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Unit 1 Communication Foundation


Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between or among
individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, and behavior. As a process,
communicating has synonyms such as expressing feelings, conversing, speaking, corresponding,
writing, listening, and exchanging.

We communicate to satisfy needs in both our work and non-work lives. We want to be
heard, to be appreciated, and to be wanted. We also want to accomplish tasks and to achieve
goals. The major purpose of communication is to help people feel good about themselves and
their friends, groups, and organizations.

We communicate through verbal and nonverbal messages. Verbal means "through the use
of words," either written or oral. Nonverbal means "without the use of words." We
constantly send nonverbal messages through body motions, appearance, aromas, clothing,
uniforms, facial expressions, jewelry, automobiles, and a variety of other symbols, signs, and


Behavioral scientists were putting together a theory of human communication from
accumulated research. This general theory has much in common with the work of the
information theorists. Even though one was concerned with machine-to-machine
communication and the other with people-to-people communication, both groups were talking
and writing about a similar process. The process is presented in simplified form as below:
Communication process

source Transmit Channel Receiver Destination


Introduction to Business English 1 Chapter 1: Communication

Many problems from communication mishaps are caused by a lack of understanding of
human behavior. Continued research in psychology, sociology, and anthropology contributes
to our understanding of human behavior and helps us to apply its principles to communication
psychology. Psychologists study individual behavior; sociologists, group behavior; anthropolo-
gists, cultural behavior. Their studies provide us with theories that are useful in understanding
human behavior. However, we must remember that theories are useful only to understand how
and why most people behave as they do — there are always exceptions.

As communicators, we must recognize that all human beings have certain needs at certain
times. These needs determine our behavior and the goals we set for ourselves. A successful
communicator speaks and writes with the receiver’s needs in mind at all time.

According to Abraham H. Maslow ( Motivation and Personality, 2nd ed., Harper & Row,
New York, 1970), a famous psychologist, most people will respond positively to messages that
will meet their particular needs at particular times. Maslow uses five classifications to describe
the hierarchy of human needs. These classifications are illustrated below:

Maslow's hierarchy of human needs

5 Stage 5 - The Need to Help Others and to Be Creative

4 Stage 4 - The Need to Be "Somebody"

Stage 3 - The Need to Belong
Stage 2 - Safety and Security Needs
Stage 1 - Basic Physical Needs

Stage 1 Basic Physical Needs 基本的生理需求

We need basic things as food, shelter, and clothes, before we can turn our attention to other
things. These are our physical needs. Until these needs are reasonably well met, we think of
little else.

Stage 2 Safety and Security Needs 安全感

Next, we think about keeping ourselves free from physical harm or mental abuse. Most of
us try to avoid situations that could cause us physical harm or people that threaten our peace of
The first two stages represent lower-level needs. Once we have met these needs, we can
turn our attention to our upper-level needs.

Introduction to Business English 2 Chapter 1: Communication

Stage 3 The Need to Belong 歸屬感
Most of us want to feel that we are part of a group. During our teen years, we place great
importance on being "one of the gang." Our families also provide us with a sense of belonging.
When we finally go to work full time, we will want to have friends and enjoy being with our

Stage 4 The Need to Be "Somebody" 自我實現

Once we have met the needs of Stage 3, feeling comfortable in the society in which we live,
most of us want to feel that we are good at doing something. If we are good at swimming or
bowling or some of our school subjects, we feel very pleased with the recognition we receive.
We feel that we are "somebody." We have met the needs of our ego.

Stage 5 The Need to Help Others and to Be Creative 好善樂施、造福人群

If we are reasonably able to meet all the previous needs, we seem to lose our anxieties and
fears. Two things then happen: (1) we are more willing to help people who are still striving to
meet their physical, safety, and security needs; and (2) we become more creative, and creative
people improve the quality of life for us all.


Modern technology makes it possible to send oral and written messages around the world in
just a matter of seconds. Computers and electronic transmission systems have enabled business
and government to speed up and improve the communication process. As a result,
communicators today must be able to apply communication psychology as well as use communi-
cation technology to develop their oral and written messages.

Data, voice, and graphic networks supply the technology for rapid communication and
decision making. These networks are composed of computer-based systems that "talk" to each
other so that voices, images, and written data can be transmitted electronically, simultaneously,
and instantaneously.

Computer communication is and will continue to be an essential factor in information

exchange. Almost all kinds of computer-based equipment — word processors, microcomputers,
minicomputers, mainframes, and mainframe terminals — are capable of exchanging messages.
Those computers that are linked together and are able to communicate with one another are
components of a network.

Business communication is especially prone to misunderstandings, because the message is

complex, conditions are difficult, and psychological and social differences often separate the
sender and receiver. To overcome communication barriers, think about our audience, let them
know what to expect, use vivid language, stick to the point, connect new ideas to familiar ones,
emphasize and review key points, minimize noise, and provide opportunities for feedback.

Introduction to Business English 3 Chapter 1: Communication

Unit 2 Communication Skill


Poor communication skills are the main career handicap of young people today.
Employers form lasting impressions based on what they see and know about a job candidate.
The first items that a prospective employer is likely to see are our résumé and application letter.
If they are well written, they will make a good first impression and help us get the job. If not,
we may fail to get an interview, even though we may be well qualified for the job.
Many new employees soon have a chance to write a memo or report that will be read by
management. These documents often stay in company files for a long time as a permanent
record of employees’ abilities. Good writing skills can draw attention to us and increase our
chances for promotion. If our boss knows we can communicate well and deliver under pressure,
we are likely to get more chances to prove our worth.
Good communication is important even in our daily routine. The right choice of words,
even of a single word, may make the difference between settling an important issue at hand or
igniting a company-wide dispute. The ability to communicate well can help us get along with
others. It can inspire others to like and follow us. In addition, if we adopt the habit of making
cordial comments to those we work with and of sending short notes to people we know, we will
soon have an extensive network of contacts that wish us well.
Whatever may happen with new communication technologies, the basic communication
skills will always be essential. For example, letters and memos will continue to be the main
carriers of business communication for years to come, whether transmitted by computer printout,
electronic display, or other devices. In fact, the volume of written communication will increase
with the growing use of word/information-processing systems, so the ability to write clearly and
concisely will become ever more important.
As we apply our improved communication skills to more and more business functions, we
will learn how to use them to motivate prospects to buy, speed, collections, improve customer
relations and claims adjustments, and recruit and hire personnel. We will also learn how to
save time and effort. For example, we will find we can write one letter to seal a business
transaction that otherwise would have required two or three. With improved communication
skills will come new self-confidence. We will be able to plan and send messages faster, more
freely, and with greater ease. We will also discover that every act of communication is a
potential public relations tool, and we will try to make each one work for us.
Start our study of business communication by adopting a positive attitude. If we cannot
perform a task, we have a skill problem. However, if we will not perform a task, we have a
motivation problem. With real motivation, we can learn to communicate well and advance our

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n barriers may block any phase of the communication process. To help messages at workflow more smoothly,
we should try to keep in mind the following:

1. Avoid always, never, and similar words conveying a know-it-all attitude.

2. Send only messages that are neat and clean (including nonverbal messages), and try to
overlook others’ appearance so we can focus on the message.
3. The larger the group, the harder it is to communicate clearly with everyone. Try to
involve as many members of our audience as possible, and put complicated messages in
4. Avoid trying to apply the same solution to every problem. Look for solutions to fit
specific problems.
5. Be sensitive to our audience’s beliefs and feelings, and be open and flexible when we are
the audience.
6. Be aware of the emotions that arise in us and in others as we communicate, and attempt to
control them.
7. Don’t jump to conclusions based on inferences. Things are not always as they seem.
8. Be understanding and willing to listen; our openness will help those who feel threatened
accept our ideas and us.
9. Clarify our own and understand others’ background, sphere of knowledge, personality, and
10. Avoid inundating the receiver with facts. Too much information is as bad as too little,
because it reduces the audience’s ability to concentrate effectively on the most important
11. When we communicate with someone else, watch and listen for clues to his or her reactions.
Try to keep our nonverbal cues consistent with our words.
12. Recognize the fact that individuals are more open to messages that go along with the values
of the groups they identify with.
13. Show that we are competent, enthusiastic, and trustworthy.
Evaluate someone else’s message in light of what we know about
his or her credibility.
14. Ask questions, listen carefully, and make our own reactions known.
15. Frame our messages in terms that have meaning to our audience, and try to find something
useful in every message we receive.
16. Be consistent and open, and encourage communication.
17. Try to be specific, and use words that our audience will understand.
18. Reduce or eliminate the sources of noise when we communicate. Learn to concentrate on
the message and not the distractions when we are the audience.
19. Try to overcome distance by working hard to keep lines of communication open.
20. Accept compromises and help others see the shades of gray between opposite poles of an
21. Plan our messages before we send them, and mentally sketch the plan of any disorganized
message that we receive.
22. Avoid making demands on a receiver who doesn’t have the time to pay careful attention to
our message. Set aside enough time for important messages we receive.

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23. Look at people as individuals instead of as stereotypes.
24. Show that we understand the other person’s anxieties about change, and try to get his or her
25. Organize the work place so that people can communicate easily.
26. Encourage lower-level employees to share even unpleasant information by being
fair-minded and respectful of their opinions. When we have information that we’re afraid
our boss might not like, be brave and convey it anyway.
27. Get our audience’s attention before we present the main message, and make a conscious
effort to listen carefully to others.
28. Make our message as simple and direct as possible, and put it in writing if it will be
channeled through a great many people.
29. Use the channel and medium best suited to our message and to our need for speed, feedback,
accuracy, and so on.

We can effectively overcome many of these barriers if we try. The reward is quicker,
more accurate communication.


In our job, we may have occasion to communicate with people in other countries or from
other cultures. Whether we are buying, selling, consulting, or simply trying to obtain
information, we will need to get across ideas to an audience we are not used to dealing with.
Just as we need to understand the characteristics of our audience when we communicate with
others from our own country, we need to understand something about the culture, business
customs, and communication styles of foreign audiences.

Here, then, are some tips to assist us in our intercultural communications:

1. Whether communicating orally or in writing, we should avoid long, complex sentences,

highly technical language, jargon, and colloquialisms. Don’t be condescending, but do use
simpler words when they are available (pay rather than compensate; soon rather than

2. If we talk too fast, slur our words, have an accent, or use slang, even a foreigner who seems
to speak impeccable English will have a hard time following us. An added problem is that
many English-speaking foreigners are too polite to let us know they haven’t understood.

3. Most countries, for example, use the metric system, unlike the system of measurement used
in the United States. And many countries use the day/month/year system for dating as
opposed to the U.S. system of month/day/year. A meeting arranged in one of these
countries on 7.5.95 is scheduled for May, not July.

4. Foreigners read English more easily than they understand spoken English. If we
communicate by phone, follow up with a confirmation in writing to guard against

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5. Europeans, Africans, and Arabs in particular are put off by the straight-to-the-point style of
North American business communication. They prefer a more roundabout approach.
The French, for example, like to have time to digest information and ideas and tend to look
on a letter as only one in a series.

6. Whereas North Americans tend to say yes when they mean yes and no when they mean no,
that’s simply not the case in most other cultures. In Asian countries, for example, it is
considered impolite to say no, so Asians may answer affirmatively if only to mean “Yes, I
heard you.” (The Japanese have more than a dozen ways to avoid saying no.) Europeans,
on the other hand, may initially react negatively to any question, but they actually mean
“maybe” or “it depends.” In many countries, the answer we get is what the person thinks
we want to hear.

7. Gestures have different meanings in different places. In Yugoslavia, turning the head from
side to side means yes; in Japan, looking someone in the eye is considered judgmental or
hostile; and in Ghana, thumbs up is a rude gesture. To avoid giving offense, keep our
hands quiet.

8. The North American style of expressing emotions is considered impulsive and wild by
Asians but restrained and cold by Latin Americans. We need to be aware of how our
habits of emotional expression will affect people in a particular culture.

9. Many foreigners are offended by the North American penchant for jumping in to fill any
gaps in a conversation. Speakers in many cultures enjoy periods of silence and use them
to gather their thoughts. Be patient. Allow the person to formulate what he or she wants
to say, and try not to be “helpful” by putting words into the other person’s mouth.

10. Whenever possible, have our messages translated into the other person’s language. A
translated letter is more likely to be read sooner — and by the right person — than one in
English, and our message is more likely to be understood as intended. When choosing an
interpreter or translator, be sure to find someone who is familiar with both cultures and with
the terminology of our business.

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Unit 3 Basics of Business Letter

Business letters reflect the competence and professionalism of the person sending it. The
quality of its contents and presentation is an advertisement for the company. Business letters
should always be neat and easy to read. The format should be attractive and uncluttered.
Business letters should always maintain a positive, courteous tone. The goal is to earn the
goodwill of the person reading the letter.

Business letters will vary in format and content depending upon their purpose. The tone
can be formal or informal depending on the occasion. A business letter may be an invitation for
a golfing date to a friend or an application for employment to a large, impersonal corporation.
Be sure to strike an appropriate tone.

Business letters in a company or an organization usually follow a consistent format.

Check to see if your firm follows a particular manual or house style. Many computer software
programs have defaults that will determine the width of margins, size and style of type fonts,
ragged or justified (even) right margins, and so on. These defaults can be overridden, if
necessary, to fit your company's house style.

Business letters can generally be broken down into three parts. A brief introductory
paragraph states the reason for the letter, setting a courteous stone. The body of the letter,
consisting of one or more paragraphs, develops the major point with ample supporting detail.
The conclusion should be short, thanking the reader for his or her attention and suggesting possi-
bilities for further action. If the message is very brief — a congratulatory note or confirmation
of a meeting — these points may be condensed into a paragraph or two.

Before sending the letter, be sure to proofread it carefully. If using a word processor, we
may wish to check spelling with the computerized dictionary. Proofreading should be done
slowly, letter by letter. Several readings are often necessary to catch all potential problems.

Introduction to Business English 8 Chapter 2: Business Letters


1 Street address
City, State ZIP

(2-6 spaces)
2 Month day, Year
(3-8 spaces)
Addressee, Title
3 Street address
City, State ZIP
(2 spaces)
(3 spaces)
5 Dear addressee:
(2 spaces)
6 Subject: Typing instructions
(2 spaces)
7 The text of a business letter is single-spaced with double spacing between paragraphs.

8 The left and right margins should be set as follows: two inches for short letters; one
and a half inches for medium-length letters; one inch for long letters.

9 The bottom margin should be at least one and a half inches or six lines.

(2 spaces)

Complimentary close,
(4-6 spaces for signature)

Writer’s name, Title

(2 spaces)

11 Initials
(1-2 spaces)
12 Enclosures (if any)

13 cc (if any)

Introduction to Business English 9 Chapter 2: Business Letters

Letterhead (1)
Businesses usually have letterhead stationery, which contains the company’s logo, name,
address, telephone number, and other preprinted information. If the stationery is not letterhead,
type the writer’s address in the upper right-hand corner:

City, State ZIP

Do not use abbreviations for the street or city; the U.S. Postal Service two-letter state
abbreviations may be used.

Dateline (2)
The date is typed at least three lines below the letterhead either on the left margin or on the
right margin, depending on letter style. If the letter is brief, leave more spaces under the letter-
head to give the letter a balanced appearance. If the stationery lacks a letterhead, type the date
under the city and state of the writer’s address.

Dates may follow several forms:

August 16, 1998 traditional
27 August, 1998 science, military, government
9/26/98 informal, handwritten letters
14/9/98 informal (European style)

Mail Notation
If the letter has been sent by express mail, special delivery, certified or registered mail, a
notation may be printed in capitals on the left margin. It may appear at the top of the letter two
lines below the date or at the bottom of the letter two lines below the final typed line. Mail
notations often are typed only on carbon copies. For example:
(near the top of the letter)
123, Chunshan Road, Sec. 2
Taipei 113, Taiwan, ROC
September 14, 1998
Mr. Johnhan Hsieh
4F, 3, Alley 10, Lane 304
Anlok Road, Yungho
Taipei County 234, Taiwan
(near the bottom of the letter)
Yours truly,

Samuel Hsieh
Associate Professor

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Confidential Notation
If the letter is to be read only by the addressee, type PRIVATE, PERSONAL or
CONFIDENTIAL, in capital letters, on the left margin four lines under the date. If a mail
notation appears at the top, type the personal or confidential notation directly under it.

Inside Address (3)

The inside address, typed flush on the left margin, contains information about the person or
company that receives the letter. It should conform to the address on the envelope. Usually, it
consists of three parts:

Person or company
Street address
City, State ZIP

Use Mr., Mrs., Ms., or Dr., before the receiver’s name and, if it is short, the person’s
position in the company:

Mr. Max Chen, Manager

Ms. Tanya Lee, Supervisor

If the title is long, it may be placed under the name:

Mr. Max Chan

District Sales Manager

For ministers, medical doctors, and professionals who hold doctoral degrees, use either Dr.
or Doctor before the name, or put the degree after the name:

Katherine Wu, Ph.D. / Doctor Katherine Wu

Reverend Thomas Fang, DD /
Reverend Dr. Thomas Fang
Mr. John Tsai / John Tsai, Esq. (Esquire) for lawyers

Avoid using abbreviations in the street, city, and state address except for official Postal
Service codes.

Attention Line (4)

An attention line is frequently included in business letters that are addressed impersonally
to a company. Such a letter may require the attention of a specific person, position, or division.
Several styles are acceptable:
Attention: Mr. Simon Hsieh
Attention: Mr. Simon Hsieh, Sales Manager
Attention: Sales Manager
Attention of Sales Manager
ATTENTION Sales Division
ATTENTION-Mr. Simon Hsieh

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The attention line should appear two lines beneath the inside address. When using an
attention line.

Herzer Co., Ltd.

8F, 87, Chienkuo N. Rd., Sec. 2

Attention: Sales Division

Dear Sir or Madam:

Salutation (5)
The salutation is the greeting to the reader of the letter. Use the name and title of the
person listed in the inside address.

Mr. Simon Hsieh

Herzer Co., Ltd.
8F, 87, Chienkuo N. Rd., Sec. 2

Dear Mr. Hsieh

Salutations establish a relationship between the reader and the writer that can be either
formal or informal. If you know the reader well and desire a casual tone, use an informal salu-
tation. Official business correspondence usually requires a formal greeting, though the current
trend is to be more informal. To be very formal, omit the personal dear.

Very formal Sir:

Sir or Madam:

Formal Dear Mr. Row

Dear Ms. Wu
Dear Prof. Chang

Informal Dear Gerry:

Dear Tony:
Dear Vitaly:

Use either the first name or the last name of the addressee in a salutation, not both. If you
do not know whether a woman is a Miss or Mrs. Use Ms. If you are unsure whether the person
is a man or a woman you may use first and last names:

Dear Lee Jones:

Dear Jean LaFrance:

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If you do not know who will be reading the letter, use a salutation that will include all
possible readers. For this reason, use a greeting that does not define the reader’s sex.

Dear Sir or Madam:

Dear Madam or Sir:
Dear Friend:
Dear Customer:
Dear Staff:

In standard punctuation, a colon is placed after the salutation in a business letter. A

comma is used only in a personal letter. Some businesses use an open punctuation style, which
does not require a punctuation mark after the salutation.

Subject Line (6)

A subject line informs the reader briefly about the letter’s contents. Many styles are

Subject: Computer Sales

SUBJECT: Inventory Control
Subject-Revised Pricing Policy
Subject: New Credit Guidelines
Subject: Order No. 7176

Some companies prefer to use the Latin word re (thing) in place of subject:

Re: Computer sales

RE: Inventory Control

The subject line is located two spaces directly under the salutation:

Dear Mr. Lee:


Introduction (7)
The opening of a business letter should state the writer’s purpose and set the tone for the
letter. It should capture the reader’s attention and establish a link between writer and reader.
The opening should also be brief. Two or three lines are sufficient.

Body (8)
The body of a business letter contains one or more paragraphs that provide detailed
supporting facts or further explanation. These points should be developed logically,
step-by-step and as clearly as possible. Include all necessary information — but no more —
and maintain a positive tone.

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Conclusion (9)
The final paragraph of a business letter should end on a positive note; it should encourage
the reader to respond favorably to the message of the letter. If possible, conclude with a
personal remark, suggesting an appointment or expressing a desire for more communication.

Complimentary Close (10)

As does the salutation, the complimentary close reflects the relationship between writer and
reader. Thus, the close should maintain the same tone as the salutation. If the salutation uses
the reader’s first name, choose an informal complimentary close and sign with the writer’s first
name. If you address the reader by the last name, a more formal complimentary close is usually
Very formal Respectfully,
Respectfully yours,

Formal Yours truly,

Yours very truly,
Very truly yours,

Informal Sincerely,
Sincerely yours,
Cordially yours,

Very informal Best,

Best wishes,

Only the first word in a complimentary close is capitalized. A comma follows the last
word. The writer’s name should be typed under the complimentary close, leaving three to five
spaces for the signature.

The title of the writer may be added after the name — if the title is short. Separate the
name and title by a comma or a hyphen.
Simon Hsieh, Chairman

You may also list the writer’s title after the name and then type the division or department
under it.
Jimmy Chen, Director
Department of Engineering

To emphasize that the company, rather than the signer, is responsible for the letter, the
company’s name may appear two lines under the complimentary close. The writer’s name is
typed four lines beneath that:
Yours truly,
Herzer Co., Ltd.
Alex Wu, Vice-president

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Identification Initials (11)
Identification (or reference) initials indicate who wrote, dictated, and typed the letter.
Usually, the writer’s initials are typed in capitals followed by the secretary’s initials. The iden-
tification initials are typed on the left margin two lines beneath the signature block. Several
styles are acceptable:

LBR/as LBR:as

Enclosures (12)
If other materials are included with the letter, add an enclosure notation on the left margin
two lines below the identification initials or the signature block. The notation may be written
out or abbreviated.
Enclosure Enc. Encl.

If you itemize the enclosures, a colon or dash may be added:

Enclosure: Enclosure—

After the enclosure note, you may list the number of items that are included:
Encls. 2 Enclosures—2 Enclosures (2) Encs.2

If you include more than one enclosure or if the enclosures are important, list them by
Enclosures: Copyright Form Encls.: Check
Letter of Credit Catalogue
Contract Order Form


If copies are sent to other persons, a carbon copy notation is added two lines below the
identification initials or enclosure notation, whichever is last. Several styles are acceptable:
Copies to
You may list the initials, names, or names and addresses of those who receive copies.
cc Dr. Jeremy Nord
Mr. Gus Spelman
Ms. Haley Saunders
Cc: JN
Copies to Dr. Jeremy Nord
213 Knightsbridge Way
Asheville, NC 00000

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If you do not what the reader of the letter to know that copies are being sent, then use a
notation for blind carbon copy on the carbon sheets or copies only:

In business letters a postscript is used only to emphasize an important point, not to include
information that was left out of the letter. In sales letters a postscript may be used to highlight a
final selling point. Use one of the following abbreviations:
P.S. PS. PS: PS-
Postscripts are single-spaced two lines below the last notation.
Ex.: P.S. If you order within ten days, I am authorized to offer a 10 percent discount.

Multi-page letter
If possible, try to fit the contents of your letter onto one page; a one-page letter is easier to
read and to handle than a multi-page letter. If the second page is only three or four line long,
try to include the information on the first page. With the possible exception of sales letters
(unsolicited advertising especially), do not use the back of the page.

Do not use letterhead stationery for additional pages, but use paper of the same quality as
the first page. Six spaces from the top of the second page, starting on the left-hand margin, type
a heading to identify the letter.
(1) Herzer Co., Ltd. -2- August 25, 1999
(2) Herzer Co., Ltd.
Page 2
August 25, 1999

The text begins four lines below the heading.


Business letters should be written on high-quality paper. Banks and law offices usually
specify 100 percent rag paper. A bond paper with a watermark is suitable for business use.
For most business letters choose a 20-pound weight, white bond paper. Twenty-four weight
may be used for important letters. For copies and overseas airmail, six- to 13-pound weight is
sufficient; these papers are known as "tissue" or "onionskin."

Use Size
General business correspondence 81/2" x 11"
81/2" x 101/2"

Executive stationery 71/2" x 101/2"

Notes and memos 51/2" x 101/2"

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The appearance of letters creates a powerful impression even before the reader gets to the
message. No matter how well written the message, if the letter is full of erasures and typos, or
is off-center and oddly arranged, we will come across as amateurish and careless of the reader’s
regard. On the other hand, if our letter is neat, correct, and in proper format on good quality
stationery, we give the impression of being an established and successful businessperson.

To create a professional impression, choose the letter format from among the four conven-
tional business styles.

1. Full block 全齊頭式

2. Modified block 改良齊頭式

3. Semi-block 半齊頭式

4. AMS simplified AMS 簡化式

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(1) FULL BLOCK FORMAT 全齊頭式 (Open Punctuation)

City, State ZIP
Month day, year

Addressee, Title
Street address
City, State ZIP


Dear Addressee

The full block style is easy to read. The date, inside address, salutation, paragraphs
and signature are all type flush on the left margin.

The full block letter may use open or standard (mixed) punctuation. This letter uses
the open pattern. Note that no punctuation follows the salutation or the compli-
mentary close. For ease of reading all punctuation is kept to a minimum. Since
this is a letter of medium length, the margins are one and a half inches on all sides.
Extra blank lines are left between the dateline, inside address, and attention line to
center the text on the page. The number of blank lines may vary between two to six
lines depending on the length of the letter.

This letter also contains a complimentary close two lines under the final line of text.
At least four lines are left for the signature. The secretary’s initials and other
endnotes follow two lines below the signature block.

Complimentary close


Signer’s name



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(2) MODIFIED BLOCK FORMAT 改良齊頭式 (Standard Punctuation)

City, State ZIP

Month day, year

Addressee, Title
Street address
City, State ZIP


Dear Addressee: (,)

Subject: The Modified Block Format

The modified block style is a variation of block style. The chief difference is that
the date is typed flush on the right margin and the complimentary close and signature
block are also aligned on the right side of the page. The inside address, salutation,
paragraph blocks, and end notation are typed flush on the left margin.

The modified block letter uses mixed punctuation. Thus, a colon appears at the end
of the addressee’s name in the salutation, and a comma is used after the complimen-
tary close.

Spacing is also designed to give the letter a balanced look on the page. The secre-
tary’s initials appear two lines under the signature, followed by an enclosure note.

Complimentary close,


Signer’s name, Title



Introduction to Business English 19 Chapter 2: Business Letters

(3) SEMIBLOCK FORMAT 半齊頭式 (Closed Punctuation)

City, State ZIP

Month day, year.

Addressee, Title.
Street address,
City, State ZIP.


Dear Addressee,

Do you like your paragraphs indented? If so, use the semi-block format.

Strictly speaking, when a letter is single-spaced with a double space between

paragraphs, then indentations aren't necessary to identify the beginning of a new
paragraph. However, since all other kinds of print media indent paragraphs, many
people are used to seeing paragraphs indented and find this letter format pleasing.
It allows the reader more white space and can be easier on the eye.

Complimentary close,


Signer’s name.



Introduction to Business English 20 Chapter 2: Business Letters

(Recommended by the Administrative Management Society)

City, State ZIP

Month day, year

Addressee, Title
Street address
City, State ZIP


The simplified letter is another variation of block form. It was devised by the
Administrative Management Society to simplify work for secretaries and to save
time for readers. It uses open punctuation.

The simplified letter is typed in block format: dateline, inside address, paragraphs,
signature block, and end notations are all typed flush on the left margin. A saluta-
tion and complimentary close are eliminated, and a subject line is separated by three
blank lines from both the inside address and opening paragraph.

This letter is centered on the page. Since it is of medium length, three blank lines
are left between the letterhead and dateline. The same space was left above the
inside address. The signer’s name and title appear in capitals. Endnotes follow
block style form.


Signer’s name, Title



Introduction to Business English 21 Chapter 2: Business Letters

Standard (Mixed) Punctuation
Standard punctuation is the most popular style. It is used with block, modified block, or
semi-block styles. The salutation ends with a colon, and a comma follows the complimentary
close. The dateline and addresses include interior punctuation, but no end punctuation.

Open Punctuation
Open punctuation is required for letters in simplified style; it is optional for block style.
Salutations and complimentary closes may be eliminated, but if used, no punctuation follows.
The comma is retained between the day and year in the dateline and between the city and state in
addresses, but no punctuation appears at the end of the lines.

Closed Punctuation
Closed punctuation is still used in Europe. Commas are placed at the end of each line in
the address — except for the last, which ends with a period. A period also follows the dateline.
A colon follows the salutation, and commas are placed at the end of each line of the compli-
mentary close, signature block, and notations. A period is placed at the end of the signature
block and notations.

Introduction to Business English 22 Chapter 2: Business Letters

2.3.4 STYLE
Make our points in the fewest possible words. Write clearly, avoiding jargon and
wordiness. Try to use fresh language without resorting to clichés.

Wordiness 冗長的字串; 多言

Wordiness involves the use of "dead " words, which do not contribute to the meaning of a
sentence. Certain commonly used phrases are wordy and should be reduced or omitted. For

Wordy: I need your help in order to solve the problem.

Better: I need your help to solve the problem.

Wordy : Due to the fact that the merchandise was damaged, we are withholding payment.
Better: Because the merchandise was damaged, we are withholding payment.

Wordy: It is our opinion that the policy should be changed.

Better: We feel that the policy should be changed.

Here is a list of wordy phrases with suggested corrections:

At a later day later

Despite the fact that although
Due to the fact that because
For the purpose of for, to
In addition also
In a number of cases some
In order that so
In order to to
In reference to about
In terms of as for
In the amount of for, of
In the event of if
In the near future soon
In this regard (delete)
In view of because, since
It is our opinion that we feel
On the occasion of when
Prior to before
Subsequent to after
Without further delay immediately
With reference to about
With respect to about
Would you please be so kind as to please

Introduction to Business English 23 Chapter 2: Business Letters

Redundancy 使用沒必要的字串; 重複

Redundancy is a form of wordiness. Redundant words repeat rather than develop the point.
To describe something as "brown in color" is redundant since brown implies color. For

Redundant: In the year of 1997 retail sales dropped sharply.

Better: In 1997 retail sales dropped sharply.

Redundant: Chen Mills is the one and only source of the fabric.
Better: Chen Mills is the only source of the fabric.

Redundant: I enclose a check for the amount of $378.25.

Better: I enclose a check for $378.25

Here are some redundant phrases with possible improvements:

Agreeable and satisfactory agreeable / satisfactory

And etc. etc.
Basic fundamentals basics / fundamentals
Completely perfect perfect
Consensus of opinion consensus
Each and every each
First and foremost first
Follows after follows
Full and complete full / complete
General consensus consensus
Honest and open honest
Hope and trust hope / trust
If and when if / when
In my personal opinion in my opinion
Insist and demand insist / demand
Meet together meet
Most unique unique
One and only only
Prompt and speedy prompt
Repeats again repeats
Reverts back reverts
Right and proper right / proper
Sincere and earnest sincere / earnest
Thoughtful and considerate thoughtful / considerate
True facts facts
Very unique unique
Willing and eager willing / eager

Introduction to Business English 24 Chapter 2: Business Letters

Jargon 難懂的術語; 怪僻的字; 行話

Jargon occurs when the writer uses excessively technical words — often very long ones —
when simpler, shorter words would be more effective. Be wary of words that end in -ize, -tion,
or -ity. Though writers of jargon try to demonstrate that they are authorities, they more often
confuse the reader. For example:

Jargon: An enhanced commitment to a public relations effort remains a viable option for
the firm.
Better: We may also wish to improve our public relations.

Jargon: The implementation of cost-cutting strategies can impact budgetary deficits.

Better: Cutting costs will reduce deficits.

Be especially sensitive to words that are used in computer language:

Jargon: I would appreciate hearing your feedback on the report.

Better: I would appreciate hearing your response to the report.

Jargon: We need to interface the departmental efforts.

Better: We need to coordinate the departmental efforts.

Jargon can often be corrected by using more concrete words.

Here is a list of some jargon:

Acknowledge receipt of
Answer affirmatively, negatively
Expend maximum effort
Impact a problem
Implement a decision

Introduction to Business English 25 Chapter 2: Business Letters

Clichés 陳腔爛調

Clichés are expressions that have lost their meaning through overuse. Rather than request
a "100-percent effort," ask for "hard work." For example:

Cliché: In today’s market we must move forward or fall behind.

Better: In today’s market we must improve our efficiency.

Cliché: The Office 97 is just what you’re looking for.

Better: The Office 97 will meet your word-processing needs.

Some other clichés:

Allow me to
Along these lines
Do our utmost
Down but not out
Facts of life
For your information
Keep abreast
Last but not least
Latest developments
Meet the eye
Nip in the bud
100-percent effort
Over the hill
Pave the way
Sell like hot cakes
Short and sweet
Slow but sure
To be perfectly honest
Touch all bases
Vicious circle
Work like a dog

Introduction to Business English 26 Chapter 2: Business Letters


Unit 4 Foreign Trade

Export Trade

(1) Market Research → (2) Looking for Buyers → (3) Inquiry →

(4) Credit Inquiry → (5) Offer, Quotation → (6) Accepting Order →

(7) Sales Confirmation (Contract) → (8) Accepting L/C →

(9) Preparing Goods → (10) Export License Application →

(11) Application for Inspection or Survey → (12) Booking shipping Space →

(13) Marine Insurance Application→ (14) Application for Consular Invoice →

(15) Shipping the Goods → (16) Shipping Advice →

(17) Application for Negotiation → (18) Claim.

Import Trade
(1) Inquiry, Request for Sample → (2) Asking for Offer → (3) Counter Offer →

(4) Credit Inquiry → (5) Placing an Order → (6) Sales Contract →

(7) Opening an L/C → (8) Applying Import License → (9) L/C Advice →

(10) Custom Clearance → (11) Getting the Goods → (12) Claim

Introduction to Business English 27 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

UNIT 5 Basic Business Terms

一、 徵信調查內容 (4C)

1. Character (特性) 該公司的結構,營業方針,及經理人的品格。

2. Capital (資本) 該公司的資產、資金、財物狀況。
3. Capacity (能力) 營業能量、收益能力、和發展希望。
4. Condition (情況) 政治和金融的安定度、法律的效力、貿易手續方程度。

二、 貿易條件

1. 國際商會 ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) 制訂下列規則

(1) 國際商業語言 (International Commercial Terms 簡稱 INCOTERMS)

(2) 信用狀統一慣例與實務 (Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary
Credit,簡稱 UCP)
(3) 調停及仲裁規則 (The Rules of Conciliation and Arbitration)
國際貿易糾紛解決方法有四: 民事訴訟 (Lawsuit Litigation)、
調停 (Conciliation)、仲裁 (Arbitration)、和解 (Compromise)。
(4) 託收統一規則 (Uniform Rules for the Collection )
(5) 聯合貨運單據統一規則 (Uniform Rules for a Combined Transport Document )

2. Incoterms 1993

(1) Ex Works(ex factory, ex mill, ex plantation, ex warehouse, etc.)工廠交貨價

(2) FOR (free on rail) 出口地鐵路貨車上交貨價
FOT (free on truck) 出口地卡車上交貨價
(3) FAS (free alongside ship) 出口港船邊交貨價
(4) FOB (free on board) 出口港船上交貨價
(5) C&F (cost and freight) 進口港含運費交貨價
(6) CIF (cost, insurance, and freight) 進口港含運費保險費在內交貨價
(7) Freight or Carriage Paid to .... (named point of destination)
(8) Ex Ship 進口港船上交貨價
(9) Ex Quay (duty paid) 進口港碼頭上交貨價
(10) Delivered at Frontier .…
(11) Delivered.… Duty Paid (place of destination in the country of importation)
(12) FOB Airport 出口國機場交貨價

Introduction to Business English 28 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

3. 貿易基本條件

(1) Quality (5) Shipment

(2) Quantity (6) Payment
(3) Packing (7) Insurance
(4) Price

4. QUALITY 品質條件

(1) 品質確定之依據
Sample the same as the sample. Quality is to be similar to the sample.
Grade 高級 first class, best, superior
中級 second class, average, common
劣級 third class, bad, poor, low
Catalogue, Description, Specification, Brochure, Plan, Photo
(2) 品質確定之時間地點
shipping quality final; loading quality final; discharged quality final;
landed quality final
(3) 品質證明
* Maker’s (Manufacturer’s) quality certificate shall be final.
* Quality certificate issued by the government inspection agency shall be final.
* Quality certificate issued by an independent public surveyor at loading port to
be final.
* Discharged quality determined by an independent international surveyor shall
be final.

5. QUANTITY 數量條件

(1) NUMBER Piece [PC], Pieces [pcs], Set, Pair [Pr], Dozen [Dz., Doz.],
Bundle, Ingot, Grain, Cross [G] 十二打叫一籮, Ream, Roll,
Reel, Coil, Sheet [Sht], Plate

(2) LENGTH Meter {1m = 100 cm = 39.37 In = 3.28 ft. = 1.09 yd.}
Foot {1 ft = 12 in}, Yard {1 yd = 3 ft = 91.4 cm}

(3) AREA Square meter, Square foot, Square yard

(4) VOLUME Cubic meter (CBM 立方公尺), Cubic foot, Cubic Yard
(體積) Measurement ton {1 CBM = 35.315 Cu. ft.} 運費之體積噸

(5) CAPACITY Bushel 英斗 (量穀類之單位),約合36 Kgs., Quart, Pints,

(容積) Dram (用藥量之單位), Liter {= 0.264 gal)

Introduction to Business English 29 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

(6) WEIGHT Ounce, Pound (lb.), Metric Ton (M/T) {1000 Kgs/2204.62 lbs},
Long Ton (L/T){2240 lbs.}英制, Short Ton (S/T) {2000 lbs}美制,
Quintal (Kintal)公擔, Gram (Gm), Kilogram (Kg) {1000 gm},
Hundred Weight (CWT) (英制= 112 lbs/50.80 Kgs: 美制=100 磅),

*寬容條款 (Allowance clauses), 或稱 過與不足條款

Ex.: 1. Shipping weight, any loss in weight exceeding 2% to be for seller’s account.
2. One hundred long tons, 3% more or less at seller’s option.
3. The seller has the option of delivering 5% more or less on the contract weight.

6. PACKING 包裝條件

(1) 包裝設計重點 Protection (seaworthy packing, water tight, safety, strong),

Handling, Beautiful, Manufacturing
(2) 運輸型態 散裝貨(Bulk cargo),裸裝貨(Nude cargo),包裝貨(Packing cargo).
(3) 包裝種類 Case (wooden case, crate, tin-lined case, carton), Bale, Bag,
Dram (鐵桶), Barrel (鼓形桶), Tub (木桶), Can, Tin;
Bundle, Axle (繞輪軸), Special container (bottle, carboy, jar,
(4) 小心標誌 Caution Mark (Care Mark)
This side up; the end up. Handle with care; with care; care
handle. Use no Hooks (No Hooks). Keep in cool place (Keep
cool). Keep dry. Keep / Stow away from boiler. Inflammable.
Fragile. Explosive. Glass with care. Poison. Heave here.
Open here. Sling here. Do not drop (Don’t drop). Never lay flat;
Never by flat; Not to be laid flat. Kept upright. Keep away
from heat. Perishable goods. Guard against wet. No Smoking.
Keep flat. Porcelain with care. Keep out of Sun. Don’t turnover.
Keep flat; Stow level. Don’t throw. Valuable. Center of
balance. Not to be stowed below over Cargo. Open in dark
place. Do not store in a damp place. Remove top first cut

7. PAYMENT 付款條件

(1) C.W.O. (Cash with Order) 訂貨付款

* Payment shall be made cash with order by means of T/T or M/T.
* Payment in advance, by any of the following means:
(a) Telegraphic Transfer or Mail Transfer.
(b) Banker’s Draft.
(c) Check (Payment shall not be deemed received unless the
amount of the check has been collected.

Introduction to Business English 30 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

(2) L/C (Payment against Letter of Credit) 憑信用狀方式付款
* Payment shall be made by a prime banker’s irrevocable and trans-
ferable letter of credit in favor of the seller, available by draft at
sight for 100% invoice value.
* Against 100% confirmed, irrevocable and transferable sight Letter
of Credit in our favor.
* Payment shall be available by draft drawn under L/C payable not
longer than 90 days after presentation of documents to the nego-
tiation bank of the L/C, together with an interest of light & half
percent (8.5%) per annum for buyer’s account.
* Payment by draft at 60 days after sight under an irrevocable L/C.
* L/C must be opened by a prime bank in key currency country.
* If L/C established by local bank of importing country, which
should be confirmed by a first class banker in the USA or the UK.

(3) B/C (Bill for Collection / Cash against Document, CAD) 託收

D/P 付款交單
* Payment by sight bill, documents against payment.
* Payment by draft drawn on buyer payable at sight D/P.

D/A 承兌交單
* Payment by 90 days date bill, document against acceptance.
* Payment by draft payable 60 days after on board date of B/L,
document against acceptance.

(4) C.O.D. (Cash on Delivery / Collect on Delivery) 貨到付款

* Net Cash Against Document payable in New York.
* Net Cash in exchange for shipping document in Liverpool.

(5) Installment 分期付款

(6) On Consignment 寄售付款

* Payment against goods shipped on consignment.
* Payment shall be made by check when the goods have been sold.
* By clean bill payable at 180 days after contract date.

8. PRICE 價格條件
* The price is net price, without any commission.
* Price including commission (calculated) 3% on FOB basis.
* The seller reserves the right to adjust its quoted prices at any time and price will
probably be adjusted if there is any change in the present relationship between
the New Taiwan Dollar and the currency of the importing country.
* Our quotation are based on contract ocean freight rate and insurance rates, any
increase in rate or any surcharge between the date of acceptance of the order and
the date of shipment will be for buyer’s account.

Introduction to Business English 31 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

* The prices mentioned herein are all based upon the current rate of freight and/or
war and marine insurance premium. Any increase in freight and/or insurance
premium rate at the time of shipment shall be for Buyers’ risks and account .
* Sellers reserve the right to adjust the prices mentioned herein, if prior to delivery
there is any substantial increase in the cost of raw material or component parts

9. SHIPMENT 裝運條件
(1) 即期交貨 Immediate shipment, Prompt shipment, Shipment as soon as
possible, Ready shipment, Shipment by first available steamer,
Shipment by first opportunity.

(2) 定期裝運 Shipment in July; Shipment in the beginning of November;

Shipment in the end of December; Shipment by 15th October;
Shipment before the end of November; Shipment during February
and/or March; Shipment within 60 days after receipt of L/C.

(3) 附帶條件 Partial shipment are (not) allowed. (permitted)

Partial shipment prohibited. (forbidden)
Transshipment to be allowed.
Shipment via Suez Cannel.
Shipment from Keelung via North Pacific route direct to San
Shipment to be effected per American President Line Steamer.
Goods to be stowed down in refrigerated compartment.

10. INSURANCE 保險條件

* Against clauses A plus war for 110% of Invoice Value.
* Against clauses B including TPND of an entire package, bundle, bag, or, piece.
* Insurance to be covering clause A and War Risk for CIF invoice value plus 10%


1. Price list, Offer sheet 價目表

Estimate sheet 估價單

Quotation 報價單
Proforma (Pro-forma Invoice) Invoice 預約 ( 預估; 形式) 發票

2. 報價

(1) Selling offer

* We take pleasure in offering you the following commodity at the prices
and on the terms and conditions set forth below.

Introduction to Business English 32 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

(2) Buying offer
*Offer firm, subject to immediate acceptance, 200 cases refined butter, 48
one-pound tins to a case, US$ 50,000 CIF Hong Kong, August Shipment.

(3) Firm offer 穩固(限期)報價

* We offer subject to our final confirmation (approval).

(4) Non-firm offer (Free Offer) 自由報價

* We are buying .... We are willing to buy .... We are going to buy.…
* We may offer (quote) .… We are able to offer ....

(5) Counter offer 還價; 相對報價 (包含 Price, Terms, and Conditions)

(6) General Terms & Conditions 固定條款 (一般條款)

General Terms & Conditions

(Unless Otherwise Specified)

All business shall be transacted between the Buyer and the Seller on Principals to
Principals basis.

Quantity set forth on face hereof is subject to a variation of five percent (5%) plus or

Date of Bill of Lading shall be accepted as a conclusive date of shipment. Partial ship-
ments and transshipment shall be permitted unless otherwise stated on face hereof. The
Seller shall not be responsible for non-shipment or late shipment of the contracted goods
due to causes beyond the Seller’s control and causes due to failure of the Buyer provide in
time the relative letter of credit or other instructions requested by the Seller.

The quoted price/s of foreign currency is/are based on the prevailing official exchange rate
in Taiwan between the said foreign currency and the New Taiwan Dollar. Any devalua-
tion of the foreign currency to the New Taiwan Dollar at the time of negotiating draft(s)
shall be for the Buyer’s risks and account.


In case the quotation is made on C&F basis, the freight and/or insurance charges, as the
case may be, is/are estimated & calculated to the best of the ability of the Seller on

Introduction to Business English 33 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

prevailing rate/s at the time of quoting. Any increase in freight rate and/or insurance
premium rate at the time of shipment shall be for the Buyer’s risks and account. The
Seller receives the right to adjust the quoted price, if prior to delivery there is any
substantial variation in the cost of raw materials or component parts.

Unless otherwise instructed by the Buyer, export inspection by Chinese Authorities, Manu-
facturers or the Seller is to be considered as final. When the Buyer requires special
inspection by appointment, the Buyer must inform the Seller of such name of inspector at
the time of contract and such inspection fees shall be borne by the Buyer.

As a general rule, the Buyer shall not appoint any steamship company or steamer for ship-
ment. But in the case of such appointment, the Seller shall not be responsible for late
shipment due to delay or cancellation of such carrying boat. Further, the Buyer shall agree
to the Seller’s requests, such as amendment of Letter of Credit, and any other procedure for
fulfillment of such shipment.

Payment shall be made by any of the following means:
(a) Telegraphic Transfer (T/T) or Mail Transfer (M/T).
(b) Check (Payment shall not be deemed received unless the amount of the check has been
(c) A prime banker’s irrevocable and transferable letter of credit in favor of the Seller,
available by draft at sight for 100% invoice value. The terms and conditions of the
letter of credit shall be acceptable to the Seller. In case the letter of credit is not
acceptable to the Seller, the Buyer shall amend the L/C accordingly upon the request
of the Seller. The Buyer shall not be deemed fulfilled and complied with the payment
items unless such amendment has been received and accepted by the Seller.

In the event of any claim arising in respect of any shipment, notice of intention to claim
should be given in writing to the Seller promptly after arrival of the goods at the port of
discharge and opportunity must be given to the Seller for investigation. Failing to give
such prior written notification and opportunity of investigation within twenty-one (21) days
after the arrival of the carrying vessel at the port of discharge, no claim shall be entertained.
In any event, the Seller shall not be responsible for damages that may result from the use of
goods or for consequential or special damages, or for any amount in excess of the invoice
value of the defective goods.


Non-delivery of all or any part of the merchandise caused by war, blockage, revolution,
insurrection, civil commotion, riots, mobilization, strikes, lockouts, act of God, severe
weather, plague or other epidemic, destruction of goods by fire or flood, obstruction of
loading by storm or typhoon at the port of delivery, or any other cause beyond the Seller’s
control before shipment shall operate as a cancellation of the sale to the extent of such

Introduction to Business English 34 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

nondelivery. However, in case the merchandise has been prepared and ready for shipment
before shipment deadline but the shipment could not be effected due to any of the
above-mentioned causes, the Buyer shall extend the shipping deadline by means of
amending relevant L/C or otherwise, upon the request of the Seller.

All disputes, controversies, or differences which may arise between the parties, out of or in
relation to or in connection with this contract, or for the breach thereof, shall be finally
settled by arbitration in Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China in accordance with the
Com-mercial Arbitration Act of the Republic of China and under the laws of the Republic of
China. The award rendered by arbitrator(s) of the Commercial Arbitration Association of
the Republic of China shall be final and binding upon both parties concerned.


The formation, validity, construction and the performance of this contract are governed by
the law of the Republic of China.

四、 海上貨物運輸
1. 型態
(1) 定期航線 (Liner) Conventional Vessel
Container Vessel (C/V), or Container Ship (C/S)
(2) 不定期航線 (Tramp) Bulk carrier 散裝船
營運方式 (a) Voyage Charter 航次傭船
(b) Time Charter 計時傭船
(c) Bareboat Charter 光船租賃

2. 貨櫃化運輸
(1) 船隻 Semi-container Ship
Full-container Ship (Lift on/Lift off, Roll on/ Roll off)
Lighter Aboard Ship(LASH) 子母船

(2) 貨櫃 Container
Dry Cargo Container, Ventilated Container, Open-top
Container, Flat Bed Container, Car Container, Refrigerated
Enclosed Container, Insulated and Ventilated Enclosed Container,
Fluid Tank Container, Live-Stock Container, Bulk Container,
Side-loading Container, Collapsible Container
整櫃裝運 C.Y. (Container Yard) 歐洲稱為
F.C.L. (Full Container Load)

併櫃裝運 C.F.S. (Container Freight Station) 歐洲稱為

L.C.L. (Less Container Load)

Introduction to Business English 35 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

3. 提單 Bill of Lading
種類 直航提單 Direct B/L
轉船提單 Transshipment B/L
聯運提單 Through B/L (兩個以上海上運送人)
複合運送提單 Combined Transport B/L (兩種以上不同運送方式)
陳舊提單 Stale B/L
收貨證明書 Forwarder’s Cargo Receipt (FCR)

4. 專有名詞
(1) Local 貨物 輸往美加洛磯山以西各州之貨物,稱之。
O.C.P.貨物 輸往美加洛磯山以東各州之貨物,稱之。
* San Francisco O.C.P / O.C.P. Via San Francisco
O.C.P. (Overland Common Points) 陸路共通地點
(2) Mini-Land Bridge 迷你路橋,貨櫃至西岸港口,經由火車運送至目的地
(3) Micro Bridge 微橋
(4) Land Bridge 陸橋:北美洲大陸、蘇俄歐亞大陸 (兩大洋之運輸)
(5) Freighter Forwarder (F/F) 貨運承攬業
(6) N.V.O.C.C. (Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier) 船務代理公司
(7) C.T.O. (Combined Transport Organization) 複合運送業
(8) Inland Haulage Cost 貨櫃內陸運送費用

五、 貨物運輸保險 Marine Cargo Insurance

1. 危險的種類

(1) Basic Perils

Sinking, Stranding, Touch and Go, Collision, Missing, Shipwreck, Heavy

weather, Sea water damage, Fire, Thieves, Jettison, Barratry of master and

(2) Extraneous Risks

War Risk (W.R.), Strikes, Riots & Civil Commotion (SR & C.C.),
Theft, Pilferage and Non-Delivery (T.P.N.D.),
Rain, and Fresh Water Damage (R.F.W.D.),
Breakage, Leakage, Hook Hole, Oil and/or Grease damage, Contamination
with other cargoes, Sweat damage, Bending, Denting, Nail damage,
Acid damage, Mildew & Mold, Rat damage, Vermin damage, Explosion,
Spontaneous combustion damage

Introduction to Business English 36 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

2. 海上損失的型態
(1) Total loss 全損
(a) Actual total loss, (b) Constructive total loss, (c) Presumed total loss:
(2) Partial loss 分損, 又稱 Average 海損
(a) General average 共同海損
(b) Particular average 單獨海損

3. 新保險條款
(1) Institute Cargo Clauses (A) 協會貨物保險條款 (A) (≒All Risks)
(2) Institute Cargo Clauses (B) 協會貨物保險條款 (B) (≒WA)
(3) Institute Cargo Clauses (C) 協會貨物保險條款 (C) (≒FPA)
(4) Institute War Clauses (Cargo) ( = Institute War Clauses) 兵險條款
(5) Institute Strikes Clauses (Cargo) ( = Institute Strikes Riots and Civil
Commotion Clauses) 罷工險條款
4. Open Policy 流動保單 / 開口保單
到用 完為止,保險單即告失效。

5. 破損證明文件
Short-landing Certificate 短卸證明
Damage Report 事故證明書
Exception List 異常報告單
Tally Sheet 船方卸貨時之理貨記錄單
Delivery Receipt / Cargo Boat Note 船方交貨收據
Inward Survey Report 進倉記錄
Outward Survey Report 出倉記錄
Delivery Note 送貨單

六、信用狀 LETTER OF CREDIT (Documentary credit)

1. 關係人
(1) 開狀銀行 Opening bank, Issuing bank, Establish bank, Grantor
(2) 通知銀行 Advising bank, Notifying bank, Transmitting bank
(3) 押匯銀行 Negotiating bank
(4) 保兌銀行 Confirming bank
(5) 付款銀行 Paying bank, Drawee bank
(6) 清算銀行 Reimbursement bank, Clearing bank

Introduction to Business English 37 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

(7) 申請人 Applicant, Opener, Accountee, Accreditor, Granter, Holder, Buyer,
(8) 受益人 Beneficiary
(9) 受讓人 Transferee

2. 種類
(1) 可撤銷信用狀 Revocable L/C
不可撤銷信用狀 Irrevocable L/C
(2) 保兌信用狀 Confirmed L/C
* We confirm the credit and thereby undertake that all drafts drawn, and
presented as above specified will be duly honored by us.
非保兌信用狀 Non-confirmed L/C
(3) 跟單信用狀 Documentary L/C
光票信用狀 Clean L/C
(4) 循環信用狀 Revolving L/C, Renewable L/C,
Continuing L/C
* The amount of drawing made under this credit become automatically
reinstated on payment by us.
非循環信用狀 Non-revolving L/C
(5) 即期信用狀 Sight L/C
遠期信用狀 Usance L/C
(6) 直接信用狀 Straight L/C
押匯(讓購)信用狀 Negotiation (Negotiable) L/C
(7) 原始信用狀 Original L/C, Master L/C
國內信用狀 Back to Back L/C, Domestic L/C
(8) 有追索權信用狀 With Recourse L/C
無追索權信用狀 Without Recourse L/C
(9) 擔保(備付)(履約保證)信用狀 Stand-by L/C
(10) 紅條款信用狀 Red Clause Credit
(11) 延期付款信用狀 Deferred payment L/C
(12) 委託購買證 Authority to purchase (A/P)
(13) 支付受權書信用狀 Authority to pay

3. 出口押匯文件
(1) 出口押匯總質權書 Letter of Hypothecation
出口押匯約定書 General Letter of Hypothecation and Assurance
(2) 匯票 Bill of Exchange, Draft
(3) 商業發票 Commercial Invoice
(4) 包裝單或重量單 Packing/Weight List
(5) 提單 Bill of Lading
空運提單 Air Waybill
(6) 保險單 Insurance Policy

Introduction to Business English 38 Chapter 3: Business Proposals

(7) 海關發票 Customs Invoice
(8) 領事發票 Consular Invoice
(9) 產地證明書 Certificate of Origin
(10) 檢驗證明書 Certificate of Inspection
(11) 黑名單條款 Black Lists
(12) 受益人證明書 Certificate of Beneficiary

七、 貿易糾紛與索賠 CLAIM

1. 範圍 損害賠償 Indemnity
撫慰金 Money of Consolation
賠款 Compensation
違約金 Penalty
退貨 Rejection of goods
拒收 Refuse to receive
抱怨 Complaint
紛爭 Trouble
糾葛 Dispute

2. 種類
(1) 貿易索賠 Trade Claim
(2) 運輸索賠 Transportation Claim
(3) 保險索賠 Insurance Claim

3. 解決方法
(1) 和解 Direct negotiation
(2) 調解 Reconciliation
(3) 仲裁 Arbitration
(4) 訴訟 Litigation, Law Suit

Introduction to Business English 39 Chapter 3: Business Proposals


Unit 6 Business Writing

The first step in planning a business message is to think about our purpose. Obviously, we
want to maintain the goodwill of the audience and create a favorable impression for our organi-
zation. But in every situation, we also have a particular goal we want to achieve. That
purpose may be straightforward and obvious — like placing an order, for example — or it may
be more difficult to define. When the purpose is unclear, it pays to spend a few minutes
thinking about what our hope to accomplish.

Thinking about our purpose is important because it helps us decide whether to put time and
effort into communicating. Frankly, many business documents shouldn't be created at all.
They serve no practical purpose, apart from giving the creator a chance to show off. So when
we’re tempted to send a message, pause to ask ourselves, "Is this really necessary? Will it
make a difference? If we suspect that our ideas will have very little impact, hold off. Wait
until we have a more practical purpose.

In addition to preventing pointless messages, thinking about our purpose will help us
respond to the needs of our audience. We want to be certain that our purpose in creating a
message is compatible with the audience’s purpose in considering it. Even when we initiate the
message ourselves, we still need to consider the audience’s motives. Why will they pay
attention to the material? What do they hope to gain? Are their expectations compatible with
our own? If not, both the audience and we will fail to get what we want.

Establishing a clear purpose will also help us focus the message. When we know our
purpose, the answer becomes clear. We include only the information that is necessary to
accomplish our objective. Everything else is irrelevant and should be eliminated.


Every business message has both a general and a specific purpose, and both influence the
way the message develops. There are three general purposes common to business
commu-nication: informing, persuading, and collaborating with the audience.

In addition to satisfying a general purpose, every presentation must accomplish a specific

objective. To formulate this objective, ask us, "What should my audience do or think after
reviewing this message?" Be as precise as possible in stating our purpose; identify the
individuals in the audience who should respond. Here are some examples:

Introduction to Business English 40 Chapter 4: Business Dealings


To inform To present last month’s sales figures to the

vice president of marketing

To persuade To convince the vice president of marketing

to hire more sales representatives

To collaborate To help the personnel department develop a

training program for new members of the sales staff


Once we are satisfied that we have a legitimate purpose in communicating, take a good look
at our intended audience. Who are the members, what are their attitudes, and what do they
need to know? The answers to these questions will indicate something about the material we
need to cover and the way we should cover it.

When we know people well, we can predict their reactions fairly accurately. On the other
hand, if our audience is a group of strangers, we have to do some investigating and use common
sense to anticipate their reactions.

Large audiences behave differently from small ones and require different communication
techniques. Size and diversity often go hand in hand. The larger the audience, the more
diverse their backgrounds and interests are likely to be. People with different education, status,
and attitudes are likely to react differently to the same message, so we must look for the common
denominators that tie the group together. At the same time, we often have to respond to the
particular concerns of individuals. The head of marketing needs different facts about a subject
than the head of production or finance needs. As we compose the message, keep these differ-
ences in mind. Include a variety of evidence that touches on everyone's area of interest.

When several people will be receiving our message, try to identify those who are most
important to our purpose. Ordinarily, those with the most organizational status are the key
people, but occasionally someone will surprise us. A person in a relatively low position may
have power in one or two particular areas.

Our approach to organizing our message should depend on our audience’s probable reaction.
If we expect a favorable response with very little criticism or debate, we can be straightforward
about stating our conclusions and recommendations. On the other hand, when we face a
skeptical audience, we may have to introduce our conclusions and recommendations more
gradually and provide more proof. In addition to considering the audience’s general reaction,
try to anticipate how key decision-makers will respond to specific points. From past experience,
we may know that the boss is especially concerned about certain issues: profits, market share,
sales growth, or whatever.

Introduction to Business English 41 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

If our audience and we share the same general background, we can assume they will under-
stand our material without any difficulty. If not, we will have to decide how much we need to
educate them. Our status relative to the audience also affects the style and tone of our presen-
tation. We address our peers differently than we do our boss, and we use still another tone
when we’re communicating with those who are lower in the hierarchy. In addition, we handle a
customer or supplier differently from a co-worker.


With a few exceptions, most letters and memos are relatively brief documents, generally
one or two pages. Letters and memos can be classified by purpose into four categories: (1)
direct requests; (2) routine, good-news, and good will messages; (3) be-news messages; and (4)
persuasive messages. The purpose determines the organization of main points. Style and tone,
however, are governed by the relationship between the writer and the reader. The options range
from forceful to passive, from personal to impersonal, and from colorful to bland.

Reports and proposals also tend to be more formal than letters and memos. But in reports
and proposals, as in all forms of business communication, organization, style, and tone depend
on the message’s purpose, on the relationship between writer and reader, on the traditions of the

Remember that our audience

z may have little time.
z may be distracted.
z may give our message low priority.

Many in our audience have very little time to devote to our message. They will review it
under difficult circumstances with many interruptions, and they are likely to give it a low priority.
Try to be brief. Generally speaking, a 5-minute talk is easier to follow than a 30-minute
presentation; a two-paragraph letter is more manageable than one that’s two pages long, and a
two-page memo is more likely to be read than a ten-page report.

If our written message has to be long, make it easy for the reader to follow, so that she or he
can pick it up and put it down several times without losing the thread of what you’re saying. If
we’re delivering our message orally, be sure to give listeners an overview of the message’s
structure and then express our thoughts clearly and logically. We might also use flip charts,
slides, or handouts to help listeners understand and remember key points.


1. we want immediate feedback from the audience.
2. our message is relatively simple and easy to accept.
3. we do not need a permanent record.
4. we can assemble the audience conveniently and economically.
5. we want to encourage interaction to solve a problem or reach a decision.

Introduction to Business English 42 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

1. we do not need immediate feedback.
2. we have a detailed and complex message that requires careful planning.
3. we need a permanent, verifiable record.
4. we are trying to reach an audience that is large and geographically dispersed.
5. we want to minimize the chances for distortion that occurs when a message is
passed orally from person to person.

In general, the smaller the audience, the more interaction among the members. If our
purpose involves reaching a decision or solving a problem, we should select an oral medium
geared toward a small audience. The program should be relatively informal and unstructured so
ideas can flow freely.

Unit 7 Inquiry
An inquiry can be made by telephone, telegram (cable), telex, fax, or postcard. If we use a
postcard, it is not necessary to begin with a salutation or end with a complimentary close. The
address, the date, and reference are sufficient.

If we need to give more information about ourselves or ask the supplier for more
information, we will need to write a letter. The contents of this will depend on three things:
how well we know our supplier; whether our supplier is at home or abroad; and the type of
goods we are enquiring about — there is a difference between asking IBM about the cost of
installing a complex computer and asking a publisher how much a book would cost.

We do not need to be an expert to write a simple letter of inquiry: a request for a price-list
or catalogue can be made in a single sentence — even on a post-card. When goods of certain
specification are required, many firms use a printed Inquiry form, thus eliminating a letter.
There is no need to seek careful words and phrases to catch the reader’s eye. We are a
prospective buyer, we say what interests us as simply as possible, and that in all the receiver of
our inquiry wishes to know.

A request for a quotation of price and terms may take a little longer and should be clear and
exact; but here again, there is no need for long, over-polite phrases and still less for humbleness.
"We beg you to send us your quotation …" sounds ridiculous and is insincere: in fact you should
expel the word "beg" from your commercial vocabulary — it belongs to a little group of
misapplied words that have no place in modern commercial correspondence.

A "first" inquiry, that is, an inquiry sent to a supplier with whom we have not yet done
business, should begin by telling the supplier how we obtained his name. Some details of our
own business, such as the kind of goods handled, quantities needed, usual terms of trading, and

Introduction to Business English 43 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

any information likely to enable the supplier to decide what he can do for us will also help.
This, too, can be expressed in simple, direct language.

It is a little different when the object of our inquiry is to get a special price for regular
orders, or to obtain selling rights in our country or district. Here, although we are the customer,
we are asking for concessions, and this puts us in the position of having to "sell" our proposal to
the supplier. Our letter will therefore have to be a sales letter, and accordingly attractive to the
supplier. Our letter must now give some idea of the extent or the size of future orders we can
place; or in the case of territorial concession, reasons for our optimism.

In enquiries to foreign suppliers, state clearly what we want and ask for prices, discounts
and terms of payment; if asking for a quotation, make it clear if insurance and delivery is to be
included. It is also important to ask about the length of time required for delivery.


(1) First inquiry


8F, 87, Chienkuo N. Rd. Sec 2., Taipei
Tel: (02) 25017751, 25055789 Fax: (02) 25055061

Sanders & Lowe Ltd.
54 Bakers Road
Liverpool L3 9HW

Dear Sirs,

We learn from the British Embassy that you are producing for export
hand-made shoes and gloves in pure hide and other natural materials.
There is a steady demand here for high-class goods of this type, especially in
the brighter colors. Sales are not high, but a good price can be obtained for
fashionable designs.
Will you please send us your catalogue and full details of your export prices
and terms of payment, together with any samples you can let us have.
We look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,

Samuel Hsieh

Introduction to Business English 44 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

(2) Inquiry from a buying agent

Sanders & Lowe Ltd.

Planter House, Princes Street, London EC1 7DO
Tel: 0715431615
Fax: 0715431925


Sales Manager
Glaston Pottences Ltd.
Burnley BB10 1RQ

Dear Sir or Madam,

We are writing to you on behalf of our principals in Canada who are interested in
importing chinaware from England.

Could you send us your latest catalogue and price-list, quoting your most
competitive prices?

Our principals are a large chain store in North America and will probably place sub-
stantial orders if the quality and prices of your products are suitable.

We look forward to hearing from you soon.

Yours faithfully,

L. W. Lowe (Mrs.)

Introduction to Business English 45 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

(3) Inquiry for electronic goods

33 Oxford Street London W1 OBJ

Tel.: 44-087-637 6482
Fax: 44-087-682 7989
Cables: Unics London
Our Ref.: SJ-2022 Your Ref.:


Tsang Electric Ltd.

P.O. Box 0634
Kwun Tong, Kowloon
Hong Kong

Dear Sirs

Electronic Supplies

We have been given your name by the Hong Kong Trade Commissioner in London
and would appreciate it if you would send us details of the personal computers,
computer printers and electronic notebooks that you are able to supply together with
your current price-list.

We are wholesale distributors of quality electronic office equipment and have a

number of retail outlets throughout the United Kingdom. It is therefore very likely
that if your products are of good quality and competitively priced, there will be a
considerable demand for them here and we will therefore want to place substantial
orders with you. We must, however, point out that, as there is already a range of
similar electronic products imported from Japan and manufactured locally on the
market here, it is essential you quote most competitive prices if you wish to pene-
trate the market effectively with your products.

We also trust you will agree to allow us attractive discount facilities on the orders
we hope to place. Please also inform us of your terms of trade and the duration
you normally take to ship orders.

We now look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully
for Universal Electronic Plc.

S. Johnson

Introduction to Business English 46 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

(4) Credit inquiry


Durban, South Africa


The Manager
Welsh Co-operative Bank
Seaway House
Glendower Road
Glamorgan 8RN 1TA

Dear Sir,

Your name has been given us a reference by the Starlight Company, which have
proposed to enter into business relations with us.

We should be obliged if you would be kind enough to tell us their credit rating,
capital, capacity, and reliability.

We assure you that any information, which you may give us, will be kept in
strict confidence and without any responsibility on your part.

Moreover, any expenses connected with this inquiry will be paid in full by us
upon the receipt of your bill.

We would appreciate your prompt attention o this matter as we are considering

to start business with them in the near future.

Faithfully yours,

J. Smith
Sales Manager


Introduction to Business English 47 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

(5) Reply to inquiry

The reply of a seller to the inquiry of a buyer with whom he does regular business does not
need to be more than polite and direct. The required information is given simply and clearly,
and nothing more is necessary. This applies to the commodity market in particular — i.e., raw
materials, foodstuffs — and to correspondence concerning consumer goods.

Such letters usually begin like this:

Opening Lines

1. Many thanks for your inquiry of November 3rd ….

2. We are pleased to have your inquiry ….
3. In your letter of May 13th you enquire about our ….
4. It was a pleasure to hear from you ….
5. We thank you for your letter of yesterday ….
6. As requested by you on the telephone today, we ….
7. In reply to your telegraphed inquiry of this morning ….
8. Replying to your inquiry of June 2nd ….
9. … we are glad to inform you that ….
10. … we are happy to advise you that ….
11. … we have pleasure in confirming ….
12. … we have in stock the items you need ….
13. …we can offer you immediately, ex-stock, ….
14. We are pleased to receive your inquiry, and to advise you that our agents in Asia hold
good stocks of all our products.
15. In reply to your inquiry of August 8th we (have pleasure in enclosing) (are sending you
herewith) ….
16. … the brochure requested.
17. …full details of our offer.
18. …particulars of our special lines.
19. Details of our export models
20. We thank you for your inquiry and have today sent you ….
21. … samples of all our wax polishes.
22. … patterns of our new silk fabrics.
23. … colour cards of our range of paints.
24. … a full range of samples.
25. We are obliged to you for your inquiry of 21st June, and ….
26. Referring to your letter of July 15th, we ….

Introduction to Business English 48 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

(5 - 1) Reply to inquiry



Your Ref.: DLK/2/7 Date

Our Ref. : PJB/LN/HM

John Berry & Co. Ltd.

Newcastle upon Tyne.

Dear Sirs,

With reference to your inquiry of May 13th, we confirm that we can supply the
cloth in question at 25p. per yard.

Delivery can be made ex-stock and your order dispatched within 24 hours.

Many thanks for your inquiry: we look forward to receiving your order in the
near future.

Yours faithfully,



Introduction to Business English 49 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

(5-2) Reply to inquiry


Specialists in Modern Design

Our Ref.:H/f150
Your Ref.: SR/1

A. B. White & Co., Ltd.
567 Queen Street
London, E.C.4

Attention: Export Department

Dear Sirs,

We thank you for your inquiry dated January 31st, and confirm our telephone
conversation today, in which we informed you that we can deliver a part of the
goods required from stock, in accordance with the enclosed detailed offer. For the
balance we should require at least 3 weeks from the date of receiving your confir-
mation that this delivery is acceptable.

Prices as quoted are f.o.b. U.K. port.

Packing in wooden cases ….
Delivery as specified above.
Payment against documents, by banker's draft.

We hope your customers will find our terms and delivery dates acceptable, and
we can assure you that you may count on our full co-operation in the matter.

Yours truly,


Managing director

Introduction to Business English 50 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

Unit 8 Offer
1. Seller’s Offer / Selling Offer
Buyer’s Offer / Buying Offer

2. Firm Offer
Free Offer

3. Counter Offer


1. We offer … subject to prior sale.
2. We offer … subject to being unsold.
3. We offer … without engagement.
4. We offer … subject to market fluctuation.
5. We offer … subject to change without notice.
6. We offer … subject to our confirmation.
7. We offer … subject to approval of export license.
8. We renew our offer of … subject to following alternatives.
9. Subject to shipping space available.
10. Any increase (or decrease) in exchange rate for buyer’s account.
11. Quantity at buyer’s option.
12. Subject to quota available.
13. Subject to reply received here by ….
14. Counter offer unacceptable.


1. Description of commodity
2. Quality
3. Quantity
4. Price
5. Shipment
6. Payment
7. Packing
8. Insurance

Introduction to Business English 51 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

(1) Offer sheet

Company Name
City, State Zip


Mr. Eddie Hsieh

King’s Meat and Seafood Corp.
1515, Herbert St.
Houston, TX 77012

Dear Mr. Hsieh:


We have the pleasure to submit you the following offer under the terms and condi-
tions set forth below:

Commodity: The seed of Sun Flower (Taiwan origin).

Specification: As per the samples enclosed.
Quantity: To be arranged.
Price: US$ 1,400.00 per M/T (1,000 kgs.) F.O.B. Kaohsiung.
Packing: 30 kgs. net packed in a bag (plastic bag inside and gunny bag outside)
Size: 31.3" x 22.5" x 20" about 8.1 cu.ft. (270 cu.ft. per M/T)
Shipment: From the middle of October to the end of October. Partial shipment
Payment: By Confirmed & Irrevocable L/C at sight for full amount in our favor,
L/C should be opened two weeks before shipment.
Remarks: 1. This offer is valid until September 20th.
2. The minimum order for each shipment is 3,000 kgs.
3. The above price is actual net without any commission or rebate.
4. Your order is subject to our final confirmation.
5. Certificate of Quality and Quantity issued by independent surveyor
is to be final.

Yours sincerely,

Introduction to Business English 52 Chapter 4: Business Dealings

(2) Counter offer

Company Name
City, State Zip


Mr. Stanley Lin

123 Sutton Place NW
Washington, D.C. 20000

Dear Mr. Lin

Thank you for your letter of September 2nd, offering 1,000 dozen of silk hand-
kerchief at US$ 12.00 per dozen.

However, we regret to inform you that we are not in a position to accept your offer
on these terms. We are obtaining the same quality through another channel at a
price 10% less than you quoted us. In case you can reduce the price to US$ 10.00
per dozen, it is possible for us to place an order for considerable quantity of this

We are looking forward to receiving your reply.

Yours truly


Sales Manager


Introduction to Business English 53 Chapter 4: Business Dealings


Unit 9 Placing an Order

If the seller’s offer is right, and his sales letters have caught the buyer’s eye, an order may
be expected to follow. The really difficult part of the business is now over and the remaining
correspondence is largely routine. We will, however, maintain that friendly, helpful attitude of
our earlier letters in all later correspondence. At all stages of a transaction, we must show the
buyer that our aim is to serve him well. Difficulties may arise at any time: unforeseen problems
may occur and misunderstandings ensue. All these things will need action and explanation, so
that the careful "turn of phrase" may be required in a letter to keep a customer in the right frame
of mind. In other words, every letter written to him should be a "silent salesman" — and a
lasting advertisement for the writer.

The buyer is able to write without such careful choice of language and is therefore brief and
"to the point", but the modern tendency towards an easier and more natural style in writing is
also noticeable here. This may be due to the influence of the years of shortage of goods and
materials, or perhaps we all realize today that courtesy costs nothing and that a friendly attitude
often wins a similar response, all of which can only help trade and improve trade relations.

First of all, accuracy is essential in the placing of an order. An error in quoting a cata-
logue number, or a mistyped figure in the quantity column can cause trouble which it may be
impossible to put right later. We may say that that is very elementary. It is, but such errors
are known to occur; a double check is the only prudent course — and at all stages.

The clarity is needed. The buyer must make clear to the seller exactly what he wants.
Most firms will agree that there is much room for improvement here. In the export business
there are also other things needed besides an accurate description of the goods. For example,
method of transport, packing, delivery and insurance; possible method of payment, if this has not
been settled already. Then the buyer may require some special documents for his own use or to
satisfy import regulations, etc. These must be asked for — the exporter cannot always know
what the buyer requires in this respect. Large firms will most probably use an export
order-form for ordering; the special requirements are printed on this form, and possibly also
details of their terms and conditions of purchase.

Some of the details that may need mention on an export order are:

1. Quality Clear reference to catalogue or list number; grade or class, for new materials
or natural produce; colour, pattern, model or finish, for manufactured goods; and
whether goods are to be inspected before shipment, or on arrival at the inward port.
2. Quantity Clear statement of the number, weight, length, etc., for each item ordered;
higher and lower limit, if total quantity not definite.
3. Alternative Alternative goods acceptable, if exact goods required not available.

Introduction to Business English 54 Chapter 5: Orders

4. Documents All documents required (Bill of Lading, Commercial Invoices, Consular
Invoices, Insurance Policy, and special declarations) and instructions for their sending.
5. Packing and Marking Full instructions.
6. Shipping or Forwarding Details of handling, warehousing, rout, agents, steamers,
etc., as needed.
7. Payment Details of settlement, where needed. Name of Bank negotiating draft —
Notification to Bank, with list of documents, etc.


Orders are usually written on a company’s official order form, which has a date, and a
reference number that should be quoted in any correspondence which refers to the order. Even
if the order is telephoned, it must be confirmed in writing, and an order form should always be
accompanied by either a compliment slip or a covering letter. A covering letter is preferable as
it allows us the opportunity to make any necessary points and confirm the terms that have been

Opening Explaining there is an order accompanying the letter

z The enclosed order (No. R154) is for 5 tons of polymer.
z Thank you for your reply of 12 May regarding the cassettes we wrote to you about.
z Enclosed you will find our official order (No. B123) for ….

Payment Confirming the terms of payment

z As agreed you will draw on us at 30 days, documents against acceptance, with the
documents being sent to our bank at ….
z We could like to confirm that payment is to be made by irrevocable letter of credit,
which we have already applied, to the bank for.
z Once we have received your advice, we will send a banker’s draft to …
z … and we agreed that payments would be made against quarterly statements.

Discount Confirming the agreed discounts

z We would like to thank you for the 30% trade discount and 10% quantity discount you
allowed us.
z … and we will certainly take advantage of the cash discounts you offered for prompt
z Although the rather low trade discount of 15% disappointed us, we will place an order
and hope that this allowance can be reviewed at some time in the near future.

Delivery Confirming the delivery dates

z It is essential that the goods are delivered before the beginning of November in time for
the Christmas rush.
z Delivery before February is a firm condition of this order, and we reserve the right to
refuse goods delivered after that time.
z Please confirm that you can complete the work before the end of March, as the opening
of the supermarket is planned for the beginning of April.

Introduction to Business English 55 Chapter 5: Orders

Method of delivery Many firms use forwarding agents that are specialists in packing and
handling the documentation for shipping goods. Nevertheless, we should still advise the
firm as to how we want the goods packed and sent to ensure prompt and safe delivery, so
that if the consignment does arrive late, or in a damaged state, our letter is evidence of the
instructions we gave.
z Please send the goods by Red Star express as we need them urgently.
z We advise delivery by road to avoid constant handling of this fragile consignment.
z Could you please ship by scheduled freighter to avoid any unnecessary delays.

Packing Advise our supplier how we want the goods packed. Note, in the first example,
that crates are often marked with a sign — a diamond, a target, a square, a lion, etc. — that
can be recognized by the supplier and customer.
z Each piece of crockery is to be individually wrapped in thick paper, packed in straw,
and shipped in wooden crates marked ◇ and numbered 1 to 6.
z The machines must be well greased with all movable parts secured before being loaded
into crates, which must be marked.

Covering letter

Dear Mr. Causio

Please find enclosed our order, N0. DR4316, for men’s and boys’ sweaters in
assorted sizes, colours, and designs.

We have decided to accept the 15% trade discount you offered and terms of payment
viz. Documents against payment, but would like these terms reviewed in the near

Would you please send the shipping documents and your sight draft to Northminster
Bank (City Branch), Deal Street, Birmingham B3 1SQ.

If you do not have any of the listed items in stock, please do not send substitutes in
their place.

We would appreciate delivery within the next six weeks, and look forward to hearing
your acknowledgement.

Yours sincerely
Chief buyer
Enc. Order form No. DR4316

Introduction to Business English 56 Chapter 5: Orders


Company Name
City, State Zip

Mr. D. Causio
Satex S.p.A
Via di Pietra Papa
00146 Rome

Authorized _________________

Quantity Item description Cat. No. Price

c.i.f. London

50 V Neck: 30 Red / 20 Blue R432 £13.80 each

30 Roll Neck: 15 Black / 15 Blue N154 £ 9.40 each
30 Crew Neck: 15 Green / 15 Beige N154 £13.00 each
40 Crew Neck: pattern R541 £12.60 each

Note: Subject to 5% quantity discount

Comments: 15% Trade Disc. Pymt. D/P Del. 6 weeks Date:

Introduction to Business English 57 Chapter 5: Orders

The order has been received, and the usual practice is to acknowledge it at once. With
small routine orders from regular customers this may be done by means of a ready-printed
postcard. This at least tells the buyer that his order has been received and is receiving attention;
in addition, it saves time and unnecessary correspondence.

More satisfactory is a letter in which the acknowledgement takes the form of a repetition of
the order. This serves as a check on the accuracy of the description of the goods ordered and
turns the order into a firm contract.

In all other cases, a polite letter of acknowledgement is obviously good policy. The seller
started by expressing his intention of serving his customer when he made his first offer; it is only
common sense to show his pleasure in being now entrusted with the business.

This need not take long, but the letter should refer to the actual goods ordered and the terms
agreed; it should close with an assurance that the order will be carefully attended to and
promptly delivered. Of course, the seller will only do this if he is as good as his word. A
promise made must be kept, if he wants to hold his customer.

(1) Manufacturer acknowledges order

Dear Mr. Wong

Thank you very much for your order of August 24 for:

5 doz. Tea Services No. 53.
3 doz. Dinner Services No. 65
4 gross Cups and Saucers, export seconds, white

All these items are in stock, and we can guarantee delivery to your Washington
warehouse well before October 2. As requested, we will advise you of date of

We are at your service at all times.

Sincerely yours

Introduction to Business English 58 Chapter 5: Orders

(2) Acknowledgement of order

Satex S.p.A.
Via di Pietra Papa, 00146 Roma

Telefono: Roma 769910

Telefax: (06) 6815473
Telex: 285136

Mr. L. Crane, Chief Buyer Vs. rif.: Order DR4316

F. Lynch & Co. Ltd. Ns. rif.: D/1140
Nesson House
Newell Street Day month, year
Birmingham B3 3EL

Dear Mr. Crane

Thank you for your order (No. DR4316) which we are now making up.

We have all the items in stock and will be advising you in the near future.

Yours sincerely


D. Causio

Introduction to Business English 59 Chapter 5: Orders

(3) Advice of dispatch

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation):

You asked us to advise you when the goods ordered on your indent No.35 of
January 25 were ready for dispatch.

We now have the pleasure of confirming that your order is completed and
awaits collection at our works. The consignment consists of 5 crates, weight 3
cwt. each.

Transport, insurance and freight are being arranged by our forwarding agent, Fa.
Lederer Gear., Hamburg, on whom you may rely on export handling and early

As soon as we receive the statement of forwarding charges from our agents, we

shall send you our invoice and the necessary documents by airmail. The amount
of the invoice will be charged to the account which we now have pleasure in
opening with you, and we shall draw on you quarterly in future.

We appreciate the confidence you have placed in us and assure you that our aim
is to serve you well.

Yours faithfully,


Introduction to Business English 60 Chapter 5: Orders

(4) Delays in delivery

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation):

The recent strike of transport workers here has caused delay in the despatch of a
number of our Export Orders, and we regret that yours, too, is temporarily held up.

Your order was despatched from here 2 days ahead of the guaranteed time, and
we find on inquiry that the goods are actually in London awaiting shipment. We
are making private arrangements for their transport to the docks and should be able
to get them on the next steamer, which sails on October 3rd.

We apologize for this unfortunate delay and are doing our utmost to get your
order away.

Yours faithfully,



Introduction to Business English 61 Chapter 5: Orders

Refusing an order

There are a number of reasons for a firm refusing an order, and some of the most common
are given below. Whatever our reason, we must be polite: the words ‘reject’ and ‘refuse’ have
a negative tone to them, therefore it is better to use ‘decline’ or ‘turn down’ instead.

Out of stock We may be out of stock of the product ordered, or indeed, we may no longer
make it. Note that, in either case, we have an opportunity to sell an alternative product, but
remember not to criticize the product we can no longer supply.

Bad reputation The customer may have a bad reputation for setting their accounts or, in
the case of a retailer of, say, electrical or mechanical products, may have offered a poor
after-sales service which could in turn affect our reputation.

Unfavorable terms The supplier may not like the terms the customer has asked for, either
for delivery.

Size of order The quantity required might be too large or too small.

(6) Refusing an order

Dear (salutation):

Thank you for your order, No.Hu1345, which we received today.

Unfortunately, we do not feel that we can offer the trade discounts, which you
have asked for, viz. 35 per cent, as we only allow a 25 per cent trade discount to all
our customers regardless of the quantity they buy.

Our prices are extremely competitive and it would not be worthwhile supplying
on the allowance you have asked for. Therefore, in this instance, I regret that we
have to turn down your order.

Yours sincerely,

Introduction to Business English 62 Chapter 5: Orders


Unit 10 Letter of Credit



Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits

1993 Revision

國際商會 1993 年 信用狀統一慣例


A. General Provisions and Definitions 1-5

B. Form and Notification of Credits 6-12

C. Liabilities and Responsibilities 13-19

D. Documents 20-38

E. Miscellaneous Provisions 39-47

F. Transfer 48

G. Assignment of Proceeds 49

Introduction to Business English 63 Chapter 6: Payment

A. General Provisions and Definitions 總則與定義

Article 1 Application of UCP 統一慣例之適用

The Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, 1993 revision, ICC Publica-
tion No 500 shall apply to all Documentary Credits ( including, to the extent to which they may
be applicable, Standby Letters of Credit) where they are incorporated into the text of the Credit.
They are binding on all parties thereto, unless otherwise expressly stipulated in the Credit.

Article 2 Meaning of Credit 信用狀之意義

For the purposes of these Articles, the expressions "Documentary Credit(s)" and "Standby
Letter(s) of Credit" (hereinafter referred to as "Credit(s)"), mean any arrangement, however
named or described, whereby a bank (the Issuing Bank), acting at the request and on the instruc-
tions of a customer (the “Applicant”) or on its own behalf,

i. is to make a payment to or to the order of a third partly (the “Beneficiary”), or is to

accept and pay bills of exchange (Draft(s)) drawn by the Beneficiary, or
ii. authorizes another bank to effect such payment, or to accept and pay such bills of
exchange (Draft(s)), or
iii. authorizes another bank to negotiate,

against stipulated document(s), provided that the terms and conditions of the Credit are
complied with.

For the purposes of these Articles, branches of a bank in different countries are considered
another bank.

Article 3 Credits vs. Contracts 信用狀與契約

a Credits, by their nature, are separate transactions from the sales or other contract(s) on
which they may be based and banks are in no way concerned with or bound by such
contract(s), even if any reference whatsoever to such contract(s) is included in the Credit.
Consequently, the undertaking of a bank to pay, accept and pay Draft(s) or negotiate and/or
to fulfill any other obligation under the Credit, is not subject to claims or defenses by the
Applicant resulting from his relationships with the Issuing Bank or the Beneficiary.

b A Beneficiary can in no case avail himself of the contractual relationships existing between
the banks or between the Applicant and the Issuing Bank.

Article 4 Documents vs. Goods / Services / Performances

單據與貨物 / 勞務 / 履約行為
In Credit operations all parties concerned deal with documents, and not with goods, services
and/or other performances to which the documents may relate.

Introduction to Business English 64 Chapter 6: Payment

Article 5 Instructions to Issue / Amend Credits 開發 / 修改信用狀之指示

a Instructions for the issuance of a credit, the Credits itself, instructions for an amendment
thereto, and the amendment itself, must be complete and precise.

In order to guard against confusion and misunderstanding, banks should discourage any
i. to include excessive detail in the Credit or in any amendment thereto;
ii. to give instructions to issue, advise or confirm a Credit by reference to a Credit previ-
ously issued (similar Credit) where such previous Credit has been subject to accepted
amendment(s), and/or unaccepted amendment(s).

b All instructions for the issuance of a Credit and the Credit itself and, where applicable, all
instructions for an amendment thereto and the amendment itself, must state precisely the
document(s) against which payment, acceptance or negotiation is to be made.

B. Form and Notification of Credits 信用狀之類型與通知

Article 6 Revocable vs. Irrevocable Credits 可撤銷與不可撤銷信用狀

a A Credit may be either

I. revocable, or
II. irrevocable

b The credit, therefore, should clearly indicate whether it is revocable or irrevocable.

c In the absence of such indication the Credit shall be deemed to be irrevocable.

Article 7 Advising Bank’s Liability 通知銀行之義務

a A Credit may be advised to a Beneficiary through another bank (the “Advising Bank”)
without engagement on the part of the Advising Bank, but that bank, if it elects to advise the
Credit, shall take reasonable care to check the apparent authenticity of the Credit which it
advises. If the bank elects not to advise the Credit, it must so inform the Issuing Bank
without delay.

b If the Advising Bank cannot establish such apparent authenticity it must inform, without
delay, the bank from which the instructions appear to have been received that it has been
unable to establish the authenticity of the Credit and if it elects nonetheless to advise the
Credit it must inform the Beneficiary that it has not been able to establish the authenticity of
the Credit.

Introduction to Business English 65 Chapter 6: Payment

Article 8 Revocation of a Credit 信用狀之撤銷

a A revocable Credit may be amended or cancelled by the Issuing Bank at any moment and
without prior notice to the Beneficiary.

b However, the Issuing Bank must:

i. reimburse another bank with which a revocable Credit has been made available for
sight payment, acceptance or negotiation, for any payment, acceptance or negotiation
made by such bank — prior to receipt by it of notice of amendment or cancellation,
against documents which appear on their face to be in compliance with the terms and
conditions of the Credit;
ii. reimburse another bank with which a revocable Credit has been made available for
deferred payment, if such a bank has, prior to receipt by it of notice of amendment or
cancellation, taken up documents which appear on their face to be in compliance with
the terms and conditions of the Credit.

Article 9 Liability of Issuing and confirming Banks


a An irrevocable Credit constitutes a definite undertaking of the Issuing Bank, provided that
the stipulated documents are presented to the Nominated Bank or to the Issuing Bank and
that the terms and conditions of the Credit are complied with:

i. if the Credit provides for sight payment — to pay at sight;

ii. if the Credit provides for deferred payment — to pay on the maturity date(s)
determinable in accordance with the stipulations of the Credit;
iii. if the Credit provides for acceptance
a. by the Issuing Bank — to accept Draft(s) drawn by the Beneficiary on the Issuing
Bank and pay them at maturity. or
b. by another drawee bank — to accept and pay at maturity Draft(s) drawn by the
Beneficiary on the Issuing Bank in the event the drawee bank stipulated in the
Credit does not accept Draft(s) drawn on it, or to pay Draft(s) accepted but not
paid by such drawee bank at maturity;
iv. if the credit provides for negotiation — to negotiate without recourse to drawers and/or
bona fide holders, Draft(s) drawn by the Beneficiary and/or document(s) presented
under the Credit. A Credit should not be issued available by Draft(s) on the applicant.
If the Credit nevertheless calls for Draft(s) on the Applicant, banks will consider such
Draft(s) as an additional document(s).

b A confirmation of an irrevocable Credit by another bank (the “Confirming Bank”) upon the
authorization or request of the Issuing Bank, constitutes a definite undertaking of the
Confirming Bank, in addition to that of the Issuing Bank, provided that the stipulated docu-
ments are presented to the Confirming Bank or to any other Nominated Bank and that the
terms and conditions of the Credit are complied with;

Introduction to Business English 66 Chapter 6: Payment

i. if the Credit provides for sight payment — to pay at sight;
ii. if the Credit provides for deferred payment — to pay on the maturity date(s)
determinable in accordance with the stipulations of the Credit;
iii. if the credit provides for acceptance:
a. by the Confirming Bank — to accept drafts drawn by the Beneficiary on the
confirming bank and pay them at maturity. or
b. by another drawee bank — to accept and pay at maturity Draft(s) drawn by the
Beneficiary on the Confirming Bank, in the event the drawee bank stipulated in
the Credit does not accept Draft(s) drawn on it, or to pay Draft(s) accepted but not
paid by such drawee bank at maturity;
iv. Unless the Issuing Bank specifies otherwise in its authorization or request to add
confirmation, the Advising Bank may advise the Credit to the Beneficiary without
adding its confirmation.

i. If another bank is authorized or requested by the Issuing Bank to add its confirmation
to a Credit but is not prepared to do so, it must so inform the issuing Bank without
ii. If the Credit provides for negotiation — to pay without recourse to drawers and/or
bona fide holders, Draft(s) drawn by the Beneficiary and/or document(s) presented
under the Credit. A Credit should not be issued available by Draft(s) on the applicant.
If the Credit nevertheless calls for Draft(s) on the applicant, banks will consider such
Draft(s) as an additional document(s).
i. Except as otherwise provided by Article 48, an irrevocable Credit can neither be
amended nor cancelled without the agreement of the Issuing Bank, the Confirming
Bank, if any, and the Beneficiary.
ii. The issuing Bank shall be irrevocably bound by an amendment(s) issued by it from the
time of the issuance of such amendment(s). A confirming Bank may extend its
confirmation to an amendment and shall be irrevocably bound as of the time of its
advice of the amendment. A Confirming Bank may, however, choose to advise an
amendment to the Beneficiary without extending its confirmation and if so, must
inform the issuing Bank and the Beneficiary without delay.
iii. The terms of the original Credit (or a Credit incorporating previously accepted
amendment(s) will remain in force for the Beneficiary until the Beneficiary
communicated his acceptance of the amendment. The Beneficiary should give
notification of acceptance or rejection of amendment(s). If the Beneficiary fails to
give such notification, the tender of documents to the Nominated Bank or Issuing Bank,
that conform to the Credit and to not yet accepted amendment(s), will be deemed to be
notification of acceptance by the Beneficiary of such amendment(s) and as of that
moment the Credit will be amended.
iv. Partial acceptance of amendments contained in one and the same advice of amendment
is not allowed and consequently will not be given any effect.

Introduction to Business English 67 Chapter 6: Payment

Article 10 Types of Credit 信用狀之型式

a All Credits must clearly indicate whether they are available by sight payment, by deferred
payment, by acceptance or by negotiation.

b i. Unless the Credit stipulates that it is available only with the Issuing Bank, all credits
must nominate the bank (the “Nominated Bank”) which is authorized to pay, to incur a
deferred payment undertaking, to accept Draft(s) or to negotiate. In a freely negotiable
Credit, any bank is a Nominated Bank.
Presentation of documents must be made to the Issuing Bank or the Confirming Bank,
if any, or any other Nominated Bank.
ii. Negotiation means the giving of value for Draft(s) and/or document(s) by the bank
authorized to negotiate. Mere examination of the documents without giving of value
does not constitute a negotiation.

c Unless the Nominated Bank is the Confirming Bank, nomination by the Issuing Bank does
not constitute any undertaking by the Nominated Bank to pay, to incur a deferred payment
undertaking, to accept Draft(s), or to negotiate. Except where expressly agreed to by the
Nominated Bank and so communicated to the Beneficiary, the Nominated Bank’s receipt of
and/or examination and/or forwarding of the documents does not make that bank liable to
pay, to incur a deferred payment undertaking, to accept Draft(s), or to negotiate.

d By nominating another bank, or by allowing for negotiation by any bank, or by authorizing

or requesting another bank to add its confirmation, the Issuing Bank authorizes such bank to
pay, accept Draft(s) or negotiate as the case may be, against documents which appear on
their face to be in compliance with the terms and conditions of the Credit, and undertakes to
reimburse such bank in accordance with the provisions of these Articles.

Article 11 Teletransmitted and Pre-advised Credits


a i. When an Issuing Bank instructs an Advising Bank by an authenticated teletransmis-

sion to advise a Credit or an amendment to a Credit, the teletransmission will be
deemed to be the operative amendment, and no mail confirmation should be sent.
Should a mail confirmation nevertheless be sent, it will have no effect and the
Advising Bank will have no obligation to check such mail confirmation against the
operative Credit instrument or the operative amendment received by teletransmission.
ii. If the teletransmission states “full details to follow” (or words of similar effect) or
states that the mail confirmation is to be the operative Credit instrument or the
operative amendment, then the teletransmission will not be deemed to be the operative
Credit instrument or the operative amendment. The Issuing Bank must forward the
operative Credit instrument or the operative amendment to such Advising Bank
without delay.

b If a bank uses the services of an Advising Bank to have the Credit advised to the

Introduction to Business English 68 Chapter 6: Payment

Beneficiary, it must also use the services of the same bank of advising an amendment(s).

c A preliminary advice of the issuance or amendment of an irrevocable Credit (pre-advice),

shall only be given by an Issuing Bank if such bank is prepared to issue the operative Credit
instrument or the operative amendment thereto. Unless otherwise stated in such
preliminary advice by the Issuing Bank, an Issuing Bank having given such pre-advice shall
be irrevocably committed to issue or amend the Credit, in terms not inconsistent with the
pre-advice, without delay.

Article 12 Incomplete or Unclear Instructions

If incomplete or unclear instructions are received to advise, confirm or amend a Credit, the
bank requested to act on such instructions may give preliminary notification to the Beneficiary
for information only and without responsibility. This preliminary notification should state
clearly that the notification is provided for information only and without the responsibility of the
Advising Bank. In any event, the Advising Bank must inform the Issuing Bank of the action
taken and request it to provide the necessary information.

The Issuing Bank must provide the necessary information without delay. The Credit will
be advised, confirmed or amended, only when complete and clear instructions have been
received and if the Advising Bank is then prepared to act on the instructions.

C. Liabilities and Responsibilities 義務與責任

Article 13 Standard for Examination of Documents

a Banks must examine all documents stipulated in the Credit with reasonable care, to
ascertain whether or not they appear, on their face, to be in compliance with the terms and
conditions of the Credit. Compliance of the stipulated documents on their face with the
terms and conditions of the Credit, shall be determined by international standard banking
practice as reflected in these Articles. Documents, which appear on their face to be
inconsistent with one another, will be considered as not appearing on their face to be in
compliance with the terms and conditions of the Credit.

Documents not stipulated in the Credit will not be examined by banks. If they receive
such documents, they shall return them to the presenter or pass them on without

b The Issuing Bank, the Confirming Bank, if any, or a Nominated Bank acting on their behalf,
shall each have a reasonable time, not to exceed seven banking days following the day of
receipt of the documents, to examine the documents and determine whether to take up or
refuse the documents and to inform the party from which it received the documents
c If a Credit contains conditions without stating the document(s) to be presented in

Introduction to Business English 69 Chapter 6: Payment

compli-ance therewith, banks will deem such conditions as not stated and will disregard

Article 14 Discrepant Documents and Notice 瑕疵單據與通知

a When the Issuing Bank authorizes another bank to pay, incur a deferred payment
undertaking, accept Draft(s), or negotiate against documents which appear on their face to
be in compliance with the terms and conditions of the Credit, the Issuing Bank and the
Confirming Bank, if any, are bound:
i. to reimburse the Nominated Bank which has paid, incurred a deferred payment under-
taking, accepted Drafts(s) or negotiated,
ii. to take up the documents.

b Upon receipt of the documents the Issuing Bank and/or confirming Bank, if any, or a
Nominated Bank acting on their behalf, must determine on the basis of the documents alone
whether or not they appear on their face to be in compliance with the terms and conditions
of the Credit. If the documents appear on their face not to be in compliance with the terms
and conditions of the Credit, such banks may refuse to take up the documents.

c If the Issuing Bank determines that the documents appear on their face not to be in
compliance with the terms and conditions of the Credit, it may in its sole judgment
approach the Applicant for a waiver of the discrepancy(ies). This does not, however,
extend the period mentioned in sub-Article 13(b).

d i. If the Issuing Bank and/or confirming Bank, if any, or a Nominated Bank

acting on their behalf, decides to refuse the documents, it must give notice to that
effect by telecommunication or, if that is not possible, by other expeditious means,
without delay but no later than the close of the seventh banking day following the day
of receipt of the documents. Such notice shall be given to the bank from which it
received the documents, or to the Beneficiary, if it received the documents directly
from him.
ii. Such notice must state all discrepancies in respect of which the bank refuses the
documents and must also state whether it is holding the documents at the disposal of,
or is returning them to, the presenter.
iii. The Issuing Bank and/or Confirming Bank, if any, shall then be entitled to claim from
the remitting bank refund, with interest, of any reimbursement which has been made to
that bank.

e If the Issuing Bank and/or Confirming Bank, if any, fails to act in accordance with the
provisions of this Article and/or fails to hold the documents at the disposal of, or return
them to the presenter, the Issuing Bank and/or Confirming Bank, if any, shall be precluded
from claiming that the documents are not in compliance with the terms and conditions of
the Credit.
f If the remitting bank draws the attention of the Issuing Bank and/or Confirming Bank, if

Introduction to Business English 70 Chapter 6: Payment

any, to any discrepancy(ies) in the document(s) or advises such banks that it has paid,
incurred a deferred payment undertaking, accepted Draft(s) or negotiated under reserve or
against an indemnity in respect of such discrepancy(ies), the Issuing Bank and/or
Confirming Bank, if any, shall not be thereby relieved from any of their obligations under
any provision of this Article. Such reserve or indemnity concerns only the relations
between the remitting bank and the party towards whom the reserve was made, or from
whom, or on whose behalf, the indemnity was obtained.

Article 15 Disclaimer on Effectiveness of Documents

Banks assume no liability or responsibility for the form, sufficiency, accuracy, genuineness,
falsification or legal effect of any document(s), or for the general and/or particular conditions
stipulated in the document(s) or superimposed thereon; nor do they assume any liability or
responsibility for the description, quantity, weight, quality, condition, packing, delivery, value or
existence of the goods represented by any document(s), or for the good faith or acts and/or
omissions, solvency, performance or standing of the consignor, the carriers, the forwarders, the
consignees or the insurers of the goods, or any other person whomsoever.

Article 16 Disclaimer on the Transmission of Messages

Banks assume no liability or responsibility for the consequences arising out of delay and/or
loss in transit of any message(s), letter(s) or document(s), or for delay, mutilation or other error(s)
arising in the transmission of any telecommunication. Banks assume no liability or
responsibility for errors in translation and/or interpretation of technical terms, and reserve the
right to transmit credit terms without translating them.

Article 17 Force Majeure 不可抗力

Banks assume no liability or responsibility for the consequences arising out of the
interruption of their business by Acts of God, riots, civil commotion, insurrections, wars or any
other causes beyond their control, or by any strikes or lockouts. Unless specifically authorized,
banks will not, upon resumption of their business, pay, incur a deferred payment undertaking,
accept Draft(s) or negotiate under Credits which expired during such interruption of their

Article 18 Disclaimer for Acts of an Instructed Party

a Banks utilizing the services of another bank or other banks for the purpose of giving effect
to the instructions of the Applicant for the credit do so for the account and at the risk of
such Applicant.

b Banks assume no liability or responsibility should the instructions they transmit not be
carried out, even if they have themselves taken the initiative in the choice of such other
c i. A party instructing another party to perform services is liable for any charges, include-

Introduction to Business English 71 Chapter 6: Payment

ing commissions, fees, costs or expenses incurred by the instructed party in connection
with its instructions.
ii. Where a Credit stipulates that such charges are for the account of a party other than the
instructing party, and charges cannot be collected, the instructing party remains
ultimately liable for the payment thereof.

d The Applicant for the credit shall be bound by and liable to indemnity the banks against all
obligations and responsibilities imposed by foreign laws and usage.

Article 19 Bank-to-bank Reimbursement Arrangements


a If an Issuing Bank intends that the reimbursement to which a paying, accepting or negoti-
ating bank is entitled shall be obtained by such bank (the “Claiming Bank”), claiming on
another party (the “Reimbursing Bank”), it shall provide such Reimbursing Bank in good
time with the proper instructions or authorization to honor such reimbursement claims.

b Issuing Banks shall not require a Claiming Bank to supply a certificate of compliance with
the terms and conditions of the Credit to the Reimbursing Bank.

c An Issuing Bank shall not be relieved from any of its obligations to provide reimbursement
if and when reimbursement is not received by the Claiming Bank from the Reimbursing

d The Issuing Bank shall be responsible to the Claiming Bank for any loss of interest if
reimbursement is not provided by the Reimbursing Bank on first demand, or as otherwise
specified in the credit, or mutually agreed, as the case may be.

e The Reimbursing Bank’s charges should be for the account of the Issuing Bank. However,
in cases where the charges are for the account of another party, it is the responsibility of the
Issuing Bank to so indicate in the original Credit and in the Reimbursement authorization.
In cases where the Reimbursing Bank’s charges are for the account of another party they
shall be collected from the Claiming Bank when the Credit is drawn under. In cases where
the Credit is not drawn under, the Reimbursing Bank’s charges remain the obligation of the
Issuing Bank.

D. Documents 單據
Article 20 Ambiguity as to the Issuers of Documents 含糊之單據簽發人用語
a Terms such as "first class"(一流的), "well known"(著名的), "qualified"(合格的), "inde-
pendent"(獨立的), "official"(正式的/官方的), "competent"(有資格的), "local"(本
地的)and the like, shall not be used to describe the issuers of any document(s) to be
presented under a Credit. If such terms are incorporated in the Credit terms, banks will
accept the relative document(s) as presented, provided that it appears on its face to be in

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compliance with the other terms and conditions of the Credit and not to have been issued by
the Beneficiary.

b Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, banks will also accept as an original document(s),
a document(s) produced or appearing to have been produced:

i. by reprographic, automated or computerized systems;

ii. as carbon copies;

Provided that it is marked as original and, where necessary, appears to be signed.

A document may be signed by handwriting, by facsimile signature, by perforated signature,

by stamp, by symbol, or by any other mechanical or electronic method of authentication.

i. Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, banks will accept as a copy(ies), a
document(s) either labeled copy or not marked as an original — a copy(ies) need not
be signed.

ii. Credits that require multiple document(s) such as “duplicate”, “two fold”, “two copies”
and the like, will be satisfied by the presentation of one original and the remaining
number in copies except where the document itself indicates otherwise.

d Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, a condition under a Credit calling for a document
to be authenticated, validated, legalized, visaed, certified or indicating a similar requirement,
will be satisfied by any signature, mark, stamp or label on such document that on its face
appears to satisfy the above condition.

Article 21 Unspecified Issuers or Contents of Documents

When documents other than transport documents, insurance documents and commercial
invoices are called for, the Credit should stipulate by whom such documents are to be issued and
their wording or data content. If the Credit does not so stipulate, banks will accept such
documents as presented, provided that their data content is not inconsistent with any other
stipulated document presented.

Article 22 Issuance Date of Documents vs. Credit Date

Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, banks will accept a document bearing a date of
issuance prior to that of the Credit, subject to such document being presented within the time
limits set out in the Credit and in these articles.

Article 23 Marine/Ocean Bills of Lading 海運 / 海洋提單

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a If a credit calling for a bill of lading covering a port-to-port shipment, banks will, unless
otherwise stipulated in the Credit, accept a document, however named, which:

i. appears on its face to indicate the name of the carrier and to have been signed or
otherwise authenticated by:
- the carrier or a named agent for or on behalf of the carrier, or
- the master or a named agent for or on behalf of the master.
Any signature or authentication of the carrier or master must be identified as carrier or
master, as the case may be. An agent signing or authenticating for the carrier or
master must also indicate the name and the capacity of the party, i.e., carrier or master,
on whose behalf that agent is acting, and

ii. indicates that the goods have been loaded on board, or shipped on a named vessel.

Loading on board or shipment on a named vessel may be indicated by pre-printed

wording on the bill of lading that the goods have been loaded on board a named vessel
or shipped on a named vessel, in which case the date of issuance of the bill of lading
will be deemed to be the date of loading on board and the date of shipment.

In all other cases loading on board a named vessel must be evidenced by a notation on
the bill of lading which gives the date on which the goods have been loaded on board,
in which case the date of the on board notation will be deemed to be the date of

If the bill of lading contains the indication “intended vessel”, or similar qualification in
relation to vessel, loading on board a named vessel must be evidenced by an on board
notation on the bill of lading which, in addition to the date on which the goods have
been loaded on board, includes the name of the vessel on which the goods have been
loaded, even if they have been loaded on the vessel named as the “intended vessel”.

If the bill of lading indicates a place of receipt or taking in charge different from the
port of loading, the on board notation must also included the port of loading stipulated
in the Credit and the name of the vessel on which the goods have been loaded, even if
they have been loaded on the vessel named in the bill of lading. This provision also
applies whenever loading on board the vessel is indicated by pre-printed wording on
the bill of lading,

iii. indicates the port of loading and the port of discharge stipulated in the Credit,
notwithstanding that it:
a. indicates a place of taking in charge different from the port of loading, and/or a
place of final destination different from the port of discharge,
b. contains the indication “intended” or similar qualification in relation to the port of
loading and/or port of discharge, as long as the document also states the ports of

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loading and /or discharge stimulated in the Credit, and
iv. consists of a sole original bill of lading or, if issued in more than one original, the full
set as so issued, and
v. appears to contain all of the terms and conditions of carriage, or some of such terms
and conditions by reference to a source or document other than the bill of lading (short
form/blank back bill of lading); banks will not examine the contents of such terms and
conditions, and
vi. contains no indication that it is subject to a charter party and/or no indication that the
carrying vessel is propelled by sail only, and
vii. in all other respects meets the stipulations of the Credit.

b For the purpose of this Article, transshipment means unloading and reloading from one
vessel to another vessel during the course of ocean carriage from the port of loading to the
port of discharge stipulated in the Credit.

c Unless transshipment is prohibited by the terms of the Credit, banks will accept a bill of
lading, which indicates that the goods will be transshipped, provided that the entire ocean
carriage is covered by one and the same bill of lading.

d Even if the Credit prohibits transshipment, banks will accept a bill of lading which:
i. indicates that transshipment will take place as long as the relevant cargo is shipped in
Container(s), Trailer(s) and/or “LASH” barge(s) as evidenced by the bill of lading,
provided that the entire ocean carriage is covered by one and the same bill of lading,
ii. incorporates clauses stating that the carrier reserves the right to transship.

Article 24 Non-Negotiable Sea Waybill


a If a credit calling for a non-negotiable sea waybill covering a port-to-port shipment, banks
will, unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, accept a document, however names, which:
i. appears on its face to indicate the name of the carrier and to have been signed or oth-
erwise authenticated by:
- the carrier or a named agent for or on behalf of the carrier, or
- the master or a named agent for or on behalf of the master.
Any signature or authentication of the carrier or master must be identified as carrier or
master, as the case may be. An agent signing or authenticating for the carrier or
master must also indicate the name and the capacity of the party, i.e., carrier or master,
on whose behalf that agent is acting, and
ii. indicates that the goods have been loaded on board, or shipped on a named vessel.
Loading on board or shipment on a named vessel may be indicated by pre-printed
wording on the bill of lading that the goods have been loaded on board a named vessel
or shipped on a named vessel, in which case the date of issuance of the non-negotiable
sea waybill will be deemed to be the date of loading on board and the date of shipment.
In all other cases loading on board a named vessel must be evidenced by a notation on
the non-negotiable sea waybill which gives the date on which the goods have been

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loaded on board, in which case the date of the on board notation will be deemed to be
the date of shipment.

If the non-negotiable sea waybill contains the indication “intended vessel”, or similar
qualification in relation to vessel, loading on board a named vessel must be evidenced
by an on board notation on the non-negotiable sea waybill which, in addition to the
date on which the goods have been loaded on board, includes the name of the vessel on
which the goods have been loaded, even if they have been loaded on the vessel named
as the “intended vessel”.

If the non-negotiable sea waybill indicates a place of receipt or taking in charge

different from the port of loading, the on board notation must also included the port of
loading stipulated in the Credit and the name of the vessel on which the goods have
been loaded, even if they have been loaded on the vessel named in the non-negotiable
sea waybill. This provision also applies whenever loading on board the vessel is
indicated by pre-printed wording on the non-negotiable sea waybill,


iii. indicates the port of loading and the port of discharge stipulated in the Credit, notwith-
standing that it:

a. indicates a place of taking in charge different from the port of loading, and/or a
place of final destination different from the port of discharge,
b. contains the indication “intended” or similar qualification in relation to the port of
loading and/or port of discharge, as long as the document also states the ports of
loading and /or discharge stimulated in the Credit, and

iv. consists of a sole original non-negotiable sea waybill or, if issued in more than one
original, the full set as so issued, and
v. appears to contain all of the terms and conditions of carriage, or some of such terms
and conditions by reference to a source or document other than the non-negotiable sea
waybill (short form/blank back non-negotiable sea waybill); banks will not examine
the contents of such terms and conditions, and
vi. contains no indication that it is subject to a charter party and/or no indication that the
carrying vessel is propelled by sail only, and
vii. in all other respects meets the stipulations of the Credit.

b For the purpose of this Article, transshipment means unloading and reloading from one
vessel to another vessel during the course of ocean carriage from the port of loading to the
port of discharge stipulated in the Credit.

c Unless transshipment is prohibited by the terms of the Credit, banks will accept a
non-negotiable sea waybill, which indicates that the goods will be transshipped, provided

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that the entire ocean carriage is covered by one and the same non-negotiable sea waybill.

d Even if the Credit prohibits transshipment, banks will accept a non-negotiable sea waybill

i. appears on its face to have been signed or otherwise authenticated by:

- the master or a named agent for or on behalf of the master, or
- the owner or a named agent for or on behalf of the owner.
Any signature or authentication of the master or owner must be identified as master or
owner as the case may be. An agent signing or authenticating for the master or owner
must also indicate the name and the capacity of the party, i.e., master or owner, on
whose behalf that agent is acting, and
ii. does or does not indicate the name of the carrier, and
iii. indicates that the goods have been loaded on board, or shipped on a named vessel.
Loading on board or shipment on a named vessel may be indicated by pre-printed
wording on the non-negotiable sea waybill that the goods have been loaded on board a
named vessel or shipped on a named vessel, in which case the date of issuance of the
non-negotiable sea waybill will be deemed to be the date of loading on board and the
date of shipment.
iv. indicates that transshipment will take place as long as the relevant cargo is shipped in
Container(s), Trailer(s) and/or “LASH” barge(s) as evidenced by the non-negotiable
sea waybill, provided that the entire ocean carriage is covered by one and the same
non-negotiable sea waybill, and/or
v. incorporates clauses stating that the carrier reserves the right to transship.

Article 25 Chartered Party Bill of Lading 傭船提單

a If a Credit calls for or permits a charter party bill of lading, banks will, unless otherwise
stipulated in the Credit, accept a document, however named, which:
i. contains any indication that it is subject to a charter party, and
ii. In all other cases loading on board a named vessel must be evidenced by a notation on
the bill of lading which gives the date on which the goods have been loaded on board,
in which case the date of the on board notation will be deemed to be the date of ship-
ment, and
iii. Indicates the port of loading and the port of discharge stipulated in the Credit, and
iv. Consists of a sole original bill of lading or, if issued in more than one original, the full
set as so issued, and
v. Contains no indication that the carrying vessel is propelled by sail only, and
vi. In all other respects meets the stipulation of the Credit.

b Even if the Credit requires the presentation of a charter party contract in connection with a
charter party bill of lading, banks will not examine such charter party contract, but will pass
it on without responsibility on their part.

Article 26 Multimodal Transport Document 複合運送提單

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a If a Credit calls for a transport document covering at least two different modes of transport
(multimodal transport), banks will, unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, accept a document,
however named, which:

i. appears on its face to indicate the name of the carrier or multimodal transport operator
and to have been signed or otherwise authenticated by:
- the carrier or multimodal transport operator or a named agent for or on behalf of
the carrier or multimodal transport operator, or
- the master or a named agent for or on behalf of the master.
Any signature or authentication of the carrier, multimodal transport operator or master
must be identified as carrier, multimodal transport operator or master, as the case may
be. An agent signing or authenticating for the carrier, multimodal transport operator
or master must also indicate the name and the capacity of the party, i.e., carrier, multi-
modal transport operator or master, on whose behalf that agent is acting.
ii. indicates that the goods have been dispatched, taken in charge or loaded on board.
Dispatch, taking in charge or loading on board may be indicated by wording to that
effect on the multimodal transport document and the date of issuance will be deemed
to be, the date of dispatch, taking in charge or loading on board and the date of
shipment. However, if the document indicates, by stamp or otherwise, a date of
dispatch, taking in charge or loading on board, such date will be deemed to be the date
of shipment. and
a. indicated the place of taking in charge stipulated in the Credit which may be
different from the port, airport or places of loading, and the place of final
destination stipulated in the Credit which may be different from the port, airport
or place of discharge, and/or
b. contains the indication “intended” or similar qualification in relation to the vessel
and/or port of loading and/or port of discharge, and
iv. consists of a sole original multimodal transport document or, if issued in more than one
original, the full set as so issued, and
v. appears to contain all of the terms and conditions of carriage, or some of such terms
and conditions by reference to a source or document other than the multimodal
transport document (short form/blank back multimodal transport document); banks
will not examine the contents of such terms and conditions, and
vi. contains no indication that it is subject to a charter party and/or no indication that the
carrying vessel is propelled by sail only, and
vii. in all other respects meets the stipulations of the Credit.

Article 27 Air Transport Document 航空運送單據

a If a Credit calls for an air transport document, banks will, unless otherwise stipulated in the
Credit, accept a document, however named, which:
i. appears on its face to indicate the name of the carrier and to have been signed or
otherwise authenticated by:
- the carrier, or
- a named agent for or on behalf of the carrier.

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Any signature or authentication of the carrier must be identified as carrier. An agent
signing or authenticating for the carrier must also indicate the name and the capacity of
the party, i.e., carrier, on whose behalf that agent is acting, and
ii. indicates that the goods have been accepted for carriage, and
iii. where the Credit calls for an actual date of dispatch, indicates a specific notation of
such date, the date of dispatch so indicated on the air transport document will be
deemed to be the date of shipment.
For the purpose of this Article, the information appearing in the box on the air
transport document (marked “For Carrier Use Only” or similar expression) relative to
the flight number and date will not be considered as a specific notation of such date of
In all other cases, the date of issuance of the air transport document will be deemed to
be the date of shipment, and
iv. indicates the airport of departure and the airport of destination stipulated in the Credit,
v. appears to be the original for consignor/shipper even if the Credit stipulates a full set of
originals, or similar expressions, and
vi. appears to contain all of the terms and conditions of carriage, or some of such terms
and conditions, by reference to a source or document other than the air transport
document; banks will not examine the contents of such terms and conditions, and
vii. in all other respects meets the stipulations of the Credit.

b For the purpose of this Article, transshipment means unloading and reloading from one
aircraft to another aircraft during the course of carriage from the airport of departure to the
airport of destination stipulated in the Credit.
c Even if the Credit prohibits transshipment, banks will accept an air transport document,
which indicated that transshipment will or may take place, provided that the entire carriage
is covered by one and the same air transport document.

Article 28 Road, Rail or Inland Waterway Transport Documents


a If a Credit calls for a road, rail, or inland waterway transport document, banks will, unless
otherwise stipulated in the Credit, accept a document of the type called for, however named,
i. appears on its face to indicate the name of the carrier and to have been signed or
otherwise authenticated by the carrier or a named agent for or on behalf of the carrier
and/or to bear a reception stamp or other indication of receipt by the carrier or a named
agent for or on behalf of the carrier.
Any signature, authentication, reception stamp or other indication of receipt of the
carrier, must be identified on its face as that of the carrier. An agent signing or
authenticating for the carrier, must also indicate the name and the capacity of the party,
i.e., carrier, on whose behalf that agent is acting, and
ii. indicates that the goods have been received for shipment, dispatch or carriage or
wording to this effect. The date of issuance will be deemed to be the date of

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shipment unless the transport document contains a reception stamp, in which case the
date of the reception stamp will be deemed to be the date of shipment.
iii. Indicates the place of shipment and the place of destination stipulated in the Credit,
iv. In all other respects meets the stipulations of the Credits
b In the absence of any indication on the transport document as to the numbers issued, banks
will accept the transport document(s) presented as constituting a full set. Banks will
accept as original(s) the transport document(s) whether marked as original(s) or not.

c For the purpose of this Article, transshipment means unloading and reloading from one
means of conveyance to another means of conveyance, in different modes of transport,
during the course of carriage from the place of shipment to the place of destination
stipulated in the Credit.

d Even if the Credit prohibits transshipment, banks will accept a road, rail, or inland waterway
transport document which indicates that transshipment will or may take place, provided that
the entire carriage is covered by one hand the same transport document and within the same
mode of transport.

Article 29 Courier and Post Receipts 快遞及郵政收據

a If a Credit calls for a post receipt or certificate of posting, banks will, unless otherwise
stipulated in the Credit, accept a post receipt or certificate of posting which:
i. appears on its face to have been stamped or otherwise authenticated and dated in the
place from which the Credit stipulates the goods are to be shipped or dispatched and
such date will be deemed to be the date of shipment or dispatch, and
ii. in all other respects meets the stipulations of the Credit.

b If a Credit calls for a document issued by a courier or expedited delivery service evidencing
receipt of the goods for delivery, banks will, unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit,
accept a document, however named, which:
i. appears on its face to indicate the name of the courier/service, and to have been
stamped, signed or otherwise authenticated by such named courier/service (unless the
Credit specifically calls for a document issued by a named Courier/Service, banks will
accept a document issued by any Courier/Service), and
ii. indicates a date of pick-up or of receipt or wording to this effect, such date being
deemed to be the date of shipment or dispatch, and
iii. in all other respects meets the stipulations of the Credit.

Article 30 Transport Documents issued by Freight Forwarders


Unless otherwise authorized in the Credit, banks will only accept a transport document issued by
a freight forwarder if it appears on its face to indicate:
i. the name of the freight forwarder as a carrier or multimodal transport operator and to
have been signed or otherwise authenticated by the freight forwarder as carrier or

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multimodal transport operator, or
ii. the name of the carrier or multimodal transport operator and to have been signed or
otherwise authenticated by the freight forwarder as a named agent for or on behalf of
the carrier or multimodal transport operator

Article 31 “On Deck”, “Shipper’s Load and Count”, Name of Consignor


Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, banks will accept a transport document which:
i. does not indicate, in the case of carriage by sea or by more than one means of
conveyance including carriage by sea, that the goods are or will be loaded on deck.
Nevertheless, banks will accept a transport document which contains a provision that
the goods may be carried on deck, provided hat it does not specifically state that they
are or will be loaded on deck, and/or
ii. bears a clause on the face thereof such as “shipper’s load and count” or “said by
shipper to contain” or words of similar effect, and/or
iii. indicates as the consignor of the goods a party other than the Beneficiary of the Credit.

Article 32 Clean Transport Documents 清潔運送單據

a A clean transport document is one which bears no clauses or notation which expressly
declares a defective condition of the goods and/or the packaging.

b Banks will not accept transport documents bearing such clauses or notations unless the
Credit expressly stipulates the clauses or notations, which may be accepted.

c Banks will regard a requirement in a Credit for a transport document to bear the clause
“clean on board” as complied with if such transport document meets the requirements of
this Article and of Articles 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 or 30.

Article 33 Freight Payable/Prepaid Transport Documents


a Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, or inconsistent with any of the documents
presented under the Credit, banks will accept transport documents stating that freight or
transportation charges (hereafter referred to as “freight”) have still to be paid.
b If a Credit stipulates that the transport document has to indicate that freight has been paid or
prepaid, banks will accept a transport document on which words clearly indicating payment
or prepayment of freight appear by stamp or otherwise, or on which payment or prepayment
of freight is indicated by other means. If the Credit requires courier charges to be paid or
prepaid banks will also accept a transport document issued by a courier or expedited
delivery service evidencing that courier charges are for the account of a party other than the
c The words “freight prepayable” or “freight to be prepaid” or words of similar effect, if
appearing on transport documents, will not be accepted as constituting evidence of the

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payment of freight.

d Banks will accept transport documents bearing reference by stamp or otherwise to costs
additional to the freight, such as costs of, or disbursements incurred in connection with,
loading, unloading or similar operations, unless the conditions of the Credit specifically
prohibit such reference.

Article 34 Insurance Documents 保險單據

a Insurance documents must appear on their face to be issued and signed by insurance
companies or underwriters or their agents.

b If the insurance document indicates that it has been issued in more than one original, all the
originals must be presented unless otherwise authorized in the Credit.

c Cover notes issued by brokers will not be accepted, unless specifically authorized in the

d Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, banks will accept an insurance certificate or a
declaration under an open cover pre-signed by insurance companies or underwriters or their
agents. If a Credit specifically calls for an insurance certificate or a declaration under an
open cover, banks will accept, in lieu thereof, an insurance policy.

e Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, or unless it appears from the insurance document
that the cover is effective at the latest from the date of loading on board or dispatch or
taking in charge of the goods, banks will not accept an insurance document which bears a
date of issuance later than the date of loading on board or dispatch or taking in charge as
indicated in such transport document.

f i. Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, the insurance document must be

expressed in the same currency as the Credit.
ii. Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, the minimum amount for which the
insurance document must indicate the insurance cover to have been effected is the CIF
(cost, insurance and freight (…. “named port of destination”)) or CIP (carriage and
insurance paid to (…. “named place of destination”)) value of the goods, as the case
may be, plus 10%, but only when the CIF or CIP value can be determined from the
documents on their face. Otherwise, banks will accept as such minimum amount
110% of the amount for which payment, acceptance or negotiation is requested under
the Credit, or 110% of the gross amount of the invoice, whichever is the greater.

Article 35 Type of Insurance Cover 保險之承保範圍之種類

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a Credits should stipulate the type of insurance required and, if any, the additional risks which
are to be covered. Imprecise terms such as “usual risks” or “customary risks” shall not be
used; if they are used, banks will accept insurance documents as presented, without respon-
sibility for any risks not being covered.
b Failing specific stipulations in the Credit, banks will accept insurance documents as
presented, without responsibility for any risks not being covered.
c Unless otherwise stipulated in the Credit, banks will accept an insurance document, which
indicates that the cover is subject to a franchise or an excess (deductible).

Article 36 All Risks Insurance Cover 全險之承保範圍

Where a Credit stipulates “insurance against all risks”, banks will accept an insurance document
which contains any “all risks” notation or clause, whether or not bearing the heading “all risks”,
even if the insurance document indicates that certain risks are excluded, without responsibility
for any risk(s) not being covered.

Article 37 Commercial Invoices 商業發票

a Unless otherwise stipulated in the credit, commercial invoices :

i. must appear on their face to be issued by the Beneficiary named in the Credit (except
as provided in Article 48),
ii. must be made out in the name of the Applicant (except as provided in sub-Article 48
(h)), and
iii. need not be signed.

b Unless otherwise stipulated in the credit, banks may refuse commercial invoices issued for
amounts in excess of the amount permitted by the credit. Nevertheless, if a bank
authorized to pay, incur a deferred payment undertaking, accept Draft(s) or negotiate under
a Credit accepts such invoices, its decision will be binding upon all parties, provided such
bank has not paid, incurred a deferred payment undertaking, accepted Draft(s) or negotiated
for an amount in excess of that permitted by the credit.

c The description of the goods in the commercial invoice must correspond with the
description in the credit. In all other documents, the goods may be described in general
terms not inconsistent with the description of the goods in the credit.

Article 38 Other Documents 其他單據

If a credit calls for an attestation or certification of weight in the case of transport other than by
sea, banks will accept a weight stamp or declaration of weight which appears to have been
superimposed on the transport document by the carrier or his agent unless the credit specifically
stipulates that the attestation or certification of weight must be by means of a separate document.

E. Miscellaneous Provisions 雜項規定

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Article 39 Allowances in Credit Amount, Quantity and Unit Price

a The words "about", "approximately", "circa" or similar expressions used in connection with
the amount of the credit or the quantity or the unit price stated in the credit are to be
construed as allowing a difference not to exceed 10% more or 10% less than the amount or
the quantity or the unit price to which they refer.

b Unless a credit stipulates that the quantity of the goods specified must not be exceeded or
reduced, a tolerance of 5% more or 5% less will be permissible, even if partial shipments
are not permitted, always provided that the amount of the drawings does not exceed the
amount of the credit. This tolerance does not apply when the credit stipulates the quantity
in terms of a stated number of packing units or individual items.

c Unless a Credit which prohibits partial shipments stipulates otherwise, or unless sub-Article
(b) above is applicable, a tolerance of 5% less in the amount of the drawing will be
permissible, provided that if the Credit stipulates the quantity of the goods, such quantity of
goods is shipped in full, and if the Credit stipulates a unit price, such price is not reduced.
This provision does not apply when expressions referred to in sub-Article(a) above are used
in the Credit.

Article 40 Partial drawings / shipments 部分動支 / 部分裝運

a Partial drawing and/or shipments are allowed, unless the credit stipulates otherwise.

b Transport documents which appear on their face to indicate that shipment has been made on
the same means of conveyance and for the same journey, provided they indicate the same
destination, will not be regarded as covering partial shipments, even is the transport
documents indicate different dates of shipment and/or different ports of loading, places of
taking in charge, or dispatch.

c Shipments made by post or by courier will not be regarded as partial shipments if the post
receipts or certificates of posting or courier’s receipts or dispatch notes appear to have been
stamped, signed or otherwise authenticated in the place from which the credit stipulates the
goods are to be dispatched, and on the date.

Article 41 Installment Shipments/Drawings 分期裝運 / 分期動支

If drawings and/or shipments by installments within given periods are stipulated in the credit and
any installment is not drawn and/or shipped within the period allowed for that installment, the
credit ceases to be available for that and any subsequent installments, unless otherwise stipulated
in the credit.

Article 42 Expiry Date and Place for Presentation of documents

Introduction to Business English 84 Chapter 6: Payment

a All credits must stipulate an expiry date and a place for presentation of documents for
payment, acceptance or with the exception of freely negotiable Credits, a place for
presentation of documents for negotiation. An expiry date stipulated for payment,
acceptance or negotiation will be construed to express an expiry date for presentation of
b Except as provided in sub-Article 44(a), documents must be presented on or before such
expiry date.

c If an Issuing Bank states that the credit is to be available "for one month", "for six months"
or the like, but does not specify the date from which the time is to run, the date of issuance
of the credit by the issuing bank will be deemed to be the first day from which such time is
to run. Banks should discourage indication of the expiry date of the credit in this manner.

Article 43 Limitation on the Expiry Date


a In addition to stipulating an expiry date for presentation of documents, every credit which
calls for a transport document(s) should also stipulate a specified period of time after the
date of shipment during which presentation of documents for payment, acceptance or nego-
tiation must be made in compliance with the terms and conditions of the Credit. If no such
period of time is stipulated, banks will not accept documents presented to them later than 21
days after the date of shipment. In any event, documents must be presented not later than
the expiry date of the credit.

b In cases in which sub-Article 40(b) applies, the date of shipment will be considered to be
the latest shipment date on any of the transport documents presented.

Article 44 Extension of Expiry Date 有效期限之展延

a If the expiry date of the credit and/or the last day of the period of time after the date of
issuance of the transport documents(s) for presentation of documents stipulated by the
credit or applicable by virtue of Article 43 falls on a day on which the bank to which
presentation has to be made is closed for reasons other than those referred to in article 17,
the stipulated expiry date and/or the last day of the period of time after the date of shipment
for presentation of documents, as the case may be, shall be extended to the first following
day on which such bank is open.

b The latest date for shipment shall not be extended by reason of the extension of the expiry
date and/or the period of time after the date of shipment for presentation of documents in
accordance with sub-Article(a) above. If no such latest date for shipment is stipulated in
the credit or amendments thereto, banks will not accept transport documents indicating a
date of shipment later than the expiry date stipulated in the Credit or amendments thereto.

c The bank to which presentation is made on such first following business day must provide a

Introduction to Business English 85 Chapter 6: Payment

statement that the documents were presented within the time limits extended in accordance
with sub-Article 44(a) of the Uniform. Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits,
1993 revision, ICC Publication No 500.

Article 45 Hours of Presentation 提示時間

Banks are under no obligation to accept presentation of documents outside their banking hours.

Article 46 General Expressions as to Dates for Shipment

a Unless otherwise stipulated in the credit, the expression "shipment" used in stipulating an
earliest and/or a latest shipment date will be understood to include expressions such as,
"loading on board", "dispatch", "accepted for carriage", "date of post receipt", "date of
pick-up", and the like, and in the case of a Credit calling for a multimodal transport
document the expression "taking in charge".

b Expressions such as “prompt”, “immediately”, “as soon as possible”, and the like should
not be used. If they are used, banks will disregard them.

c If the expression “on or about” or “on/but” and similar expressions are used, banks will
interpret them as a stipulation that shipment is to be made during the period from five days
before to live days after the specified date, both end days included.

Article 47 Date Terminology for Periods of Shipment


a The words "to", "until", "till", "from", and words of similar import applying to any date
term in the Credit referring to shipment will be understood to include the date mentioned.

b The word "after" will be understood to exclude the date mentioned.

c The terms "first half", "second half" of a month shall be construed respectively as from the
1st to the 15th, and the 16th to the last day of such month, all dates inclusive.

d The terms "beginning", "middle", or "end " of a month shall be construed respectively as
from the 1st to the 10th, the 11th to the 20th, and the 21st to the last day of such month, all
dates inclusive.

F. Transferable Credit 可轉讓信用狀

Article 48 Transferable Credit

a A transferable Credit is a credit under which the Beneficiary (First Beneficiary) may request
the bank authorized to pay, incur a deterred payment undertaking, accept or negotiate (the
“Transferring Bank”), or in the case of a freely negotiable Credit, the bank specifically

Introduction to Business English 86 Chapter 6: Payment

authorized in the Credit as a Transferring Bank, to make the credit available in whole or in
part to one or more other Beneficiary(ies) (Second Beneficiary(ies))
b A Credit can be transferred only if it is expressly designated as "transferable" by the Issuing
Bank. Terms such as "divisible", "fractional", "assignable", and "transmissible" do not
render the Credit transferable. If such terms are used they shall be disregarded.

c The Transferring Bank shall be under no obligation to effect such transfer except to the
extent and in the manner expressly consented to by such bank.

d At the time of making a request for transfer and prior to transfer of the Credit, the First
Beneficiary must irrevocably instruct the Transferring Bank whether or not he retains the
right to refuse to allow the Transferring Bank to advise amendments to the Second
Beneficiary(ies). If the Transferring Bank consents to the transfer under these conditions,
it must, at the time of transfer, advise the Second Beneficiary(ies) of the First Beneficiary’s
instructions regarding amendments.

e If a Credit is transferred to more than one Second Beneficiary(ies) refusal of an amendment

by one or more Second Beneficiary(ies) does not invalidate the acceptance(s) by the other
Second Beneficiary(ies) with respect to whom the Credit will be amended accordingly.
With respect to the Second Beneficiary(ies) who rejected the amendment, the Credit will
remain unamended.

f Transferring Bank charges in respect of transfers including commissions, fees, costs or

expenses are payable by the First Beneficiary, unless otherwise agreed. If the Transferring
Bank agrees to transfer the Credit it shall be under no obligation to effect the transfer until
such charges are paid.

g Unless otherwise stated in the Credit, a transferable Credit can be transferred once only.
Consequently, the Credit cannot be transferred at the request of the Second Beneficiary to
any subsequent Third Beneficiary. For the purposes of this Article, a retransfer to the First
Beneficiary does not constitute a prohibited transfer.
Fractions of a transferable credit (not exceeding in the aggregate the amount of the Credit)
can be transferred separately, provided partial shipments/drawings are not prohibited, and
the aggregate of such transfers will be considered as constituting only one transfer of the

h The Credit can be transferred only on the terms and conditions specified in the original
Credit, with the exception of:
- the amount of the Credit,
- any unit prices stated therein,
- the expiry date,
- the last date for presentation of documents in accordance with Article 43,
- the period for shipment,
any or all of which may be reduced or curtailed.
The percentage for which insurance cover must be effected, which may be increased in such

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a way as to provide the amount of cover stipulated in the original Credit, or these Articles.

In addition, the name of the First Beneficiary can be substituted for that of the Applicant,
but if the name of the Applicant is specifically required by the original Credit to appear in
any document(s) other than the invoice, such requirement must be fulfilled.

I The First Beneficiary has the right to substitute his own invoice(s) (and draft(s)) for those of
the Second Beneficiary(ies), for amounts not in excess of the original amount stipulated in
the Credit and for the original unit prices if stipulated in the Credit, and upon such
substitution of invoice(s) (and draft(s)) the First Beneficiary can draw under the Credit for
the difference, if any, between his invoice(s) and the Second Beneficiary’s(ies’) invoice(s).

j The First Beneficiary may request that payment or negotiation be effected to the Second
Beneficiary(ies) at the place to which the Credit has been transferred, up to and including
the expiry date of the Credit, unless the original Credit expressly states that it may not be
made available for payment or negotiation at a place other than that stipulated in the Credit.
This is without prejudice to the First Beneficiary’s right to substitute subsequently his own
invoice(s) (and Draft(s)) for those of the Second Beneficiary(ies) and to claim any
differ-ence due to him.

G. Assignment of Proceeds 款項之讓與

Article 49 Assignment of Proceeds 款項之讓與

The fact that a Credit is not stated to be transferable shall not affect the beneficiary’s right to
assign any proceeds to which he may be, or may become, entitled under such credit, in
accordance with the provisions of the applicable law. This Article relates only to the
assignment of proceeds and not to the assignment of the right to perform under the Credit itself.

When a Credit has been transferred and the First Beneficiary is to supply his own invoice(s) (and
Draft(s)) in exchange for the Second Beneficiary’s(ies’) invoice(s) (and Draft(s)) but fails to do
so on first demand, the Transferring Bank has the right to deliver to the Issuing Bank the
documents received under the transferred Credit, including the Second Beneficiary’s(ies’)
invoice(s) (and Draft(s)) without further responsibility to the First Beneficiary.

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6.10.2 SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication)
環球銀行財務電信協會, 1977, 總部:布魯塞爾


DATE : 990605
TIME : 16:56:04 PAGE: 001

1 B1 : Sender header (sender +osn)

1 B2 : (message type + message priority)
1 27 : Sequence of total
1 40A : Documentary credit form
1 20 : Documentary credit number
1 31C : Date of issue
1 31D : Date and place of expiry
1 50 : Applicant
1 59 : Beneficiary
1 32B : Currency code, amount
1 41D : Available with … By ….
1 42C : Drafts at …
1 42A : Drawee (SWIFT TID)
1 43P : Partial shipments
1 43T : Transshipment

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1 44A : Loading on board/Dispatch/Taking in C
1 44B : For transportation to/Ship to ….
1 44C : Latest date of shipment
1 45A : Shipment of (goods)
** Please see continuation message **
1 46A : Documents required
** Please see continuation message **
1 47A : Additional conditions
** Please see continuation message **
1 71B : Charges


DATE : 990605
TIME : 16:56:04 PAGE: 002
1 49 : Confirmation instructions
0 53D : Reimbursement bank
NEW YORK, NY. 10005, USA
ACC NO.: 000-02824-0
0 78 : Instructions to NEG Bank
0 57D : "Advise through" bank


Introduction to Business English 90 Chapter 6: Payment

DATE : 990605
TIME : 16:56:04 PAGE: 003
1 B1 : Sender header (sender + osn)
1 B2 : (message type + message priority)
1 27 : Sequence of total
1 20 : Documentary credit number
0 45B : Shipment of (goods)
AQUATREAT DNM-30 ….. 2,857.68KGS (PKD:12 DRUMS)
AQUATREAT AR-540 …….. .476.28KGS (PKD: 2 DRUMS)


DATE : 990605
TIME : 16:56:04 PAGE: 004
1 B1 : Sender header (sender + osn)
1 B2 : (message type + message priority)
1 27 : Sequence of total
1 20 : Documentary credit number
0 46B : Documents required

Introduction to Business English 91 Chapter 6: Payment

DATE : 990605
TIME : 16:56:04 PAGE: 005

1 B1 : Sender header (sender + osn)

1 B2 : (message type + message priority)
1 27 : Sequence of total
1 20 : Documentary credit number
0 47B : Additional conditions


Introduction to Business English 92 Chapter 6: Payment

Unit 11 Invoice and Settlement of Account
6.11.1 INVOICE
When the customer’s order is received by the manufacturer it is acknowledged by letter or
post-card. It is then "passed" for execution — by the Sales Manager or his department — and
the work of packing the order can begin; or, in the case of goods not in stock, the order is sent to
the factory for manufacture. In either case, there is "paper-work" to be done by the office of the
manufacturer, as many of his departments must have details of the order. Much time and work
is saved by the modern practice of using one kind of printed form for this purpose, copies in
different colors being sent to the different departments. Details of customer’s name, goods
ordered, order number, terms and any special instructions will be typed on this form, with space
left for the price of the various items ordered. In this way, the accounts department can also use
one of these copies as the INVOICE, or make out as many copies as are needed for a shipping

The INVOICE is an important document in the Export Trade, as copies may be required by
Banks, Export /Import Agents, Shipping Companies, Customs authorities, and Consulates. It is
therefore one of the Shipping Documents, and as there are other types of invoices, this one is
called the commercial invoice.

The invoice will be sent to the customer by post, or through an agent or through a bank. In
the case of single or isolated transactions, payment is then demanded, either before delivery or
on delivery of the goods. This method of payment is called payment on invoice.

Where, however, the buyer has an open account with the seller, the latter will not want
"Payment on invoice". Instead he keeps a record of all invoices sent out to his customer and
then, once a month (or once a quarter-year) he will send an account of all the goods despatched
and payments received during this period. This document is called the "statement" (i.e.,
Statement of Account) and the customer knows that he now has to pay. This is called payment
on statement.

A pro-forma invoice is a detailed statement of costs which is sent to a buyer for

information, and which must be paid before the goods are delivered. A pro-forma invoice is
1. if the customer has to pay for the goods before receiving them, i.e., he pays against the
2. if the customer wants to make sure that a quotation will not be changed: the pro-forma
will tell him exactly what and how he will be charged;
3. if goods are sent on approval, or on sale or return, or on consignment to an agent who
will sell them on behalf of the principal;
4. as a customs document.

Introduction to Business English 93 Chapter 6: Payment

The invoice may be classified as follows

A. Commercial Invoice
I. Shipping Invoice

1. Sales Invoice
(1) Loco Invoice
(2) F.A.S. Invoice
(3) F.O.B. Invoice
(4) C.& F. Invoice
(5) C.I.F. Invoice
(6) Franco Invoice
2. Consignment Invoice
3. Indent Invoice
4. Sample Invoice

II. Pro-forma Invoice

B. Official Invoice
I. Consular Invoice

II. Customs Invoice

Rather than requiring immediate payment of invoices, a supplier may grant his customer
credit in the form of open account facilities for an agreed period of time, usually a month but
sometimes a quarter (three months). At the end of the period a statement of account is sent to
the customer, listing all the transactions between the buyer and seller for that period.

Statements of account rarely have letters accompanying them unless there is a particular
point that the supplier wants to make, e.g.,, that the account is overdue, or that some special
concession is available for prompt payment.

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Specimen invoice

INVOICE No. 1092/A3

City, State Zip


Mackenzie Bros. Ltd.

1-5 Whale Drive
Dawson, Ontario

Quantity Description Cat. No. Unit Price Amount

35 Earthenware R 194 25.00 875.00
10 Wedgwood W 161 37.50 375.00
15 Bone/Tea T 21 12.00 180.00
10 Stafford shire Red S 73 22.60 226.00

c.i.f. USD1,666.00 USD1,666.00

Less Cost & Freight
Liverpool/Dawson 147.00
Less Insurance 92.00

10% discount off net price USD 1,427.00 Less Disc. USD 142.70

Total USD 1,514.30

Registered No. 716481 VAT Reg. No. 133534108

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Specimen statement

(1) Statement for services

City, State Zip


To: Thomas B. Slocum

42 West Oak Road
Sherman, TX 75090

Statement for Services

March 1st - March 15th

March 1st
General Housecleaning 4 hrs. @ $15.00 per hr. $60.00

March 8th
General Housecleaning 4 hrs. @ $15.00 per hr. $60.00

March 15th
General Housecleaning 2 hrs. @ $15.00 per hr. $30.00
Yard Maintenance 2 hrs. @ $20.00 per hr. $40.00

Total: $190.00

Payment is due upon receipt.

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(2) Statement for goods delivered

City, State Zip


Mr. Stanley Jarvis

519 Sutton Place NW
Washington, D.C. 20027

Statement for goods delivered

Qty. 4 RVA 250 volt plug @ $ 150.00

Subtotal $ 600.00
Delivery charge $ 35.00
Total $ 635.00
Less deposit $ 100.00
Amount due $ 535.00

Payment is due upon receipt.

Introduction to Business English 97 Chapter 6: Payment


Incoterms 1993
(1) Ex Works (ex factory, ex mill, ex plantation, ex warehouse, etc.) 工廠交貨價
(2) FOR (free on rail) 出口地鐵路貨車上交貨價
FOT (free on truck) 出口地卡車上交貨價
(3) FAS (free alongside ship) 出口港船邊交貨價
(4) FOB (free on board) 出口港船上交貨價
(5) C&F (cost and freight) 進口港含運費交貨價
(6) CIF (cost, insurance, and freight) 進口港含運費保險費在內交貨價
(7) Freight or Carriage Paid to .... (named point of destination)
(8) Ex Ship 進口港船上交貨價
(9) Ex Quay (duty paid) 進口港碼頭上交貨價
(10) Delivered at Frontier .…
(11) Delivered.… Duty Paid (place of destination in the country of importation)
(12) FOB Airport 出口國機場交貨價


(1) C.W.O. (cash with order) 訂貨付款
* Payment in advance, by any of the following means:
(a) Telegraphic Transfer or Mail Transfer
(b) Banker’s Draft
(c) Check

(2) L/C (Payment against Letter of Credit) 憑信用狀方式付款

(3) B/C (Bill for Collection / Cash against Documents, CAD) 託收

D/P 付款交單
* Payment by sight bill, documents against payment.
* Payment by draft drawn on buyer payable at sight D/P.

D/A 承兌交單
* Payment by draft payable 60 days after on board date of B/L,
document against acceptance.

(4) C.O.D. (Cash On Delivery / Collect On Delivery) 貨到付款

* Net Cash Against Documents payable in New York.

(5) Installment 分期付款

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(6) On Consignment 寄售付款
* Payment against goods shipped on consignment.
* Payment shall be made by check when the goods have been sold.
* By clean bill payable at 180 days after contract date.


(1) Check It is possible to pay an overseas supplier by check, but it takes a long
time before the supplier gets his money. 支票

(2) Bank transfer Payment can be made by ordering a home bank to transfer
money to an overseas account. If telegraphed, the transfer is known as a tele-
graphic transfer (TT), and if mailed, a mail transfer (MT). The Society for
Worldwide Interbank Financial Communications (SWIFT) offers facilities for a
24-hour transfer of money to a beneficiary on its computer systems. 銀行轉帳

(3) Bankers draft This is a banker’s check which the bank draws on itself and sells
to the customer, who then sends it to his supplier as he would an ordinary inland
check. So if we have to pay our supplier USD 2,000, we purchase the banker’s
draft for that amount, plus charges. Usually the receiver’s bank should either
have an account with the sender’s bank, or an agreement. 銀行匯票

(4) Promissory notes A promissory note is not a method of payment but simply a
written promise from a debtor to a creditor that the former will pay the stipulated
amount either on demand or after a certain date, in effect a promissory note is an
IOU (I owe you). 本票

(5) Bill of exchange The seller draws a bill on the buyer. The bill states that the
buyer will pay the seller an amount within a stated time, e.g., 30 days. The bill is
sent to the buyer either by post, or through a bank, and the buyer signs (accepts)
the bill before the goods are sent. If this is done through a bank, the bank will
ask the buyer to accept the bill before handing over the shipping documents; this
is known as a documents against acceptance transaction (D/A). 匯票

(6) Documentary credit This term is used to distinguish the normal letter of credit,
used in business, from the circular letter of credit, formerly used by foreign
travelers and now largely replaced by Eurochecks, traveler’s checks, and cash
check credits. Documentary credits have to be applied for from the buyer’s bank,
by filling out a form giving details of the type of credit (i.e., revocable or
irrevocable), the beneficiary (the person receiving the money), the amount, how
long the credit will be available for (i.e., valid until …), the document involved
(bill of lading, insurance, invoice, etc.), and a description of the goods. The
money will be credited to the supplier’s account as soon as confirmation of ship-
ment is made. This is done when the documents are lodged with the customer’s
bank. 跟單信用狀 / 單據信用狀 / 押匯信用狀

Introduction to Business English 99 Chapter 6: Payment

(1) Error in totaling invoice

Dear Sirs,

With reference to your invoice No. 21029 of July 3rd, we have to point out that you have made an
error in your total. We calculate the correct figure at USD 33.73, not USD 253.73 as given by

Our check for the former amount is enclosed and we should be obliged if you would amend the
invoice or pass the necessary credit.

Yours faithfully,

(2) Disagreement on goods sent and charged

Ref.: Our Indent No. 00234

Your Invoice No.12345
Dear Sirs,

The various items supplied against the above Indent have now been checked and we regret
to inform you that there is a discrepancy between the goods sent and the amount invoiced.

Item No.5 of our indent called for 10 x 6 Men’s Poplin shirts, size L, and this quantity was
in fact received. We noticed that your packing note showed 12 x 6 Shirts against this item, and
now we find that your invoice shows this quantity, too.

Will you kindly look into the matter and let us have your credit for the difference in due

Yours faithfully,

(3) Incorrect discount in statement

Dear Sirs,

Your Statement of Account for the December quarter has been found in order but we think
you have made an error the special discount shown. In your letter of September 15th last you
agreed to allow us 5% extra on quarterly transactions exceeding $1,000 in value. The amount
of the statement in question is $1,106, but you have shown discount at only 2%.

Will you kindly adjust this, after which we shall be pleased to pass the account for payment.

Yours faithfully,

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(4) Seller complains of short payment

Dear Sirs,

We thank you for your remittance for $117.18 received today by our bankers. Our official
receipt is enclosed.

The amount of the statement in question is $157.18 and as you make no mention of this in
your recent communications we are wondering if this is a clerical error on your part.

Perhaps you would remit the balance of $40 in the course of the next few days.

Yours faithfully,
(5) Customer asks for monthly account terms

Dear Sirs,

We have now been doing business with you for nearly a year and are pleased to say that we
are more than satisfied with the goods you have supplied.

In the coming year we shall probably place regular orders with you and our present method
of payment by Letter of Credit will become inconvenient. We should also find a short credit of
advantage to our trading capacity.

We accordingly ask you to supply us on monthly account terms, payment against statement
within 30 days. You may refer to Messrs. George Lin and Jimmy Chen with whom we have
credit accounts.
Yours faithfully,

(6) Extension of credit

Dear Sirs,

Your quarterly statement reached us yesterday and has been found correct.

As you know, we have always settled your account promptly and regret very much that we now
find it necessary to ask you if you will allow us an extra few weeks in which to clear the current

Our difficulties are temporary and have been caused by the failure of the early fruit crop here, on
which many of our customers are dependent. We are confident of being able to settle in full
within 6-8 weeks.

We shall appreciate it as a helpful gesture if you can grant us this concession.

Yours faithfully,

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Unit 12 Collection Letter
Any trading company hopes its clients will settle their accounts in good time, but
unfortunately they do not always do so. The companies therefore have to write letters, perhaps
again and again, calling for payment. Such letters are called collection letters, demand letters
or final demand letters. They must be carefully written, for it is important to avoid causing
unnecessary offence, but nevertheless those who write them want their clients to pay their debts.
It is usually for companies to send their statements of account, sometimes with a reminder they
are still outstanding, before they write their first collection letter.

There has probably never been a trading firm, the accounts department of which has not had
to spend a considerable amount of time in trying to get customers to pay accounts that become
overdue. However, it can and sometimes does happen that an account is not paid when due. A
buyer may run into a period of bad trade and find himself temporarily short of money; he may
have a complaint about the goods sent; he may refuse to accept a Bill of Exchange; or delays and
misunderstandings may be caused by customs regulations in his country. A wise customer will
advise his supplier of any such situation and try to get some concession from him. If he does
not, and an account becomes overdue, the seller has the task of asking for payment.

If, however, a firm decides to send a letter requesting payment, the style or tone of the letter
will depend on the kind of customer for whom it is intended; how long overdue; whether
customer has previously allowed accounts to become overdue; how valuable the business is, etc.

A "first" request will usually be friendly in tone, be accompanied by a copy of the account,
and show neither annoyance nor hint of doubt about the customer’s intention to pay.

If no reply to a "first" request is received within a reasonable period, the seller may begin to
have genuine doubts about the customer’s intentions or his ability to pay, and he may feel
inclined to make enquiries through an agency or call on his Bankers to assist in obtaining
payment. It is prudent, however, to send a second letter before taking action which may cost
money and create ill will.

The third letter will have to show that the writer cannot and will not wait any longer for his
money and that he now intends to take some action to enforce payment. Just what action will
depend on individual circumstances. A bank’s help may be requested; a debt-collecting agency,
a trade association, a solicitor, or even a government official may be asked to act.

Introduction to Business English 102 Chapter 6: Payment

(1) First letter to a previously regular payer

Dear Sirs,

As we have always received your payments punctually, we are puzzled to have had neither
remittance nor report from you in connection with our current statement of April 7th.

We think you may not have received our letter containing the statement, as settlement is
now 4 weeks overdue. We are accordingly enclosing a copy of the account to the amount of
$2,345.60 and you will not doubt give it your early attention.

Yours faithfully,

(2) First collection letter to a new credit account customer

Dear Sirs,

Under our agreement, payment for individual orders sent to you is due 2 months from date
of invoice.

The consignment of watch springs sent you by airfreight on June 15th was invoiced to you
on June 16th and payment was accordingly due on August 16th.

No doubt it is through an oversight on your part that settlement is now 3 weeks overdue and
we look forward to receiving your remittance in the course of a few days.

May we ask you for prompt clearance of all invoiced accounts, as we can only supply at our
agreed prices if this is done.

Yours faithfully,

(3) Second collection letter

We regret very much that you have not replied to our letter of May 23rd asking you to clear
the amount of $3,456 outstanding against invoice No. 167. Kindly inform us if there are any
reasonable grounds for your non-payment, or alternatively advise us of what arrangements you
are making for settlement.
On April 1st we sent you our statement showing a balance due of $7,889. This sum should
have been paid by April 30th, but, receiving no remittance, we wrote to you again on May 25th,
enclosing a copy of the statement. As we are still without any reply from you, we regret to say
that we must hold your order No.111 until we have your payment or an explanation of your
delay in replying to our letters.

Introduction to Business English 103 Chapter 6: Payment

No reply appears to have been received to our letter of June 6th, asking for clearance of the
balance of your account. We are quite sure that you have some good reason for your failure to
pay this sum within the agreed time, but regret very much that you have not informed us of it.
Whatever the reason, however, we must remind you that our terms are 30 days net. We expect
your reply by airmail or cable.

Since sending you a reminder on October 31st, we have not pressed you for settlement of
our September Statement because on the whole your payments have been fairly satisfactory since
we granted you open account terms. Please do not make it necessary for us to revise our terms
of business by withholding payment any longer. We look forward to receiving your immediate


When we placed you on "open account" terms it was agreed between us that settlement
should be made within 30 days of date of statement. Your payments have not always been
made in accordance with our agreement and your present balance of $318 is now a months
overdue. It is impossible for us to continue supplying you unless you meet your obligations
promptly and we now have to ask you to confirm by cable that you have arranged for payment.


Dear Sirs,

It is our wish to serve you promptly and with first-class goods. So far, we think we have done
this, for your orders have come in regularly and we have had no complaints from you.

We should like to continue providing you with this service, but you also have your part to play in
making this possible, which is to settle our accounts within the stipulated time. Unfortunately,
your response to our appeal has not been very helpful.

Send us your remittance at once please, and make further service possible.

Yours faithfully,

Introduction to Business English 104 Chapter 6: Payment

(4) Third collection letter

Dear Sirs,

Ref.: Our letters KP/1 - KP/2 of May 2, June 15th

All our attempts to induce you to clear your indebtedness to us have been ignored, and we
are quite unable to understand why you have not even replied to our letters.

We think we have shown reasonable patience and consideration, but we can do so no longer
and must now reluctantly take steps to obtain payment at law.

As you must yourselves appreciate, your own credit and reputation are certain to suffer by
our action but we regret that there is no alternative. If, however, you make an immediate
payment to Chang Hwa Commercial Bank of the full amount due, we will suspend action against

Yours faithfully,


Dear Sir,

Account No. 78567

We submitted our statement of the account mentioned above on 28th December 1997 and 28th
January 1998 and subsequently wrote to you on 1st and 24th March to remind you the account
was still unsettled.

We are very surprised to have received neither payment in settlement nor any letter from you to
explain why you have made no payment. In these circumstances we regret that we will have no
alternative but to put the matter in the hands of our solicitors if we have not received your check
in settlement for $8,023 or heard from you why you are unable to settle this account by 30th
April .

Yours faithfully,
Electronics Ltd.

John Hsieh

Introduction to Business English 105 Chapter 6: Payment

Collection letter, moderate tone, letter #1

Dear Mr. Lin:

As of March 31st, we have not received your February payment yet. Have you forgotten?
Please check your records.

If you have already sent your payment, please disregard this notice and accept our thanks
for your payment.


S. P. Wong
Collection Manager

Collection letter, moderate tone, letter #2

Dear Mr. Lin:

You have been a valued customer for many years, and you have always been conscientious about
paying your bills within the 30-day payment period.

Your good credit rating has enabled you to purchase from us on convenient payment terms at a
substantial discount. Because of your prompt payment record, we have been glad to serve as a
reference when you have applied for credit with other suppliers.

To keep your good credit rating and to continue receiving a substantial discount, payment of
your account is necessary. Are you having some problem that we can help you with?

By sending your check for $350.00 in the enclosed stamped envelope, you will bring your
account up-to-date and protect your credit rating. If this is not feasible, please call or write me


S. P. Wong
Collection Manager


Introduction to Business English 106 Chapter 6: Payment

Collection letter, moderate tone, letter #3

Dear Mr. Lin:

This morning I received your file with a big OVERDUE stamped on it. I receive customer files
only when some serious problem has occurred.

Your order was shipped over four months ago, and we still have not received a payment from
you. As you are in business, Mr. Huang, you must realize that we cannot afford to carry this
debt on our books any longer.

To preserve your credit privileges, please do one of the following:

z Remit the full amount of $350.00 today.

z Send us $150.00 as partial payment, with the balance payable by June 12th.
z Explain your situation, and let us know what you can do to meet your obligation.

Your immediate response is necessary.


S. P. Wong

Collection letter, moderate tone, final notice

Dear Mr. Lin,

We are sending this letter to you with regret that previous efforts to obtain payment of your
account have been unsuccessful.

We sent a bill for $350.00 for payment by March 1st. Over the past four months, we have tried
to get you to fulfill your obligations to us. We assumed, since you had an excellent credit
rating and have always been responsible in paying your bills before, that some small oversight
was to blame.

Please send us your payment for the overdue bill within five days so that we do not have to turn
your account over to a collection agency.


Introduction to Business English 107 Chapter 6: Payment

Collection letter, stern tone, letter #1

Dear Mr. and Mrs. Fang:

We’re delighted you’re enjoying our new living room furniture, including our popular
Relax-a-lounger. However, it has been two months now since we delivered your furniture, and
we have yet to receive your payment for $2,375.60 (Invoice #46578, copy enclosed). Have you
already put a check in the mail to us?

If not, please give this matter your attention today, since we want to be able to extend you credit
the next time you shop for quality home furnishings.


Claire Su
Billing Department
2555-3222, ext. 102


Collection letter, stern tone, letter #2

Dear Mr. and Mrs. Fang:

Unfortunately, we still haven’t received your $2,375.60 payment for merchandise you purchased
January 5th (Invoice #46578, dated January 12th). Because your account is three months past
due, we are now forced to add a late charge of $23.75 in accordance with our credit policy. The
new balance is $2,399.35.

Please be sure to settle your account with us today. If you have difficulty paying the full
amount now, please call me today to discuss arranging a payment schedule.

Yours truly,

Claire Su
Billing Department
2555-3222, ext. 102


Introduction to Business English 108 Chapter 6: Payment

Collection letter, stern tone, letter #3

Dear Mr. and Mrs. Fang:

Your letter has been referred to me by Claire Su of our Billing Department. Because you have
failed to make any payment on invoice #46237 for $2,399.35 (including late charges) or to
contact us to arrange a payment schedule, we have been forced to initiate procedures to repossess
the furniture you bought at our store.

We will be contacting you to arrange a date for repossession if we do not receive full payment
from you within two weeks. Please make every effort to ensure that we are not forced to take
this drastic action.


R. Lane Lin
Executive Vice President

Collection letter, stern tone, letter #4

Dear Mr. and Mrs. Fang:

Regrettably, we are forced to repossess the five items of furniture we delivered to you on January
5th, due to your failure to pay the $2,399.35 your owe for them.

On May 5th, representatives of our company will arrive at your home at 10 a.m. to collect:

(1) queen-size sleep sofa (model 206G)

(1) "Corona" coffee table
(2) "corona" end tables
(1) "Relax-a-lounger" (model 460L)

We had hoped to avoid this extreme action by offering you flexible credit options to lessen the
difficulty you face making payments. However, your unwillingness to cooperate with our
Billing Department has left us no choice.


R. Lane Lin
Executive Vice President

Introduction to Business English 109 Chapter 6: Payment

Collection letter, stern tone, letter #5

Dear Mr. and Mrs. Fang:

We were unhappy to find that we could not gain admittance (to take delivery of our merchandise)
when our representatives arrived at your home on May 5th. R. Lane Lin, our chief financial
officer, has turned over your file to me, and, as president of the company, I have decided that
legal action is necessary.

Our decision to repossess our merchandise came only after several months of our repeated
attempts to come to payment terms with you. Your continuing lack of cooperation leaves us no
choice but to turn this matter over to the County Sheriff's office for resolution. All our future
efforts to contact you will be through that office.


William Wong

Introduction to Business English 110 Chapter 6: Payment

Chapter 7 DELIVERY

Unit 13 Shipping
Taiwan, being an island, is more concerned with transport by sea than in other ways.
Transport by air is, however, increasing in scope and is the best method for certain types of
exports and imports, though its limitations are obvious.

The business of carriage by sea is complicated; over the centuries all kinds of regulations
have been made. When the goods have been dispatched the sellers write to inform their buyers
accordingly; this letter is called the advice of dispatch.


There are a variety of vessels available for exporters to use when shipping goods:

1. Passenger liners are ships that follow scheduled routes and concentrate on passenger
services, but also carry cargo. (定期客輪)

2. Passenger cargo vessels concentrate on cargoes, often more facilities for loading and
unloading, but carry few passengers. (定期貨輪)

3. Tramps travel anywhere in the world on unscheduled routes, picking up any cargo and
delivering it. (不定期船)
傭船 (to charter a ship), 租(傭)船契約/船約 (Charter Party)
(1) Time Charter 論時間租船
(2) Voyage Charter / Trip Charter 論航次租船
(3) Lump Sum Charter / Bare Boat Charter 光船租賃

4. Tankers are usually oil carriers, and are like bulk carriers, which transport bulk con-
signments such as grain, wheat, and ores. (油輪)
(1) Oil tanker
(2) LPG tanker (Ex. 液化瓦斯: Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
(3) Chemical tanker

5. Container vessels offer facilities to move containers from one country to another, and
have special lifting gear and storage space for the huge steel boxes they transport.

6. Roll-on roll-off ferries are vessels which allow cars and trucks to drive on at one port
and off at another without having to load and unload their freight.

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Note that before the name of the ship, which is usually underlined in correspondence, the
letters SS (Steamed Ship)、MV (Motor Vessel), and MS (Motor Ship)are used.


(1) Break-bulk cargo / liner cargo / conventional cargo 不用貨櫃裝的貨物

(2) Cellular Ship 貨櫃專用船

(3) Combined transport B/L 複合運送提單

(4) Container 貨櫃

(5) Container depot 貨櫃場

(6) Container operator 貨櫃經紀人

(7) Container terminals 貨櫃碼頭 / 貨櫃站

(8) Container yard 貨櫃集散場

(9) Conventional cargo 不用貨櫃裝的貨物

(10) Data freight receipt 貨櫃運輸收據

(11) FCL (Full container load) 整櫃裝運

(12) Freight forwarder (clearing and forwarding agents) 運輸報關行

(13) Interchange 貨櫃變更運輸工具的檢查報告

(14) Jumbo-ise 將船加長以裝運貨櫃

(15) LASH (lighters aboard ship) 子母船

(16) LCL (Less than container load) 不足整貨櫃的貨物裝運

(17) Liner cargo 定期船承載之貨物

(18) Multi-purpose ship 多用途船

(19) NVOC (Non-vessel-owning carrier) 無船而經營貨櫃運輸的商人

Introduction to Business English 112 Chapter 7: Delivery

(20) Reefer 冷凍船 / 冷凍貨櫃

(21) Side loader 可將貨櫃舉高放在本身的特製車輛

(22) Straddle carrier 可舉高、移動、並堆置三個貨櫃高的特殊車輛

(23) TEU (Twenty-foot equivalent unit ) 20 呎貨櫃

(24) Unit train / Freightliner 貨櫃列車

(25) LCL/FCL Consignment 收貨人向不同供應商購貨,裝於同貨櫃進口

= CFS/CY = P/H 拼裝/整交 (P: Pier, H: House)

(26) FCL/LCL Consignment 裝貨人將貨物裝成整貨櫃,運交國外不同收貨人

= CY/CFS = H/P 整裝/散交

(27) FCL/FCL Consignment 裝貨人將貨物裝成整貨櫃,運交國外收貨人

= CY/CY = H/H 整裝/整交

(28) LCL/LCL Consignment 將不同供應商貨物,裝一貨櫃運交不同收貨

= CFS/CFS = P/P 拼裝/散交

Introduction to Business English 113 Chapter 7: Delivery

The exporter also has a choice as to whether he uses a company which is a member of the
shipping conference group, or one that is listed on the Baltic Exchange.

The Shipping Conference (航運同盟 / 航務協會) is an international organization of ship

owners who have agreed to fix prices for transporting goods or passengers. They meet periodi-
cally to set costs for hiring their vessels. The advantage for their customers is that the costs of
shipment are steady, i.e., do not fluctuate over a short period, and universal, i.e., the same price
is quoted by all members. They can also claim rebates (discounts) by shipping in bulk. A
similar body to the Shipping Conference can be found in airlines — IATA, International Air
Transport Association (國際空運協會)

The Baltic Exchange (Baltic Mercantile & Shipping Exchange 波羅的海航運交易所) has
a number of functions, but its freight market offers facilities to exporters to charter (hire) ships
and planes through brokers, who work on a commission and are specialists with a knowledge of
the movement of ships and the most competitive rates available at any one time.


The Hague Rules (海牙規則) signed at the Brussels Convention in 1924 govern liability
for loss or damage to cargo carried by sea under a bill of lading, and state that the carrier will not
be responsible under the following condition:
Acts of war, riots, and civil disturbances;
Force Majeure, i.e., exceptional dangers such as storms, abnormal disturbances, or
unusual hazards;
Negligence, i.e., when the goods have not been properly packed, or were in a bad
condition when packed;
Inherent vice, i.e., when goods are subject to deterioration because of their content or
nature. For example, fish can go badly, wood can carry insects, and metal can

The Hamburg Rules (漢堡規則) of 1978 have extended the shipping companies’ liability
for damage or delay to "goods in their charge" unless they can prove they took all measures to
avoid problems.

To be safe, most companies insure their consignments under all risk cover, which protects
them against most contingencies, but special "war insurance" is necessary for particularly
dangerous zones.

Introduction to Business English 114 Chapter 7: Delivery

Unit 14 Shipping Document


(1) Commercial Invoice
(2) Bill of Lading
(3) Railway Bill
(4) Air Waybill
(5) Parcel Receipt
(6) Marine Insurance Policy
(7) Insurance Certificate / Insurance Policy


(1) Customs Invoice
(2) Certificate of Origin
(3) Certificate of Quality
(4) Certificate of Quantity
(5) Specification of Quality / Quantity
(6) Consular Invoice
(7) Specification of Package
(8) Packing list
(9) Weight Note
(10) Inspection Certificate
(11) Certificate of Measurement
(12) Certificate of Weight
(13) Certificate of Health
(14) Survey Report

Introduction to Business English 115 Chapter 7: Delivery

Unit 15 Ocean Transportation


Forwarding agents are used by exporters to arrange both import and export shipments. In
the case of the former, their services include collecting the consignment, arranging shipment, and
if required, packing and handling all documentation, including making out the bill of lading,
obtaining insurance, sending commercial invoices and paying the shipping company for their
clients. They also inform the importer’s forwarding agent that the shipment is on its way by
sending an advice note, and they, in turn, will inform his client, send the goods on to him, or
arrange for them to be stored until collected. Many forwarding agents in importing countries
also act as cleaning agents, ensuring that the goods are cleared through the customs and are sent
to the importer.

Because forwarding agents handle many shipments they can collect consignments for the
same destination and get competitive 'groupage rates' for sending a lot of consignments in one
shipment. However, many exporters find it more convenient to deal direct with the forwarding
agents in the importer’s country, and some importers prefer to deal with their supplier’s
forwarding agent.


1. Time of Shipment

(1) Immediate Shipment or Prompt Shipment (within 30 days)

(2) Shipment during November
(3) Shipment on or before (or by) November 20th
(4) Shipment early November
(5) Shipment during the first half of July
(6) Shipment around (about) July 7th
Early in the month of ….
At the beginning of ….
During the first part of ….
During the latter part of ….
Toward the end of ….
(7) Shipment during January and February ….
(8) Shipment within two months after receipt of L/C

Introduction to Business English 116 Chapter 7: Delivery

2. Partial Shipment

(1) Partial shipment allowed (permitted)

(2) Partial shipment not allowed (prohibited)
(3) Shipment during June / August in three lots
(4) In three shipments during June / August
(5) Shipment to be spread over three months beginning June
(6) Ship 20,000 M/T during August and the balance a month later

3. Conditional Shipment

(1) Shipment subject to shipping space available

(2) Shipment subject to approval of export license
(3) Shipment by way of Panama Canal
(4) Shipment by Chinese Flag Vessel only
(5) Shipment by container only
(6) Shipment in cool or ventilated (refrigerated) compartment only

4. Transshipment

(1) Transshipment not allowed (prohibited)

(2) Transshipment allowed (permitted)
(3) Transshipment is allowed at Kaohsiung only

5. The others

(1) Any increase of ocean freight and/or bunkering surcharge shall be for the Seller’s
(2) Seller shall refrain from using vessel(s) over 15 years of age. Vessels’ over age
insurance premium, if any, shall be for Seller’s account.

Introduction to Business English 117 Chapter 7: Delivery

This is another branch of the shipment of goods; it is a specialized line but as far as corre-
spondence is concerned we do not need to go into great detail, and the following is an outline of
this side of the shipping business.

When the senders of goods have very large shipments to make, and especially when bulk
cargoes are concerned, it may be of greater advantage to them to have a whole ship at their
disposal. They do not have to buy the ship but can hire it and this is called "chartering" (傭船).

Some very large organizations have their own fleet of ships, especially when their raw
material has to be shipped regularly from another part of the world; this is also the case when
they specialize in one type of commodity, such as oil.

Shipbrokers have an expert knowledge of rises and falls in rates for chartered ships, and the
trends of the market. This is a very competitive business and there are no conferences to fix
rates as in the case of the "Line" companies, indeed the tramp rates fluctuate very rapidly,
according to supply and demand.

The contract between the shipowner and the "charterer" (that is the merchant who hires the
ship) is called the charter party (傭船契約), and it is, understandably, a long and rather compli-
cated document. To facilitate cable communication, code names were devised to indicate the
type of trade concerned and the part of the world it related to.

A charter party may be for the carriage of goods from one specified port to another, and is
known as a voyage charter, or it may cover a period of time and is known as a time charter. In
the case of a voyage charter there is, on the back of the charter party, a form of the bill of lading,
to cover the shipment of the cargo. In some cases the charterer may not need the complete
space in the vessel and may agree to carry cargo also for other shippers.

It is obvious that certain cargoes, such as oil and coal require special vessels for their
transport. Grain in bulk is carried in ships that can be loaded and unloaded by special
apparatus — pouring the grain into the holds of the ship and sucking it out for unloading, which
avoids the lengthy process of loading and unloading sacks.

Much of the business of chartering is done regularly by cable.

Introduction to Business English 118 Chapter 7: Delivery

Unit 16 Bill of Lading

A bill of lading is a document signed and delivered by the master or agent of a ship to the
shipper against the goods loaded on board or delivered for shipment. The shipper obtains a bill
of lading from the steamship company against the mate’s receipt, which is signed by the first of
chief mate of the steamer, by which he acknowledges having received on board the cargo

In foreign trade the bill of lading is one of the most important documents, because it is (1) a
receipt of the goods delivered to the carrier, (2) a contract between the shipper and the steamship
company for the carriage of the goods, (3) an instrument representing the title or ownership of
the cargo, and (4) a basic document for collateral security in financing shipment.

The bill of lading should specify

(1) the name and nationality of the vessel

(2) the name of the captain of master of the vessel
(3) the number of the packages, their shipping marks, and their weights and meas-
(4) the name or firm name of the shipper or consignor
(5) the name or firm name of the consignee
(6) the port of shipment
(7) the port of destination
(8) freight charges
(9) number of bills of lading issued
(10) the date and place of issue of the bills of lading

The bill of lading is known as "shipped" or "shipped on board" when the consignment has
actually been laded on to a certain ship, which is named in the document. Another document
exists known as a "received bill of lading", which acknowledges receipt by the shipowners of
goods not yet on any vessel. "Shipped" bills are usually required in the transactions involving
payment through a bank. The term "clean B/L" means that the shipowners, have carefully
examined the cargo, accept it for delivery in "the like good order and condition". The contrary
is known as a "dirty", "unclean", "foul", or "claused" bill (because a "clause" has been added to it
by the shipowners, stating that they have found something unsatisfactory in the condition of the

Furthermore, the B/L can indicate that the goods are to be delivered to a named person or
firm, or that they can be delivered "unto order": these words indicate that the document has been
made into a negotiable title and the right to collect the goods has been passed on. In this case
the B/L is endorsed (signed on the back) by the senders: there are different forms of endorsement
and a "blank endorsement" means that no restrictions have been made by the shippers concerning
the passing on of the right. (This term "to order" is also used in bills of exchange and checks.)

Introduction to Business English 119 Chapter 7: Delivery

The wording "freight prepaid" on the B/L indicates that the shipowners have received
payment of the freight for the carriage of the goods: this is particularly required when the
quotation is C.I.F or C.& F. that includes the freight, which is in fact paid by the buyers, though
not direct.


1. Shipped B/L 裝(船)運提單
2. Received B/L 備運提單
3. Clean B/L 清潔提單
4. Foul B/L 不潔提單 (dirty B/L)
5. Straight B/L 記名式提單 (指明特定之人為受貨人)
6. Order B/L 指示式提單 (受貨人記載為 Order)
(1) To order B/L; To order of shipper B/L 由托運人指示,
(2) To order of ABC Bank 由銀行指示,決定受貨人
7. Ocean B/L 海洋提單
8. Local B/L 本地提單
9. Stale B/L 陳舊提單 (押匯過遲的提單)
10. Through B/L 聯運提單
11. Red B/L 紅色提單 (船公司負有保險責任的提單,已無


1. Railway B/L 鐵路提單

2. Air Waybill 空運提單
3. Inland Waterway B/L 內河提單
4. Trucking Company B/L 卡車提單
5. Marine (Ocean) B/L 海運提單
6. Through B/L 聯運提單

1. Negotiable B/L 可轉讓提單
2. Non-negotiable B/L 不可轉讓提單

Introduction to Business English 120 Chapter 7: Delivery

(1) Commercial invoice


33, Tuas South Street 1, SINGAPORE 638038

Invoice No. : OP/I000902

Invoice Date : 31/08/99
Order No. : 001663
Page No. : 1


Invoice to: Deliver to:


8TH Floor, 87 Chien Kuo N. Rd. 7, Lane 80, Chee Nan Rd.
Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan Dah Sheh Shiang, Kaohsiung Shien
Republic of China Taiwan
Republic of China

Currency Rate

Unit Item Unit Total Discount

Size Description Price/Kg Qty Weight (Kg) Amount Amount

180K DMAD $5.64 3 540.00 $3,045.60

HANDLG CHRG $185.00 1.00 $185.00


No. 1 - 3

** Total ** 3 540.00 $3,230.60

TOTAL USD : $3,230.60

Introduction to Business English 121 Chapter 7: Delivery

(2) Pro forma invoice

Lostris International B.V.

PO. Box -451
1200 AL Hilversum
The Netherlands
Telephone :+31-294-285819
Fax :+31-294-284854
HERZER Co., Ltd.
8F, 87, Chienkuo N. Rd. Sec. 2
Taipei, Taiwan

Date : 16th July

Invoice : 99-105
Your order number : --

Quantity Product Price/unit Total

5 kgs Lostris MD-120-C NLG 1.00

0.5 kg Lostris MD-125-C NLG 1.00
0.5 kg Lostris MD-140-C NLG 1.00
0.5 kg Lostris CD-500 NLG 1.00
0.5 kg Lostris CD-515 NLG 1.00
0.1 kg Lostris MD-130 NLG 1.00

Product samples. Material Free of Charge for testing purposes.

Value for customs purposes only.

We hereby declare that the above-mentioned goods are NOT classified as dangerous goods
according to IAYA regulations.

Delivery : Free delivered to your address in Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.


Introduction to Business English 122 Chapter 7: Delivery

(3) Packing list


(Commercial Invoice No. OP/1000902)

Description of goods : DMAD in 180 kilos drum

Total : 540 kgs.
Net wt per drum : 180 kgs.
Gross wt per drum : 190 kgs.
Total quantity : Three (3) drums only
Total Net Weight : 540 kgs.
Total Gross Weight : 570 kgs.
Total Measurement : 0.972 m3
Port of Loading : Singapore
Port of Discharge : Kaohsiung
Shipping Marks : HERZER
No. 1 - 3
B/L No.
(4) Ocean bill of lading SIN/KHH-1684


RECEIVED by the Carrier the Goods as specified below in
Consignee or Order
apparent good order and condition unless other wise stated,
to be transported to such place as agreed, authorized or
TO THE ORDER OF permitted herein and subject to all the terms and conditions
CHANG HWA COMMERCIAL BANK LTD appearing on the front and reverse of this Bill of Lading to
which the Merchant agrees by accepting this Bill of
Lading, any local privileges and customs notwithstanding.
Notify Party The particulars given below as stated by the shipper and the
weight, measure, quantity, condition, contents and value of
HERZER CO., LTD. the Goods are unknown to the Carrier.
7, Lane 80, Chee Nan Rd.
Dah Sheh Shiang, Kaohsiung County

Introduction to Business English 123 Chapter 7: Delivery

Ocean Vessel / Voyage No.

WAN HAI 203 VOY. N106

Place of Receipt Port of Loading


Port of Discharge Place of Delivery Number of Original Bs/L


Marks and Number and Type Description of Gross Weight

Number Of Packages Goods Metric Tons M3

Herzer 3 DRUMS SAID TO CONTAIN: 570 Kgs. 0.972M3

No. 1 - 3 DMAD IN 180 KILOS DRUM
TOTAL : 540 Kgs.

LCL/LCL Shipped on Board: 30-08-99

Total Number of Containers TOTAL THREE DRUMS ONLY

Or Packages (in Words)

Freight & Charges Revenue Tons Rate Prepaid Collect

Prepaid at Payable at Place and date of issue


For delivery of goods, please apply to:
6F, 150 FU HSIN NORTH ROAD (Signature)
TEL: 2-25459933 by _______________________
FAX: 2-25473638 / 25473656 as carrier

IN WITNESS whereof one (1) original Bill of Lading has been signed if not otherwise stated above, the same
being accomplished the other(s), if any, to be void. If required by the Carrier one(1) original Bill of Lading must
be surrendered duly endorsed in exchange for the Goods or delivery order.

Introduction to Business English 124 Chapter 7: Delivery

(5) Certificate of analysis






D/N NO.: BL/99/08/034 P/O NO.: SN8-0824


Appearance Clear amber liquid Pass
Density 0.89 - 0.92 g/ml 0.91

Tan Gim Cheng Date: 31st August 1999



Introduction to Business English 125 Chapter 7: Delivery


Unit 17 Insurance Procedure

Insurance has become a vast subject and now enters into almost every activity of man.
The idea of insurance is to obtain some indemnity in the event of any happening that may cause
loss of money; insurance is against risk. Dancers insure their legs, singers their voices, musicians
their hands. It is possible in these days to insure against almost any eventuality that may cause
loss of one kind or another.

A somewhat different kind of insurance provides for money to be paid to a person at a

certain age as an income, or as a "lump sum", or to be paid to his or her "heirs" on that person’s
death. This is life insurance and is the kind now usually known in Britain as "assurance."

All sensible businesspersons now insure goods for the full amount of their value; not to do
so would be no real economy. Insurance value is calculated as:

[Cost of goods + amount of freight-insurance premium + a percentage of

the total sum to represent a reasonable profit for the seller.]

While the goods are in a warehouse or store the insurance usually covers the risk of fire or
burglary; other risks may also be covered. As soon as the goods are "in transit" they are insured
against the same risks, that is while they are being moved from one place to another. "Ware-
housed or in transit" means that the goods are covered by the insurance whether they are in a
warehouse or are in process of being moved.

The Institute of London Underwriters established Institute Cargo Clause (ICC) (協會貨物
保險條款) in 1983. The usual procedure is for the manufacturer or merchant to insure "against
all risks, AAR" "all risks, AR" (全險) (this is a type of AR CLAUSE, that is to say ‘with
average’); the insurance organizations then do all that is necessary.

The word "average" as used in insurance means "damage" (it is derived from the French
work "avarié". "with average" (水漬險; 單獨海損賠償) (WA CLAUSE) means that the
insurers pay claims for partial losses, whereas "free of particular average" (平安險; 單獨海損不
賠) (FPA CLAUSE) means that partial losses are not covered by the insurance.

Particular average (單獨海損) means partial loss or damage accidentally caused to the
ship or to a particular lot of goods. Particular average must be borne by the owners of the
property suffering the loss, and is distinct from General Average, which is distributed over the
whole ship, freight, and cargo.

Introduction to Business English 126 Chapter 8: Insurance

General average (共同海損) means any extraordinary loss, damage or expenditure
incurred for the purpose of preserving all the interests imperiled: the ship, the cargo and the
freight; these are said to form a "common adventure." A General Average sacrifice is when
cargo has to be "jettisoned", that means thrown into the sea, to lighten the ship; when cargo is
damaged by water used to put out a fire; the cost of towing a ship into port for repair, etc.
General Average is, in fact, the application of the principle: "that which is sacrificed for all is
borne in proportion by all interested in the adventure." It is older than insurance.

Unit 18 Marine Insurance Policy

Marine Insurance is one of the most important subjects of foreign commerce. It is a
contract which one party who is called the "insurer" 保險人 "underwriter", in consideration of
being paid a stipulated sum or "premium", undertakes to insure another who is called the
"insured 投保人"against risks or "perils of the sea", to which the ship, merchandise or other
interests such as freight may be exposed during a certain voyage or for a certain fixed period of
time. The instrument containing the contract to insure is called the "policy."

Insurers will cover consignments under all risk policies, which will allow compensation in
the event of war, strikes, civil disturbances, etc. These policies are in the form of valued
policies and are based on the stated value of the invoice, plus insurance, freight, and an extra
percentage of 10%, 20%, or 30%, etc., profit margins for the consignment.

There are, however, unvalued policies, when the value of the goods have not been agreed in
advance and are assessed at the time of loss. This means the consignor will, if this goods are
damaged or destroyed, get the market price as compensation. The owner of the bill of lading
has the right to claims of compensation.

All consignments can be covered against all risks in the form of a valued or unvalued policy.
These policies will fall under five main headings:

1. Time policy (定期保險單), which insures goods or the vessel for twelve months, e.g.,
1st May 2000 to 30th April 2001.

2. Voyage policy (航程保險單), which covers the cargo on a voyage from, say,
Kaohsiung to Hong Kong.

3. Mixed policy (綜合保險單), which covers a voyage from A to B and then for a
further period of time.

4. Floating policy (流動保險單), which gives cover for a particular amount, say USD
500,000 so that it will not be necessary to continually write a new policy for each
cargo that the ship carries. As the cover nears its end, the insurance company advises
their client, and the premium is paid to renew the policy.

Introduction to Business English 127 Chapter 8: Insurance

5. Open policy ( 開口保險單 / 預約保險單), which are made between the underwriter
and shipper, with the latter informing the underwriter, on a declaration form, whenever
the shipment is made, and receiving the policy or certificate after shipment.
Forwarding agents often have this kind of agreement with insurance companies,
allowing them to make shipments, then inform the insurance company in arrears, i.e.,
after the shipment has been made. But the arrangement might only cover certain
areas, e.g., North African ports, and consequently they would have to make special
arrangements if a shipment was outside the agreed area.


Though there are no standard forms of insurance policy, all the policies are based on those
formulated in the 17th century by Lloyd’s. Therefore, the Lloyd’s policy may be referred to as
the parent of all marine policies. Generally speaking, it is necessary that Application for
Marine Insurance should specify:

1. Date insured
2. Assured; Name of assured
3. Name of vessel
4. Shipping date
5. From ….
6. Transshipment at ….
7. Description of goods, quantity, number of packages
8. Shipping marks & numbers
9. No. of L/C
10. Number of import license (Import Permit)
11. Amount of assured
12. Insurance clauses
13. Claim payable at ….

The main clauses are printed in the body of the policy, and supplementary clauses are
inserted on the margin of the policy.


The Institute of London Underwriters established new clauses for insurance policy in 1983,
in which the new scheduled format is used in stead of the old insurance clauses (FPA, WA, AR).

The main clauses

1. Institute Cargo Clauses (A) 協會貨物保險條款(A)與舊條款 AR 類似
2. Institute Cargo Clauses (B) 協會貨物保險條款(B)與舊條款 WA 類似
3. Institute Cargo Clauses (C) 協會貨物保險條款(C)與舊條款 FPA 類似

Introduction to Business English 128 Chapter 8: Insurance

The supplementary clauses
4. Institute Air Clauses 協會貨物保險航空險條款
5. Institute War Clauses 協會貨物保險兵險條款
6. Institute Strikes Clauses 協會貨物保險罷工險條款


1. Perils of the seas 海難
(1) Stranding 擱淺
(2) Touch and Go 觸礁
(3) Sinking 沈沒
(4) Missing 失蹤
(5) Collision 碰撞
(6) Ship-wreck 破船
(7) Heavy Weather 暴風雨
(8) Sea Water Damage 海水侵害
2. Fire 火災
3. Thieves 暴力竊盜
4. Jettisons 投棄
5. Barratry 船長/船員之惡意行為


1. Total Loss 全損
(1) Actual Total Loss (Absolute Total Loss) 實際全損
(2) Constructive Total Loss 推定全損
(3) Presumed Total Loss 假定全損

2. Partial Loss 分損 (=Average 海損)

(1) General Average 共同海損
(2) Particular Average 單獨海損


In an Open Cover contract, a Certificate of Insurance in the place of a regular policy is
issued from the insurance company against "Provisional Declaration" made by the shipper.
Certificates of insurance are generally accepted as a satisfactory evidence of insurance and are
considered as the same with regular marine insurance policies unless otherwise specified in the
letter of credit.

Introduction to Business English 129 Chapter 8: Insurance

8.18.6 LLOYD’S
Lloyd’s is the name of the greatest insurance organizations in the world, but it acquired this
name in a rather unusual way: Mr. Edward Lloyd owned a coffee house in the City of London, in
the eighteenth century, and there the "underwriters" used to meet because it was a good center
for news concerning ships. Later in the same century, after several changes of home, the
underwriters occupied the third building of the Royal Exchange (earlier buildings having been
destroyed by fire), and organized their business under a committee of their members. In 1928,
they moved to a big new building in Leadenhall Street, and as this soon became too small an
extension was built and opened in 1958.

Lloyd’s is not an insurance company or corporation: the members work as individuals,

though usually in syndicates. To become a Lloyd’s underwriters it is necessary to be approved
by the Committee and to pay a very large sum as entrance fee as well as an annual subscription.
Lloyd’s underwriters are not allowed limited liability, but in the rare cases of failure (as also in
the London Stock Exchange) the insured are not allowed to suffer and the Committee pays the
outstanding claims.

As the result of the marine insurance business, Lloyd’s branched out into shipping
intelligence, and Lloyd's list is published every day, giving the movements of ships and
information of "casualties". Lloyd's register, published age, nationality, owners, build, tonnage
and classification of all ships surveyed by Lloyd’s and conforming to its rules. The
classification "A1-100 Lloyd’s" is a guarantee to any prospective purchaser or charterer that the
vessel is in good condition and thoroughly.

Introduction to Business English 130 Chapter 8: Insurance

(1) Marine insurance application



Marine Insurance Application


Please issue a Policy in Triplicate with four Copies covering the following:
Name of Assured: Herzer Co., Ltd. Beneficiary: Simon Hsieh
Address: 8F, 87, Chienkuo N. Rd. Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan Tel.: 25017751
Name of Vessel: Wan Hai 203 Voy. N106 Sailing Date on/about: May 25
Transshipment (if any) at ________________ Into ___________________
Cargo: Marks & Nos.:

DMAD in 180 kilos drum HERZER

Total: 540 kgs KAOHSIUNG
N0. 1 - 3

Quantity: 3 drums Package:_____________

L/C Number : OP/I000902 Import License No.: WD/99-097865
Insured Amount: USD 1,677 x (1 +10%) = USD 1,844.70
Coverage: Institute Cargo Causes (A) & War Risks
Claim (if any) Payable at: Taipei
Rate (%): Premium Total USD 1,978.00 Policy No.: M 99-0003421

Warranted shipped under deck unless otherwise specified.

Manager /
Sub-manager _________ Chief __________ Agents ___________ Signature _____________


Introduction to Business English 131 Chapter 8: Insurance

(2) Inquiry for insurance rate

Dear Sirs,

We will be sending on behalf of our clients, Dawu Computers Ltd., a consignment of 20

computers to N.Z. Business Machines Pty., Wellington, New Zealand. The consignment is to
be loaded on to the SS EVA Green, which sails from Kaohsiung on 18th May and is due in
Wellington on 25th June.

Details with regard to packing and values are attached, and we would be grateful if you
could quote a rate covering all risks from port to port.

As the matter is urgent, we would appreciate a prompt reply. Thank you.

Yours faithfully,

(3) Quotation for marine insurance

Dear Mr. Shao,

Thank you for your letter of 15th May, in which you asked about cover for a shipment of
computers from Kaohsiung to Wellington.

I note from the details attached to your letter that the net amount of the invoice is £22,000,
and payment is by letter of credit. I would therefore suggest a valued policy against all risks for
which we can quote £4.35p%.

We will issue a cover note as soon as you complete and return the enclosed declaration

Yours sincerely,



Enc.: Declaration form

Introduction to Business English 132 Chapter 8: Insurance

(4) Claim for fire damage

Dear Sirs,

Policy No. 18467A

We would like to inform you that a fire broke out in the basement of our warehouse yesterday.
Although the blaze was brought under control, we estimate that about $8,000 worth of stock was
badly damaged.

A Fire Brigade officer informed us that the blaze was probably caused by an electrical short,
which he thought must have occurred around midnight. Fortunately, though, the brigade's
action prevented extensive damage.

I would be grateful if you could send us the necessary claims forms.

Yours faithfully,
Hosin Warehouses Ltd.
B.H. Lin

(5) Reply to claim for the damage

Dear Mr. Lin,

Policy No. 18467A

I now have the report from our surveyor, Mr. Nulty, who visited your premises on 18th October
to inspect the damage caused by the fire on the 15th.

From the copy of the report enclosed, you will see that although he agrees that the fire was
probably caused by an electrical fault, he feels that $4,000 is a more likely evaluation for damage
to stock at present market prices. However, he suggests that we also pay a further $800 for
structural damage to your premises. Consequently, we are prepared to offer you a total of
$4,800 in full compensation under you policy.

If you accept this assessment, would you please fill out the enclosed claims form and return it to
us, with a letter-confirming acceptance of the compensation we have offered?

Yours sincerely,


Enc.: Claims form

Introduction to Business English 133 Chapter 8: Insurance

(6) Request for open cover

Dear Mr. Chen,

We have been insuring individual shipments of our chinaware with you for some time now, and
as you have probably noticed we have established a number of customers in North and South

As we will be making regular shipments, we wondered if you could arrange open cover for
$60,000 against all risks to insure consignments to North and South American Eastern seaboard

We look forward to hearing from you soon.

Yours sincerely,


Export Department

(7) Quotation for open cover

Dear Mr. Goodman,

In reply to your letter of 5th March, I am pleased to say that we can arrange an all risk open cover
policy for chinaware shipments to North and South American seaboard ports.

As you propose to ship regularly, we can offer you a rate of £2.48p% for a total cover of £60,000.
I am enclosing a block of declaration forms, and you would be required to submit one for each
shipment giving full details.

I look forward to receiving your confirmation that these terms are acceptable.

Yours sincerely,



Enc. Declaration forms

Introduction to Business English 134 Chapter 8: Insurance


Unit 19 Bank Facility

A bank has something to sell. That something is its services, and it is becoming
increasingly evident that banks are now entering into the spirit of modern commercial practice
by "humanizing" their public relations and by competing openly with other banks for new
business. In Taiwan we now see banks advertising for new accounts among the smaller savers,
and loan facilities are also openly advertised. Correspondence is taking on a fresh appearance
to match this new development; the time-honored vocabulary remains, but the phrasing allows a
little warmth to creep into the cold words.

The main functions of the banks are:

1. Handling of shipping documents

2. Collection of payments
3. Observance of buyers’ conditions of purchase
4. Discounting bills of exchange
5. Loans to exporters
6. Acting as agents for foreign banks and their customers

In carrying out these functions, banks may give services, such as keeping customers’
accounts, obtaining and giving information, transferring funds for payments or investments,
handling foreign currency transactions, issuing Letters of Credit, acting as trustees, executors and
guarantors, guarding documents and valuables, and in foreign trade, collecting payments,
discounting Bills of Exchange and financing export merchants.


1. Current Account (活期存款; 往來帳戶; 經常帳戶) The account into which a
client pays his trading receipts and on which he draws his checks.
Fixed Account (定期存款)

2. Deposit Account (存款帳戶) Surplus funds from the current account are held
in this, and receive interest.

3. Interest (利息) The charge or profit due for lending money.

4. Loan (貸款; Public Loan 公債) Money lent (v. lend, borrow; n. lender, borrower).
Loan shark (高利貸)

Introduction to Business English 135 Chapter 9: Banking

5. Check (支票) An order in writing from a person to his bank to pay on demand a
certain sum to a named person.

6. Bill of Exchange (匯票,簡稱 bill / draft) An order in writing from one person to a
bank or to another person, to pay on demand or at a given date, a certain sum to the
person named in the bill.

7. Letter of Credit (commercial) (信用狀) An arrangement with a bank by means of

which a buyer guarantees payment to a seller on fulfillment by the seller of certain
agreed conditions. The instruction must be in writing and if marked "irrevocable", it
cannot be cancelled.

8. Draft (匯票) This really means a document used to "draw" money from some source,
but sometimes it is used to refer to the money itself. A Bill of Exchange is often
referred to in a letter as "the draft".

9. Banker's/Bank Draft (銀行匯票) A draft or check drawn by one bank on another.

10. Banker's/Bank Transfer (銀行轉帳) Transfer of money from the bank account of a
debtor to the bank account of his creditor by order of the debtor.

11. Overdraft (透支) A debit balance on a bank customer’s current account. This may
be authorized by the bank.

12. Security (證券; 押金; 擔保品) A document of value given as cover for a loan.
(collateral security = additional or supporting cover).

13. Trustee (被信託人) Person appointed to protect the interests and property of a
person unable to do so for himself.

14. Executor (遺囑執行人) Person appointed to carry out the wishes of another person

15. Standing orders/direct debit (定期轉帳付款) Customers making regular payments,

such as rent, or mortgage repayments, can ask the bank to transfer the money to the
payee on a particular day every month.

16. Credit cards (信用卡) Credit cards offer credit facilities to customers making
purchases in shops, and for a basic charge plus interest, calculated monthly, the
customers can buy goods up to a limit on most cards.

Introduction to Business English 136 Chapter 9: Banking

The private nature of much of the business done with banks reduces correspondence with
them chiefly to routine matters, formal instructions, advice and requests for information. Much
of this, too, is done by special forms. Confidential matters are usually dealt with in interviews
between bank managers and their clients.

Paying for goods supplied in the home trade is a fairly simple matter. Payment is made
either in advance or within a reasonably short period after delivery. There is little time lost in
correspondence and in delivery, as a result of which most suppliers can afford to give the
required short credit of one month usual in home trading.

Payment follows by check or by draft, and the whole transaction is speedily concluded. If
a buyer fails to pay, legal action is reasonably quick and payment can be enforced. Even so, the
granting of credit brings its own problems, and as modern trade lives on credit, this always needs
careful handling.

These problems are magnified many times in foreign trade. Much time is unavoidably lost
in correspondence, despatch and delivery. Who is to bear this loss? Must the seller wait
perhaps six months for his money — or shall the buyer pay several months before he even sees
his goods? Further, in a case of non-payment, a seller will be involved in expensive legal
action and possibly total loss. On top of all this, payment by check is not practicable, as a
check is payable in the country of origin and its use is time wasting to say the least.

Payments in foreign trade may be made by

1. Banker’s Transfer
2. Bill of Exchange
3. Letter of Credit

Also, as in the home trade, payment may be made

1. in advance
2. on open account

Payment in advance might be helpful to a buyer in urgent need, or where the buyer is
unknown to the seller, or in the case of a single isolated transaction. The actual method of
payment in such cases would probably be by Banker’s Draft or Banker’s Transfer.

Open account terms would be granted by a seller to a buyer of unquestioned standing or to a

customer in whom he has complete confidence, e.g., regular buyers, agents or distributors.
Payment might then be made quarterly by Bill of Exchange or Banker’s Transfer.

Introduction to Business English 137 Chapter 9: Banking

This is a simple transference of money from the bank account of a buyer in his own country
to the bank account of the seller in the seller’s country. It is merely necessary for the buyer or a
debtor to send a letter of instruction to his bank — or use a special form. The transfer is carried
out at current rates of exchange. Such transfers are, of course, subject to any currency control
regulations of the countries concerned. This transaction is simple and quick and can be speeded
up by cabled instructions if desired.


In brief, the Bill is an order in writing from a Creditor to a Debtor to pay on demand or on a
named date a certain sum of money to a person named on the Bill, or to his order. The Bill is
drawn by the Creditor on the Debtor, and is sent to the Debtor (or his agent) for the latter to pay
or accept (i.e., to acknowledge the debt). The Debtor accepts by signing his name on the face
(i.e., front) of the Bill, together with the date. The Bill now becomes legally binding, and the
acceptor must meet it on or before the due date.

The Creditor (the Drawer) can order the Debtor (the Drawee) to pay the money to any bank
named by him on the bill. The drawee, in accepting the bill, can add the name of the bank,
which he wishes to pay the bill. In this case, the bill stays with the Drawer’s bank till due for
payment, when it will be presented to the paying bank for settlement. Such a bill is said to be
domiciled with the holding bank.

An important feature of the Bill of Exchange is that it is negotiable, which means that it can
be used by the holder to pay debts of his own, or in other words, he can negotiate it. To do this,
the holder must endorse it, i.e., sign his name on the back of the bill before passing it on to the
new holder.

Other ways in which the holder can use a bill are:

1. Sell it to a bank, which will pay face value, less interest: this is called discounting a
2. Leave it with a bank as security for a loan.

It is this free negotiability of the Bill, which makes it a practical means of payment in
Foreign Trade. Of course, its successful operation depends on confidence and trust. Each
individual firm’s standing and reputation is known and taken into account in handling bills.

The advantages of the Bill will be clear to a student who understands something of modern
commerce; perhaps the two chief assets are: (1) it simplifies the financing of export and import
trade; (2) it saves innumerable individual money transactions, or "movements" of currency.

Failure to meet a bill on the due date would result in total discredit for the drawee, and legal
action can follow. An unpaid bill is said to be dishonored, and the drawer can protest it, which
clears the way for him to prosecute (i.e., take legal action against) the drawee.

Introduction to Business English 138 Chapter 9: Banking

Format of bill of exchange (Draft)

No.: M302914 Date:

Drawn under Bank of America, Los Angeles, L/C No. 9856 dated September 15th

Exchange for US$ 1,000.00

At … Sight of this First of Exchange (Second unpaid)

Pay to the order of ABC Trading Company

The sum of U. S. Dollars One Thousand Only

Value received and charge to account of

American Trading Co., Los Angeles

To: Bank of Taiwan ABC Trading Company

Taipei, Taiwan


Persons concerned in bill of exchange

1. Drawer 出票人 7. Endorser 背書人

2. Drawee 被出票人 8. Endorsee 被背書人
3. Payer 付款人 9. Paying Agent 擔當付款人
4. Payee 受款人 10. Acceptor 承兌人
5. Bearer 執票人 11. Surety 保證人
6. Holder 持有人

Introduction to Business English 139 Chapter 9: Banking

Perhaps the most generally used method of payment in the Export Trade today is the Letter
of Credit. It is ideal for individual transactions or for a series, makes trade with unknown
buyers easy, gives protection to both seller and buyer and overcomes the "credit gap" (i.e., the
time-payment loss between order and delivery).

A Letter of Credit starts with the buyer. He instructs his bank to "issue" the L/C for the
amount of the purchase and in favor of the seller. This is usually done by special printed form.
The instruction, or form, contains full details of the transaction as agreed between buyer and
seller. The buyer’s bank sends these instructions to its agent (i.e., a bank affiliating with it) in
the seller’s country. On receiving these instructions, the agent bank "confirms" the credit to the
seller (i.e., writes to advise the seller that the money is available to him at this bank). The seller
can now execute the buyer’s order, knowing that when he has done so, the money will be paid at
once by the agent bank. The buyer is equally secure, because the agent bank will pay on his
behalf only if the conditions of the transaction are fully carried out by the seller. For this reason,
great care and accuracy are needed in giving the original instructions.

It is not essential that an L/C be paid to the seller immediately upon execution of the order.
If agreed between seller and buyer, the arrangement could be for the agent bank to accept a B/E
drawn by the seller on the agent bank, This gives the buyer credit and is, of course, absolutely
safe for the seller, who can discount the bill for ready cash if he needs it.

From these outlines of the methods used in financing Foreign Trade, the student will realize
the vital part played by banks; without them, modern trade could not exist. Their services are
paid for by their "charges" and these are kept low by the "security" they normally require against
the risks they take.

American importers often open the Letter of Credit at an American bank. This bank then
confirms the credit to the foreign seller and requests him to draw on them for the amount of the
invoice, and to send them all documents required by the buyer.

Introduction to Business English 140 Chapter 9: Banking

(1) Opening a current account

Dear Mr. Tsai,

I am writing to you with reference to our conversation three days ago when we discussed my
opening a current account with your branch.

I would appreciate it if you could open a current a/c for me under my trading name Herzer Co.,
Ltd., (8F, 87, Chienkuo North Road, Sec. 2, Taipei). Enclosed you will find two specimen
signatures, my own and my partner’s, Mr. Jimmy Chen. Both signatures will be required on all
checks. I have included a reference from Mr. Young, who banks with your branch, a check for
NT$57,000 from a customer, and a paying-in slip, which I picked up in the bank the other day.

Yours sincerely,


(2) Request for a standing order

Dear Sir,

Account No. 33152 110 9501

We have just moved to new premises at the above address and would like to pay our monthly
rent of NT$ 15,000.00 to our landlords, Wu & Lin, 30 An Lok Road, Yungho, Taipei County, by
standing order.

Would you please arrange for $574.00 to be transferred from our savings account to their
account with Changhwa Bank, 25, Yungho Road, Yungho, Taipei County, on the 1st of every
month, beginning 1st October this year?

Please confirm that the arrangement has been made.

Yours faithfully,


Introduction to Business English 141 Chapter 9: Banking

(3) Cancellation of a check

Dear Sir,

Please cancel check No.15674321 for $1,986 in favor of Mr. Wei Wu-hsiung. The check
appears to have been lost in the post and I am sending another in its place.

Yours faithfully,

(4) Transfer of money from current account to deposit account

Dear Mr. Huang,

Please transfer NT$25,000 from my current account to my deposit account. The account
numbers and details are on the enclosed transfer slip, and I would be grateful if you could stamp
the counterfoil and return it to me.

Yours sincerely,

(5) Request for an overdraft or loan

Dear Mr. Ku,

I would like to make an appointment to see you to discuss either a loan or overdraft to enable me
to expand my business.

Over the past year, I have been testing the market with a new line-furniture assembly kits — and
have found that demand for these kits, both here and overseas, has exceeded my expectations.
In the past six months alone, I have had over $60,000 worth of orders, half of which I could not
fulfil because of my limited resources.

I will need a loan for about $8,000 to buy additional equipment and raw materials I can offer
$2,000 in IBM ordinary shares, and $3,000 in local government bonds as part security for the
loan, which I estimate will take me about nine months to repay.

I enclose an audited copy of the company’s current balance sheet, which I imagine you will wish
to inspect, and I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,

Introduction to Business English 142 Chapter 9: Banking

(6) Grant of a loan

Dear Mr. Hu,

With reference to our meeting on 23rd September, I am pleased to tell you that the credit for
NT$800,000, which you requested, has been approved.

I know we discussed an overdraft, but I think it would be better if the credit were given in the
form of a loan at the current rate of interest which is 15 per cent, and which will be calculated on
semiannual balances.

The loan must be repaid by June 19th and we will hold the NT$200,000 IBM ordinary shares and
NT$300,000 local government bonds you pledged as security. We agreed that the other
NT$300,000 was to be guaranteed by Mr. Lin Chang-mow, your business associate, and I would
appreciate it if you could ask him to sign the enclosed guarantor's form, and if you would sign
the attached agreement.

The money will be credited to your current account and available from September 30th subject to
your returning both forms by that time.

I wish you luck with the expansion of your business and look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,




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(7) Non-payment of a bill

Dear Mrs. Haas,

B/E No. 1543

The above bill for US$ 3865.00 was returned to us from our bank this morning marked "Refer to

The bill was due on the 5th April and appears to have been dishonored. We are prepared to
allow you a further three days before presenting it to the bank again, in which time we hope that
the draft will have been met.

If the account is still not settled, we will have to make a formal protest, which we hope will not
be necessary.

Yours sincerely,

(8) A documentary credit transaction (1)

Dear Mr. Lee,

Thank you for replaying to our inquiry of 19th April and letting us know that the C2000
computers, Cat. No. D16 are available.

The terms you quoted are quite satisfactory, and you will find our order, 8856, enclosed. We
have instructed our bank, Taiwan Bank, Yungho Branch, to open an irrevocable letter of credit
for US$22,000 in your favor. This should cover c.i.f. shipment and bank charges, and the credit
is valid until 10 June 1999.

You will receive confirmation from our bank’s agents Eastland Bank Ltd., 401, Aldgate, London
EC1, and you may draw on them at 60 days for the amount of the invoice. When submitting
your draft, would you please enclose the following documents?

Bill of lading (6 copies)

Invoice c.i.f. Wellington (4 copies)
AR Insurance Policy for US$24,000

Please fax or telex us as soon as you have arranged shipment.

Yours sincerely,

Encl.: Order 8856

Introduction to Business English 144 Chapter 9: Banking

(9) A documentary credit transaction (2)

Dear Sirs,

We spoke to your representative, Mr. Chai, at the Earls Court Boat Show in London last week,
and he showed us a number of dinghies, which you produce, and informed us of your terms and

We were impressed with the craft, and have decided to place a trial order for ten of them, your
Cat. No. NR17. The enclosed order No.90103, is for delivery as soon as possible as the
summer season is only a few weeks away.

As Mr. Chai assured us that you could meet any order from stock, we have instructed our bank,
Northern City Ltd., to open a confirmed irrevocable letter of credit for US$7,300 in your favor,
and valid until 1st June.

Our bank informs us that the credit will be confirmed by their agents, Cooper & Deal Merchant
Bank, Peking Road, Hong Kong, once you have contacted them, and they will also supply us
with a certificate of quality, once you have informed them that the order has been made up and
they have checked it.

You may draw on the agents for the full amount of the invoice at 60 days, and your draft should
be presented with the following documents:

Six copies of the bill of lading

Five copies of the commercial invoice c.i.f. London
Insurance certificate for US$7,140 (AR)
Certificate of origin
Certificate of quality

The credit will cover the invoice, discounting, and any other bank charges. Please cable us
confirming that the order has been accepted and the craft can be delivered within the next six

Yours faithfully,


Enc. Order No.90103

Introduction to Business English 145 Chapter 9: Banking


Unit 20 Complaint Letter

Mistakes may occur in day-to-day business, and these give cause for complaint. There
might have been a misunderstanding about the goods to be supplied; perhaps the warehouse
clerk made an error in addressing the parcels; sometimes a consignment is dispatched too late or
delays are caused in transit; damage may have occurred during delivery; a manufacturing defect
is discovered when a machine is used. The customer is understandably annoyed, yet this is no
reason to write an angry letter of complaint. He will get better results if he takes the trouble to
explain his complaint clearly, and to propose ways in which matters can be put right. His
company may make mistakes too: firms often have to manage with insufficiently trained
personnel or to contend with a staff shortage, so mistakes and accidents happen.

It is particularly necessary to exercise tact in handling complaints. A disappointed

customer cannot be put of with mere apologies — he is entitled to know how the mistake will be
remedied: when he will receive the goods ordered; what he is to do with the wrong consignment
or the damaged goods he received; when he will receive a replacement for his defective machine,
or if it can be repaired quickly.

It should not be necessary to complain. In ideal business conditions everything should be

done so carefully — details of offers and orders checked, packing supervised, handling of goods
carried out expertly — that no mistakes are made and nothing is damaged. Unfortunately, as in
other walks of life, nothing goes so well as that. Errors occur and goods are mishandled; acci-
dents happen, usually because of hurry and lack of sufficient supervision. In certain matters,
where it may be a question of fatal consequences, supervision must be — and indeed is —
scrupulous, but in less vital matters this is not always so. There is often a shortage of staff
owing to illness or holidays, sometimes a shortage of sufficiently trained staff, with resultant
haste and overwork, and so the mistakes creep in.

It is — or should be — a point of honor with a good firm never to blame its employees
when writing replies to complaints; the firm has undertaken the work and the staff is part of the
firm, therefore the firm itself is at fault.

Two kinds of complaint are frequently made by buyers

1. The genuine complaint arising from the delivery of wrong goods, damaged goods or
not enough goods; there is also the matter of the goods not being of the kind expected.

Introduction to Business English 146 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

2. There is the complaint made by a customer who does not want to pay, or who finds
that the goods could be bought more cheaply elsewhere and who therefore wants to get
out of a contract; this usually takes the form of a complaint that the goods are not
according to the sample or description, or that there is some fault in them. The sellers
know that the complaint is unsupported by the facts but they have to prove this, which
is not always easy when the buyer is on the other side of the world.

Damage, whether by accident at sea or on land, is a question of an insurance claim; no

sensible firm nowadays fails to insure the consignments.

Delay, of one kind or another, is another cause for complaints. If the sellers know that
there will be a delay they should, of course, inform the buyers. However, if the lateness in
delivery is not likely to be serious the sellers may not let the buyers know, so as to avoid giving a
bad impression or undermining confidence.


The language of complaints letters is usually very similar to that of collection letters. This
is not surprising since collection letters are a form of complaint (a complaint about non-payment).
As with collection letters, a complaint letter should set the scene, make the complaint,
recom-mend action, and make our position clear.

Each of these parts requires rather different language. The first part requires simple
narrative language to describe the circumstances behind the complaint. The second part
describes the problem, but should avoid over-emotional or abusive language (especially phrases
like stupid, incompetent, waste of time, and criminal, among others). The third part should say
what it is that we want, so, we will use the language of preference. Last, if appropriate, we may
threaten the reader with further action if nothing is done to remedy the situation. Even so,
avoid making threats, which might damage our business relationship with the supplier. So, be
firm and do not use abusive language, even if we are very angry.

(1) Setting the scene

This is usually a short paragraph describing what has gone before, so that our complaint has
a background, and can be understood in context.

The scene is set by referring to a delivery which has just taken place, an invoice which has
been received, or an order which has been placed and by giving full details as regards dates,
amounts, account numbers, and so on.

Ex. : * Last month, we ordered two dozen copies of ‘Business Writing for
Hong Kong’ from you.
* We have just received a consignment of personal computers from
your company (details attached).

Introduction to Business English 147 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

(2) Making the complaint

information about the complaint. Information should be presented clearly and concisely, giving details of
order/invoice numbers, delivery dates and so on. It is a good idea to enclose a copy of any
documentation we have, such as a sales receipt (if we are writing a letter to a shop), an order
form, delivery note, bill of lading or an invoice. We should also mention any other details,
which can help explain the complaint. If we have spoken to people, mention their names; if
shipment contents were incorrect, list the contents in detail; if products fail to function correctly,
describe their faults precisely.

cond section, we should refer to the inconvenience that we have had to suffer, and , if appropriate, mention the
cost to our company of this inconvenience. Clearly, this part of the letter is rather longer than
the other parts, as we have to give details of what exactly it is that we are complaining about.

Ex.: * I cannot possibly use the camera you sent me because it has/appears to have
problems functioning/operating/working.
* We have still not received the goods, which we ordered on 15th
* Although you delivered ten dozen Quintex electric tin openers, you
have asked us to pay for twelve dozen.
* Unfortunately, you have sent us the wrong items. We ordered
Model 602 but you have sent us the older Model 502.
* We are not happy about the inconvenience that this situation is
causing us.
* We already have many advance orders which we shall now have to
postpone because of your poor quality control / inefficiency /

(3) Recommending action

ph, we should make concrete and constructive recommendations. Do not think that just because we ask, our
request will be granted, so keep it realistic, and play on the reader’s (i) sense of justice, and (ii)
desire to do business in the future. If we have already paid for the goods, these two things are
the only bargaining counters we have.

he letter is usually quite short, and should state clearly what exactly we want the reader to do to rectify the
situation. We should request rather than demand. Our tone should be polite but firm, and
what we ask for should be fair.

* We should be obliged if you would replace the goods you delivered with the
correct ones.
* We should be grateful if you would give us a complete refund for
the defective goods, which were delivered.
* We trust you will arrange for a new invoice to be issued in the near

Introduction to Business English 148 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

(4) Making our position clear

This last section of the letter is optional. In it we may wish to mention what we will do if
our request is not granted. However, be careful not to threaten too much, especially if we do
not intend to act. Threats are not always appropriate or helpful to a business letter. Dramatic
threats are even less helpful. Although a person’s time-wasting of inefficiency might be costing
our company a lot of money, it will seldom do any good to loss our temper. Remain calm and
do not threaten more than we can/will do. The best tone to strike is one of optimistic patience.
Here are some expressions we can use, but think carefully before issuing threats that we are not
prepared to carry out:

Ex.: * I regret that unless you can comply with my request within three days, I shall be
forced to / compelled to / obliged to consider canceling my order.
* Further delays in delivery will / may / might / could result in our canceling our
* If you do not refund all of the money we have paid, we shall have no choice but
to seek legal advice in the matter.

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Specimen letter

(1) Complaint of inferior quality

Herzer Co., Ltd.

8F, 87, Chienkuo N. Rd. Sec. 2, Taipei
Tel: (02)25057751 Fax: (02)25065061


Mr. Lin Wei-liang

ABC Textiles
P.O. Box 356
Hong Kong

Dear Mr. Lin,

It is with great regret that we have to inform you that your last
delivery is not up to your usual standard. The material seems to be too
loosely woven and is inclined to pull out of shape. By separate mail
we have sent you a cutting from this material, also one from clothe of an
early consignment, so that you can compare the two and see the differ-
ence in texture.

We have always been able to rely on the high quality of the

materials you sent us and we are all the more disappointed in this case
because we supplied the cloth to new customers. As we shall have to
take it back we must ask you to let us know, without delay, what you
can do to help us in getting over this difficulty.


Simon Hsieh

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(2) Complaint of late delivery

1200, Swire House, Central, Hong Kong
Tel: 5799554 Fax: 5789445


Ms Elaine Kwok
Sales Supervisor
Tan Industrial Holdings
250 Wai Yip Street
Kwun Tong

Dear Ms Kwok

Delayed delivery of Order No. 48543-01-98

You will remember that last month we ordered 24 PIII 00 Computers.

When we discussed delivery dates, you assured us that you could deliver by
2nd December. However, the goods are now two weeks overdue, and I have
heard nothing from you to confirm a definite delivery date.

We urgently need these computers to upgrade the administrative functioning

of our offices, and your slowness is causing a great deal of inconvenience.

I should appreciate your looking into this matter and arranging for delivery
of these computers within the next three days.

I am afraid that if you are unable to deliver it within this period, we shall be
compelled to cancel our order and purchase from another supplier.

Yours sincerely

Edmund Chou
Office Manager

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(3) Complaint of incorrect bills

Sinolib Book Ltd.

Shop 350 Ocean Centre
Canton Road, Kowloon
Tel: 3737689


Mr. W. Mak
Sales Department
Palette Publishing Co
18/F Warwick House
Tong Chong Street
Quarry Bay

Dear Mr. Mak

Subject: Invoice No. P5643/9

We have just received the above invoice for a consignment of books which
was delivered on 4th May 1998 as part of our exhibition of contemporary
Hong Kong photographers’ work.

However, your invoice states that the consignment contained 240 copies of
A Pictorial History of Hong Kong by Shui Man-hing, whereas, in fact, it
contained only 200 copies. If you check our original order (No.
4378523-copy attached) you will see this was all we ordered.

We trust you will arrange for a new invoice to be issued in the near future, as
we shall be happy to settle this account as soon as possible.

Yours sincerely

Sophia Wan
Accounts Clerk

Introduction to Business English 152 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

1 Enclosure

Unit 21 Adjustment Letter


When an error has been made that causes customer dissatisfaction, it is the responsibility of
the company to make the matter right quickly and fairly. Replies to letters of complaint are
also called ‘adjustment letters’. This is because they seek to adjust a difficult situation to the
benefit of both the writer and the reader. On the one hand, the writer wants to convince the
reader that he is concerned and genuinely wants to help. On the other hand, the writer wants to
try to convince the reader that his company does not usually make mistakes.

Nothing shows our commitment to customer service excellence better than a fast response
to a justified complaint. Our customers know that they have been wronged and expect
immediate satisfaction. Anything less than that will cause our customers to think twice before
ordering from us again.

When our company has made a mistake, say so. Honesty is not just the best policy, it is
the only policy. By being honest, we earn our customer’s respect. But do not get involved in
long, complicated explanations. Explain our point of view directly and then put our attention
on showing the customer how we will make up for our mistake.

Often, to keep a customer after making an error, we’ll have to “go the extra mile” — often
the customer free merchandise or services, special discounts on future orders, or a gift. A
bouquet of flowers or a Teddy Bear can make a friend of even the most disgruntled customer.
It isn’t necessary to spend a lot of money, but it is necessary to show our sincere desire to make

Our response should be mailed immediately. When possible, send it out by overnight
courier or express mail. Show our customers by our actions that we are truly sorry. And
assure them that steps have been taken to make sure there is no repeat of the error in the future.
Always end by restating our apology and expressing our expectation of future business. Offer
customers an opportunity for additional discussion if they are still unsatisfied with our response.

Introduction to Business English 153 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

It is normal, when replying to complaint letters, to use polite, respectful language. Never
accuse the reader of having inconvenienced us or of causing trouble. Keep the tone of our letter
positive. All customer complaints are considered genuine, and are actually appreciated because
they allow our company to improve its service. If we do, there is every chance that the reader
will respond positively to what we write.

There are four major parts to an adjustment letter: the first acknowledges the complaint, the
second describes the action we have taken since receiving it, the third states briefly our decision
and the fourth offers compensation if appropriate.

(1) Acknowledgement of the complaint

In this short paragraph, refer briefly to the complaint that has been received. Unlike
most business letters, this first paragraph should not give full details. It is sufficient to
refer in very general terms to the complaint.

Adjustment letters are unlike most business letters in that usually the YOU approach is
unsuitable. The reason for this is that this approach sometimes sounds a little accusing.
We should never accuse our client of being a source of difficulties. Remember to keep the
tone positive by avoiding negative words such as damage, defective, poor quality, incorrect,
mistake, and problem in the first paragraph.

Ex.: * Thank you for bringing this matter to our attention.

* Thank you for giving us the opportunity to look into our delivery procedures.
* We appreciate your bringing this matter to our attention.

(2) Action taken and findings

This paragraph aims to demonstrate that we care enough to do something about the
complaint. However, once again, we should be brief. Do not go into a long description
of the complaint. In this paragraph, it is sufficient to describe briefly what investigations
you have made.

A simple statement of what we have done, and found out since receiving the complaint
will be enough. It can generally either be placed at the end of paragraph one or at the
beginning of paragraph two. The effect of placing it at the end of paragraph one is to
reduce the importance of the complaint. Therefore, if we want to impress the reader with
how seriously we have taken his complaint, it is probably better to put this section at the
beginning of the second paragraph.

Ex.: * I have checked with the transporters, and they inform me that ….

Introduction to Business English 154 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

* Having checked with our suppliers, it is clear that ….
* According to our records, ….

In this section, we will also need to describe what we have discovered about the
circumstances surrounding the customer’s complaint. In order to do this, we will probably
want to describe causes and effects.

Ex.: * The delay was due to poor weather condition.

* Because of the mail strike, we did not receive your order by 23rd September.
* Delays at the docks led to the consignment being shipped late.

(3) The decision

Our decision will either support the complainant or it will reject his request for
adjustment. If we find that the complaint is justified, this paragraph should state clearly
and simply that this is the case. We should also explain briefly why the mistake took
place, and assure the reader that the mistake will not be made again. There is no need to
blame anyone. If we are to blame, then we should admit it and apologize.

If we have to reject our client’s request for adjustment, it is important that we demon-
strate an understanding of the complaint. This does not mean repeating it word for word.
Instead we should summarize the complaint. This way, our reader will not think he is
dealing with someone who is insensitive to his problems. After we have summarized the
complaint briefly, we should explain why adjustment of the type suggested by the
customer is impossible. This should be done sympathetically, and with regret. Finally,
if there is a middle ground where the customer and we can meet, we can suggest an
alternative solution to the complainant.

If we have accepted responsibility and adjustment as suggested by the client, the final
paragraph will simply confirm arrangements regarding compensation. If responsibility is
denied or the form of adjustment suggested by the complainant is not accepted as
reasonable, we may suggest a compromise. This should be a reasonable compromise that
is not an insult to our reader. After both possible final paragraphs, we should end the
letter on a positive note that assures the client that your company has the best interests of
its clients at heart.

Ex.: * I really must apologize for the inconvenience caused.

* I hope you have not been too inconvenienced ….
* Please allow us to apologize for putting you to so much trouble.
* In future, we shall use the services of a different transport company.
* We assure you that in future we shall do all we can to avoid this error
occurring again.
* Unfortunately, I must inform you that we are not responsible for damage,
which takes place at sea.
* Regrettably, a member of your staff appears to have made a mistake filling
out the order form.

Introduction to Business English 155 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

(4) Offering compensation or a compromise

If we accept responsibility, when we come to offer compensation, our tone should be

particularly positive since we want to demonstrate that our company is more than happy to
compensate the reader. We certainly should not give the impression that we are only
grudgingly offering compensation. This would be particularly counter-productive. After
all, having made the decision to compensate, there is everything to gain by adopting a
generous tone. Most customers are since when they write a letter of complaint. So, even
if we have denied responsibility, it is also a good idea to offer a compromise to keep the
customer ‘on our side’. The language we use should be strongly positive here, too. And
it should be clear to the reader that the compromise is a gesture to bridge the gap between
he and us.

Ex.: * Naturally, we take all our customers’ comments seriously. With this in
mind, we are more than happy to cover the cost of replacing the defective
* I am enclosing a number of postage-paid order envelopes so that this
unfortunate situation does not happen again.
* As a gesture of our regret that this situation arose, may I offer a price
reduction of 25% on your next order with us?

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(1) Answering a complaint about poor service

Knowles Domestic Appliances

1108 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90041

Mrs. C. Brien
118 North Laurel Avenue
Los Angeles, Calif. 90048 Date

Dear Madam:

You were right to let us know about the unsatisfactory service you expe-
rienced when your washing machine had to be repaired. Your annoy-
ance is perfectly understandable; however we hope you will also try to
see our point of view.

You phoned our Field Service Department on Friday, March 13th. The
clerk handling your complaint arranged for a technician to come to your
home on the following Tuesday, but on account of illness he was not
able to come until Monday, March 23rd. However, on arrival at your
address he found no one at home, and was not able to carry out the work
until a new appointment had been made.

Of course you should have been notified of the delay. We apologize

for failing to inform you in time. We have heard from our Service
Engineer that your washing machine is in good working order now, and
he will personally see to it that you are not kept waiting again if you
need repairs in future.

Sincerely yours,

Hal Parks
Claims Department

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(2) Answering a complain about late delivery

Tan Industrial Holdings

250, Wai Yip Street, Kwun Tong


Mr. E Chou, Office Manager

1200 Swire House
Hong Kong

Dear Mr. Chou

I refer to your letter of 18th December regarding delivery of your order

for 24 PIII 00 computers. Thank you for bringing the matter to my

According to our Accounts Department, although we discussed

delivering the above computers by 2nd December, in fact we did not get
your order until 21st December — the same day as your letter of
complaint. I am afraid the delay in delivery has been due to our not
receiving the order for these two weeks.

I regret, therefore, that we cannot guarantee delivery before Chinese

New Year. As I mentioned earlier this month, this time of year is very
busy for us. However, as it is clear that you have been inconvenienced
by this unfortunate situation, we prepared to offer you the loan of 24 PII
300 Computers until such time as we can deliver your order.

If this arrangement is acceptable to you, please contact me as soon as

possible so that I can make the necessary arrangements.

Yours sincerely
for Tan Industrial Holdings

Elaine Kwok

Introduction to Business English 158 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

Sales Supervisor


It will sometimes happen that a client will write to make a complaint which, quite rightly,
we will look into very thoroughly and then discover that the complaint is not really justified at all,
for we have not made any mistake. The temptation will, of course, be to write back to him right
away to point out that we have not made the mistake and state quite forcibly that he is in the
wrong, but this temptation should be resisted, for even the mistaken complaint should be treated
with a good deal of tact. Replying, therefore, requires delicate handling, for while we cannot
accept responsibility for a mistake that is not ours, we clearly do not want our client to appear a
fool or to let him think we consider him one.

If we believe the customer is unjustified, ask for clarification — it may be that he has not
expressed himself well and the complaint is the result of a simple misunderstanding that can be
easily cleared up. If we are unable to respond positively, an honest, straightforward “no” along
with the reasons for the refusal, is best. If the company is not responsible, suggest the action
the customer can take to get satisfaction elsewhere, without actually blaming someone else. It’s
unlikely the customer is trying to cheat the company, and accusing him of that will ensure
undying enmity. This type of ill will can spread to other customers of our company.

To sum up, respond positively and promptly to all complaints — and consider even the
most vituperative attack as providing valuable information about customer relations.

Introduction to Business English 159 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment


(1) Company not at fault

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

We’re sorry to learn of the damage to our latest solenoid shipment

(PO#77J-4P). You should file a damage claim with the trucking firm, as
our standard terms and conditions of sale state “FOB factory.” Our
responsibility therefore ends when the trucker signs for the shipment. I
have enclosed a copy of the trucker’s pick-up slip, showing that the
shipment was in good condition, in case this will help you in filling a

We have enough stock on hand to reship your order. If you would like
us to do so, please call us with a purchase order.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

* State clearly who is and who is not responsible.

* Be as helpful as possible to the customer.
* Express empathy.

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(2) Company not responsible for delay in shipment

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Thank you for writing us about your irritation concerning the delay in
CSC’s receipt of four (4) MacDonald Customized Video Display
Terminals (CSC PO#3214; our invoice #80-1219-G).

The delay, however, was not caused at our end. As specified in your
Purchase Order, we shipped via Transcontinental Truckers before July
14th. The terminals were actually picked up on July 12th, as you can see
from the enclosed copy of the bill of lading (Transcontinental

Unless I have misunderstood something, it appears that Transcontinental

is responsible for the delay. Please let me know if I may help further in
this matter.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

* Acknowledge the customer’s complaint. Reference all purchase orders,

invoices, etc.
* Be direct about where the fault (if any) lies.
* Appear flexible; there may be additional issues the customer will raise subsequently.

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(3) Company not responsible for rudeness

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

I’m sorry to hear about the rudeness you experienced while shopping at
our store. I wish there was something we could do to prevent such
unpleasant events from occurring but, unfortunately, we cannot always
observe peculiar behavior in people who come through our store, or
intercept them as an incident develops.

I hope this incident will not give you a bad impression of Fashion Fair
stores. We value you as a customer, and I look forward to seeing you


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

* Express understanding for the customer’s feelings.

* Establish that there was nothing you could have done to prevent the
rudeness from occurring.
* Express hope that the incident will not affect your customer’s patronage and that he or
she will try you again.

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(4) Customer misunderstood delivery time

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Thank you for calling to check on the status of the shirts you ordered
from us (item 53J, Order #29746) three weeks ago (July 28th). I have
looked into your order, and everything is on schedule. Perhaps you did
not notice that on the bottom of the order form we have noted that any
items that are monogrammed, such as your shirts, will require a delivery
time of four to five weeks instead of the usual two to three weeks.

Your shirts should be arriving next week. I believe that you will be very
satisfied with your Wellington Bay shirts. Please let me know if I can be
of any further assistance.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

* Clarify what the delivery time is for the order.

* Refer to the item as specifically as possible (Sales # or PO #, etc.)
* Express goodwill and willingness to help out further.

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(5) Customer misunderstood terms of sale

Company Name
City, State Zip

Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

I’ve tried to reach you by phone because I feel problems should be dealt
with in person. However, I have been unable to catch you at home this
last week, and I don’t want our disagreement to go on much longer.

I understand from J. C. Gilbert, our stylist, that you were very unhappy
with Radar’s grooming last Monday. She said you felt we had
“dandified” and “emasculated” Radar by putting him in a “business suit.”
As we discussed when you brought Radar in, Airedales cost $20 more to
groom because their clip is very difficult. For example, they must retain
“eyebrows,” always difficult to achieve with such energetic dogs.
During our conversation, I felt you were familiar with the way Airedales
looked after they had been clipped. I’m very sorry for the misunder-

Nevertheless, I must insist you pay your account in full. We spent

considerable time removing burrs and snarls and gave Radar a flea bath as
well as clipping him. I’m afraid the aesthetics of the cut have no bearing
on the necessity to pay for work performed.

I look forward to receiving your check for $40.00 as soon as possible.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

Introduction to Business English 164 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

(6) Customer misunderstood product specifications

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

I’m sorry to hear of the damage to your A-Pro 1900 hairdryer during your
trip to Italy. Unfortunately, we cannot be held responsible for this
damage, which occurred because the hairdryer was plugged into a 220 V.,
50 Hz electrical outlet. As specifically indicated on the box, on the
documentation inside the box, and on the actual product, the A-Pro 1900
is designed to be used only on 115 V., 60 Hz electrical current. No
return is therefore possible.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

* Clarify the product specifications and indicate where they can be found in the sales
* Explain why no return is possible.

Introduction to Business English 165 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

(7) Customer misunderstood delivery terms

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

I’m glad to hear that you are pleased with the quality of sharpening that
EdgeTech has provided. I hope that you will give us the opportunity to
serve you again.

I’d like to clarify a misunderstanding we may have had regarding delivery

terms and turn-around time. The rates that we quoted you for the
sharpening of your surgical instruments is based on the normal
Wednesday afternoon pickup from your office and delivery to your office
on the following Monday morning by our representative. If you require
a pickup other than on Wednesday afternoon, there is a special charge of
US$10.00 per order, but the sharpening price is still the same as quoted
per surgical instrument. If you require an overnight turnaround, there is
again a special pickup charge of US$10.00 and, in addition, the
sharpening rates are 15% above the regular quoted rates.

Please let me know if you have any questions. I look forward to your


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

Introduction to Business English 166 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

(8) Customer who is threatening legal action

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Larry Crosby, our Credit and Collections Manager, has told me of your
intense dissatisfaction with the way your father’s recent auto repair was
handled here in our shop.

I am terribly sorry that you and your family have had these difficulties.
Please be sure that I will give the entire matter a very thorough review.
Mr. Johnson’s repairs were extremely complicated. It will take me some
time to review this with the mechanics involved and the Shop Manager,
but after I have completed my investigation, I would very much like to
meet with you and your father to discuss the problem he experienced. Is
there a possibility that you will be visiting your parents over the holidays?
If so, perhaps we can arrange a mutually convenient time to meet.

I asked Mr. Crosby to hold up any further collection proceedings until I

have discussed the matter with you and your father in person. I will be
in touch as soon as I have completed my review. I would appreciate
your speaking to your attorney as soon as possible to delay the legal
action he contemplates—that would serve no one’s best interests.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

Introduction to Business English 167 Chapter 10: Complains and Adjustment

If an import customer is sufficiently pleased with the quality of the goods he has imported,
he may wish to become the exporter’s agent in his region, and the exporter may also be looking
for a firm to promote the sale of his products.

A vast amount of international trade is handled not by direct negotiation between buyer and
seller but by means of agencies, usually in the country of the buyer. Of course, a great and
powerful manufacturer or trader can establish his own organization in a foreign land, and this is
usually done by founding a separate company in that country; alternatively, he may establish
branches abroad, as far as the law of the land concerned permits. Both methods call for great
capital outlay and are beyond the means of the vast majority of export traders, and even for those
who could afford to establish branches it is very questionable whether these branches would
prove economical to run. It is therefore not surprising that agencies flourish and continue to
handle a great volume of trade.

Unit 22 Types of Agency

Agents and agencies are appointed by firms to represent them. There is a wide range of
activities concerning representation. Some of the various types of agents will be referred to as

Forwarding Agent (Forwarder, Freight Forwarder) 攬貨業者; 貨物轉運人

There is a growing tendency for forwarding agencies to extend their activities into the field
of transport, negotiation, financing of incidental expenses involved in the movement of goods,
and even buying on their own account.

Brokers 經紀人; 掮客
Brokers usually buy or sell goods for their principals (the firms they represent) and
sometimes never handle the consignments themselves. They negotiate Sales and Purchase
contracts for buyers and sellers, without rights of their own in the goods.

Brokers/Dealers on the Stock Exchange 股票交易經紀人

They buy and sell shares for their clients, who cannot go on to the ‘floor’ of the Exchange
and deal for themselves if they are not members. The client asks the broker/dealer to buy or
sell shares for him, and the broker takes a commission on the purchase or sale.

Ship brokers 船務經紀人

They arrange for ships to transport goods for their clients.

Introduction to Business English 168 Chapter 11: Agencies

Insurance brokers 保險經紀人
They arrange insurance cover with underwriters who pay compensation in the event of a
There are other Exchanges where companies use brokers to represent them, either because
the company does not have membership of that Exchange, or they want to use the broker’s
specialized knowledge of the market.

Contact between buyers and brokers is done by phone, fax, or Internate, as prices in the
markets tend to fluctuate quickly, even by the minute in the case of bullion and foreign currency.

Factors 代理商 (可用自己名義購買或銷售貨物)

Factors have authority to sell in their own name, i.e., on their own account, for the principal,
to receive payment, to send accounts to their principals, and to sell at times and prices which
they consider advisable. (Fruit, agricultural products and raw materials are often handled by
factors or brokers.)

Confirming houses 代理商 (代辦非洲進口商定貨之確認,及在第三國代辦支付貨款)

These agents often receive orders from abroad, place them, arrange for packing, shipment,
insurance, and sometimes finance or purchase the goods themselves, then resell them to the
client. They may act on a commission, but if buying on their own account will make a profit on
the difference between the ex-works price and the resale price they quote the importer.

Export managers 出口經理人

If a firm does not have a branch in the country it is exporting to, they can appoint an export
manager. He will deal under his own name, but use the address of the company he represents.
His job is primarily to develop the market for the exporter, and for his services he may charge a
fee, or arrange for a profit-sharing scheme between himself and the exporter.

Manufacturer’s agents 廠商代理人

This agent represents a manufacturer and obtains goods, then resells them. The agent may
work on a commission, i.e., buying the goods on consignment, or, if described as a merchant, he
will buy the goods from the manufacturer on his own account, that is to sell them for his own
profit. If he is a sole agent, he agrees only to sell his principal’s products, and not those of a
competitor, and the manufacturer would probably agree not to supply the sole agent’s rivals in
his country.

Buying agents 購貨代理商

Buying agents, or buying houses, buy products on behalf of a principal and receive a com-
mission. The agency is employed to get the best possible terms for their principal, and will try
to find the most competitive rates in shipping and insurance for them. Buying houses often act
on behalf of large stores.

The orders sent to buying agents are called indents and are of two types: open indents,
where the agent chooses his/her supplier, and closed or specific indents, where the supplier is
named by the principal.

Introduction to Business English 169 Chapter 11: Agencies

Unit 23 Agency Search
It is possible to find an agent through a number of sources: advertising; in trade journals;
contacting government departments of trade in our own country or the country we wish to export
to; consulting Chambers of Commerce, Consulates, Trade Associations, and banks. Once we
have found out the names and addresses of prospective agents, we can write to them directly.

In the opening, explain who we are and how we saw or heard of the manufacturer’s product.
Then we have to convince the supplier first that there is a market for his product in our country
or area, and second that we are the best person to develop the market and sell his goods.
Finally, we may want to leave discussion of terms until after we know that the supplier is inter-
ested in our request. But there is no harm, even at this stage, in describing the terms on which
we normally operate and asking if they would be acceptable in the present case


(1) Importer asks for agency

Dear (salutation) :

The excellent quality and modern design of your mechanical garden

tools, a selection of which we saw recently in action here, appeals to us
very much. We have since seen your full catalogue and are interested in
knowing whether you have considered the possibilities of the market in
this country.

As a leading house of importers and distributors of many year’s

standing in this trade, we have an extensive sales organization and a
thorough knowledge of the Danish market. We think your products
would have a good sale here, and are prepared to do business with you
ether on a consignment basis or by placing firm orders, if your prices and
terms are right.

We are also interested in handling a sole agency for you, we think

would serve your interests to the best advantage, and also be more
acceptable to ourselves.

Please let us have your views on these proposals: if you are interested
in establishing an agency here, our Mr. Erikson would be pleased to call
on you in March, when he will be in England.

We look forward to receiving your reply.


Introduction to Business English 170 Chapter 11: Agencies

(2) Manufacturer replies: Answer to letter No. 1

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

We thank you for your letter of 4th January and are pleased to hear that
you find our products satisfactory and that you think there is room for
expanded sales in Denmark.

If your Mr. Erikson will call on us when he is in our district we shall be

pleased to discuss the possibility of coming to an arrangement with you,
but we have not yet made any decision about an agency. Perhaps you
would like to give us some idea of the terms on which you would be
willing to operate as our agent, and approximately what amount of stock
you would wish to hold.

Meanwhile we have pleasure in sending you our export catalogue with

full details of discounts, and we should be pleased to supply you with an
initial order at these prices against your Letter of Credit, available by draft
on an English Bank at 60 days after shipment of the goods.


Typed name

Introduction to Business English 171 Chapter 11: Agencies

(3) An agency is confirmed

Company Name
City, State Zip

Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

We are pleased to confirm the agreement reached at the recent discussions

at Stuttgart between you and our Mr. P. Henry, and look forward very
much indeed to having a successful co-operation.

Before the contract is drawn up for signature we should like to re-state the
main points of the agreement, viz.:
1. That we operate as Sole Agents for a period of three years from
date of agreement.
2. That we receive a commission of 10% on all sales of your
machines in the United Kingdom.
3. That we handle no other imported machines of a competitive
4. That we render you monthly Account Sales and accept your drafts
on us for the net amount of these sales.
5. That we maintain a comprehensive range of your products promi-
nently displayed in our main showrooms in Kingsway, London.

We look forward to receiving your letter confirming these points, or your

draft agreement.

With all best wishes,


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

Introduction to Business English 172 Chapter 11: Agencies

(4) Exporter offers an agency

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

In view of the steady increase in the demand for our beauty preparations,
we have decided to appoint an agent to handle our export trade with your

From our own observations coupled with the experiences of competitors,

we are convinced that there is an enormous market potential waiting to be
tapped, and a really active, go-ahead agent could develop a fine business
in this line. As we think you are the right people to do this, we should
like to offer you the agency if you are at all interested, and we should
welcome your views.

We offer a Sole Agency, and would supply you with a reasonable initial
stock on a credit of 6 months. Further supplies would be invoiced to you
at 10% below export list prices, with payment by quarterly draft.

An early reply would be appreciated, as we wish to reach a quick

decision. Meanwhile we hope you will see in our offer a worthwhile


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

Introduction to Business English 173 Chapter 11: Agencies

(5) Buying agent rejects an order

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Many thanks for your Indent No. 107 of March 1st.

We regret having to refuse this, but the delivery date stipulated by you
does not give us sufficient time in which to obtain most of the items
required. The minimum period necessary where goods have to be
obtained from Switzerland or Germany is 4-5 weeks.

We are anxious to serve you but are sure you will see the need for giving
us a little more notice of your requirements.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

Introduction to Business English 174 Chapter 11: Agencies

Unit 24 Agency Agreement

General Agency Agreement

(Selected from “The Institute of Export, London”)

AN AGREEMENT made this … day of … BETWEEN … whose registered office is

situated at … (hereinafter called the Principal) of the one part, and … (hereinafter called the
Agent) of the other part.


1. The Principal appoints the Agent as and from the … to be its Sole Agent in … (hereinafter
called the area) for the sale of … manufactured by the Principal and such other goods and
merchandise (all of which are hereinafter referred to as the goods) as may hereafter be
mutually agreed between them.

2. The Agent will during the term of … years (and thereafter until determined by either party
giving three months’ previous notice in writing) diligently and faithfully serve the Principal
as its Agent and will endeavor to extend the sale of the goods of the Principal within the
area and will not do anything that may prevent such sale or interfere with the development
of the Principal’s trade in the area.

3. The Principal will from time to time furnish the Agent with a statement of the minimum
prices at which the goods are respectively to be sold and the Agent shall not sell below such
minimum price but shall endeavor in each case to obtain the best price obtainable.

4. The Agent shall not sell any of the goods to any person, company, or firm residing outside
the area, nor shall he knowingly sell any of the goods to any person, company, or firm
residing within the area with a view to their exportation to any other country or area without
the consent in writing of the Principal.

5. The Agent shall not during the continuance of the Agency hereby constituted sell goods of a
similar class or such as would or might compete or interfere with the sale of the Principal’s
goods either on his own account or on behalf of any other person, company, or firm whom-

6. Upon receipt by the Agent of any order for goods the Agent will immediately transmit such
order to the Principal who (if such order is accepted by the Principal) will execute the same
by supplying the goods direct to the Customer.

7. Upon the execution of any such order the Principal shall forward to the Agent a duplicate
copy of the invoice sent with the goods to the customer and in like manner shall from time
to time inform the Agent when payment is made by the customer to the Principal.

Introduction to Business English 175 Chapter 11: Agencies

8. The Agent shall duly keep an account of all orders obtained by him and shall every three
months send in a copy of such account to the Principal.

9. The Principal shall allow the Agent the following commissions (based on FOB United
Kingdom value) … in respect of all orders obtained direct by the Agent in the area which
have been accepted and executed by the Principal. The said commission shall be payable
every three months on the amounts actually received by Principal from the customers.

10. The Agent shall be entitled to commission on the terms and condition mentioned in the last
preceding clause on all export orders for the goods received by the Principal through Export
Merchants, Indent Houses, Branch Buying offices of customers, and Head Offices of
customers situated in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the
Irish Free State for export into the area. Export orders in this clause mentioned shall not
include orders for the goods received by the Principals from and sold delivered to
customers’ principal place of business outside the area although such goods may
subsequently be exported by such customers into the area, excepting where there is
conclusive evidence that such orders which may actually be transmitted via the Head Office
in England are resultant from work done by the Agent with the customers.

11. Should any dispute arise as to the amount of commission payable by the Principal to the
Agent the same shall be settled by the Auditors for the time being of the Principal whose
certificate shall be final and binding on both the Principal and the Agent.

12. The Agent shall not in any way pledge the credit of the Principal.

13. The Agent shall not give any warranty in respect of the goods without the authority in
writing of the Principal.

14. The Agent shall not collect any moneys from customers, without the authority of the

15. The Agent shall not give credit to or deal with any person, company, or firm, which the
Principal shall from time to time direct him not to give, credit to or deal with.

16. The Principal shall have the right to refuse to execute or accept any order obtained by the
Agent or any part thereof and the Agent shall not be entitled by the Agent or any part
thereof and the Agent shall not be entitled to any commission in respect of any such refused
order or part thereof so refused.

17. All questions of difference whatsoever which may at any time hereafter arise between the
parties hereto or their respective representatives touching these presents or the subject
matter thereof or arising out of or in relation thereto respectively and whether as to
construction or otherwise shall be referred to arbitration in England in accordance with the
provision of the Arbitration Act 1950 or any re-enactment or statutory modification thereof
for the time being in force.

Introduction to Business English 176 Chapter 11: Agencies

18. The Agreement shall in all respects be interpreted in accordance with the Laws of England.

AS WITNESS the parties have hereto set their hands on the day and year first hereinbefore


Exclusive Agency Agreement

The Agreement is entered into this days of … by … (hereinafter called Principal) and …
(hereinafter called Agent).

Principal grants Agent the exclusive right to sell the merchandise stipulated in Article
3 in the territory stipulated in Article 2, and Agent accepts such appointment.

The territory covered under this Agreement is confined to … (hereinafter called

The merchandise covered under this Agreement is confined to … (hereinafter called

Principal shall sell Merchandise to Territory through any channel other than Agent.
Agent shall not sell or promote the sale of any item made in Taiwan similar to Merchandise
and shall not sell Merchandise outside Territory. Principal shall refer to Agent any inquiry
or order for Merchandise, which Principal may receive from others in Territory.

If the total amount of payments received by Principal from Agent’s customers fails to
reach US$…for any one-year period, Principal may terminate this Agreement by giving
sixty (60) days written notice to Agent at any time.

Agent shall bear all the expenses incurred in connection with the sale of Merchandise
including traveling, cable, telex, postal and other incidental expenses. Principal shall,
likewise, bear its own cable, telex, postal and other incidental expenses.

Principal may pay to Agent commission in U.S. currency at the rate of …% of the net
invoiced selling price of Merchandise on all orders obtained by Agent and received and

Introduction to Business English 177 Chapter 11: Agencies

accepted by Principal, provided, however, that no such commission shall be payable until
Principal receives the full amount of payment due. Commission shall be payable until
Principal receives the full amount of payment due. Commission shall be settled at the end
of every three months.

Each individual contract under this agreement shall be concluded by Seller’s Sales
Contract, which sets forth the terms, conditions, rights and obligations of the parties hereto
except those stipulated in this Agreement.

All cable, letter, and/or telex offers shall be considered “firm” subject to reply being
received within thirty days from and including the day of dispatch, unless otherwise stated.
Sundays and National Holidays at both ends are excepted.


The trade terms used between the parties hereto shall be governed and interpreted by
the provisions of Incoterms, 1993.


Both Principal and Agent shall periodically and/or at the request of either party furnish
information in order to promote the sale of Merchandise. Agent shall diligently and
adequately advertise and promote the sale of Merchandise in Territory. Principal shall
furnish Agent with a reasonable quantity of advertising materials such as literature, catalogs
and folders.


Both Principal and Agent shall keep in strict confidence from any third party and
all-important matters as to the business covered by this Agreement.


Agent may use the Principal’s trademark(s) during the effective period of this
Agreement only for the sale of Merchandise. Agent acknowledges the fact that any and all
patents, trademarks, designs and other industrial property rights used in Merchandise
remain the property of Principal. Agent shall immediately send information to Principal in
case it has found that the Principal’s industrial property rights are infringed upon by a third
party, and assist Principal in taking necessary steps to protect the rights effectively.

This Agreement shall be valid for a period of one year commencing from the date first
above written and shall be automatically renewed thereafter on a year-to-year basis unless
either party gives the other party two months prior written notice to terminate this

Introduction to Business English 178 Chapter 11: Agencies

Neither party shall be liable in any manner for failure or delay in performing all or part
of this Agreement, directly or indirectly, due to Force Majeure, such as fire, floods,
earthquakes, tempests, strikes, lockouts, and other industrial disputes, mobilization, war,
threat of war, riots, civil commotion, hostilities, blockade, requisition of vessel, and any
other contingencies beyond the control of the parties hereto.

Neither party shall assign this Agreement in whole nor in part to any third party
without the prior written consent of the other party.

All disputes, controversies, or differences which may arise between the parties hereto,
out of or in relation to or in connection with this Agreement, or for the breach thereof shall
be finally settled by arbitration in Taiwan, the Republic of China in accordance with the
Commercial Arbitration Rules of the Commercial Arbitration Association of the Republic
of China. The award rendered by the arbitrator(s) shall be final and binding upon both


This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the parties hereto and
supersedes all previous negotiations, agreements and commitments in respect thereto. No
change, modification or amendment of this Agreement is binding upon Principal and Agent
unless made in writing and signed by both parties.


This Agreement shall be governed in all respects by the laws of the Republic of China.

Principal Agent

___________________ __________________
(signed) (Signed)
President President
Date Date

Introduction to Business English 179 Chapter 11: Agencies

A secretary to an executive deals with all the business letter-writing of that person, and is
therefore concerned with any business that the firm undertakes. There are certain types of
letters that are particularly in the province of secretaries, such as Reservations, Condolences,
Congratulations, Evaluations, Invitations, News Releases, Regrets, Seasonal Messages,
Tele-grams, Thank Yous, Welcomes and Farewells, etc.

Unit 25 Letters of Appointment and Reservation

The practice of making hotel reservations by letter is becoming less and less common.
Telephoning usually is more practical in terms of both cost and time. Whether by letter or by
phone, a reservation needs to include (1) dates and times of arrival and departure, (2) the number
of people who will be staying, (3) the type of room or rooms desired, and (4) a request for
confirmation. However, correspondence is necessary if accommodation is to be booked abroad,
or if one is to travel further from places outside one’s own country. An organization that has
scheduled a convention at a hotel will send its members a blank reservation card. Those who
plan to attend simply fill out the card and mail it in to register.

Introduction to Business English 180 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(1) Making an appointment

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

As mentioned in my letter of 9th August, I am planning to spend a few

days in London next month, on my way to the United States. The dates
are now settled: I shall arrive at Heathrow on Wednesday, 3rd September
(Flight BA 602 15:30) and leave on Friday night. I shall be staying at
the Cumberland Hotel, Marble Arch, London W1.

On 3rd September, I already have some appointments, but could come to

your office any time on Thursday, 4th September. Would you kindly
leave a message at my hotel letting me know what time would suit you.

One of the most important matters to be discussed is the percentage of

commission you could give us for distributing your SELECT copier in
Egypt. As we have already indicated, 10% is unacceptable to us: we
require at least 12 % if we are to do a good job of selling this equipment
in Egypt.

In the hope that we can come to terms, and looking forward to meeting


Typed name

Introduction to Business English 181 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(2) Having missed someone

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

It was really most unfortunate that I was not in my office when you called
on me on 3rd April. Looking through our correspondence I see,
however, that we had fixed an appointment for 3 p.m. on 5th April, and I
had made myself available for you on that day. In fact, I was hoping for
the pleasure of your company during the evening as well.

I understand my secretary gave you some of the data you required since
you had to leave for Damascus next morning. Do let me know when
you expect to be in Copenhagen again, as I would very much like to have
an opportunity to talk to you about various matters of mutual interest.


Typed name

Introduction to Business English 182 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(3) Hotel booking

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

We shall be glad if you will reserve the following accommodation for two 註解 [Jackson1]: 預約
of our managers, Mr. Wang and Mr. Lee: 2 single rooms, if possible each 註解 [Jackson2]: 住宿
with a private bathroom, from May 5th, for two nights. Please be so kind as
註解 [Jackson3]: 私人浴室
to let us have an early confirmation of this booking.
註解 [Jackson4]: 確認


Typed name

Introduction to Business English 183 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(4) Air travel

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear Sirs:

This letter is to confirm our telephone conversation this morning when I

arranged for two tickets to be sent to us in the names of Simon Hsieh and
Jimmy Chen, our directors, who will be travelling London Heathrow-Rome
on flight BA 164 arriving at 10.05 hours, on Wednesday, 12th June.

Please send the tickets to us by return, and find an enclosed check for US$

Yours sincerely,

Typed name

Introduction to Business English 184 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(5) Conference facilities

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear Sirs,

We are holding our annual conference this year in Nantes and are looking
for a hotel, which can offer us accommodation and conference facilities
from 15th to 18th November inclusive.

There will be 60 delegates, 15 of whom will be bringing their wives.

Therefore, we will need 45 single rooms and 15 double with full board for
the three days. Provision should also be made for serving morning coffee
and afternoon tea in the conference room.

For the meetings we will need a room that can accommodate 60 to 70

people, with sound equipment, and if possible a stage from where lectures
and demonstrations can be given.

We will be bringing our own visual aids with us, so it will not be necessary
to provide projectors, boards, or screens.

Please would you send us a list of your tariffs and let us know if you are
prepared to allow discounts for a group booking. If you can offer a com-
petitive quotation, and satisfactory accommodation and facilities, you can
rely on regular bookings from us in the future.

Yours sincerely,

Typed name

Introduction to Business English 185 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

Unit 26 Letters of Condolence
Most of us find sympathy letters difficult to write. It becomes even harder when the note
must be written to a business associate. Just remember that the tone of our note should reflect
the degree of formality in our relationship. If it has always been business-only, this occasion
might not be the right time to act as if we’re a close, personal friend. Taking the time to write
and offer our personal condolences will still be appreciated by our customer even if our note is
brief. One guideline is how much we know about the customer’s private life. If we have
exchanged personal information about our nonbusiness lives, we may be able to write in a more
personal tone.

When we send a condolence letter and don’t know the deceased well, pretend we have been
hired to write an obituary or prepare a eulogy. Do some research. Talk to others if possible.
Then in our letter concentrate on accomplishments that have affected or helped others, happy
remembrances, and the characteristics that will be remembered.

(1) Announcing the death of a chairman

(Written by the secretary of the company)

You will, I know, be very sorry to hear of the sudden death of Sir James
Brown, for thirty years Chairman of this company and a son of the founder
of the business ….

The following phrases would be suitable for the reply expressing


(a) We were deeply grieved (to hear) (to learn) of the sudden death of
the Chairman of your company ….
(b) It was a great shock to hear the sad news of Sir James Brown’s
sudden death.
(c) We are writing immediately to express our sincere sympathy.
(d) We want to express our heartfelt sympathy ….
(e) All who knew him well remember his many kindness and his helpful
(f) Please (convey) (express) our sympathy also to his family.
(g) Please accept the expression of our deepest sympathy.

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(2) Get-well note


Dear John :

I was so sorry to hear about your accident.

I’m sure the four weeks home will pass much faster than you think — and
to help keep your mind off the calendar, I’m sending you the newest
Stephen King novel. It’s one of those 1000-pagers. If you take your
time, you could lose a week or more right there. Of course, I’ve already
read it. In my opinion, it’s one of his best. But don’t think you can get
me to tell you how it ends!

Your office told me you’re expected back the week of April 12th. You’ll
probably have a lot to catch up on that week, even though Gary sounds
like he has everything under control. If I don’t hear from you by the
19th, I’ll give you a call. I’d like to continue our conversation about a
new direction for next year. The suggestions you made at our last
session were very helpful, and I’ve come up with a plan I think you’ll
really like. Maybe we’ll be able to schedule a meeting later in the

In the meantime, make the most of your time at home. It’s a pity to have
to go to such lengths to get four consecutive weeks off from work. The
least you can do is relax and enjoy it.

Get better soon!

John Hsieh

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(3) Offer your customer condolences

Dear Shuling :

I just heard about Patrick and wanted to offer my condolences to you and
your family.

From everything you’ve told me about him, I’m sure your loss is shared
by many. He sounded like a very special man who will be greatly
missed. I’m only sorry I never really got to know him, although you
were always able to paint such a vibrant picture for me.

Words can say so little in a time of sorrow like this, but please know that
I’m thinking of you.

With my sincerest sympathy,

Samuel Hsieh

(4) Letter of condolence

Dear Johnson:

I heard of the loss of your father today, and I know how you feel. I just
cannot tell you how sorry I am.

I know that nothing I can write can dull your sorrow since only time can do
that and it will, Johnson.

Please call me if there is anything I can do for you.


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(5) On the death of a spouse

Dear Jean:

Your husband’s death is a sad event for all of us who knew him. We all
held him in great respect and affection, and we shall miss him. All of us
at his office send you our condolences; if any of us can be of any
assistance, please call on us.


(6) An invalid

Dear Mary:

Now that you’re confined to bed for a while, here are some sugges-
tions for passing the time:

1. Think about all the aggravation you’re missing at your job. Add it
all up and put it away in your treasure chest: when have you ever
been so lucky?
2. Make a list of all the terrible parties you’ve been to in your lifetime.
Think of how happy you are they’re behind you now, instead of
ahead of you. Give yourself a pat on the back for remarkable
achievement in terrible-party survival tactics.
3. Spend half an hour reminiscing about all the men you barely escaped
getting serious with.

By the time you’re finished, you ought to be sufficiently happy to

jump out of bed in half the time you expected.

Do get well quickly.


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Unit 27 Letters of Congratulation
Because the subject matter of congratulatory letters is positive, they are easy (and enjoyable)
to write. Normally, they should receive a response.

We often read about the election, promotion, or other significant achievement of a colleague
or acquaintance and think that a note or telephone call of congratulations would be in order.
The successful executive takes advantage of the situation to build goodwill for the company and
for herself or himself. Although handwritten messages are acceptable, typed ones permit more
to be said.

In addition to promotions and elections, such events as births, weddings, and engagements,
call for acknowledgment. We should always acknowledge the events when those involved are
employees of our firm. Here are some examples of short letters of congratulations on different

1. I just learned of your promotion to the post of vice-president of Security, Inc. Please
accept my warmest congratulations and best wishes for every success.
2. Congratulations on your receipt of the Realtor of the Month award. I could see it
coming. Realtors and clients applaud your energy, sincerity, and expertise. Best
3. Your good news just arrived, and I wish you and Stephen every possible happiness.
He has always seemed to me like a wonderful person, and now he’s also a lucky one.
Please congratulate him for me.

In almost all cases, letters of congratulations should be answered. For examples:

1. Many thanks for your nice words about my promotion and for the good wishes. I
look forward to continuing to work with you at the Chamber of Commerce. I always
enjoy it.
2. Thank you for your good thoughts about my promotion. I’m not certain whether
congratulations or condolences would have been appropriate! The job is going to be
demanding, especially as I make the transition. I’m going to give it my all, however;
and your thoughtfulness is going to help ease the burden. Again, I truly appreciate
your support.
3. I appreciate your note. You made me feel very good about my work and those who
work with me.

In a good letter of congratulation:

1. Be reasonable short — unless you feel you really have a lot to say.
2. Mention the reason for the letter.
3. Be sincere.
4. Above all, show your good feeling for the recipient.

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(1) Congratulations on the birth of a child

Dear (salutation) :

I understand you’ve just arrived and that your parents haven’t even
picked out a name for you yet. Well, don’t worry about that: you’ve
chosen a couple of topnotch parents, and I think you’ll find that they’ll
provide you with just about everything you need to lead a happy and
healthy life (including a name all your own).

Sorry I can’t be with you to watch you grow up, but I’ve no doubt that
you’re going to become a wonderful person, just like all those others in
your family.

I’m sending along a small present, which I hope you’ll enjoy. And
until I do see you, I want you to grow fast, be kind, and have a wonderful


(2) Congratulations on promotion

Dear (salutation) :

Congratulations on becoming Director, National Accounts. It came as

no surprise to any of us here — Loomis/Jones has a widely recognized
eye for sharp talent. I am sure you’ll meet with the same success in New
York as you did in Houston and hope that you take with you pleasant
memories of your two years here in Texas.

Best regards,

Typed name

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(3) Congratulations on new office

Dear (salutation) :

Thank you for inviting me to your open house. It was a wonderful party,
and I enjoyed meeting your associates very much.

Congratulations on your beautiful new office. The view you have of the
river is spectacular, and I like the way you’ve redesigned the interior,
especially how you’ve opened up the roof to let in more light. It’s hard
to believe that place was once a hat factory!


Typed name

Unit 28 Letters of Evaluation

Although evaluation is not our purpose, we can hardly escape noticing when the attitudes
and performances of others are especially good or especially bad. For those who deserve high
marks, letters can encourage; for those who deserve low marks, letters can alert.

Recalling to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, we know that from the bestower’s point of view
an intangible reward (such as a letter) is easy and inexpensive. From the recipient’s point of
view, the value of an intangible reward can be much greater than any reasonable tangible reward.
People are not usually reluctant to say “Thank you,” “a great performance,” etc. Yet, because
people seldom bother to write them, such messages are especially meaningful — even treasured.

A letter of commendation is intended to recognize, reward, and encourage the receiver, it

also benefits the sender. Contributing to another’s happiness, paying tribute to one who
deserves it, encouraging that which is commendable — such feelings can contribute to the
sender’s own sense of well-being and worth.

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People are usually hesitant about writing letters that point out negatives because of: (a)
being stereotyped as a complainer, (b) being associated with negative thoughts and thus thought
of in negative terms, or (c) appearing to challenge one of management’s prior decisions (choice
of the leader). Yet such risks may be worth taking because of the benefits: (1) the writer gets a
feeling of having exercised a responsibility, (2) management learns of changes that need to be
made, (3) the person about whom the letter is written modifies techniques and is thus happier and
more successful, and (4) present and future trainees may be exposed to programs that are more

In the decision to write about negatives, the primary consideration is intent. If the intent is
to hurt or to get even, the message should not be written. False information would be unethical
and illegal.

Whether negative evaluations are presented in writing or in conversation, the same

principles apply: have a positive intent, be factual, use positive language, and leave judgment to
the recipient.

(1) To a speaker

Dear (salutation) :

Before noon today, I found myself applying some of the principles you
discussed at this morning’s Business Breakfast Club.

I jotted down each of your three suggestions on the Money Market.

Thanks to all the supporting figures you presented, I am convinced of
their validity.

Thank you for an interesting, thought-provoking talk.


Typed name

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(2) To a speaker’s employer

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Mr. Will Jones (financial analyst at your Lockwood office) gave a very
interesting, informative speech at this morning’s Business Breakfast Club.

In a well-organized and witty presentation, he offered three suggestions

on the Money Market (along with supporting facts and figures). From
members’ reaction during the question-and answer period that followed, I
sensed that his ideas were clearly understood and appreciated.

Possibly Mr. Jones has let you know that he was to give a talk this
morning, but I just want you to know that he gave an outstanding
speech — totally consistent with the image your bank projects.


Typed name

* With such letters in his file, Mr. Jones’s chances for promotion or other tangible rewards are
increased. But the intangible reward alone makes the effort worthwhile.

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(3) Written evaluation

Company Name


Use the reverse side if necessary
Date ______________
Employee ______________ Position _______________
Evaluator ______________ Position _______________


Brad, your skills as a training specialist and consultant are excellent.

You are a very strong teacher and group facilitator. Your recent work-
shop for agoraphobic is a fine example of your abilities in this area, espe-
cially your ability to be sensitive to both individual and group needs.

I am pleased by your ability to research and design workshops and

seminars. Your designs are practical, thorough, and suited to the
knowledge level of the participants.

You have also been an asset to Pygmalion Consultants in your ability to

network and generate referrals for the company. The increased business
(and bonuses) have made everyone happy.

As we have discussed before, your tendency to produce results at the

eleventh hour has been problematic. An example is the way several of
the staff were forced to work overtime to finish the Golden Valley Public
School Teachers project. Your expectation that the support staff can and
will set aside their work at the last minute is unreasonable. As you
know, good working relations between the staff and the consultants are a
necessity. How can we work together to solve this problem?

Although you always dress neatly, your preference for casual dress in the
office has become inappropriate. The company considers its image to be
important both “at home” because of visiting client and in public because
of general professionalism. We expect you to wear business suits in and
out of the office and to keep the tie tied and the sleeves buttoned.

— Make your evaluations specific. Back them up with examples.

— When evaluating undesirable performance, state clearly what you find unacceptable, why it
is problematic, and what changes you expect the employee to make.

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Unit 29 Letters of Invitation
Invitations are as varied as the people who send them and the reasons for which they’re sent.
But basically they can be divided into two broad groups: informal and formal.

Like most other special letters, invitations are deductive and relatively short. Responses to
invitations should be handled similarly. An informal invitation resembles a business letter.
When sent from a business office, the letter is sometimes typed on executive stationery, which is
smaller than the regular business letterhead. Wording should be conversational, as though the
writer were extending the invitation orally. As a matter of style, the inside address may be
placed at the end of the letter.

All invitations should be acknowledged promptly. When a telephone RSVP (“Répondez

s’il vous plaît.”: French for “Would you please reply it.”) is not mentioned, either a typed or
handwritten reply is satisfactory and should use the same conversational style as used in the
invitation. Although many formal invitations are handwritten, especially for smaller groups,
formal invitations are generally printed and follow formats provided by the printer. When the
affair includes formal wear, the invitation should include the notation “black tie, and dark suit
for man; evening gown for woman.”

A formal invitation, usually in the form of a letter or printed card, is written in the third
person, and replies also follow the same style. Other invitations are written less formally.
Any written invitation should be answered in writing too, not by phone.

For an informal party, you may want to send a short personal letter or a note. Enthusiasm
is always a good thing to aim for in an informal party invitation. It’s courteous to mention that
there will be other guests when you send a dinner invitation. The important thing in any
personal invitation is to give the facts and make the letter warm and simple.

We may want to send cards rather than a letter, especially if we’re inviting many people.
It’s in perfectly good taste to use the commercial cards that have spaces for us to fill in the time
and place of the party.

Formal invitations may be divided into two kinds: handwritten and printed. The wording
is usually the same in both. If we plan to do a lot of entertaining, we may want to have cards
printed or engraved, with space for us to fill in the details. We can do the whole thing by hand,
if we prefer.

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(1) A formal invitation

Mr. Simon Hsieh

Chairman of the Board of Herzer Co., Ltd.


Mr. Jimmy Chen

General Manager of the Company

request the presence of

Mr. And Mrs. Barrington

on the occasion of the inauguration of

Herzer Taichung Branch

at Holiday Inn

on Wednesday, the second of May

at a reception

between 17.00 – 19.00 hours

followed by a dinner

at eight o’clock.

Miss Chiu Hui-juen
Tel: 25017751 / 25055729

(2) A semi-formal invitation

Introduction to Business English 197 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

Company Name
City, State Zip


Dear (salutation) :

We are pleased to invite you to be our guests at the Installation Ball of the
Chamber at the Beachrider Hotel on January 5th.

As was recently announced, Robert Dodson, our executive vice-president,

will be installed then as president of the Chamber of Commerce for the
coming year. A reception at seven o’clock will be followed by dinner
and dancing. Will you please let me know by December 29th whether
you will attend. I will be glad to see you there.


Typed name

Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Tel : (02)25017751
Miss Liu

(3) Accepting a formal invitation

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Company Name
City, State Zip


Mr. And Mrs. George Lin thank Mr. Simon Hsieh and Jimmy Chen for
their kind invitation to the inauguration of the Herzer Taichung Branch to
be held at the Holiday Inn, and will be pleased to attend.

(4) Declining a formal invitation

Company Name
City, State Zip


Mr. W. James, Chairman, thanks Mr. Simon Hsieh and Jimmy Chen for
their kind invitation to the inauguration of the Herzer Taichung Branch to
be held at the Holiday Inn, but regrets that he is unable to attend due to a
prior engagement.

(5) Invitation to a lunch and a talk

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Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

On September 21st we are giving a luncheon for Mr. Stewart O’Neill,

Chairman and President of Far East Telecommunications Corp. and Mr.
Warren Morgan, Director of Investment Relations.

Mr. O’Neill will speak about the developments taking place in the
dynamic areas of data processing and electronic communications, and
Northern Telecommunications’ role in these industries. Following
lunch, our guests will be available to answer specific questions you may
have. We think you will find this discussion interesting, and hope you
can attend.

The luncheon will be held at the Hotel Europa, Scotts Road, Singapore
at 12:00. Your prompt reply would be very much appreciated.


Typed name

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Unit 30 News Release
All businesses are eager to get as much favorable publicity as possible in newspapers and
magazines, on radio or television. Larger businesses employ publicity directors whose job is to
attract favorable public attention to the organization.

Any subject that the business executive thinks may be of public interest or may bring the
company name before the public may be the basis for a news release. It may be an
announcement of a new product or service, the promotion of a major executive, a retirement, a
death, an honor for an employee, the election of employees to civic posts, company anniversary
celebrations, and so on. News releases are usually written, or at least approved, by one
executive in an organization. In larger firms a public relations department or publicity
department handles such releases. In smaller firms releases may be written by various

The purpose of the news release is to get a story into print or on the air. Newspaper,
magazine, radio, and television editors receive hundreds of news releases every day from all
types of businesses and individuals.

News releases must be typed and reproduced (usually by stencil or photo-offset). Carbon
copies should never be sent to an editor. Releases should be kept as brief as possible — rarely
should they be more than a page and a half. The shorter and more interesting the news release,
the better its chance of getting into print.

When writing or issuing news releases, be sure to observe all the points outlined here:

(1) Always double-space the news release. Double-spacing is a must for all news
releases so that the editor has room to make changes in the copy.

(2) Use generous side margins and leave plenty of space at both top and bottom. This
permits room for the editor to add typesetting instructions.

(3) At the beginning of the story give a brief headline so that the editor may learn quickly
what the release is about; for example, “new Plastic Office Accessories Announced” or
“New President Appointed.” (Editors will nearly always write their own headlines;
nonetheless, news release writers should include a suggested headline.)

(4) At the top of the form indicate when the news release may be made public. “For
Release Upon Receipt” means that the story may be printed immediately upon receipt.
Sometimes a news release may be issued several days in advance of the time it is to be
used, in which case it will be marked, “To Be Released on July 1st” or “Not to Be
Released Before July 1st.”

(5) Indicate the end of the release by typing the word END in parentheses or by typing
three x’s: -xxx-. (The three x’s stand for “30,” the signal telegraphers once used to
signify “the end.”)

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(6) If there is more than one page, add the word more in parentheses at the end of each
page except the last page.

(7) If the news release is long, insert subheads between paragraphs of the text to help
break the monotony of type.

Company Name
City, State Zip

Release: March 18th preferred

From: Samuel Hsieh

PR Director


On June 1st, Woodside Homes will begin construction of new homes on a

forty-acre tract at the northeast corner of Bell and Ray roads.

The project, expected to be completed in about two years, will feature

stucco walls and tile roofs. The four different floor plans range in size
from 2,000 to 3,000 square feet.

According to Vince Wilford, vice-president of Woodside, models should

be ready for viewing in early September.

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Unit 31 Letters of Seasonal Greeting
Sending holiday wishes usually means a season’s greetings card or gift sent at that time of
year. Some companies ask for customers’ birthdays at their first purchase and then send a
happy birthday note each year. This is also a perfect opportunity to offer a special gift to make
our customer feel really special. Everyone likes to be remembered on his or her birthday, and
few of us expect a birthday surprise from a business associate or supplier.

A holiday is our chance to tell customers that we:

* Are thinking of them.
* Appreciate all they do for us throughout the year.
* Hope our relationship strengthens and grows.
* Have something special or new we want to announce.

A holiday note can be warmer, friendlier, and more informal than other customer corre-
spondence. While the tone of these letters should take their lead from the type of business
we’re in and the type of relationship we have with our customers, we may be able to add a more
personal, lighter, or more humorous touch than usual. Be careful, though, not to present our
company or us in a way that will make our customers uncomfortable or ill at ease.

(1) New year wishes

Company Name

Receiver’s name
Company name

Dear (salutation) :

At the turn of the New Year, the entire staff of Herzer wishes everyone at
The TYT Group health, happiness, and success in the coming year.

This time of year is not only an occasion for celebration but for reflection
as well. We’d like to use this opportunity to thank you for your
patronage. We hope to continue serving you throughout this year and
for many years to come.

All the best throughout the New Year.

for all of us at Herzer

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(2) Birthday wishes

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Why is March 2nd an important day at Herzer Co., Ltd.?

It gives us a chance to wish you a happy birthday and to thank you for
shopping with us during the past year!

We hope you have a very special day — and as our gift, we’ve enclosed
this discount certificate in the amount of $50. You can use it with your
next purchase or any time before December 31st.

Once again, have a wonderful birthday! We look forward to seeing you

again soon.

With Best Birthday Wishes,

Typed name


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(3) Business anniversary wishes

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

How does it feel to be twelve years old? I’ll bet you can hardly believe
it’s been that long since Herzer opened its doors!

Even though Tsai wasn’t with you from the start, I know how far you’ve
come in a very short time — and how proud you must be when you look
around and see what you’ve accomplished.

I want to offer my good wishes on this very special occasion. Happy

anniversary and best wishes for many more rewarding years to come.

To your continued success,

Typed name


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(4) Personal anniversary wishes

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Congratulations on your tenth wedding anniversary!

May your assets and your years together continue to flourish and grow.
We’ll keep on doing our part; you do yours.

All our best,

Typed name


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(5) Seasonal wishes

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Let me take the occasion of the upcoming holidays to express my

great pride in the work you are doing for Herzer and to offer you my
season’s greetings.

In my recent business travels, I have met with a number of people

whom our organization has served, new accounts and old, and the opinion
expressed overwhelmingly is that the efficiency and quality of our service
is unmatched. Only your expertise and efforts have enabled us to
maintain our high standards.

With your efforts in mind, and your spirit and goodwill for the
company, I extend to you my heartfelt appreciation and my sincere good
wishes for the holiday season.

May you and your loved ones have warm and wonderful holidays, and
a most happy and fruitful New Year.

Best wishes,

Typed name

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Unit 32 Thank You Letters
Thank you letters are the “good manners” of business correspondence. They are an
important courtesy and show our social etiquette as well as our respect for the customer.

Whenever in doubt about sending a thank you letter, send it. We can never send too many,
but neglecting this social obligation can damage our relationship. Thank you letters offer the
opportunity to strengthen the goodwill between our client and us. Write the letter in an
informal, personal manner. Try to convey our enthusiasm and appreciation in the tone of the
letter. Whenever possible, recall the favor, gift, or good deed, and tell the recipient what it
meant to us.

Many companies work very hard to acquire a new customer and then neglect taking
advantage of the perfect opportunity to start the relationship on a positive note — the first order.
When the initial order is received, a letter should immediately be sent to the new customer
offering thanks and cementing the new relationship with positive expectations and goodwill.

Loyal customers deserve recognition. It is to the benefit of suppliers to thank customers

for their continued business. While any time is the right time to express your appreciation, it is
often convenient to do so on the customer’s anniversary date.

Business derived from word of mouth referrals can be one of the best ways to build our
business. While it is difficult to promote customer referrals, we can tell a referrer how much
we appreciate the good word. A simple thank we note can go a long way to ensure that we will
be recommended again. When a customer makes a referral, he or she should be thanked imme-
diately. If the referral becomes a customer, the referrer should be told and thanked again.

Businesspeople help their associates in a multitude of ways. A short note expressing

thanks shows our appreciation for the favor in a professional manner. When people extend
themselves to provide assistance, they expect to be thanked. A letter sent after a favor formally
states our gratitude and leaves a positive impression.

When customers review a product but decline to purchase, we still have the opportunity to
build goodwill and possibly a future sale. A letter thanking customers for their consideration of
our product and extending a final special offer can be effective.

Introduction to Business English 208 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(1) Thank you for a first order

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

We have just received your purchase order #1.382 and would like to
thank you for ordering from York Publishing.

It’s always a pleasure to welcome a new customer. We work very hard

to create and publish the best publications on health and fitness. But,
without the help of distributors like you, our publications would not
receive the exposure they merit.

Jim Anderson, your sales representative, tells me that your firm has an
excellent reputation and provides service to the entire Northwest, a
territory where we can use all the assistance we can get. I’m excited
about our association and its potential for both firms.

Your order is currently being processed, and your should receive it within
10 days.

Thanks again for your first order. If I can be of any service, do not
hesitate to call.


Typed name
Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

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(2) Thank you for continued business

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Time flies. That’s what they say, and now I know it’s true!

While reviewing your files, I realized that it has been five years since we
processed your first order for packaging materials. I well remember
how we worked together to meet the minimum. And today you’re one
of our largest customers, ordering by the truckload.

I’m writing to say thank you. First, for the terrific business that you give
us. Second, for the professional way you conduct your business. All
of us here at Worldwide are impressed with the organized and efficient
manner in which your orders are placed.

I’d just like to say one last thing. We’ve watched your business grow
from a start-up to an industry leader over the past five years and it
couldn’t have happened to a more deserving, dedicated group of people.

Again, thank you for your continued business.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

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(3) Thank you for a large order

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

We have just received word of your decision to accept our bid for the
Evergreen project. I’d like to personally thank you for your confidence
in us.

The entire staff is very excited about working with you. We all feel
strongly that this is an exciting opportunity to design and build something
that will benefit a great many people for years to come. There’s nothing
I can think of that would be more challenging and ultimately satisfying
for us to be a part of.

It looks as though the time schedule you established will be no problem,

but I would like to meet with you and your key people to review Ever-
green’s first stage before we give the go-ahead to all departments.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)


Introduction to Business English 211 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(4) Customer appreciates product

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

I have received your most complimentary letter concerning the results

you are experiencing in using Mary Kay Cosmetics, and I’m so delighted
to know of this! Millions of users around the world attest to the fact our
skin care program is the one and only for them---and we’re so happy you
feel the same way.

Thank you for telling us of your pleasant association with [ the Mary Kay
sales representative]. We are blessed with many such wonderful people,
and we are most grateful. Your taking the time to write us to compli-
ment her so highly was so very nice.

Wonderful people like you have made our company the success it is


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)


Introduction to Business English 212 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(5) Thank you for a business referral

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

I just received a phone call from Terri Jones of Southside Foods asking
for a quote on designing their next annual report. Terri said that you
recommended us and told her how pleased everyone at Chemical Services
was with our last project.

I’d like to thank you for the referral. Your kind words have given us the
chance to work with one of the largest public companies in the area.
This opportunity can possibly give us the national exposure we’ve been

Let’s get together next week for lunch. I’d like to thank you in person.
I’ll call you in a day or so to see when you’re available.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)


Introduction to Business English 213 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(6) Thank you for a favor

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Thank you!

I have just received the financial report you ran for me on Zest Vests.
The information it revealed will be extremely important to our negotia-

Without your assistance, I don’t know how I could have found out this
background data. And I know I could never have gotten it as fast as you

Thanks again. I hope I will be able to return the favor soon.


Typed name

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)


Introduction to Business English 214 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(7) Thank you for a donation

Company Name
City, State Zip

Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

I am writing to personally thank you for the generous gift you sent to help
us with our annual fundraiser.

It is through the caring of individuals such as yourself that Guardian

charities can help young people in crisis in the Jacksonville area.

As you know, Guardian has provided counseling services to children of

alcoholic families for over a decade. Counseling is offered at no charge
to families in financial need. We have helped hundreds of children, with
nowhere to turn, cope with their parents’ drinking problems and often
emotional and physical abuse.

Recently, Tom Handerson returned to Guardian for a Visit. He was a

youth-at-risk when the first came to Guardian eight years ago.
Constantly in trouble at school and with the law, Tom could have been
one of those negative statistics — a juvenile offender with drug and
alcohol addiction. Instead, he is an example of a young man determined
to make something of his life. Tom is a sophomore at Dowling College,
works as a custodian at the local YMCA to pay for his schooling, and is
actively involved in fund raising for Guardian.

For Tom and all of us at Guardian we want to thank you again and say
that your help really makes an important difference.


Typed name

Introduction to Business English 215 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(8) Thank you for volunteering

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

As chairperson of the Clarkville Hospital Annual Golf Outing, I’d like to

thank you for the outstanding job you did as head of the prize committee.

Everyone has remarked about the quantity, quality, and diversity of the
prizes. And when they learned that the prizes were all given by organi-
zations as donations, they were even more impressed.

This year’s event raised more money for the hospital than any previous
outing. Our success was due largely to the efforts of volunteers like you.

We all realize how much time you contributed. Thank you again for the
tremendous job.


Typed name

Introduction to Business English 216 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

(9) Thank you for the suggestion

Company Name
City, State Zip

Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

My name is bill Roberts, and I am manager of Bloomfield’s Department

Store. Jon Jackson, a salesperson in our men’s shirt department, has told
me about a suggestion that you made on a recent visit to our store.

Jon said that, while you were browsing through the shirt department, four
separate salespeople came over to ask if you needed help. Naturally,
you found this excessive attention disturbing. You appreciated the good
customer service, but the overskill made shopping uncomfortable. Your
idea was for the first salesperson to approach a customer to give them a
colored label to wear so that other salespeople would know that the
customer had already been helped by the “red” salesperson.

I do not know if this will work, but I really appreciate your relating your
feelings to us. Sometimes we think we are doing an excellent job
providing service, when in actuality the opposite is occurring.

I’ll be meeting with the department managers next week and will bring up
your idea. We hope to solve the problem before your next visit to

Thanks again for your suggestion.


Typed name

Introduction to Business English 217 Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Correspondence

One of the hardest letters to compose is the one that is written in application for a job. If
the job in question is a particularly good one, the letter will be even more difficult. The writer
will have to “sell” himself, and at the same time show the reader that here is someone who is
telling no more than the truth and who is therefore worth considering very seriously in writing
his letter, the applicant for the job will have to consider a number of facts.

Some applicants, realizing that there will be a good deal of competition for the job, try to
write their letters so that they will stand out from the rest. Such a course is unwise, for the
people who consider letters of application have had considerable experience and therefore are
not likely to be at all impressed. Any application will succeed or fail by the basic facts given in
it, and these facts should always be easily provable.

Many applicants often fail to realize how important it is to state clearly why they are
applying for the post in question. This is not only interesting for the prospective employer to
know but also a persuasively written and convincing reason often provides a more revealing clue
to the applicant’s character than anything else in the letter.

It is important to distinguish between references and testimonials. References are

provided at the request of the prospective employer by the applicant’s referees, and he never sees
them himself. They are confidential assessments of his ability to perform the duties of the post
he is applying for. Testimonials, on the other hand, are general statements about his character
and ability, without reference to his suitability for a particular post. Applicants normally have
quite a few testimonials, which they have been given by people who they have worked for or
been associated with over a number of years. They are normally considered less important than
references because they have not been written with reference to the applicant’s suitability for the
post he is at present applying for

Introduction to Business English 218 Chapter 13: Employment

Unit 33 Résumé and Job Application
After the completion of our formal education, we will want to find a position in business
that is suited to our training, interests, and career goals. This process of job seeking will call for
our visiting a prospective employer’s office and completing an application form. The employer
may then make a decision regarding our employment on the basis of the information on our
application form and through a personal interview. This process is probably the one most
frequently used for obtaining a beginning position.

Throughout our lifetime, however, we may find ourselves in other job-seeking situations in
an attempt to improve our position. As we gain experience, we are likely to become ambitious
for better and better jobs. In any job-seeking situation, there are a number of ways we may use
our writing skills: to complete an application blank, prepare a résumé, write an application letter,
or writer employment follow-up letters.

We will be hired because we have a skill that an employer needs. Before we start our
campaign for a job, we must decide for which specific jobs we qualified and in which jobs we
are interested. On the basis of our personal and educational background, we begin by listing
specific skills and knowledge that would benefit an employer. Then we decide which specific
job titles need the skills and knowledge we possess. Direct our job-seeking efforts to the most
interesting positions for which we are qualified.

How do we find the job in which we are interested? Where do we look for the job for
which we are qualified? Several employment sources may be investigated to find a job suitable
for us: (1) School Placement Offices, (2) Newspaper Advertisements, (3) Employment Agencies,
(4) Federal, State, County, and City Offices, (5) College and University Offices, (6) Individual
Companies, or (7) Internet Job Seeking.

Once we have decided what we have to sell an employer, we should prepare a written
summary of our qualifications. This summary — called a résumé— is a description of our
qualifications. It usually includes a statement of our education, our employment record
(experience), a list of references, and other data that will help us obtain the job we wish.

A résumé is highly useful. We may use it to accompany a letter of application, present it

to an employer at the interview, or use it to assist us in filling out an employment application
form. Résumé is vary in length from one page to several pages, depending on how much we
have to say about ourselves. Our first résumé should probably fit on one page or at the most
two. Make the résumé attractive. Never try to copy someone else’s résumé or use the same
one over and over. We must find out what the job we are seeking for and then tailor our résumé
accordingly. Make the résumé fit the employer’s needs.

Introduction to Business English 219 Chapter 13: Employment

1. Basic résumé
2. Chronological résumé (see specimen on page 229)
3. Functional résumé (see specimen on page 230)
4. Targeted résumé (see specimen on page 231)
5. Narrative résumé
6. Professional résumé
7. Accomplishment résumé


A résumé is a sales presentation of ourselves. It should not be a mere detailing of past job
experiences. It must be alive and interesting and must present our accomplishments to the
maximum degree. The reader of our résumé should be able to infer from our past achievements
our expected contributions in a new position. The résumé should be honest — do not inflate
our abilities beyond our capacity to produce.


There is no standard résumé length. A résumé should be as long as it needs to be to
present important information concisely and interestingly. Successful résumé s have been as
short as one page and as long as six pages. It is conciseness, relevance, and interest that matter.

Résumés directed toward gaining a specific job may be longer than résumés written for
general distribution. One reason is that we will probably know more about a particular job in
which we are closely interested and therefore can relate our special qualifications more expan-
sively in terms of what we could or would do.


1. A mere listing of the positions we have held, without further explanation
2. Failure to state our objective early in the résumé
3. Failure to describe our accomplishments
4. Stating an objective for which we are unqualified
5. Omitting a description of our responsibilities in the positions held
6. Wordiness, incorrect spelling, and bad grammar
7. Incomplete vocational history
8. Omission of vital statistics
9. Poor physical appearance

Introduction to Business English 220 Chapter 13: Employment

1. Omit date. Place the date in our covering letter.
2. Omit race, religion, political affiliation, and the like, unless part of the main thrust of
our résumé.
3. Omit matters that are negative, detrimental, or awkward to write about.
4. Omit salary requirements. A leading reason for seeking new employment is to improve
compensation. Avoid being restricted by our past salary level. It is unwise to commit
ourselves to a salary level before the interview; we might underrate our potential.
5. Omit references. An employer should have no interest in our references until after he
has become interested in us — after the interview.
6. Omit picture and signature.


1. Our personal directory. Name, address (with zip code), and telephone number (with
area code) are obvious essentials that must appear in our résumé.
2. Objective
3. Qualifications: A brief summary, a paragraph long summary, or an expanded full-page
summary. Qualifications include courses of study, past work experience, and even
character traits that can be supported. Ambition can be indicated by having worked
one’s way through college. Motivation can be manifested by having achieved good
grades. Commitment can be shown by a long-term ambition to pursue one’s objective
and enrollment in training toward that end. Intelligence might be indicated by a
high-class standing and receipt of awards.
4. Experience
5. Education
6. Extracurricular activities
7. Summer work while attending school or college
8. Military service
9. Professional membership
10. Community activities
11. Accreditation and licenses
12. Patents and publications
13. Personal data. Personal data are date of birth, marital status, sex (if name is
ambiguous), state of health (if excellent), citizenship (if potentially unclear), number of
children, home ownership, willingness to relocate, geographical employment
preference (if any), availability for employment (if not immediate), extensive travel
experience, height, and weight.
14. Hobbies
15. Languages
16. Reason for leaving last job
17. Security clearance
18. Aptitude and psychological test
19. Art decoration.
20. Graphs and charts
21. Testimonials
22. Civil service grades

Introduction to Business English 221 Chapter 13: Employment

1. Too long
2. Too short
3. Too condensed
4. Too wordy
5. Too slick
6. Too amateurish
7. Poorly reproduced
8. Misspellings and bad grammar abound
9. Reason for leaving last job omitted
10. Date of availability omitted
11. Geographical preference omitted
12. Objective omitted
13. Poorly expressed
14. Résumé is boastful
15. Résumé is dishonest
16. Salary information lacking
17. Résumé is "gimmicky."
18. Sufficient data lacking


Our résumé, when mailed, should be accompanied by a covering letter. It should be dated.
The covering letter is a way of introducing ourselves, saying what we want, and asking for an
answer. Keep it brief, quickly leading to that all-important document — our résumé. It is
appropriate to write a special covering letter for any résumé being sent to someone we know or
with respect to a job about which we have some knowledge.

A covering letter may also serve as a summary of qualifications if they do not appear in the
résumé. We suggest, however, that the covering letter be kept informal and brief, letting the
résumé convey our message.

Introduction to Business English 222 Chapter 13: Employment

(1) Chronological Résumé for an accounting position

Roberto Cortez

5678 Crosswods Drive, Falls Church, VA 22044 Home: (703) 987-0086 Office: (703) 549-6624

OBJECTIVE To obtain a position in accounting management where my

knowledge of international finance will be of value.

March 1986 Staff Accountant/Financial Analyst
Prepare general accounting reports for wholesale giftware importer with
annual sales of $15 million. Audit all financial transactions between
company headquarters and suppliers in 12 Latin American countries.
* Created a computerize model to adjust accounts for
fluctuations in currency exchange rates
* Represented company in negotiating joint venture agreements with
major suppliers in Mexico and Colombia.

October 1982 Staff Accountant

Handled budgeting, billing, and credit processing functions for the
Mexico City branch of Monsanto's Agricultural Chemicals division.
Audited travel and entertainment expenditures for Monsanto's 30-mem-
ber Latin American sales force. Assisted in launching an on-line
computer system (IBM).

EDUCATION B.A., George Mason University, Fairfax

(1986-1989) MBA with emphasis on international business
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
Mexico City, Mexico
(1978-1982) B.B.A., Accounting

PERSONAL Born and raised in Mexico City; became the U.S. citizen in 1987.
DATA Fluent in Spanish and German. Have graveled extensively in Latin

REFERENCES Available on request.

Résumé Submitted in Confidence

Introduction to Business English 223 Chapter 13: Employment

(2) Functional Résumé for a Public Relations Position

Glenda St. Johns Objective: To obtain a position in
Box 6671, College Station corporate public relations
Iowa City, Iowa 52240 where my experience is of use.
(515) 545-9856

* Wrote arts and entertainment articles for college newspaper
* Edited University of Iowa Handbook, guidebook mailed to all incoming freshmen
* Published guest editorial on student attitudes in Des Moines Register
* Wrote prize-winning script for sorority skit in Fall Follies talent show

* Participated in over 100 debates as member of college debating team
* Led seminars to teach job-search skills to under-privileged teen-agers as part of campus out-
reach program
* Performed in summer theater productions in Clear Lake, Iowa

* Created and administered summer parks and recreation program for city of Osage, Iowa
* Developed budget, schedule, and layouts for college handbook; assigned work to photogra-
phers and copywriters.
* Developed publicity campaign for Fall Folliers, three-hour talent show that raised $7,000
for he University of Iowa’s Pan Hellenic Council

The University of Iowa, Iowa City, September 1984-June 1989
B.A. Journalism (3.81 GPA on 4.0 scale)
Speech minor; two courses in public relations

June 1988-April 1989, Editor, University of Iowa Handbook
Summer 1987, Director, Summer Recreation Program, Osage, Iowa
Summer 1986, Actress, Cobblestone Players, Clear Lake, Iowa

Excellent health; willing to relocate


Available from placement office, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242

Introduction to Business English 224 Chapter 13: Employment

(3) Targeted Résumé for a Position as Special Events Coordinator


993 Church Street, Barrington, IL 60010 (312) 884-2153

* Plan and coordinate large-scale public events
* Develop community support for concerts, festivals, and entertainment
* Manage publicity for major events
* Coordinate activities of diverse community groups
* Establish and maintain financial controls for public events
* Negotiate contracts with performers, carpenters, electricians, and suppliers

* Arranged 1988’s week-long Arts and Entertainment Festival for the Barrington Public
Library, which involved performances by musicians, dancers, actors, magicians, and
* Served as chairperson for the 1988 Children’s Home Society Fashion Show, a
luncheon for 400 that raised $5,000 for orphans and abused children
* Supervised the 1987 PTA Halloween Carnival, an all-day festival with game booths,
live bands, contests, and food service that raised $7,600 for the PTA
* Organized the 1987 Midwestern convention for 800 members of the League of Women
Voters, which extended over a three-day period and required arrangements for hotels,
meals, speakers, and special tours

* Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois), B.A., September 1965 to June 1970
Psychology; Phi Beta Kappa

* Northwestern University, November 1967 to October 1970, Part-time Research
* First National Bank of Chicago, June 1970 to October 1972, Personnel
Counselor/Campus Recruiter.

* John Detweiler, Mayor, Village of Barrington, Barrington, Illinois 60010; (312)
* Jan Flapan, Co-President, Midwestern Division, League of Women Voters, 332 South
Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60004; (312) 236-0315
* Mark Nesbitt, President, Heartland Promotions, Inc., 433 W. Grace Avenue, Chicago,
Illinois 600651; (312) 864-9701

Introduction to Business English 225 Chapter 13: Employment

履 歷 表

應徵工作 貼
部 門 職 稱 希望待遇 希望工作地點 像

個人資料 處
姓名 男 MALE □ 籍貫 出生

身份證字號 血型 身高 體重
□ 未婚 □ 已婚 □ 離婚 健康狀況
軍 種 兵 科 自 至 軍階
現 在 住 址 電話
永 久 住 址 電話
緊 急 聯 絡 人 電話
等 別 學校名稱 科 系 自 FROM 至 TO 地點

國 中
高 中
大 專
其 他
公 司 部 門 職 務 工作說明 薪 資 起迄時間 PERIOD

Introduction to Business English 226 Chapter 13: Employment

Unit 34 Letters of Employment
Like résumés, employment letters are different forms of advertising, and should be
organized like persuasive messages. We need to stimulate the reader’s interest, then show how
we can satisfy the organization’s needs. Our letter should also reflect our personal style, so be
ourselves. But be businesslike too; avoid sounding cute. Don’t use slang or a gimmicky
layout. The only time to be unusually creative is when the job we’re seeking requires
imagination, such as a position in advertising. Finally, showing that we know something about
the organization can pay off. It gets attention. It conveys our desire to join the organization.
The more we can learn about the organization, the better we’ll be able to write about how our
qualifications fit its needs.

A solicited application letter is one sent in response to an announced job opening. An

unsolicited, or “prospecting,” letter is one sent to an organization that has not announced an
opening. In a solicited letter no special attention-getting effort is needed, because we have been
invited to apply. The unsolicited letter, however, must start by capturing the reader’s attention
and interest.

Begin an unsolicited application letter by focusing on one or more of the following:

1. Our strongest work skills and how they would help the organization
2. The match between job requirements and our qualifications
3. The name of someone respected by the reader
4. News about the organization that demonstrates our awareness
5. A question that reflects our knowledge of the organization’s needs
6. An imaginative catch phrase
7. The source of our knowledge about the job opening

The middle section of an application letter should

1. Summarize those qualifications that are directly related to this job
2. Show how we have put our qualifications to use
3. Provide evidence of desirable personal qualities
4. Tie salary requirements to the benefits of hiring us
5. Refer to our résumé

The closing paragraph of an application letter should

1. Almost always ask for an interview
2. Make an interview easy to arrange

Introduction to Business English 227 Chapter 13: Employment

(1) Application for a position as secretary

City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Ms. Mary Lynn, a business education counselor at Dale High School, has
told me that your organization has an opening for a secretary. I would
very much appreciate your permitting me to explain why I believe that I
have the necessary qualifications for this position.

As the enclosed résumé points out, I have had two years of shorthand
training and transcription at Dale High School and have developed a high
rate of speed and accuracy in both shorthand and typing. In addition, for
the last two summers I have had the opportunity to improve both skills as
a full-time summer replacement at the main office of the Broward County
Bank. This experience also served to acquaint me with the daily routine
of a busy office. I have enjoyed both my training and my work experi-
ence and believe that I can satisfactorily fill the position that you have.

I can begin work anytime after July 10th.

You can reach me at 2555-4116 any day after 5 p.m. May I have a
personal interview at your convenience?


Typed name


Introduction to Business English 228 Chapter 13: Employment

(2) Applying for an accounting position

City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Two years of high school accounting, supplemented by summer work at

an accounting firm and strengthened by an evening program in
accounting at the Downey Business College, have equipped me to handle
the general demands of accounting work. I would, therefore, appreciate
it if you would consider me for an accounting position in your firm.

I am presently employed as a tax clerk with the Imic Machinery

Corporation. But I am looking for a position that would make greater
use of my broad training. I would also value the opportunity to get into
a more advanced phase of accounting. I plan to continue my accounting
education through a night school program at our local community college.

The enclosed résumé summarizes my education and experience. It also

includes the names of three people from whom you may obtain
information about my character and ability.

I would every much like to talk to you in person. I may be reached by

phone at 2555-4200, Ext. 160, from 8:30 a.m. and at 2555-1072 after 5:30


Typed name


Introduction to Business English 229 Chapter 13: Employment

(3) Applying for a teaching job

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

As my previous working experience, I feel I could do a good job as an

instructor in your institute to handle a course of negotiation under L/C.
Therefore, I wish to submit an application for the said vacancy, should
your institute has such a vacancy.

The enclosed is my Chinese résumé which indicates my past experience

in export/import bills operation in International (Taiwan) Office and two
years experience in finance management in a large shoe factory. My
necessary practice training and understanding in the related international
trading business which allows me to apply for the said vacancy.

I would deeply appreciate an opportunity for a personal interview at your

convenience, so that you may judge my qualification further.

Faithfully yours,

Typed name

Introduction to Business English 230 Chapter 13: Employment

Unit 35 Employment Interview
An organization that invites us to an interview wants to find out if we are the best persons to
fill a job opening. Our goal is to find out about the job and the organization so we can make a
decision should the job be offered.

We can relieve the anxious and nervous feelings that often accompany interviews by
preparing ahead of time. First, analyze the organization, the job, and our own qualifications
and needs. Then plan answers to the interviewer’s likely questions and devise some questions
of our own. The interview itself will go more smoothly if we adopt a relaxed style and an
enthusiastic attitude.

Follow-up messages to the interviewer, such as thank you letters and inquiries, may
increase our chances of getting a job offer. Other courteous, well-planned employment
letters — whether requesting a time extension, accepting an offer, declining an offer, or
resigning — also demonstrate that we are a professional.


Most organizations interview an applicant three times before extending a job offer: elimi-
nating unqualified applicants, initial evaluation at the organization’s offices, and final evaluation
at the organization. The goal of the final interview is to find the candidate best suited for the
job. This interview is ordinarily conducted by the supervisor or department manager to whom
the new employee will report, and this person usually has the authority to make the hiring

In a typical job search, we can expect to have 20 or 30 interviews before we accept a job
offer. No wonder some students start their job search as much as nine months before


Interviews are interpersonal communication. The purposes of interview are for hiring, firing,
teaching, evaluation and appraising job performance, exchanging factual information, attempting
to solve personal problems, or handling customer complaints.

Here are examples of interview twosomes: seller and prospective buyer; employment inter-
viewer and job prospect; boss and subordinate; marketing researcher and product buyer; political
pollster and voter; instructor and student; doctor and patient; police officer and traffic violator;
newsmaker and reporter; talk-show lost and celebrity guest; parent and child.

Interviews fall into several broad categories based on their purposes: employment inter-
views, informational interviews, personnel interviews, sales or persuasive interviews.

Introduction to Business English 231 Chapter 13: Employment

(1) Employment Interview
This involves the interviewer’s goal of selecting someone who matches the employer’s
work needs and who will fit effectively into the organization.

(2) Informational interview

In a doctor-patient meeting, the patient reveals information, which the doctor processes
as part of the diagnostic function. The patient obtains information from the doctor
about how to treat the diagnosed condition.

(3) Personnel Interview

Interviews between superiors and current employees cover a wide range of purposes.
An appraisal interview is one usually conducted to inform the employee about a
performance evaluation for whatever time is covered — usually semiannual or annual
periods. Other personnel interviews conducted frequently are those devoted to disci-
plining an employee, counseling an employee about personal problems, terminating an
employee, promoting an employee, and seeking advice or information about work and
working conditions.

(4) Sales or Persuasive Interview

Talk to many salespeople and you’ll find that interviewing is the life-blood of their
business. The key to persuasion in interviewing is in accepting, challenging, and
rebutting the other person’s arguments. Arguments are not quarrels; arguments
involve exchanges of opinion and facts with each party attempting to win.


In general, employers are looking for two things: proof that a candidate can handle a
specific job and evidence that the person will fit in with the organization. Employers are most
concerned with the candidate’s experience, but communication skills, enthusiasm, and
motiva-tion are close behind.

Interviewers try to determine what we can do and what kind of person we are. Interviews
may be supplemented with employment tests, which are designed to provide objective,
quantitative criteria for selecting new employees. Every position requires specific
qualifications. When we are invited to interview for a position, the interviewer may already
have a fairly good idea of whether we have the right qualifications, based on a review of our

During the interview, we’ll be asked to describe our education and previous jobs in more
depth so the interviewer can determine how well our skills match the requirements. Another
consideration is whether a candidate has the right personality traits for the job. Besides the
interviewer must decide whether the person will be compatible with the other people in the
organization. Compatibility with the organization is judged on the basis of : appearance, age,
personal background, attitudes, and style.

Introduction to Business English 232 Chapter 13: Employment

In an interview, we are entitled to find out whether the work and the organization are
compatible with our goals and values. What things should we find out about the prospective
job and employer? Consider the following questions:
(1) Are these employees my kind of people? (2) Can I do this work? (3) Will I enjoy the
work? (4) Is the job what I want? (5) Does the job pay what I’m worth? (6) What kind of
person would I be working for? (7) What sort of future can I expect with a this organization?


It’s perfectly normal to feel a little anxious before an interview. So much depends on it, and we
don’t know quite what to expect. Preparation will help us perform well.

(1) Study the Company

Nothing can hurt the candidate more than knowing little about the organization.
Information can be obtained from annual report, In-house magazine or newspaper,
Product brochures, publicity release, stock research reports, business and financial
pages of local newspapers, periodicals indexes, better business bureau and chamber of
commerce, former and current employees, college placement office, etc.

What to find out

(1) About the Organization full name, location, age, products, industry position
(current market share, financial position, and profit picture), earnings (the trends
in the organization’s current market share), growth prospects for expansion, and
organization (subsidiaries, division, and departments).
(2) About the Job job title, job functions (main tasks), job qualifications
(knowledge and skills required), career path (chances for advancement), salary
range (what the organization typically offers and what pay is reasonable in this
industry and geographic area), travel opportunities (how often, how long, and how
far we’ll be allowed or required), relocation opportunities (where and how often).

(2) Study Ourselves

When we know something about the company, the kinds of jobs, and training pro-
grams, we have to study our interests and abilities. (1) Am I a “people” person or a
“loner”? (2) Am I an extrovert? (3) Do I like detailed work? (4) Do I have an
achievable career plan? (5) Is job-related travel a problem for me? If we can’t see a
relationship between the job and company, we won’t be able to demonstrate the
interest or sincerity to sell ourselves! Of course, we’ll probably never find the job
and the organization that will satisfy all our needs and meet all our requirements.

Introduction to Business English 233 Chapter 13: Employment

(3) Plan Our Appearance
Many companies have “images” to maintain — do we fit? The job applicant, of
course, cannot be prepared for everything but must be adequately groomed and attired.
The applicant should be as clean and well groomed as possible, wear appropriate
footwear, and select appropriate clothes for the interview. If we look and dress like
the people who already work at the company, the interviewer will be able to visualize
our working there.

(4) Plan Our Time

One of the worst things we can do is to be late for an interview. Another is to miss
the interview entirely. Therefore, plan our time so we will arrive early. At the same
time, don’t just sit in a waiting room making ourselves nervous. Move around some
to keep loose. But by all means, be on time. Should something happen to prevent
our doing so, telephone an apology.

(5) Think Ahead about Questions

Before the interview, prepare a list of about a dozen questions, using a mix of formats
to elicit different types of information.


When we meet the interviewer, use the interviewer’s name if we are sure we know how to
pronounce it correctly. We may ask how to pronounce the name if necessary. Usually, the
interviewer will initiate the handshake. Apply a firm handshake. Once the introduction is
over, wait for the interviewer to invite us to be seated. These common courtesies — using the
correct name, applying a firm handshake, and waiting to be seated — can contribute to a
favorable first impression.

The interviewer will begin the conversation and effectively set the stage for the interview.
We might expect either some nonbusiness talk or a direct opening into the business of the
interview. Research supports the conclusion that a positive or negative impression is created
during the first four minutes of an interview. During these early minutes, make appropriate eye
contact with the interviewer and be conscious of the nonverbal messages the two of we are

Much of the information about us will appear on our résumé. Thus, the interviewer will
most likely seek to go beyond such things as our education, work experience, and extracurricular
activities and attempt to assess our attitudes toward work and the probability of fitting us
successfully into the organization. The best way to prepare for the interview discussion is to
study the company and ourselves, of course.

We are more likely to be invited back for a second interview or offered a job if we maintain
eye contact, smile frequently, nod our head, sit in an attentive position, and use frequent hand
gestures. These nonverbal signals convince the interviewer that we are alert, assertive,
dependable, confident, responsible, and energetic.

Introduction to Business English 234 Chapter 13: Employment

Questions and answers will consume the greatest part of the interview. Remember that the
interviewer will be observing us and noting every word we say. So don’t limit ourselves to yes
or no answers. Consider the direction of the discussion, and guide it where we wish with our
responses. Another way we can reach our goal is to ask the right questions. Paying attention
when the interviewer speaks can be as important as giving good answers or asking good
questions. Listening should make up about half of the time we spend in an interview.
Remember to listen with our eyes as well as our ears.

In the last few minutes, we need to evaluate how well we have done and correct any
misconceptions the interviewer might have. The interviewer may ask if we have any more
questions, sum up the discussion, change position, or indicate with a gesture that the interview is
over. When we get the signal, respond promptly. Be sure to thank the interviewer for the
opportunity and express an interest in the organization.

If we do receive an offer during the interview, we will naturally want to discuss salary.
But let the interviewer raise the subject. If asked our salary requirements, say that we would
expect to receive the standard salary for the job in question. If we don’t like the size of the
offer, we might try to negotiate. We might just ask, “Is there any room for negotiation?”
Even if we can’t bargain for more money, we might be able to win some concessions on benefits
and perquisites. The value of negotiating can be significant, because benefits often cost the
employer 25 to 45 percent of our salary. Don’t inquire about fringe benefits, however, until we
know we have a job offer.

Usually we will have many interviews before we accept a final offer. To refresh our
memory of each conversation, we should keep a record of our impressions. As soon as the
interview ends, jot down the names and titles of the people we met. If we’re unsure of any
names or their spellings, phone the organization’s receptionist for clarification.

Next write down in capsule form the interviewer’s answers to our questions. Then briefly
evaluate our performance during the interview, listing what we handled well and what we didn’t.
Going over these notes can help us improve our performance in the future.


Touching base with the prospective employer after the interview, either by phone or in
writing, shows that we really want the job and are determined to get it. It also brings our name
to the interviewer’s attention once again and reminds him or her that we are waiting to know the
decision. There are six types of follow-up messages: (a) Thank you (b) Inquiry (c)
Request for a time extension (d) Letter of Acceptance (e) Letter declining a job offer (f)
Letter of Resignation.

Besides saying thank you, our letter’s goal is to maintain a company’s interest in our
candidacy. Our letter must demonstrate professional courtesy and show that we are seriously
interested in the position. Demonstrate our interest in the company and our qualifications by
mentioning significant information we learned from the interview. If we can, clear up any
concerns the reader may have about our qualifications.

Introduction to Business English 235 Chapter 13: Employment

(1) Job offer

Dear (salutation) :

We were quite impressed with your qualifications, and after some consid-
eration, we have decided that your are the ideal choice for the position of
Herzer Co., Ltd. Congratulations, and welcome aboard!

The terms are as we discussed in the interview. The salary is NT$

40,000 per month. You’ll have one-week vacation per year and health
insurance. All employees at Herzer get five personal days and ten days
sick leave days per year. We have a pension plan that you can sign up
after working at Herzer for one year.

We would like you to report to our office on Monday, April 23rd. If you
have any questions, please call us. If not, we’ll see you on the 23rd!

Very truly yours,

(2) Letter of acceptance

City, State Zip

Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

I am very pleased to accept a position as assistant marketing repre-

sentative with Protex Taiwan.

As we discussed, I will begin work at your Kaohsiung office on June

15th. I look forward to contributing to your efforts to expand the
business into the local markets.

Sincerely yours,

Typed name

Introduction to Business English 236 Chapter 13: Employment

(3) Letter of refusal

City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

Thank you very much for offering me a position as assistant

marketing representative at SNFTaipei.

The opportunity to join your sales force and work on a nationwide

marketing campaign is very appealing to me. After considering your
offer carefully, I have decided, however, to join the marketing staff of
another company. My decision is based on my belief that my future lies
in the restaurant industry rather than in chemical one.

I appreciate the time you and your colleagues have taken to explain
career opportunities at SNFT Taipei. You taught me a great deal about
marketing as well as about chemicals.

Best regards,

Typed name

Introduction to Business English 237 Chapter 13: Employment

(4) Termination of job offer

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

I am sorry to tell you that, since we did not hear from you in response to
our job offer, the offer expired as of last Friday.

I understood, when we spoke three weeks ago, that you were considering
other opportunities, and we agreed that our job offer would be
time-limited. I am, as you can imagine, personally disappointed that you
won’t be joining us as my Executive Assistant, but I hope that you will
remember our conversations and consider Senior Care if you decide to
reevaluate your career in the future.

Best of luck in your new job.


Typed name

Introduction to Business English 238 Chapter 13: Employment

(5) Termination of employee

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

As we discussed on Monday, the downturn in the market for industrial

fans in the Taichung region has led the company to close the regional
office. As a consequence, your position has been eliminated.

To confirm our conversation, you will terminate your employment on

June 22nd and receive severance pay equal to three months’ salary. The
company will pay your medical insurance for the remainder of the year.
In lieu of profit sharing for this year, you have agreed to accept a
one-time payment of NT$ 80,000. Your retirement benefits will be
retained by the company until we receive instructions from you.


Typed name
Vice President, Personnel


Introduction to Business English 239 Chapter 13: Employment

(6) Reference for departing employee

Company Name
City, State Zip


Receiver’s name
Company name
Street address
City, State Zip

Dear (salutation) :

I’m delighted to respond to your request for a reference for Lily Yang,
who was our office manager for the past two years.

We were extremely disappointed to lose Miss Lily Yang because of her

relocation to Tainan. She was almost entirely responsible for organizing
the office systems here at Herzer Co., Ltd. In short, she took us from an
office in which we were constantly on a catch-up basis to one in which
our systems for billing, collections, and personnel were sensible and con-
trollable. Furthermore, her management skills were evident through her
relations with our part-time clerical staff. She was totally responsible
for hiring and training these three individuals, and a conversation with
any of them reveals that she dealt with them fairly and professionally.

If you need an office manager who is responsible, is skilled, and has

potential for advancement, you should hire Miss Lily Yang.


Typed name

Introduction to Business English 240 Chapter 13: Employment

Written communications were once the major method of communicating internally. As
management styles became more participative and less directive, however, internal
communication tended to be more in the form of a short meeting, or a phone call, rather than the
standard memo.

Great care should be taken with any written explanation — whether it is a new policy or
procedure or a clarification of an existing policy — because staff members often feel threatened
by change. Take the time to detail why a change has been made or why a clarification is
required. This will reduce needless speculation by employees, and will help them understand
the reasoning behind company decisions.

Managers tend to speed through the writing of announcements, but that’s a mistake. Even
if a decision has already been made, and a change is already in the works, treating the staff as if
they were uninvolved is insulting. Most efficient managers consult the people affected before
making any major change, to get their comments and suggestions, so announcements of new
procedures are surprise-free; that is, they merely confirm what has already been agreed upon.
Similarly, promotions and resignations should be announced first in staff meetings, with memos
following in case people haven't heard the news directly.

If an executive or manager must impart bad news to the entire company, a written commu-
nication is essential. A memo dealing with difficult conditions should be direct and should say
clearly what problems must be faced. If there are potential solutions, or if employee coopera-
tion can help in specific ways, the details should be spelled out.

How business documents look is as important to successful communications as their

contents. In addition to using the proper formatting, attention should be paid to the other
physical aspects of business writing. We should use high-quality stationery, typing should
always be neat, and spelling should always be checked (particularly the name of the reader).

Introduction to Business English 241 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

Unit 36 Memoranda
A memorandum that makes a recommendation saves everyone time by highlighting the
reasons for the recommendation. Many decision-makers actually think better when they have
something in writing.

Information about meetings, sales strategies, product competition, and personnel matters are
among the many topics we will write about in a memo. We will often find ourselves writing
memos on matters of common interest to us and our company colleagues.

When we wish to write to someone within our own company, however, we will send a
memorandum. Memoranda are used to communicate with other employees, regardless of
where they may be located. There are usually two main parts to a memorandum: the heading
and the message.

In most companies and organizations, memos are written in the first person. The tone of
the memo is influenced by the writer’s relationship to the reader. The presentation of the
routine memorandum message usually follows either a deductive or an inductive organizational

A deductive plan moves from the general to the specific. Most memos follow this direct
organizational plan. These messages present the main, or general, idea in the first paragraph
and the follow with the necessary, or specific, details to support the opening statements.
Finally, the memo concludes with suggestions for future action or requests guidance on future
action. (演繹法)

Occasionally, we may find we need to write a persuasive memorandum or one that conveys
unfavorable ideas. An inductive plan moves from the specific to the general. Present the
details first, such as reasons for the conclusion, and lead our readers on a step-by-step journey
through our reasoning so that they proceed logically into our general message. In this way the
readers are more likely to finish reading the memo and accept the conclusion you offer. (歸納法)

Memos are often used to confirm an arrangement, which has been agreed face to face or on
the telephone. Functions of memos include the following six categories:(1)Asking for
information, (2) Asking for action, (3) Giving information, (4) Making suggestions and
recommendations, (5) Warning, and (6) Putting things right.

Introduction to Business English 242 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

(1) Form of memo

Company Name
City, State Zip






First paragraph

Next paragraph

Last paragraph

Writer’s initials (uppercase) : typist’s initials (lowercase)

Introduction to Business English 243 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

(2) Warning about excessive lateness

Company Name
City, State Zip


To: From:

Subject: Hours of Work Date:


As we discussed in our meeting on October 10th, it’s important for you to

reach the office on time. No one objects to an occasional slip. In fact,
with the difficulties of commuting these days, being late once in a while
is quite understandable.

Here’s the problem, though. In the last month, even though we had
already discussed the company’s expectations at our October 10th
meeting, you have been from 30-45 minutes late on seven (7) days,
specifically October 14th, 17th, 18th, 20th, 26th, 27th, and November 1st.
This kind of performance is unacceptable — it sends me the message that
you don’t care about the job, and it certainly sets a bad example for your
secretary, who is always here on time, even early most days.

There may be something that prevents you from getting to work on time.
If there’s anything I need to know, let’s talk. However, you must
improve your on-time performance to no more than one day late during
the next month or I’ll have to send you a formal warning which will be
placed in your personal file.

Introduction to Business English 244 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

(3) Asking for information

Company Name
City, State Zip



To: Senior Accounts Clerk

From: Credit Manager

Date: 17th May 1999

Subject: Overdue account No. 654321


It has recently come to my attention that A/C No. 654321 has been
overdue for some time, and I should like to know exactly what action has
been taken to encourage the customer to pay the overdue amount. As
the person responsible for overdue accounts, I want you to pass me all
information you have about this account. Also, I should like you to give
me a record of all correspondence, which has been sent to the customer.

We really must stay alert to overdue accounts. This one appears to have
been overlooked for too long.

Introduction to Business English 245 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

(4) Putting things right

Company Name
City, State Zip



To: The Manager

From: George Lin, Senior Sales Accountant

Date: 20th July

Subject: Complaint from Buckman, Singapore


I have just checked our records and I have found that Mr. Lui is correct in
his complaint. I am afraid I was responsible for confusing his invoice
with another invoice to Singapore.

I suggest that we apologize to him and tell him to ignore the invoice he
has. It would probably not be a good idea to tell him that we are
supplying to another shop in Singapore.

I shall make sure that he gets a replacement invoice in the very near

Introduction to Business English 246 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

Unit 37 Business Report
Almost everyone has to write a report at some time during their career. Reports are
unavoidable part of business like. They are used to pass information from one person to
another, either within the same organization or between one organization and another. A report
is a formal and complete record of our findings, conclusions and/or recommendations.

The information used in a report can take many forms, and serve many purposes. It can be
simple description of a situation, as in a market study. It can be an update on a project, as in a
progress report. It can test certain claims, as in an investigative report. Alternatively, it can
make suggestions about the future, as in a recommendation report. Information can consist of a
combination of words and figures, or it can consist largely of statistics. There can also be
illustrations and tables to help clarify the text.

Whether or not reports are produced depends on the decision maker — some decision
makers want reports to reassure them that all the bases have been covered; some only want a
presentation that shows (rather than tells) them that the recommendation is based on tight
reasoning and extensive research. In any case, the decision-maker usually reads the executive
summary. Perhaps he or she will read only the executive summary, especially if the writer has
high credibility and a "good news" message. They attract the reader’s attention by telling him
or she why it’s important to read on, and then they tell the main point and summarize the
organization of the report itself.

Many companies require their employees to follow a standard format, or our boss may tell
us his or her preferred format. Some companies will allow us to choose how to present our
work. Whatever format we use, be sure to design the subject line, headings, and subheadings of
our reports with the reader in mind.

Forms should be readable and simple to follow. The “plain English” movement has done
a great deal to simplify forms, through appropriate use of white space (margins, space between
paragraphs) and headings. Using a readable typeface and resisting the temptation to mix fonts
or to overuse italics or bold face also help ensure readability.


(1) Report format

Section Headings

Section Subheadings

Introduction to Business English 247 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

(2) Outline


A. Second Order Division—First letter of each word is

1. Third order division—Only first letter is capitalized
2. Note that each division and subdivision is indented 4
spaces from the heading superior to it
a. Fourth order division
b. If you have an ‘a’, you must have a ‘b’


A. _________________________________
1. ____________________________
a. ______________________
b. ______________________
c. ______________________
2. ____________________________
B. _________________________________
1. _____________________________
2. _____________________________

(3) A routine progress report

Simon Hsieh George Lin
May Activity Report May 31st, 1999

1. 1999 Staff Projects

(a) Performance Appraisals: Continued monitoring and sent
one more round of reminders to the field to maximize the
level of policy compliance by May 15th.
(b) Reorganization: Continued follow-up on department and
asset changes.
(c) Centralized Billing: Began research on field administrative
requirements once the billing was centralized.

Introduction to Business English 248 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

2. Administrative Activities
(a) Customer Education Billing: Resolved the financial meas-
urement issues for Jim Pepper’s group. Jim is to submit
data to George Wu for billing. Revenue will be posted to
the proper accounts, and finance will be splitting out the
target to specifically match those actual
(b) Budgets: Responded to Bob Lin on each of the budget
issues raised by the Eastern and Northwestern regions.
Provided recommendations on each one. Also resolved
remaining reorganization budget transfer.
(c) Revenue Transfers: Documented current stand on revenue
transfers and tried to define issues to Bill Chien.

(4) Change of address

Company Name
City, State Zip


Company name
City, State Zip

Dear (Salutation)

Please note that we have moved to a new location:

Company name
City, State Zip
Our new telephone number is: (8862-25017751)
Our previous address was:
Company name
City, State Zip
Please change your files to reflect this move.



Introduction to Business English 249 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

Unit 38 Minutes
In business we will probably have frequent opportunities to attend meetings. Whether a
meeting is formal or informal, a written record of the meeting will usually be prepared and
distributed to everyone who attended the meeting and, perhaps, to other interested people as

The written record of the proceedings of a meeting is called the minutes of the meeting.
Informal minutes usually include the date, time, and place of the meeting; the name of the
presiding officer; a list of those present and frequently those absent; and the time of adjournment.
Discussions are usually summarized. Formal minutes do not include discussions. Only
motions, resolutions, committee assignments and reports, and other specific accomplishments are

(1) Agenda of meeting

Company Name
City, State Zip






To Be
Read in

Agenda Item Purpose Time Presenter Advance

Introduction to Business English 250 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

(2) Minutes of an informal meeting

The Market Focus Investment Group

May 15th, 1999




After calling the May 15th meeting to order at 4 p.m., the President
requested the treasurer’s report. The treasurer distributed to each
member a statement that indicated each member’s present investment
in the club’s holdings. The treasure noted that a single share is
currently worth $30 and that this month’s contribution plus
accumulated dividends amount to a total of $550 that the club may

The president asked Jimmy Chen, chairperson of the investment

committee, for the committee’s recommendation. Mr. Chen said that
the committee has recently studied the stocks of computer
manufacturers. He reported that the committee believed that the
present depressed market would improve in the next two years, which
would result in improvement in the stock.

The president asked Samuel Huang to comment. Mr. Huang agreed

with the committee’s analysis and suggested Sinwe as the best buy.
He noted that the firm had assets that were underevaluated and that the
6.4 percent dividend is quite secure. Ms. Liao then moved that Sinwe
be purchased. Mr. Lee seconded. The motion was approved
unanimously, with one member abstaining.

Mr. Simon announced that the club’s annual picnic is scheduled for
Saturday, July 3rd, in Taichung. Each member may bring one guest.
More details will be mailed to each member next week. The meeting
was adjourned at 5:05 p.m.

Respectfully submitted,

Liu Wanjin, Secretary

Introduction to Business English 251 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

(3) Minutes of a formal meeting

The Organization
April 17th 1999

TIME AND The regular monthly meeting of the Society was called to order by the
PLACE president, Simon Hsieh, on April 17th, 1999, at 7 p.m. in the VIP Room of
the Hualien Hotel.

MINUTES The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved.

TREASURE’S The treasurer, Victoria Lin, gave the following report:

Balance on hand, March 15th, 1999 NT$2,500.00
Cash received March 15th-April 750.00
Total NT$3,250.00
Paid out March 15th-April 15th 475.00
Balance on hand, April 15th NT$2,775.00
The treasurer’s report was accepted

OLD It was moved, seconded, approved unanimously that a leaflet be printed to

BUSINESS solicit new membership. This leaflet would be distributed to local
chambers of commerce

NEW BUSINESS After some discussion about improving communication between the club
and the local media, the chairperson appointed a committee to report on this
topic at the next meeting. The committee will be: Liu Yungchuang, Lin
Chenhsin, Lin Mingchang.

ADJOURNMENT The meeting was adjourned at 9:05 p.m.

Respectfully submitted,

Liu Wanjin, Secretary

Introduction to Business English 252 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

(4) Resolution


WHEREAS our beloved colleague Car Schultz passed away on

June 6th, 1999 and was one of the most sympathetic and
hardest-working members of the Toledo Lions Club; and

WHEREAS his wise counsel and unselfish services will be

missed not only by the members of the Toledo Lions Club but also by
the community at large; therefore be it

RESOLVED, that we, his fellow Toledo Lions Club members,

take this means of expressing our deep appreciation for his untiring
and unselfish services to the organization and to the community, be it

RESOLVED, further, that we extend our sincerest sympathies

to his widow, Mrs. Anna Strong Schultz; to his son, Mr. Victor
Schultz, of Dayton, Ohio; and to his sister, Mrs. Maris S. Kraft, of
Portland, Oregon; and be it

RESOLVED, further, that a copy of this resolution be included

in the minutes of the Executive Committee of the Toledo Lions Club:
that a copy be sent to the members of the immediate family, and that a
copy be supplied both to the local press and television station.

ADOPTED, unanimously, by the Board of Directors of the

Toledo Lions Club, this twelfth day of June, 1999.

Marvin Bradley

Ralph Farnsworth

Resolutions to express sympathy, appreciation, congratulations, are often passed at formal

meetings. The form of resolutions follows a rather definite patter.

Introduction to Business English 253 Chapter 14: Internal Communications

Colloquialism Meaning
a chip on one’s shoulder Someone with a chip on their shoulder is over-sensitive.
* He was a man with a chip on his shoulder. Everyone
seemed in a conspiracy to slight or injure him.
a dry (dummy) run An experiment or trial of a machine or project under realistic
(but not real) conditions 排練; 演習; 試辦
* We are gorging ahead with the marketing plan. It’s
taking rapid shape and in the fairly near future, we plan to
carry out dummy runs in selected areas before starting the
main campaign.
a good turn A good turn is a kind act. 善行
* He did me a very good turn by sharply criticizing my fault.
a loaded question A question which has an ulterior or hidden motive
含意不清的問題; 別有用意的問題
* It is improper of Mr. Lin to ask such a loaded question.
He is usurping the function of this commission.
a long shot An attempt which is unlikely to succeed 不易成功的嘗試
* The research and development department have come up
with a new idea. They say it’s a long shot, but worth trying.
We have to decide whether it’s worth risking the money.
a matter of opinion Something not known or proved to be true or correct; some-
thing not believed by the speaker 傳言
* Whether one product is better than another is often a
matter of opinion and one function of marketing is to shape
people’s opinion in favor of certain products.
* Although this idea is a good one in principle, as I think
we’re all agreed, it’s still largely a matter of opinion whether
it is workable in practice. In this meeting, I want to hear your
views before any further decision is made.
* Remember, in this market survey we are interested in data,
information and hard facts, not mere matters of opinion.
a means to an end Way or method of getting to an objective 手段; 策略
* We have to reduce our overhead expenses. This will lead
to job losses in some departments—an unpleasant fact, I’m
afraid, but the end justifies the means.
* A presentation may be only the first in a series of stages
leading to some desired result. So, to that extent, it can be seen
as a means to an end.
a put-up job A situation which was worked out previously, deceitfully
圈套; 騙局

Introduction to Business English 254 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

a safe bet Almost one hundred percent certain 百分之百肯定; 保障
* If you want a good lawyer, mine’s a safe bet—she gets to
the bottom of a problem, gives realistic advice and doesn’t let
you waste money on a dead-end case.
* As to the travel arrangements for your trip, although a car
is convenient, there could be problems on the roads; your
safest bet would be to go by train.
account for To explain; to give a full or satisfactory answer for
解釋; 說明用途; 捕獲; 佔若干數量
* Price rises can be accounted for by increased demand or
decreased availability of supply.
acid test the ultimate test 嚴峻的考驗
* The acid test of a product’s salability is whether the public
buy it or not.
across the board Everywhere / Including everything 全面的
* The President promised across-the-board tax cuts if
airy-fairy Unrealistic / Not specific enough 不切實際的

all at sea Someone who is all at sea is confused 迷惑

all in all Taking everything into account and weighing it up; summa-
rizing by comparing the positive and negative factors
總之; 合計; 完全地; 最寶貴的
* Weighing up all the important factors and allowing for the
things which might go wrong, all in all we think we should go
ahead with the idea.
* Although the company has had its problems over the last
twelve months, all in all it has been a successful year.

all or nothing to be or to be aiming at one hundred per cent of something, the

only alternative being zero percent 決不讓步; 孤注一擲的
* This company has an all-or-nothing policy with its smaller
suppliers; we guarantee orders and buy their total production,
while they supply no one else. That way, we control prices.
* The housing market was static for month; with the
improvement in capital markets, it became so active that it was
almost impossible to cope with. It seems it’s a matter of all
or nothing.

an old hand An old hand is someone with experience. 老手; 內行

* Her house began to have an unfortunate reputation. The
old hands warned the less experienced of their danger.

Introduction to Business English 255 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

as such in or by its nature; considered alone; in itself
照此; 像樣的; 本身
* He’s acting chairman, and as such has to sign this paper.
* The process as such is simple in concept, although the
machinery required to operate it is highly complex.
* The company as such is in a strong financial position; the
group as a whole, however, is not.
* He had recently been promoted to sales manager and felt
that, as such, he ought to have two secretaries.
as to about; regarding 關於
* That’s all about our general objectives. Next, as to
putting together a game plan for reaching these objectives, can
I have some ideas, please?
* We have to weigh up the pros and cons — as to the risks on
the one hand and the opportunities on the other.
at the drop of a hat Immediately / Without hesitation 立即
* He is willing to cancel the order at the drop of a hat.
at cross purposes Having a difference of opinions, wishes or objectives, leading
to confusion 相互誤解; 相互矛盾
* This is a complex matter, so let’s set up our objectives before
we start, to make sure we don’t end up at cross purposes.
back against the wall In a very difficult position; with few or no choices as to what
action to take 處於絕境
* OK, so we didn’t even get to first base with that potential
customer, but our back’s not against the wall yet. We have to
think over our game plan again.
back to the drawing board Start again from the beginning. 重頭開始
beat about the bush Talk without saying what is really in your mind.
拐彎抹角; 旁敲側擊
* Now stop beating about the bush and tell me what happened!
better safe than sorry It is better to be too careful than to take risks.
小心為妙; 安全至上
* Drivers are warned that road conditions could be
dangerous so, if your journey isn’t really necessary, stay at
home; better safe than sorry.
* Every stage of the process is checked three times, on the
basis that it’s better to be safe than sorry.
big noise A person who is a big noise is very important 要人; 名人
blind alley Dead-end 死胡同; 絕境
* a blind alley job 無前途的職業
blowing your top Losing your temper 發脾氣 (=below one’s top)
* He blew his top after airport officials refused to let him on
a plane.

Introduction to Business English 256 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

bounce A check is said to bounce when it is returned unpaid by the
bank. 支票被拒付而退回
* If you bounce a check, you’ll be in trouble.
brass farthing If you don’t give a brass farthing it means you do not care at
all. 小錢; 不在乎; 毫不關心
* His wife did not care a brass farthing about him.
bring home the bacon Achieve the desired result. 賺錢餬口; 成功, 得勝
brush-off When you are given the brush-off it means you are not wanted.
拒絕; 碰釘子; 不理睬
* get the brush-off; give sb. the brush-off
by and large Generally 大體上
* By and large, it is a good market.
by hook or by crook By one means or another 不擇手段地; 千方百計地
* I will get the work finished this week by hook or by crook.
carry the can Bear the responsibility. Take the blame. 背黑鍋; 代人受過
* Why do I always have to carry the can when something
goes wrong? I see no reason why I should carry the can for
his mistakes.
chew over To chew over means to discuss 深思; 反覆討論
* They chewed the matter over for half an hour or more, and
still they were no nearer to agreement.
comfortably off A person who is comfortably off has plenty of money. 寬裕
* He is quite comfortably off now.
cry off To cry off is to cancel something, which has been arranged
取消前言; 撤銷前約
* I had intended to go but I cried off at the last minute.
cut corners To follow a quick but risky route to an objective, especially by
not performing all the usual stages of some process
抄近路; 省力; 違法行事
* He’s a brilliant research chemist, but he cuts too many
corners,. One day he’ll blow us all up.
do away with To dispose of something 廢除; 取消
* He designed and installed an automatic coal-feeder that
did away with heavy labor and reduced the number of
workers feeding coal from fifteen to two.
first and foremost firstly and most important 當務之急; 最重要的
* In our discussions, I hope you will agree that first and
foremost we should identify the common ground between our
two companies and, by the same token, isolate the matters to
be negotiated.
for a song When something is being offered at a very low price we say it
is going for a song. 非常便宜地
* It’s a lovely picture and by a well-known artist, and yet I
bought it for a mere song.

Introduction to Business English 257 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

from A to Z In great detail 徹底地
* He is a veteran worker. He knows his business from A to Z.
game plan Carefully thought out general strategy for achieving a target
and the tactics and methods to be used.
戰略; 精心規畫的行動方案; 球隊比賽的戰略
* The game plan for this morning’s meeting is to finish
ordinary business in the first half hour, then take time out for
coffee, so that, in the second half, we can zero in on the
all-important question of new product development.
get away with it When someone does something wrong but does not get caught,
we say they are getting away with it. 做錯而不受處罰
* They couldn’t get away with it in business.
get cracking Work fast. 趕緊做
* Let’s get cracking on these dirty dishes!

get down to business To begin to talk seriously; to tackle the real or important
matters 言歸正傳; 開始認真工作
* Now that terms have been agreed between us, we can leave
it to the lawyers to get down to the serious business of drawing
up the necessary documents.
* Right, if everybody is ready, let’s get down to business at
once. Then maybe we can finish the meeting in time for
get into hot/deep water If you get into hot water you are getting into trouble.
陷入困境; 招致麻煩
* We’d better not talk about starting up a new company
before the first one is operating successfully, or we’ll be
getting into deep water.
get no change out of someone This means they are not being helpful. 得不到幫助
* I asked the telephone operator if she could tell me my
friend’s number if I gave her the address, but I got no change
out of her. She said she wasn’t allowed to tell me.
get wind of Get to know about. 察覺; 風聞
* The newspapers, in due time, catching wind of the true
purport of the plan, ran screaming to their readers with the
horrible intelligence.
give or take More or less than a certain amount. 相差約; 除…以外
* Give or take a few mistakes in translation, this book is an
excellent guide to the literature of Chinese.
* The salesperson was only here for half an hour, so it’s a
very give-or-take estimate.
give up the ghost When you give up the ghost you stop trying. 停止嘗試; 斷氣
* Economics required George Bush to give up the ghost on
what was a campaign pledge.

Introduction to Business English 258 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

go by the book When you go by the book you follow the rules strictly.
* In ministering to the needs of people one should use a little
imagination; always to go by the book may result in the
infliction of hardship on deserving people.
go it alone Work on your own. 單獨行動
* The enterprise is risky, so I will go it alone.
go scot-free You get off scot-free when you do something wrong without
getting punished. 免納稅款; 免受處罰; 安然逃脫
* All his clients were guilty and all of them got off scot-free.
go shares You each pay your own share of the bill. 均攤
* If you find the treasure, we will go shares.
grit one’s teeth When you grit your teeth you are showing determination.
磨牙; 咬緊牙關 (表決心、憤怒)
* The snow was blowing in his face, but he gritted his teeth
and went on.
guinea pig If someone is used as a guinea pig in an experiment, something
is tested on them that has not been tested on people before.
供實驗用的人或物; 天竺鼠
* Nearly 5,000,000 pupils are to be guinea pigs in a trial run
of the new 14-plus exams.
hammer out Keep working at it until you solve the problem. 仔細推敲
* We spent all day hammering out our plans for the holiday.
have a bash at sth Make an attempt 企圖做某事
* I am doubtful whether I could ever learn Greek, but I’m
willing to have a bash at it.
have had one’s chips You have had your chips if you are not going to get any more
chances. 完蛋了; 失敗了; 死了
* They have had their chips.

have jam on it If someone has an easy job but still complains, we can ask
whether he wants jam on it. In other words, he has got bread,
does he want jam too? 處境順利
* He is always complaining about the difficulty and hardship
of his lot, but compared with most of us he has got jam on it.
* D’you want jam on it? 你還要什麼呢? (挖苦不知足的人)
headache A difficult problem is sometimes called a headache. 傷腦筋
* No doubt, it is utterly wrong, and would give him a sick

hell for leather When a person goes hell for leather they are going extremely
fast. 儘快地; 拼死命地
* I was still there when I heard the rumpus. I came out into
the hall and ran hell for leather to see what was the matter.

Introduction to Business English 259 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

high and dry If you are high and dry, you are safe. 孤立無援; 與世隔絕
* We drew the boat up high and dry to escape the winter
high-handed A person who is being high-handed is being over-bearing.
高壓的; 專橫的
* They have been accused of secrecy and high-handedness in
their dealings.
hit and (or) miss Unsystematic; random; relying on chance; not properly thought
out or carried out 靠運氣; 漫無目的; 不管成功與否
* The machine must be carefully checked over before use,
then it will work. You’ll find that most cases of breakdown
stem from hit-and-miss checkover procedures.
hit the roof To say someone hit the roof is to say they seriously lost their
temper 發火; 暴跳如雷
* When Mary came home at three in the morning, her father
hit the roof.
hold down a job If you can hold down a job you can keep a job and not lose it.
* John is a good worker, and will hold down his job.
hold one’s horses This is another way of saying ‘Wait!’. 別忙; 等一等
* The bell had rung and we were all eager to leave, but the
teacher asked us to hold our horses until he had finished.
hold water To pass or be able to pass testing or examination; to be sound
經得起考驗;站得住腳; 有說服力
* Your explanation for the delay has been examined and I’m
afraid it doesn’t hold water.
* Arguments in support of the need for more staff hold no
water at all.
homework You do your homework when you fully investigate a situation.
做作業; 仔細考慮問題
* I should have to do a good deal of homework before I
could express an opinion on that matter.
in a nutshell Briefly and concisely 一言以蔽之
* There’s a lot I could say about the show, but to put it in a
nutshell: it was bad.
in aggregate when totaled; considered together; taken as a whole 整體而言
* Synergy is the working of two or more forces or influences
in conjunction to produce an effect which in aggregate is in
excess of the total of their individual effects.
in clover In a very fortunate position 養尊處優;生活奢華
* A man with coals and candles and a pound a week might
be in clover here.

Introduction to Business English 260 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

in (its) own right because of what it is as such or in itself and independent of any
other relationship 獨立地; 憑自己能力, 或條件
* Our managing director’s authority stems from his out-
standing personal qualities in their own right, more than from
his official capacity as such.
* Not content with being merely the husband of a successful
woman, he became successful in his own right as a journalist.
in the nature of being similar in type or character to; rather like
好像; 類似; 簡直是; 具有…性質
* Although the wording of the letter was polite, it was
nonetheless clearly in the nature of a threat.
* Our products are in the nature of accessories to a lifestyle,
which few can afford.
* The rise and fall of share prices can be seen in the nature
of a thermometer of market confidence.
in the shape of specifically; in the form of; in particular; namely 以…形式
* The government is expected to introduce new economic
measures in the shape of laws to do with tax, privatization and
import controls.
* We can arrange finance for you, in the shape of a loan for
the required amount, repayable at fifteen per cent, per annum
over five years, secured against the company premises.
* The research and development department needs new fa-
cilities in the shape of a larger workshop and better equipment.
in the year dot Something that happened in the year dot happened a long time
ago 很久以前

in the soup/in the cart/in a jam In trouble / In difficulty 陷入困境

* What if she declared her real faith in Court, and left them
all in the soup!
Jack of all trades A person who is a Jack of all trades can do a lot of different
kinds of work. (蔑) 萬事通

jobs for the boys Good positions in the organization for one’s friends
* It’s just a political racket – Jobs for the Boys.
jog sb’s memory I make a diary note of an appointment to remind me or jog my
memory. 喚起回憶
just as well It is good that it happened. 幸虧; 沒關係; 不必惋惜
* It is beginning to rain; it is just as well we brought our
raincoats with us.
keep one’s head Stay calm. 保持鎮定; 不慌不忙
* It was fortunate that someone kept his head and called a

Introduction to Business English 261 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

keep your eyes open (skinned, Watch carefully. 密切注意
peeled, polished) * Keep your eyes skinned for any suspicious-looking
keep on at To nag, or insist 不斷糾纏某人; 向某人不斷嘮叨
* His wife kept on at him to buy her a new coat.

last but not least Introducing the next item on the list, which, although the last,
is not less important than the others. 最後但並非最不重要
* I’d like to thank everyone for their efforts, which have
made the year such a successful one for the
company–directors, managers, executives, office and factory
staff and, last but not least, their respective wives and
husbands, who play an unseen but nonetheless vital role.
leave open To delay a decision or conclusion until after further discussion
or action 懸而未決
* They’ve made us a good offer but I think we should leave it
open for the time being and see if we can get a better one.
leg-pull A leg-pull is a joke. 哄騙行為; 開玩笑
* He loves to kid people, so be careful that he doesn’t pull
your leg.
let the cat out of the bag Disclose a secret. 說走了嘴; (無意中) 洩漏祕密,天機
* I’ve let the cat out of the bag already, Mr. Hsieh, and I
might as well tell the whole thing now.
let the side down If you let the side down, you have failed to support your
colleagues in the firm. 使親友失望
* He will always do his part — he will never let the side
long in the tooth Elderly 年紀大
* She’s a bit long in the tooth to play the part of a young girl.

lose face To lose prestige in the eyes of others 丟臉

* Harold had lost face in his dealings with Norway.

make both ends meet The ends are income and expenditure. Do not spend more
than you earn. 量入為出; 使收支相抵
* How did you come out this year, financially, John? I
barely made both ends meet.
make or break To be the cause or instrument of success or failure
* Negotiations broke down last week but both sides are
coming together again today in a make or break effort to find
common ground on which to base further discussions.

Introduction to Business English 262 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

meet (someone) half way To compromise by a reduction in one’s own demands, in return
for a corresponding concession 遷就; 妥協
* The company offered the workers a four per cent pay rise,
in response to the union demand for ten per cent.
Even-tually, they met half way and agreed on seven per cent.
* We entered into this negotiation in a spirit of compromise,
but it is clear that you have no intention of meeting us half way
on any of the issues.
moment of truth the final and unavoidable point of crisis, change, confrontation
or decision. 關鍵時刻; 緊要關頭
* The chairman, with his well-developed feel for timing, like
a great sensualist trying to hold back the moment of truth
indefinitely, delayed giving instructions for the takeover until
the last moment.
* He had been stealing money from the company for years
and must have known that the moment of truth would come
sooner or later.
moonlighter A person who does two jobs, the second usually in the evening
* Workers in state enterprises were permitted to moonlight.

much of a muchness Similar 大同小異; 半斤八兩

* The miller’s daughter could not believe that high gentry
behaved badly to their wives, but her mother instructed her,
“O child, men’s men; gentle or simple they’re much of a

Mum’s the word! Keep quiet about it. Say nothing. 別聲張; 保守祕密
* I don’t want anyone else to know about this affair until next
week, so mum’s the word!

narrow squeak Escaped, but was nearly caught. 僥倖取勝

* We won the game, but it was a narrow squeak.

nest-egg A sum of money put aside for retirement or for a rainy day.
儲備金; 留窩蛋
* They have a little nest egg tucked away somewhere for a
rainy day.

nitty-gritty Details 問題核心; 嚴肅的事實

* Peking’s newspapers still attempt to get down to the
nitty-gritty of investigative journalism.

Introduction to Business English 263 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

of (its) own accord spontaneously; as a result of one’s own action, will or decision
and not because of some outside influence or action
自願地; 自動地
* It would be better if the chairman resigned of his own
accord, rather than as a result of pressure from the board.
* The company decided of its own accord, without consulta-
tion with the unions, to close the plant and transfer production
* We can do this the easy way or the hard way — in a word,
either you follow company regulations of your own accord or
your stay with the company will be a short one. I hope I have
made myself crystal clear.
off the cuff Spontaneous / A remark which is made without reference to
facts 即席; 當場; 無事先準備; 非正式地
* I’m giving this to you strictly off the cuff.
off the record unofficially; not for the record; in confidence; not to be
repeated, used or relied on in any way
非正式的; 不得引用或發表的; 私下的; 機密的
* Officially, we don’t do business with certain countries, it’s
bad for our image in other parts of the world. But business is
business and, off the record of course, we find ways of doing
business with those countries, indirectly.
oil (grease, tickle) sb’s palm Bribe / Palm-oil 行賄
* Before any work could begin it was necessary to grease the
superintendent’s palm.
on balance After considering all positive and negative features; all things
considered; taking into account all factors for and against.
全盤考慮之後; 整體來說
* Although we have had good reason to criticize our Taiwan
agents a couple of times recently, I don’t think we should
change them, at least, not as yet because, on balance, they
serve us well.
on behalf of as representative or spokesperson for 代表
* On the company’s behalf, I would like to thank all
personnel for their performance this year. This has produced
excellent results, as we have seen from the trading figures.
* I know you’ve more or less decided to dismiss your assis-
tant, but before you do, I’d like to say a few words on his
on second thoughts After giving the matter further consideration 重新考慮
* I liked the plan on paper. I’ve been looking into its possi-
bilities in detail and now, on second thoughts, I like it even
more than I did at first.

Introduction to Business English 264 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

on spec I you do something on spec you are taking a chance, hoping it
will be OK. 投機地; 碰運氣地 (spec = speculation)
* We knew nothing about this hotel when we booked; we just
came here on spec, but it has turned out to be all that one
could desire.
on the carpet You are on the carpet when your manager is reprimanding you.
挨罵; 在討論(審議、或研究)中; 貼近地面
* He was called on the carpet again for his carelessness.
* A question of importance is now on the carpet.
* I was right on the carpet and over a little village.
on the never-never When you buy goods through hire purchase, you are said to
buy them on the never-never. The implication is that you will
never finish paying for them. 分期付款方式
* I bought this house on the never-never.
on the rocks A business is said to be on the rocks when it is collapsing.
* I could do with a Scotch on the rocks. 加冰塊
* She confided to her mother six months ago that her
marriage was on the rocks. 觸礁; 破碎; 破產
on the tip of my tongue I cannot think of the word I want. 正要說出來; 差點想起來
* She has half a dozen languages at the tip of her tongue.
* The answer was on the tip of my tongue, but I couldn’t
think of it.
* I have his name on the tip of my tongue.
open doors for To prepare the ground for some future development; to create
possibilities or opportunities; to break through obstacles 鋪路
* Many ideas and philosophies aimed at opening doors for
humanity go wrong in the hands of fanatics, opportunists and
inadequates, when they take shape as narrow ideologies based
on value judgments. That is, they acquire the “-ism” suffix
and, by the same token produce a dud end product.
out of hand If something is out of hand it is out of control. 無法控制
* The situation appears to be completely out of hand.
* The business was finally out of hand. 完結
out of one’s depth In a situation over which you have no control (originating from
swimming) 超出自己理解力; 過於深奧
* If you get me talking on nuclear physics, I’m out of my depth.
out of the frying pan into the From a bad situation into a worse one
fire 越來越糟; 跳出油鍋又入火坑; 越來越倒楣
pass the buck Passing the blame on to someone else 推諉責任
* He hates making decisions. He always passes the buck on
to someone else.

Introduction to Business English 265 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

pat someone on the back To give them praise 讚揚
* Everyone needs a pat on the back now than then.
pay dividends To produce good results 產生效果
* Our research and development program is expensive, cer-
tainly, but can be expected to pay dividends in terms of main-
taining and improving our position in a competitive market.
pay lip service Pretend to agree. Agree without enthusiasm.口頭承認; 贊成
* Naturally, they must pay lip service to the policy of the
organization; otherwise, they would find themselves very
pay (one’s) way To produce enough money to cover or pay one’s operating or
running expenses 自給自足
* Your department is not paying its way. Unless you make
cuts and improve performance, you’ll have to go. I’m afraid
that’s the price you pay for the privilege of being head of
pick someone’s brains To obtain information from someone
* I’ve come to pick your brains. You’re a metallurgist, and
I’ve been asked this question about steel.
pigeonhole Place for letters and messages 鴿籠式分類架
* He pigeonholed the papers in the desk.

pull strings Use your influence. 幕後操縱

* He had his uncle pull strings to get him a promotion.

pull out all the stops Make an all-out effort.

全力以赴; 千方百計; 拉出風琴所有音栓
* He pulled all the stops out to complete the work in time.

put someone in the picture To give them information 告訴某人基本情況

* Let’s go over those points again, to make sure you’re
completely in the picture, before we go any further.
* Until now, we’ve had to keep you in the dark about our
plans. Today, however, we’re going to put you in the picture.
put someone out Cause them trouble or inconvenience because they have to do
something for you. 給別人添麻煩
* It is a very sociable diet to follow because you don’t have
to put anyone out. I’ve always put myself out for others and
I’m not doing it any more.
put the cart before the horse See things in reverse. 本末倒置
* To learn to dive before learning to swim well seems to me
to be putting the cart before the horse.

Introduction to Business English 266 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

put the record straight To put right any misunderstanding; to correct any false ideas
by giving the true facts 澄清問題; 弄清真相
* First of all, let me put the record straight; whatever rumors
you may have heard, it is not my government’s intention to
raise import duties on foreign goods.
* I think we have to put the record straight; your company
and mine have been dissatisfied with one another for some
time, although nothing has been said openly, and it’s time
things were thrashed out.
put your foot down As a manager you put your foot down when you insist on
being obeyed. 堅決反對; 決不讓步; 踩油門
* This has gone far enough; he’s going to put his foot down.
quite a few / quite a number An amount somewhere between few and many 不少; 相當多
* There are quite a few papers dealing with this subject.
rake-off A commission with a hint of deceit 非法交易的回扣或佣金
recap To recap means to look again at what has happened, say in a
management meeting. (= recapitulate ) 概要重述; 總結
* To recap briefly, an agreement negotiated to cut the budget
deficit in the coming year was rejected ten days ago by a large
roof, go through the When prices (or costs) go through the roof, they rise rapidly
and excessively. 價格猛漲; 暴跳如雷
* Prices for Korean art have gone through the roof.
* Simon Hsieh will hit the roof when I tell him you’ve gone
run-of-the-mill Ordinary 平凡的
* I was just a very average run-of-the –mill kind of student.
rusty Out of practice 生疏的; 無用的; 陳舊的
* You may be a little rusty, but past experience and teaching
skills won’t have been lost.
sack someone / give them the Dismiss them (for example, for unsatisfactory work, or misbe-
sack / send someone packing / havior). 解雇
fire someone * Science teacher James Lee was sacked for slapping a
pupil. People who make mistakes can be given the sack the
same day.
safe as houses Very safe 十分可靠; 十分穩重
* Your money will be as safe as houses in that company.
sauce / cheek It is a sauce (or a cheek) when someone treats you disrespect-
fully. 傲慢; 對…無禮
* Good boys don’t sauce their mothers.
saved one’s bacon something, which saved me from trouble, is said to have saved
my bacon. 使脫困; 使脫險
* Your mother once saved my bacon. She lent me money
when I needed it.

Introduction to Business English 267 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

save one’s breath You are wasting your time trying to explain. Your
explanation is falling on deaf ears. 不要白費唇舌
* “Save your breath,” said Henry, “the boss will never give
you the day off.”
say one’s say Say what one wants to say. 暢所欲言
* I have done my best, and said my say.
scrape through You scrape through when you just manage to pass (for
example, an examination). 勉強通過; 勉強及格
* The boy just scraped through his examination.
second opinion An opinion (usually expert) from someone not directly
involved in a matter, where there is doubt or disagreement
between those directly involved. 第三者客觀意見
* If we can’t reach agreement on the value of the buildings,
then we can ask for a second opinion from a professional.
see eye to eye To agree, compromise or cooperate by first appreciating the
other’s thoughts and needs. 意見一致; 看法相同
* I think we’re both trying to see eye to eye with each other,
but we may be talking at cross purposes. Let’s take time out
for half an hour to think things over and then try again.
sell like hot cakes Sell quickly and without difficulty. 很快銷售
* The weekly always contains interesting articles and,
therefore, goes off like hot cakes.
set off on the wrong foot Start off in the wrong way. 一開始就做錯; 一開始就不順
* I am afraid we set off on the wrong foot by openly showing
our hostility to the proposals; we might have achieved our
purpose, and got them modified, if we had adopted a different
set the ball rolling Get things started. 開個頭
* The teacher started (set) the ball rolling by posing a large
and general question on which all were sure to have an
settle (one’s) differences to reach agreement or compromise on points or areas of
disagreement in a discussion or relationship, so that only
agreement remains. 妥協
* By use of bribery, threats and promises, the company
bidding for takeover caused disputes between the managers
and shareholders, enabling it to launch a quick, successful bid
before the others were able to settle their differences and put
together a defense.

shambles When an organization is a shambles it means it is in a mess.

混亂; 毀壞; 屠宰場
* The meeting ended in a complete shambles.

Introduction to Business English 268 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

shark A businessperson that is a shark is greedy and dishonest.
貪婪; 詐騙; 曠課; 作弊
* There are many ticket sharks at the entrance.
shilly-shally To shilly-shally is to be unable to make a decision. 優柔寡斷
* It’s time for Jimmy to stop shilly-shallying.
shoestring To manage on a shoestring is to manage when income barely
meets expenses. 小額資本; 鞋帶; 小範圍; 小規模
* The theatre will be run on a shoestring.
shoplifting Customers stealing from shops and stores. 顧客店內行竊
* The grocer accused her of shoplifting and demanded to
look in her bag.
short-sighted A manager is shortsighted when he fails to see what is ahead.
沒遠見; 近視的; 缺乏想像力
* Environmentalist fear that this is a shortsighted approach
to the problem of global warning.
show-down A confrontation. 攤牌; 暴露(事實,企圖,資本); 緊要關頭
* They may be pushing the Prime Minister towards a final
showdown with his party.
show a leg Wake up and do some work! 露面; 出現; 起床; 出來
* All hands! Turn out, turn out! Show a leg, show a leg!
大家統統起床! 起床! 出來! 出來!
show your paces Show what you are capable of achieving. 顯身手
* He’s going there tomorrow to show his paces.
sick and tired Irritated and fed up (with a situation or state of affairs). 厭煩
* Jane was sick and tired of always having to wait for Bill, so
when he didn’t arrive on time she left without him.
sign on the dotted line A light-hearted, friendly way of asking someone to sign a
document. 在虛線上簽名; 在正式的表格簽名
* When we arrive at the office each morning we have to sign
on the dotted line.
sitting duck Someone is a sitting duck when they are an easy target for
criticism. 容易受騙的目標; 容易打擊的對象
* The wealthy widow is a sitting duck for a confidence man.
six of one and half a dozen of Very little difference between the alternatives. Both parties
the other were equally to blame. 半斤八兩; 差不多
* Your father is bound to think of this as it affects your name
and family’s. Six of one and half-a-dozen of the other, so far
as that goes.
sixes and sevens You are at sixes and sevens when you are confused and do not
know what to do next. 亂七八糟; 雜亂無章; 七零八落
* We have just transported the machines into the new work-
shop, and everything is still at sixes and sevens.

Introduction to Business English 269 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

skate around a problem You do this when you avoid facing a problem
straightforwardly. 略微帶過; 規避責任
* Scientists have tended to skate over the difficulties of
explaining dream.
* When pressed, he skates around the subject of those women
who he met as a 19-year-old.
slippery customer Someone who is unlikely to keep a promise. 狡猾的無賴漢
small beer Something or someone of little importance.
淡啤酒; 瑣事; 小人物
smart alec A person who is too clever. 自作聰明的人; 傲慢無禮的人

snarl-up A traffic jam (cars or computers). 交通阻塞

split hairs To disagree or argue over something unimportant. 吹毛求疵
* On the whole, the other side’s offer seems reasonable,
although in my view we should hold out for a formal letter
from them, admitting they were wrong, don’t you agree? On
the contrary, I think you’re just hairsplitting — let’s just accept
their offer.
so-so What do you think of your new secretary? So-so. There are
good points and bad points. 馬馬虎虎; 過得去
* When I asked how he was, he relied “Oh, so so.”
so what? If someone tells you something, but you find it of no interest,
you may say, ‘So what?’. 那又怎麼樣呢
* He hates me — so what?
soft option The less complicated and/or troublesome alternative.
* When a difficult situation arises, most people prefer to take
the soft option, but this is not always possible.
* Many examination candidates choose to take English
literature because they regard it as a soft option.
* Action taken by the government in respect of unemploy-
ment has amounted to noting more than a series of soft
options: too little, too late and all in vain.
* As a rule, soft options do not pay dividends in the long run.
spade work Preliminary hard work before a project can get started.
* I have now done all the spadework on my article; it only
remains to get it into shape.
spiel Glib talk. 饒舌; 喋喋不休; 高談闊論

split the difference In bargaining it means coming to the center of the difference
between two figures. 互相讓步; 平分餘款, 餘物
* Let’s take half of the cake and let the three of them split the

Introduction to Business English 270 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

spot cash Immediate payment in cash. 現金交易
* We were fortunate; we were able to get spot cash for the
television set.
sticky business A difficult and unpleasant problem. 苦差事
* Getting the affairs of the company sorted out is a sticky
business, which I’d rather have nothing to do with.
sticky wicket/patch A cricketing term meaning a difficult period.
困難階段; 倒楣時期
* Don’t worry. We’ve done well in the past, and we shall
so well again. At the moment we’ve struck a sticky patch.
storm in a teacup / making a A minor problem being treated as a serious one.
mountain out of a molehill 小題大做; 大驚小怪
* The people next door are continually quarreling, but it is
usually a storm in a teacup.
straight from the horse’s A statement directly from someone in authority.
mouth 來源可靠的消息; 第一手資料
* I have it straight from the horse’s mouth that he is retiring.
straw that broke the camel’s Too much! I cannot take any more!
back / the last straw 導火線; 忍無可忍的最後一件事
* This was the last straw. He was throwing up her lawless
girlhood love to her as an offence.
* Any insignificant trifle could turn out to be the last straw
bringing about a crisis on the Western monetary market.
suss out To investigate thoroughly. To find out the answers to the
questions. 詳細調查
* They are sussing out the area to see how strong the police
presence is.
sweat / no sweat I you say ‘It’s a sweat!’ it means it is hard work. 辛苦的工作
If you say ‘It’s no sweat’ it means it is not a problem.
不費力; 沒困難
swings and roundabouts If you say that a situation is swing and roundabouts, you mean
that there are as many gains as there are losses. 有得有失
* Lose on the swings what you gain on the roundabouts.
swing the lead To avoid doing something by making things easy or by making
excuses. 裝病偷懶; 吹牛; 藉故逃避責任
* After I had seen how little work had been done while I was
away, I knew that he was swinging the lead.

take a back seat Let the subordinate decide the direction in which we are going.
* His writing has taken a back seat because of other
demands on his time.

Introduction to Business English 271 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

take a knock To take a knock is to suffer a setback. 遭受挫折; 運氣不好
* The economy of the country has certainly taken a knock
this year.
take a leaf out of someone’s To copy them. 仿效某人; 學某人的樣子(文字剽竊)
book * “Eighteen thousand,” said he. “And fifty,” said Jim,
taking a leaf out of his adversary’s book.
take aback To cause a feeling of surprise or astonishment, often also with
disappointment or dismay. 訝異; 吃驚; 出乎意料
* We had fully expected a positive response from them so we
were considerably taken aback by their rejection of our terms.
take it in one’s stride To do something without difficulty. 不費吹灰之力
* The examination is not very difficult; the average pupil
should be able to take it in his stride.
take heart Be encouraged! 鼓起勇氣
* It was impossible not to take heart in the company of such
a man as this.
take someone down a peg or Deflate someone’s ego. 挫某人銳氣
two * I certainly took her down a peg to be transferred to that
small office.
take sb’s point I accept your comment as valid. 承認對方論點是對的
* Nothing can be done at all until we get the money. Yes, I
take your point, but if we have no exact plans of what we
intend to do we won’t know how much money to ask for.
take the initiative To be the first to make a move, forcing others to react accord-
ingly. 帶頭; 發起; 採取主動
* For this job, we’re looking for someone with a go-ahead
attitude, a self-starter, someone who’s prepared to take and
main the initiative.
* In making this offer, we have taken the initiative on behalf
of our clients towards resolving the dispute. So now the ball
is in your clients’ court.
take the wind out of his sails / Making it difficult for someone to do what he or she intended
cutting the ground from under to do. 以先發制人的手段使某人處於劣勢
his feet * The answer was so cool, so rich in bravado, that somehow
it took the wind out of his sails.
* He had often told us what a good tennis player he was, but
he had the wind taken out of his sails when our son beat him in
their first match.
take with a pinch (grain) of Do not take too seriously. 採取保留態度; 存懷疑態度
salt * John doesn’t deliberately mislead, but I think what he says
should be taken with a grain of salt.
talk the hind leg off a donkey Talk too much. 嘮叨
* For goodness sake don’t let that woman start arguing.
Once she starts she’d talk the hind leg off a donkey.

Introduction to Business English 272 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

talk out of one’s hat Talk rubbish.瞎扯; 吹牛
* He’s talking through his hat. He doesn’t know the fact of
the case.
tall story A story which is hard to believe. 荒誕的故事
* Only two small children believed his tall stories about
trapping elephants in Africa.
teach your grandmother how When you do this you are telling an expert how to do some-
to suck eggs thing. 班門弄斧
tear someone off a strip To reprimand them severely. 怒斥某人
* Jean Lin angrily tore a strip off the beautiful young actress
who broke up her marriage.
tell someone straight To tell someone the truth whether or not it hurts them.
* I tell you straight, I’m not going to be a party to such a dis-
honest scheme as that.
ten to one A term used in betting, meaning there is a chance it will
happen. A two to one chance means it is more likely to
happen, and an odds on chance means that it is more likely to
happen than not. 十比一; 十之八九; 很可能
* Here’s a man, an army officer, in such rotten shape that if I
sent a good horse after him now it’s ten to one he couldn’t get
on him.
thank your lucky stars You are very fortunate. 慶幸
* Don’t thank me. Thank your stars I was there to hear it
and warn you.
* You may thank your lucky stars you were not killed in that
The exception proves the rule. Something, which differs from the usual, the normal, or some
principle, rule or theory and yet, by the same token, reinforces
what is usual etc. 規則的例外; 例外的事情
* Bankers will confirm that most customers are honest and
repay their loans on time; put differently, the relatively few
fraudsters and bad payers are the exceptions that prove the
* Tests have shown that this product lasts at least three times
longer than other similar products, so it is quite an exception
to the rule.
the ins and outs All the details 整個細節
* You have the information. The facts speak clearly for
themselves, so I really don’t think it necessary to discuss all
the ins and outs.
the powers-that-be The authorities in control. 當局; 統治者
* It is a law of the powers that be that the homeless shall not
sleep by night.

Introduction to Business English 273 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

the pros and cons The positive and negative aspects, features, factors or argu-
ments. 贊成與反對
* We’re wasting time — while we’re sitting here arguing the
pros and cons of different types of office layout, our
competitors are out there attacking our share of the market.
The tail wags the dog When the subordinate makes the decision for the manager.下
級管上級; 本末倒置; 小人物掌大權
* That the few should exert such an influence on the policy of
the country, is a case of the tail wagging the dog.
the thin end of the wedge There is much more (and worse) to come.
* The meeting was but the thin end of the wedge, it was the
beginning of the movement.
this, that and the other All sorts of things. 各式各樣的
* When the old friends met they would talk about this and that.
thrash out To solve or to overcome a problem by frank discussion .
弄清楚; 仔細研討; 透過討論解決問題
* We’ve run up against a number of problems which need to
be thrashed out, now, before any further steps can be taken.
throw a spanner in the works To upset the existing arrangements.
從中搗亂, 阻饒別人的計畫
* If that girl is intending to marry John, his mother will
throw a spanner in the works.
throw out the baby with the To discard the important things with the trivia.
bath water = empty the baby 不分青紅皂白一律拋棄; 全盤否定
with the bath * They made a blunder of emptying the baby out with the bath.
tied up Not available at the present time. 目前沒空; 阻塞; 和…合夥
* Mrs. Wang is so tied up to the care of her large family that
she cannot go to visit her sister.
* The accident tied up all traffic along the highway for more
than an hour.
* Our company has tied up with another firm to support the
tit for tat Retaliation 以牙還牙; 針鋒相對; 禮尚往來; 彼此效勞
* The little girl tore her brother’s book, and tit for tat he hid
her doll.
tittle-tattle Gossip. Idle chatter. 閒聊; 雜談
* That’s a tittle-tattle about the private lives of minor
top dog The person in charge. 主人; 優勝者; 負責人
* He has been top dog so long.
topsy-turvy Things are not as they should be. They are upside down.
confused. 顛倒的; 亂七八糟
* The world has turned topsy-turvy in my lifetime

Introduction to Business English 274 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

tot up Add up (a bill for example) 加總
* I finally sat down to tot up the full extent of my debt.
touchy Very sensitive. 易怒的; 棘手的
* She is very touchy about her past.
trashy Of very poor quality. 沒用的
* I was reading some trashy romance novel.
trendy Fashionable. 時髦的
* Trendy teachers are denying children the opportunity to
study classic texts.
trial and error Finding the right method or solution by the primitive process
of making changes in measurements or calculations until
finally there are no errors. 反覆試驗以求正確
* This is a dangerous chemical. Tests on it must be
carefully thought out in advance; simple trial-and-error testing
could prove fatal.
* He had forgotten the formula for producing the result he
wanted, but he arrived at the answer through a process of trial
and error.
trump / play your trump card Put forward your best idea. 打出王牌
* He played a trump.
turn down Reject 拒絕
* He asked Mary to marry him but she turned him down.
turn over a new leaf Make a fresh start. 重新做人; 改過自新; 洗心革面
* The boy confessed that he had behaved irresponsibly, and
promised his father that he would turn over a new leaf.

twiddle one’s thumbs Do nothing. 無所事事; 無聊

* For the next half-hour I was twiddling my thumbs, waiting
for my friends to arrive.

up to a point Partly; to some extent. 不完全如此; 在某種程度上

* That the two governments have agreed to hold talks is good
news, but only up to a point. It remains to be seen whether
they compromise with one another over their differences or
come to a dead end; it depends on both sides having an open
up to your eyes in work Overloaded with work. 工作極忙
* For the next few days I shall be up to the eyes in writing
the article.

use your loaf Think! Use your head! 動動腦筋

* He uses his loaf where you and I just muddle along.

Introduction to Business English 275 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

value judgment An opinion or decision based on personal feelings, subjectivity
or wishful thinking and not on fact, knowledge, reason or
objectivity. 主觀的評價 (特別是沒必要的評價)
* Breaking new ground in business is in the nature of a
military exercise, in so far as progress is made by relying on
hard facts and planning ahead in lieu of value judgements and
trial and error.
* In the early stages of both business and personal relation-
ships, value judgements can keep people in the dark as to each
other’s true character and qualities. The end product
depends on what occurs when they see the light.

waffle You are waffling when you are writing or saying something,
which has little or no meaning. 胡扯
* What’s she waffling about now?

wangle A wangle is a trick. To wangle is to achieve something by

manipulation. 篡改; 欺詐; 用計獲得
* He wangled himself a salary increase.

wet blanket A person who is a wet blanket reduces (or dampens) our
enthusiasm. 掃興的人; 潑冷水的人

whitewash A whitewash is a cover up of the truth. 欺瞞

windfall An unexpected piece of luck, like an apple falling off a tree.

* Detectives questioning neighbors soon found themselves
with a windfall of leads.

with regard to concerning; regarding; in connection with; in terms of;

referring to 關於
* In connection with the contract terms, we can agree to the
first three points. With regard to the remainder, these are not
in accordance with what was agreed on at our meeting.
* Now, with regard to these investment proposals, in my
opinion they seem well thought out and we won’t be running
too many risks by going along with them.
* Although the new motor is clearly a breakthrough in
engine technology, as yet it’s too early to start planning with
regard to large-scale production.

Introduction to Business English 276 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

zero in on To identify and concentrate on some target. 瞄準; 對準
* Criminals are always quick to zero in on any new oppor-
tunity to make money; the fact that credit card fraud is no
exception, perhaps proves the point.
* We need to come up with new products and zero in on new
markets if we are to stay ahead of our competitors.
* As we’re short of time, can we zero straight in on the
question of production delays, which stand to damage our
goodwill with customers if not tackled at once.

Introduction to Business English 277 Appendix A: Business Colloquialisms

a.a.r. against all risks 保全險
a/c account; account current 帳戶; 往來帳戶
ADB Asian Development Bank 亞洲開發銀行
ad. val. duty ad valorem duty 從價稅
a/o account of … 帳戶
a/p account payable 應付帳款
a.p. authority to purchase; 委託購買證
additional premium 附加保險費
A/R all risks 全險
AR account receivable 應收帳款
A/S account sales; after sight 售貨清單; 見票後
B/C bill for collection 託收票據
B/D bank draft; bill discounted 銀行匯票; 貼現票據
B/E bill of exchange 匯票
B/F brought forward 承前頁
BIS Bank for International Settlement 國際清算銀行
B/L Bill of Lading 提單
B/N boat note 卸貨授受單
B.N. bank note 銀行券; 鈔票
BOFT Board of Foreign Trade 國貿局
BCIQ Bureau of Commercial Inspections and 商品檢驗局
B/P bill purchased 買入票據
B.P., b.p. bills payable 應付票據
B.R., b.r. bills receivable 應收票據
B.S., b.s. balance sheet 資產負債表
BTN Brussels Tariff Nomenclature 布魯塞爾稅則分類
B/V, B.V. book value 帳面價值
B.W. bonded warehouse 保稅倉庫
C.A. chief accountant 會計主任
controller of accounts 會計督察
chartered accountant 公認會計師
commercial agency 商業徵信所

Introduction to Business English 278 Appendix B: Business Abbreviation

C/A capital account 資本帳戶
cash account 現金帳戶
current account 活期存戶; 往來帳戶
C.A.D. ; C/D cash against documents 憑單據付款
C.A.F, CAF, caf cost, assurance, freight = C.I.F. (法)運費,保險費在內價
C&F, c.& f. cost and freight 運費在內價
C&I, c.& i. cost and insurance 保險費在內價
C&D collection and delivery 收款發貨
C.B. clean bill 光票
CBC Central Bank of China 中央銀行; (俗)輸出許可證
C.B.D. cash before delivery 付現後交貨
C.B.S. cash before shipment 裝運前付款
c.c. carbon copy, cubic centimeter 副本; 立方公分
C/C, C.C. Chamber of Commerce 商會
CCC Code Chinese Commodity Classification Code 中國商品標準號列
CETDC China External Trade Development Council 中華民國對外貿易發展協會
C.F., c.f. carried forward; cost and freight; 過次頁;運費在內價;立方呎
cubic feet
CFS container freight station 貨櫃貨物集散站; 併裝; 併拆
CFS/CY = LCL/FCL 併裝/整拆
CGRA Chinese Government Radio Administration 交通部國際電信局
C.H. clearing house; custom house 票據交換所; 海關
C/I certificate of insurance 保險證明書
C.I.F. cost, insurance, and freight 保險費,運費在內價
C.I.F.&C cost, insurance, freight, and commission 保險費,運費,佣金在內價
C.I.F.&I. cost, insurance, freight, and interest 保險費,運費,利息在內價
C.I.F.C.&I. cost, insurance, freight, commission, and 保險費,運費,佣金,利息
interest 在內價
CL container load 整櫃裝卸
C/N credit note; cover note; 貸項清單; 投保通知單;
carton number, case number 箱號
C/O certificate of origin 產地證明書
c/o care of; cash order 轉交; 即期票
C.O.D. cash on delivery 貨到付款
c.o.s. cash on shipment 裝船付款
C/P charter party 傭船契約
CPA certified public accountant 檢定合格會計師
C.R. carriers risk 風險由運送人負擔
C/S container ship 貨櫃船

Introduction to Business English 279 Appendix B: Business Abbreviation

c/s, Cs. cases 箱
C/T, CT cable transfer 電匯
C.T.C. Central Trust of China 中央信託局
C.T.L. constructive total loss 推定全損
C.W.O. cash with order 定貨付款
cwt. hundredweight 20 cwt. = 1 ton 英擔
CY container yard 貨櫃場; 貨櫃集散地
D/A, d/a documents against acceptance 承兌交單
deposit account (銀行)存款帳戶
days after acceptance; 承兌後…天付款
documents attached 隨付單據
D/C discount 貼現
D/D, DD demand draft, documentary draft 即期匯票; 跟單匯票
d/d days after date 發票後…天付款
D/N debit note 借項清單; 帳單
D/O delivery order 交貨單; 小提單
D/P documents against payment 付款交單
D.P.V. duty-paid value 完稅價格
D/R deposit receipt 存款收條
DR dock receipt 碼頭收貨單
dr. debit, debtor; drawer; drum 借方; 發票人; 鐵製油桶
d/s days after sight 見票後…天付款
E.&O.E. errors & omissions excepted 錯誤或遺漏除外; 有錯當改
ECM European Common Market 歐洲共同市場
E/D export declaration 出口申報書
EL export license 輸出許可證
EMC Evergreen Marine Corporation 長榮海運公司
E.O. examining officer 驗關員; 檢查員
E.T.A. estimated time of arrival 預定抵達時間
E.T.D. estimated time of departure 預定離開時間
FAA free from all average 全損賠償
FAK freight all kinds 僅以重量體積或貨櫃算運費
F.& D. freight and demurrage 運費及延滯費
f.a.q. fair average quality 中等平均品質
F.A.S. free alongside ship 出口港船邊交貨價

Introduction to Business English 280 Appendix B: Business Abbreviation

F.B. freight bill 運費單
F.B.E. foreign bill of exchange 國外匯票
FCL full container load 整櫃裝載; 整裝; 整拆
FCR forwarder’s cargo receipt 貨物承攬單據
f.d. free dock; free delivery, free dispatch 碼頭交貨; 免費送貨
f.f.d. free from damage 損壞不賠償
f.g.a. free of general average 共同海損不賠償
f.i.o.s.t. free in, out, stowed and trimmed 裝卸貨, 堆儲, 及平艙
FM frequency modulation 調頻
F.O. firm offer; foreign office; free over side 穩固報價; 外交部;船邊提貨
FOB free on board 出口港船上交貨價/離岸價格
F.O.C. free of charge 免費
F.O.R. free on rail 火車上交貨價
F.O.T. free on truck 卡車上交貨價
FP floating policy; fully paid 總括保單; 付訖
FPA free from particular average 平安險; 單獨海損不賠
F.X. foreign exchange 外匯
FY fiscal year 會計年度
GA general average; general agent 共同海損; 總代理商
GATT General Agreement on Tariff and Trade 關稅暨貿易總協定
GM general manager; General Motors 總經理; 通用汽車公司
GMT Greenwich Mean Time 格林維治時間
GNP gross national product 國民生產總額
GSP generalized system of preference 普遍優惠關稅制度
G.T.C. good till cancelled 撤銷前有效
G.T.M good this month 本月有效
G.T.W. good this week 本週有效
HAWB house air waybill (air waybill) 空運提單
HF high frequency 高週波; 高頻率
hi-fi high fidelity 高傳真
HKD Hong Kong dollar 港幣
H.M. handmade; harbor master 手製的; 港務局長
H.O. head office 總行; 總公司
H.P. hire purchase; high pressure; horse power (英)分期付款; 高壓; 馬力
HQ headquarters 總部
H.S.B.C. Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp. 香港上海匯豐銀行

Introduction to Business English 281 Appendix B: Business Abbreviation

IATA International Air Transport Association 國際航空運輸協會
I.B. invoice book; in bond 發票簿; 保稅倉庫交貨
I.B.I. invoice book inwards 進貨簿
I/C inward collection 進口託收
ICBC International Commercial Bank of China 中國國際商業銀行
I.C.C. International Chamber of Commerce 國際商會
id. idem (the same) 同前
ID import declaration 進口申請書
I/L, IL import license 輸入許可證
IMF International Monetary Fund 國際貨幣基金
inc. incorporated 有限公司
Incoterms International Commercial Terms 國際商業用語
ins. insurance 保險
inst. instant 本月
int. interest 利息
inv. invoice 發票
IOU I owe you 借條
I/P insurance policy 保險單
I.Q. import quota 進口配額
I/R inward remittance 匯入款項
ISIC International Standard Industrial Classifica- 國際行業標準分類
ISO International Standard Organization 國際標準化機構
I.T. international trade; in transit 國際貿易; 運送途中
JAA Japan Asia Airways 日本亞細亞航空
JA joint account 共同帳戶
J/V joint venture 合資企業
KAL Korean Air Lines 大韓航空
KEPZ Kaohsiung Export Processing Zone 高雄加工出口區
K.K. Kabushiki Kaisha(=joint stock company) (日)株式會社; 股份有限公司
L/A landing agent; Lloyd’s agent 卸貨承攬人; 勞依茲代理人
letter of authorization 授權書
L.&D. loss and damage 損失及損毀
LASH lighter aboard ship 子母船; 載駁船(lighter)

Introduction to Business English 282 Appendix B: Business Abbreviation

L/C letter of credit 信用狀
LCL less container load 併裝; 併拆. (=CFS)
L.D. lethal dose; long distance 致死量; 長途電話
L/G letter of guarantee 擔保書; 保證書
L/H letter of hypothecation 質押權利總設定書
L/I letter of indemnity 賠償保證書
LNG liquefied natural gas 液化天然瓦斯
LST local standard time 當地標準時間
LT letter telegram 書信電報
L/T long ton 長噸; 英噸 (=2.240 lbs.)
Ltd. limited (company) 股份有限公司
L/U letter of undertaking 承諾書
mala fide bad faith 惡意
mar. marine; maritime; married 海的; 海上的; 已婚的
marg. margin; marginal 保證金; 邊際的
MAS Malaysian Airline System 馬來西亞航空公司
mat. material; matured; maturity 材料; 已到期的; 到期
max. maximum 最大; 最高
M/C marginal credit 信用放款限制
M/D, m/d months after date 發票…月後付款
mdse. merchandise 貨物
memo memorandum 備忘錄
MF medium frequency 中週波
mfd. manufactured 已加工
mfg. manufacturing 製造業的
M.F.N.C. most favored nation clause 最惠國待遇
MIP marine insurance policy 海上保險單
M/L clause more or less clause (=plus or minus clause, 過與不足條款
allowance clause)
M/O money order 匯款用的匯票
MOC Ministry of Communication 交通部
MOE Ministry of Education 教育部
MOEA Ministry of Economic Affairs 經濟部
MOF Ministry of Finance 財政部
MOI Ministry of Interior 內政部
M/P months after payment 付款後…月
M/R mate’s receipt 大副收據; 船上收貨單
M/S months after sight 見票後…月付款

Introduction to Business English 283 Appendix B: Business Abbreviation

M/T mail transfer; metric ton 信匯; 公噸
M/V motor vessel 輪船
N/A new account; no acceptance 新開戶; 拒絕承兌
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization 北大西洋公約組織
N.B. nota bene; navy bill 注意; 海軍軍票
N.C.V no commercial value 無商業價值
N.D. no date; non delivery; national debt 無日期; 未交貨; 國債券
N.E. new edition; not entitled; no effects 新版; 無資格; 無存款
n.e.i. not elsewhere included 如無其他項目包括時
n.e.m. not elsewhere mentioned 如無其他說明時
n.e.s. not elsewhere specified 如無其他特別說明時
n/f no funds 無存款
nom. nomenclature; nominal 術語; 名義上的
N.P. no protest; notary public 免除拒絕證書; 公證人
N/P net proceeds; non-payment 純收益; 拒付
N/R not responsible clause 免責條款
N/S not sufficient ;none in stock 存款不足; 無存貨; 缺貨
N.S.F. not sufficient fund 存款不足
N.T.O. not taken out 禁止帶出
N.U. name unknown 船名不祥
O/A on account; our account; 賒賬; 敝方帳
outstanding account; open account 未付帳目; 記帳
O/B opening bank 開狀銀行
O/C, o/c overcharge; outward collection 超收; 出口託收
O.C.P. over land points 陸路共通地點
o/d overdrawn; on demand 透支; 見票即付
O/F ocean freight 海運費
o/o order of 送交
OP open policy 預約保險單
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting 石油輸出國組織
O/R owner’s risk; outward remittance 貨主負擔風險; 匯出匯款
O.S. on sale; on spot; out of stock 出售; 現場交易; 無存貨
P/A, P.A. particular average; purchasing agent 單獨海損; 採購代理人
power of attorney; personal account 委託書; 個人帳戶

Introduction to Business English 284 Appendix B: Business Abbreviation

p.a. per annum 每年; 按年期算
P.& I. protection and indemnity 船東責任保險; 意外險
P.& L. profit and loss 損益
P.D. per diem; port due 每天; 港工捐
P.N., P/N promissory note 本票
POB post office box 郵政信箱
P.O.C. port of call 寄航港
P.O.D. pay on delivery; port of delivery 付款交貨; 交貨港
P.P., p.p. parcel post; post paid; per pro 郵包; 郵資付訖; 代表 ...
PR parcel receipt; payment received; 郵包收據; 收據;
public relations 公共關係
P.S. postscript 附記
P/S public sale 拍賣
PTO please turn over 請轉下頁
Pty proprietary (Pty. Ltd.) 股東較少的公司,並兼職員或
PVC polyvinyl chloride 聚氯乙烯
PX post exchange (美軍) 販賣部; 福利社
Q.C. quality control 品質管制
qlty. quality 品質
qnty. quantity 數量
qt. quart 夸脫 (容量單位)
q.v. quod vide (which see) 參照
qy. quay 碼頭
R.C. Red Cross; revolving credit 紅十字會; 循環信用狀
R&D research and development 研究與發展
R/E rate of exchange 匯率
reg. registered 註冊
rem. remittance; remarks 匯款; 備考; 摘要; 批註
REURTEL refer your telegram 有關貴公司電報
RI re-insurance 再保險
R.O. remittance order 匯款委託書
R.O.E. rate of exchange 匯率
ROL re our letter 有關本公司信函
R.O.P. record of production 生產記錄
R.S.D. receiving, storage and delivery 收儲與交貨費用
RSVP répondez s’il vous plaît (please reply) 請答覆

Introduction to Business English 285 Appendix B: Business Abbreviation

RYC re your cable 關於貴公司電報
RYL re your letter 關於貴函
S.B. sale book 售貨簿
S.C. salvage charges; see copy; same case; 救助費用;參照副本;同案;
Suez Canal; supreme court; 蘇彝士運河; 最高法院
S/D sight draft 即期匯票
SHEX Sundays and holidays excepted 星期例假日除外
SHINC Sundays and holidays included 星期例假日包括在內
SL salvage loss; sea level 海難救助損害; 海平面
S.O., s/o seller’s option; shipping order 賣方選擇權; 裝貨單;下貨單
SP safe port ; ship’s paper 安全港; 船舶文書
S.P.D. steamer pays dues 船方支付稅捐
SR ship’s receipt (mate’s receipt); 船上收貨單; 大副收據;
strike risks 罷工險
SRCC strikes, riots and civil commotion 罷工暴動民變險
SS steamship; signed and sealed 輪船; 簽名蓋章
S.V. sailing vessel; (F) sans valeur 帆船; 無價值
TA telegraphic address (cable address) 電報掛號
TB treasury bill; trial balance 國庫券; 試算表
TBD policy to be declared policy (cover note, risk note) 船運資料未確定之保險單
(暫保單; 承保單)
T.C. traveler’s check 旅行支票
TL, T/L total loss 全損
T.M.O. telegraphic money order 電報匯款
TPND theft, pilferage and non-delivery 偷竊無法交貨險
T/R trust receipt 信託收據
T.S. transshipment 轉運
T.T. telegraphic transfer 電匯
U/A underwriting account 保險帳戶
U.K.F.O. United Kingdom for order 英國沿岸之指定港
UL Underwriter Laboratories Inc. 美國保險人協會所設立的檢
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and 聯合國教育科學暨文化組織
Cultural Organization
UNO United Nations Organization 聯合國組織

Introduction to Business English 286 Appendix B: Business Abbreviation

UNSC United Nations Security Council 聯合國安全理事會
UPI United Press International 聯合國際通訊社
URT your telegram 貴公司電報
UW underwriter 保險業者; 保險人
V.C. valuable cargo; vice-chairman; 高價貨; 副議長;
vice-chancellor; vice-council 財政部次長; 副領事
VHF very high frequency 超短波
VIP very important person 大人物; 要人
VIZ. videlicet (=namely) 即是, 換言之
VP vice president 副總統; 副總裁; 副董事長
v.v. vice versa 反之亦然
WA(=WPA) with average, with particular average; West 單獨海損賠償; 水漬險;
Africa 西非
W.B. warehouse book ; World Bank 進倉貨物登記簿; 世界銀行
waybill 提貨單
W.C. water closet; West Center; 廁所; (倫敦)西中央郵政區;
West Coast; without charge 西海岸; 免費
W.G. weight guaranteed 保證重量
whf, wharf 碼頭
W/M weight or measurement 重量或體積
WP weather permitting 雨天順延
W.P.M words per minute 每分鐘字數
W.P.P. waterproof paper packing 防潮紙包裝
W.R., W/R war risk 兵險; 戰爭險
w.r. warehouse receipt 倉單
WRU Who are you? 你是誰
wt. weight 重量
wth. width 寬度
W.W. warehouse to warehouse; World War; 倉庫至倉庫; 世界大戰;
warehouse warrant 倉單
XP express paye (法語) 快信
yd. yard 碼
yr. year 年

Introduction to Business English 287 Appendix B: Business Abbreviation

INDEX buying agent 45, 169

abbreviations 10, 11, 16, 278
accountant 223, 246, 278, 279, 288 C&F 33
accounts 62, 93, 101-104, 135, cargo vessel 111
152, 158, 169,191,207, carbon copies 10, 73, 201
223, 245, 249, 278, certificate of insurance 129
accuracy 6, 54, 58, 71, 140, 228 chairman 14, 186, 199, 200, 253, 256,
adjustments 4 263, 264
advertising 16, 135, 170, 178, 227 charter party 75-78, 118
advice note 116 check
after date 280, 283 circular letter 99
after-sales service 62 c.i.f. 99, 144, 145, 279
after sight 31, 278, 280, 283 claim 34, 70, 88, 114, 128, 131, 133, 160
agency 29, 102, 107, 169-173, 178
sole agent 169
all risk 83, 114, 126, 132, 134, 278
alternative product 62
applicant 66, 67, 218, 231, 234
application 4, 8, 127, 219, 227, 230
appointment 14, 34, 3142, 157, 177, D/A 280
181, 182, 261 demonstration 185
assets 138, 206, 251 deposit 97, 142
assurance 58, 179 documentary credit 63, 64, 86, 99, 144, 145
attention line 11, 12, 18 documents against acceptance 55, 99
documents against payment 31, 56, 98
due date 138

balance sheet 142
Baltic Exchange 114
benefits 192, 193, 227, 235, 239 Electronic mail
bid 211, 268 enclosures
bill of exchange 139, 281 E. & O. E.
bill of lading 74, 75, 77, 114, 116, 118, Esq.
119, 123, 127, 145, 148, 161 Ex-quay
blind carbon copy (bcc) 16 estimate
book value 278 exchange rates
brokers 82, 114, 118, 168, 169 export manager
budget 25, 223, 224, 249, 267 ex-ship

Introduction to Business English 288 Index

importer license
in-company communications
F indemnification
f.a.s. inquiry
fax inside address
ferries insurance
fidelity bonds fire insurance
final demand accident insurance
firm offer insurance of liability
floating policy property insurance
f.o.b. marine insurance
f.o.r. insurance brokers
forwarding agent insurance certificate
franco quay insurance costs
free alongside ship insurance policies
free on board interest
free on rail interview
freight account invitation
freight charges invoice
freight invoice commercial invoice
freight rates pro-forma invoice

general charter job application
Giro joint venture
junk mail

Hague Rules
Hamburg Rules layout
health certificate L/C
hospitality legal action
letter of credit
life assurance
I lighters

Introduction to Business English 289 Index

limited liability (Ltd.) personnel appointments
Lloyd’s Public Limited Company (PLC)
loan postage and packing (p & p)
postal order
price list
private and confidential
M promissory note
Madam punctuation
mail transfer
Managing Director
marine insurance
mate’s receipt
memorandum Q
merchant banks
money order quotations

rail transport
negotiable security Re
notary references
roll-on roll–off ferry
on approval
on commission S
on consignment
on sale sales letters
open-account facilities salutations
open cover insurance sender’s address
order form sample
out of stock settlement of accounts
overdraft shipbroker
P shipping
Shipping Conference
passenger vessel shipping documentation
pattern shipping insurance
payment shipping liabilities
per pro (p.p.)

Introduction to Business English 290 Index

shipping note waybill 38, 75, 76, 77, 115, 120, 281, 287
shipping organizations
showroom visit
sight bill, sight draft
signature block
subject titles

tankers 111
telegram 43, 283, 285, 294
telegraphic address 286
telegraphic transfer 30, 34, 98, 99, 286
telex 43, 59, 144, 177, 178
tender 67
terms of payment 56
time charter 118
tramp 118
TT 99

underwriter 82, 126, 127, 128, 130, 169,
286, 287

vacancy 230
Value Added Tax (VAT) 95
vessels 111, 114, 117, 118
voyage charter 35, 111, 118
voyage policy 127

Introduction to Business English 291 Index

參考書目 Bibliography
國際貿易之基礎 呂金交著 (眾文圖書公司)
最新英美商業書信 李雄和編著 (五南圖書公司)
貿易英文實務 張錦源著 (三民書局)
貿易實務辭典 蔡曉耕編著
1993 年信用狀統一慣例 國際商會中華民國委員會
國際貿易實務作業規範 聞順發編著 (眾文圖書公司)
貿易英文與實務 呂金交著 (眾文圖書公司)
商用英文 張錦源著 (三民書局)
商用英文 程振粵著 (三民書局)
國際貿易英文書信 張仲銘編著 (文鶴出版有限公司)
標準英文商業書信(英漢對照版) L. Gartside 著 (敦煌書局)
應用及國際貿易英文 林春仲編著 (文鶴出版有限公司)

Introduction to Business English 292 Index

貿易英文實務 劉天純編著 (勵行出版社)
商用英文 郎亞琴、蕭如妙編著 (文京圖書有限公司)
商用英文會話 李奠然著 (文鶴出版有限公司)
商用英文 陳琉琍編著 (學習出版有限公司)
商用英文 必成出版社有限公司
商用英文 劉雪生編著 (會計出版社)
最新貿易英文書信寶典 黃宣範編譯 (眾文圖書公司)

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Himstreet, William C., and Wayne Murlin Baty. Business Communication. Ninth edition.
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