid and fixed on the cable trays and vertical
runs for AC power cables. Where this is not possible, earthing conductor
supports are to be provided.

The earthing rings in the power station building (switchgear, turbine hall,
water treatment, etc.) are to be connected to one another.

The cable trays and vertical runs are to be connected to a separate earthing
conductor at intervals of 20 m max. in such a way as to give good
connection. This earthing conductor must likewise be connected to the
earthing ring.

Inside the concrete of buildings must be provided a separate round iron


(reinforcement bar) mesh in walls and ceilings for earthing purposes.
The size of this mesh should not exceed 10 m x 8 m. This earthing
reinforcement bar should be connected electrically by welding or
compression connectors. In the basement of the building the earthing
reinforcement shall be connected with a flexible PVC single-core cable.
The flexible PVC single-core cable ends must be led out of the concrete on
each building column and are to be connected with the bare copper strips of
the inside earthing ring.

At a maximum distance of 20 m the inside earthing ring of the buildings


must be connected with the outdoor earthing system. These connections
must be provided with flexible PVC single-core cables which are to be laid
through the concrete walls above the ground water level.

In buildings without a basement the internal earthing ring is to be connected


to the outer earthing ring at maximum intervals of 20 m.

The crossing-point connections of the earthing cables underneath the


buildings and outside the buildings must be made by compression
connectors. Connections by Cadweld system will also be acceptable.

B7-44
All other earthing conductor connections and junctions must be made in the
same way to ensure secure, lasting connections having good contact.

In the case of installations without an earthing ring above ground


(e.g. boilers), all parts to be earthed are to be connected to the earthing ring
which must be laid 1 m away from the foundations at a depth of 0.7 m.

The earthing installations of all the power station buildings must be


interconnected with lead-sheathed stranded copper cables.

The lighting columns of the external lighting system are to be connected


with separate lead-coated copper conductors to the earthing grid.

The generator housing is to be connected at two points to the earthing ring


according to the requirements.

The star points on the HV-side of the generator transformers must be


connected to the central earthing installation where they are earthed directly.
Also, the protective and neutral conductors to the electrical apparatus,
the frames of the latter and the lightning installations for all the buildings,
stacks, fuel depots, etc. must be connected to the central earthing
installation.

B7.3.8.3 Lightning protection system


For the planning, dimensioning and construction of the lightning protection
system, the information given in the VDE 0185 "Lightning Protection and
General Lightning Protection Regulations”, BS 6651 or approved equivalent
standards are valid.

All buildings and structures are to be protected against lightning strikes by


means of lightning collectors and conductors. The collectors are to be
arranged in such a way that, as far as possible they collect all lightning
strokes without these directly striking the parts to be protected. This
condition is considered to have been fulfilled if no point on the roof surface
is more than 5 m away from a collector. Collector lines suffice as collectors,
e.g. along the ridge and at gables and eaves.

Ridge conductors must be taken right to the end of the ridge. Moreover roof
conductors should run as natural continuations of all main conductors.
Conductors at the gable extremities or eaves must be laid in the closest
possible proximity thereto. In the case of steel-framed structures the ridge
conductors must be connected to the roof supporting structure at least every
20 m. Lower level annexes are also to be provided with collectors.
Roof lines and other conductors are to be laid and fixed in such a way that
they can withstand the stresses expected from storms, lightning strokes, roof
work etc.

One main conductor between the lightning collectors mounted on the top of
the building and the potential grading ring laid in the ground is to be

B7-45
provided every 20 m of the before-mentioned lightning collector. The max.
spacing between conductor fixings may not exceed 1 m for horizontal runs
and 1.2 m for vertical runs.

All main and secondary conductors which are connected to an earthing


conductor must be provided with an accessible isolating point in order to be
able to measure the earth resistance. All isolating points must be numbered
consecutively in the drawings and at the buildings.

Nuts and bolts at isolating or other points, which are to remain detachable,
must be made of copper-nickel-silicon-bronze.

All main and secondary conductors are to be connected, using compression


connectors, to the earthing ring running around the buildings and tanks at a
distance of 1 m and a depth of 0.7 m. At the connection points the copper
conductor and the round copper rod must be stripped of the lead sheath.
The connection points are to be protected against corrosion by wrappings or
bitumen.

B7.3.9 Fire alarm system

General
The purpose of the fire alarm system is to guarantee a reliable and fault-free
early-warning system in the event of fire by means of automatically
activated detectors, so that orders for extinguishing the fire can be issued
from a central point.

The fire alarm system shall be designed in accordance with the relevant
NFPA guidelines, and shall conform to the latest state-of-the-art in the field
of fire alarm system engineering.

Push-button actuation must be provided for manually operated fire alarms in


staircases, next by exits and on all escape routes.

Sirens for indoor and outdoor installation must be provided for warning the
operating personnel.

In the central control room the necessary automatic fire detectors are to be
incorporated in the luminous ceiling.

The whole of the plant area to be monitored is to be divided into individual


alarm sections, the latter being so arranged as to enable rapid and positive
identification of fires.

Detectors installed in false floors, suspended ceilings, cable ducts, air-


conditioning or ventilation systems are also to be combined to form separate
alarm sections.

B7-46
Detectors belonging to a particular alarm section are to be incorporated in
alarm lines, the automatic and manual fire alarms being connected via
separate alarm lines to the common fire alarm central station in the central
control room.

The arrangement and number of detectors is determined by the type of fire


detector used, by the room configuration (size, height, form of floor and
roofing, etc.) as well as by the ambient conditions in the rooms to be
monitored.

Detectors installed in inaccessible points such as cable ducts, false floors,


cable basements, etc. are to be connected in parallel to external optical
alarm indicators installed close by and in readily visible positions.

No restrictions on the proper functioning of fire alarm by reason of


movement of air, optical radiation, smoke, dust, vibration, high humidity,
etc. are acceptable. Moreover, fire alarms shall be located in the outgoing
airflows of air-conditioning and ventilation systems.

The alarm signal receiving units must be so designed that by use of a


standardized alarm unit socket, any of the types of detector may be used
with equal facility on any of the fire alarm circuits.

The fire alarm central station must be housed in sheet-steel enclosed


cabinets and located in the central control room or nearby in an appropriate
location. Both optical and audible signals must be given when a fire alarm
or fault alarm occurs.

Power supply for the fire alarm system shall be taken from the safe
AC busbar, emergency supply shall be maintained by a rectifier/battery set
(1 (one) x 100%), designed for 4 (four) hours discharge time.

Fire alarm central station


The fire alarm central station is to be implemented in all-electronic
technology using plug-in units and assemblies on the modular construction
principle, and shall be accommodated in metal-clad enclosed panels with
type IP 31 enclosure for wall-mounted/free standing installation.

The arrangement and functioning of the fire alarm central station shall be
such as to permit as a minimum the following:

• The fire alarm and fault annunciation system shall be designed with
optical and audible alarms. Whereas the audible alarm must be resettable,
the optical indication shall persist until the annunciation is finally
extinguished or the fault cleared. If a fault warning is followed by a fire
alarm annunciation, the fault indication must be stored and suppressed
until the fire alarm condition has been cancelled.
Provision shall be made for clear audible identification of the alarm/fault
signal. Furthermore, fire alarm signals and fault signals shall be strictly
segregated.

B7-47
• An automatic fire alarm signal shall be transmitted externally to the
central control room or to the local fire brigade via a main alarm unit.
The alarm line to the fire brigade shall be continuously monitored.
• The individual fire alarm lines and function lines of the fire-fighting
equipment and facilities, as well as important functional groups of the
fire alarm central station shall be continuously monitored for faults and
breakdowns e.g. for
• wire breakage of each alarm line
• short-circuit of each alarm line
• earth fault of the fire alarm system
• power supply system faulty
• main fuses and MCB's failure
• alarm modules disconnected from plug-in frame.

All fault signals shall be optically and audibly indicated.

• For checking out the functioning of the complete fire alarm system
including the fire alarm lines and fire alarm devices, testing facilities
shall be provided. When testing a circuit, initiation of fire alarm warnings
in external facilities shall be prevented. After testing, the tested circuit
shall automatically reset to normal operation.
Simulation (e.g. test pins) of all relevant fault signals as listed above as
well as of all fire alarms shall be possible in order to check-out the
externally connected fire fighting facilities.
• The fire alarm central station shall be provided with potential-free
change-over contacts wired to a central terminal board as follows:
• contacts to control the fire protection doors
• contacts to control the air-conditioning and ventilation equipment
• contacts for spare.

Activation of fire protection doors shall be signaled as a group annunciation


to the fire alarm central station and included in the alarm annunciation
system.

For recording all fire alarm and fault annunciations, control instructions and
operator actions, a line printer shall be provided and this shall have facilities
for printing out the alarm line number, date and time of day in hours and
minutes.

Layout Display Board


For indicating fire alarm and fault annunciations from the fire alarm system,
a layout display board has to be provided in the panel in the central control
room. This board shall include a graphic display to show a simplified
ground plan of the power plant and of the individual buildings and shall
feature signal lamps for the separate optical indication of the alarm line, and
shall include the annunciator with alarm test, reset and acknowledge
buttons.

Preferably a separate monitor with appropriate graphics etc. shall be


supplied.

B7-48
Display board at gate house
For information and guidance of fire brigade a simplified graphic display
board shall be installed in the power plant gate house.

Detection systems
The fire detector system elements and the associated mountings are to be
provided with sturdy, corrosion-proof plastic housings.

The fire alarm detectors are to be provided with optical means for signaling
their activation (e.g. light-emitting diode), and are to be suitable for the
connection of an additional optical external alarm indication.

The fire alarm detectors shall reset ready for operation following each
alarm, without outside intervention, and shall plug-in and be provided with
suitable means to prevent unauthorized removal or disconnection and for
connection to the fire alarm central station.

The following detector types as a minimum shall be used for fulfilling the
requirements for the power plant as a whole:

Ionization detectors
For the early identification of visible and invisible fire aerosols, consisting
of ionization chamber, alarm electronics, optical alarm indication, response
delay presettable to suit ambient conditions, detector socket, variable
response sensitivity.
Optical smoke detector
For early identification of visible smoke generation, consisting of
photoelectric unit, alarm electronics, optical alarm indication, detector
socket.
Flame detector
For early identification of fire outbreaks and open flames, flame detectors
shall be provided consisting of optical unit, alarm electronics, optical alarm
indication, detector socket and variable response sensitivity.
Thermo-differential and thermo-maximum detector
For early identification of fires as they break out with rapid temperature rise
and little smoke generation, detectors shall be provided consisting of
temperature sensor, alarm electronics, detector socket.
Manually operated push buttons
Consisting of push-button, only operable after smashing the replaceable
glass window fitted in the housing, painted red, interlocking mechanism, to
be reset by key,
Sirens
The protection degree of the sirens for indoor and outdoor installation must
be at least IP 54. The outdoor sirens are to be arranged on the boiler houses,
transformer area, tank farm etc. The arrangement of the indoor sirens must
meet the requirements at site for satisfactory warning of the operating
personnel, e.g. mounting in the turbine hall, pipe ducts etc. The control of
the sirens shall be performed automatically by the fire alarm system, but
manual operation from the central control room must also be possible.

B7-49
B7.4 Technical Schedules
The following technical schedules comprise part of this specification. The
data and requirements specified in the respective forms are to be adhered to
and the missing data of forms are to be completely filled in. The completed
technical schedules are to be submitted with the Bid:

B7/FB Performance and Design Criteria


B7/FD Technical Data by Bidder

B7-50