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Product Bulletin

9.2:001
D103222X012
February 2010 Hazardous Area Classifications

Hazardous Area Classifications and


Protections
The intent of this document is to provide a broad surrounding atmosphere which may or may not be in
overview of hazardous area classifications and the sufficient quantities.
types of protection techniques involved. The
information provided in this bulletin is for educational a. Class I—Locations in which flammable gases
purposes and should not be used in place of any or vapors may or may not be in sufficient
other source or governing documents. quantities to produce explosive or ignitable
mixtures.
Not all approvals are covered in this bulletin. Contact
your Emerson Process Management sales office for b. Class II—Locations in which combustible
information on approvals not covered in this bulletin. dusts (either in suspension, intermittently, or
periodically) may or may not be in sufficient
Contact your Emerson Process Management sales quantities to produce explosive or ignitable
office for product specific hazardous area approval mixtures.
information or visit our website at www.Fisher.com.
c. Class III—Locations in which ignitable fibers
may or may not be in sufficient quantities to
produce explosive or ignitable mixtures.

2. Division—The Division defines the probability of


Hazardous Area Classifications the hazardous material being able to produce an
explosive or ignitable mixture based upon its
When electrical equipment is used in, around, or presence.
near an atmosphere that has flammable gases or
vapors, flammable liquids, combustible dusts, a. Division 1 indicates that the hazardous
ignitable fibers or flyings, there is always a possibility material has a high probability of producing an
or risk that a fire or explosion might occur. Those explosive or ignitable mixture due to it being
areas where the possibility or risk of fire or explosion present continuously, intermittently, or
might occur due to an explosive atmosphere and/or periodically or from the equipment itself under
mixture is often called a hazardous (or classified) normal operating conditions.
location/area. Currently there are two systems used
to classify these hazardous areas; the Class/Division b. Division 2 indicates that the hazardous
system and the Zone system. The Class/Division material has a low probability of producing an
system is used predominately in the United States explosive or ignitable mixture and is present only
and Canada, whereas the rest of the world generally during abnormal conditions for a short period of
uses the Zone system. time.

3. Group—The Group defines the type of hazardous


material in the surrounding atmosphere. Groups A,
Class/Division System B, C, and D are for gases (Class I only) while groups
E, F, and G are for dusts and flyings (Class II or III).
Hazardous locations per the Class/Division system
are classified according to the Class, Division, and a. Group A—Atmospheres containing acetylene.
Group.
b. Group B—Atmospheres containing a
1. Class—The Class defines the general nature (or flammable gas, flammable liquid−produced
properties) of the hazardous material in the vapor, or combustible liquid−produced vapor

www.Fisher.com
Product Bulletin
9.2:001
Hazardous Area Classifications February 2010

whose MESG is less than 0.45 mm or MIC ratio b. Zone 1—Ignitable concentrations of
is less than 0.40. Typical gases include flammable gases or vapors which are likely to
hydrogen, butadiene, ethylene oxide, propylene occur under normal operating conditions.
oxide, and acrolein.
c. Zone 2—Ignitable concentrations of flammable
c. Group C—Atmospheres containing a gases or vapors which are not likely to occur
flammable gas, flammable liquid−produced under normal operating conditions and do so only
vapor, or combustible liquid−produced vapor for a short period of time.
whose MESG is greater than 0.45 mm but less
than 0.75 mm or MIC ratio is greater than 0.40 Group—Electrical equipment used in gas
but less than 0.80. Typical gases include ethyl atmospheres is divided into two groups.
either, ethylene, acetaldehyde, and
cyclopropane. D Group I—Equipment used in mines with
atmospheres containing methane or gases and
d. Group D—Atmospheres containing a vapors of equivalent hazard.
flammable gas, flammable liquid−produced
vapor, or combustible liquid−produced vapor D Group II—All other equipment; which is
whose MESE is greater than 0.75 mm or MIC further subdivided into three subgroups.
ration is greater than 0.80. Typical gases include
− Group IIA—Atmospheres containing
acetone, ammonia, benzene, butane, ethanol,
propane, or gases and vapors of equivalent
gasoline, methane, natural gas, naphtha, and
hazard.
propane.
− Group IIB—Atmospheres containing
e. Group E—Atmospheres containing ethylene, or gases and vapors of equivalent
combustible metal dusts such as aluminum, hazard.
magnesium, and their commercial alloys.
− Group IIC—Atmospheres containing
f. Group F—Atmospheres containing acetylene or hydrogen, or gases and vapors
combustible carbonaceous dusts with 8% or of equivalent hazard.
more trapped volatiles such as carbon black,
coal, or coke dust. 2. Dust

g. Group G—Atmospheres containing a. Zone 20—An area where combustible dusts or


combustible dusts not included in Group E or ignitable fibers and flyings are present
Group F. Typical dusts include flour, starch, continuously or for long periods of time.
grain, wood, plastic, and chemicals.
b. Zone 21—An area where combustible dusts or
ignitable fibers and flyings are likely to occur
under normal operating conditions.
Zone System
c. Zone 22—An area where combustible dusts or
Hazardous locations per the Zone system are ignitable fibers and flyings are not likely to occur
classified according to its Zone which can be gas or under normal operating conditions and do so only
dust. For gas atmospheres electrical equipment is for a short period of time.
further divided into Groups and Subgroups.

Zone—The Zone defines the probability of the


hazardous material, gas or dust, being present in
sufficient quantities to produce explosive or ignitable Protection Techniques and
mixtures.
Methods
1. Gas Various protection techniques and methods have
been developed and employed, thus reducing or
a. Zone 0—Ignitable concentrations of minimizing the potential risks of explosion or fire
flammable gases or vapors which are present from electrical equipment located in hazardous
continuously or for long periods of time. locations. Not all methods are listed.

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Product Bulletin
9.2:001
February 2010 Hazardous Area Classifications

Class/Division system D Intrinsically Safe—A type of protection in which


the electrical equipment under normal or abnormal
D Explosion−proof—A type of protection that conditions is incapable of releasing sufficient
utilizes an enclosure that is capable of withstanding electrical or thermal energy to cause ignition of a
an explosive gas or vapor within it and or preventing specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most
the ignition of an explosive gas or vapor that may easily ignitable concentrations. This type of
surround it and that operates at such an external protection is referred to as “Ex i”.
temperature that a surrounding explosive gas or
vapor will not be ignited thereby. D Increase Safety—A type of protection in which
various measures are applied to reduce the
D Intrinsically Safe—A type of protection in which probability of excessive temperatures and the
the electrical equipment under normal or abnormal occurrence of arcs or sparks in the interior and on
conditions is incapable of releasing sufficient the external parts of electrical apparatus that do not
electrical or thermal energy to cause ignition of a produce them in normal service. Increased safety
specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most may be used with flame−proof type of protection.
easily ignitable concentration. This type of protection is referred to as “Ex e”.
D Dust Ignition−proof—A type of protection that
excludes ignitable amounts of dust or amounts that D Type n—A type of protection applied to
might affect performance or rating and that, when electrical equipment such that in normal operation it
installed and protected in accordance with the is not capable of igniting a surrounding explosive
original design intent, will not allow arcs, sparks or atmosphere. This type of protection is referred to as
heat otherwise generated or liberated inside the “Ex n”.
enclosure to cause ignition of exterior accumulations
or atmospheric suspensions of a specified dust.

D Non−incendive—A type of protection in which


the equipment is incapable, under normal conditions,
of causing ignition of a specified flammable gas or Temperature Code (T Code)
vapor−in−air mixture due to arcing or thermal effect.
A mixture of hazardous gases and air may be ignited
by coming into contact with a hot surface. The
Zone system conditions under which a hot surface will ignite a gas
depends on surface area, temperature, and the
D Flame−proof—A type of protection in which an concentration of the gas. The same can be said
enclosure can withstand the pressure developed about combustible dusts. The T code of a product
during an internal explosion of an explosive mixture denotes the maximum surface temperature that a
and that prevents the transmission of the explosion given product will not exceed under a specified
to the explosive atmosphere surrounding the ambient temperature. For example, a product with a
enclosure and that operates at such an external T code of T3 means that its maximum surface
temperature that a surrounding explosive gas or temperature will not exceed 200_C provided it is
vapor will not be ignited there. This type of protection operated in a ambient temperature defined by the
is referred to as “Ex d”. manufacturer.

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Product Bulletin
9.2:001
Hazardous Area Classifications February 2010

Table 1. Approval Agencies


Approvals(1) Approval Agencies Used(2) Approvals Accepted
FM FM—Factory Mutual North America
CSA CSA—Canadian Standards Association North America
Baseefa—British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres
ATEX KEMA—NV tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen European Union
LCIE—Laboratorie Central des Industries Electriques
CSA—Canadian Standards Association
IECEx International
Baseefa—British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres
SAA SAA—Standards Association of Australia Australia
NEPSI—National Supervision and Inspection Centre for Explosion Protection and Safety
NEPSI China
of Instrumentation
TIIS TIIS—Technology Institution of Industrial Safety Japan
INMETRO INMETRO—National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality Brazil
GOST−R GOST—GOSSTANDART Russia
1. Fisherr products may carry additional approvals. Contact your Emerson Process Management sales office for additional approval information.
2. Fisher product approvals may be certified by other agencies. Contact your Emerson Process Management sales office for additional information.

Nomenclature Additional Terminology


Although the following terminology is not permitted
for markings it is commonly used to describe the
Class/Division system various types of approvals or when speaking of
them.

Approved equipment is marked according to which XP—Flameproof approval for Class I Division 1
Class (I, II, or III), Division (1 or 2), Group (A, B, C, EXP—Flameproof approval for Class I Division 1
D, E, F, or G), and temperature code (T1 through NI—Non−incendive approval for Class I Division 2
T6) that it is rated for. For intrinsically safe DIP—Dust Ignition Proof approval for Class II
equipment the words “Intrinsically Safe” or “IS” will Division 1
precede the actual approval marking to indicate it as S—“Suitable For” for Class II Division 2
being intrinsically safe. Examples are listed below: IS—Intrinsically Safe

Class I Division 1 Group B,C,D T5 Approval Agencies


CL I Div 2 GP ABCD T5
IS CL I,II,III Div 1 GP ABCDEFG Generally speaking, most countries require that
CL II,III Div 1,2 GP EFG T4 products intended for installation in a hazardous
location be approved by a recognized authority or
approval agency (governmental or independent)
which that country has established by various laws,
regulations, or codes. See table 1 for an overview of
Zone system approvals and approval agencies.

Approved equipment is marked according to the North American Approvals


protection concept for which it has been designed Of the 15 national testing laboratories (NRTL’s) in
(Ex i, Ex d, Ex n, and etc.), the gas group (I, IIA, IIB, the United States, only a few are qualified to
or IIC), and temperature code (T1 through T6) that it approve products for use in hazardous locations.
is rated for. For the United States it will be preceded Two such agencies are; Factory Mutual (FM) and
by which Class and Zone it is approved for. Underwriters Laboratories (UL). In Canada, products
Examples are listed below: are approved by the Canadian Standards
Association (CSA).
Ex ia IIC T5 European Approvals
Ex d IIB+H2 T6
Ex nA IIC T6 Each country belonging to the European Union has
Class I Zone 2 AEx nC IIC T5 established one or more “Notified Bodies” for

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Product Bulletin
9.2:001
February 2010 Hazardous Area Classifications
product approval. Notified Bodies not only approve International Approvals
products for use within their own country, commonly
called national certifications/approvals, but also for
any other country within the union, known as Countries participating in the IECEx Scheme
CENELEC certifications/approvals. CENELEC is the (International Electrotechnical Commission on
acronym for European Committee for explosion protected equipment, known as “Ex”) can
Electrotechnical Standardization. A product which issue either an international certification or a national
has been CENELEC certified or approved by any of certification of explosion protected equipment. Each
the Notified Bodies is automatically accepted for use country within the IECEx scheme establishes an
within all of the participating union countries. In July ExCB (Ex Certification Body) which can approve
2003 a European Directive, called the ATEX products. ExCB’s can issue the national certification
Directive, which pertains to equipment for explosive for their country based upon the IECEx standards
atmospheres, was adopted. All equipment intended (including any national deviations) and the
for use in explosive atmospheres must comply with international certification. Currently, Australia is the
the ATEX Directive in order to be sold into the only country accepting international certifications for
European Union. use in their country.

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Product Bulletin
9.2:001
Hazardous Area Classifications February 2010

HAZARDOUS AREA NON−HAZARDOUS AREA

DVC6010 I.S. BARRIER


Vmax = 30 VDC Voc = ?
Imax = 226 mA Isc = ?
Pi = 1.4 W Ca = ?
Ci = 5 nF La = ?
Li = 0.55 mH

FIELD COMMUNICATOR
Vmax = 30 VDC Voc = 1.9 VDC
Imax = 200 mA Isc = 32 μA
Pi = 1 W Po = 61 μW
Ci = 0 μF Ca = 100 μF
Li = 0 mH La = 5600 mH

Figure 1. Typical I.S Installation

Guidelines for Selecting Intrinsic Lcable = Signal cable total inductance


Safety Barriers Using Entity The values Voc, Isc, Ca, and La are specified by the
Ratings barrier manufacturer for any given barrier. The
values of Ccable and Lcable for the signal cable must
Selecting an intrinsic safety barrier with the required be determined for the specific cable used.
entity ratings depends upon the combined effects of
the instrument, its cabling, and any instrument Example barrier entity ratings calculation.
accessories such as the 475 Field Communicator.
Determine the barrier entity ratings using the A system is comprised of a FIELDVUEr DVC6010
following guidelines: digital valve controller (FM approved), a Field
Communicator (FM approved), and 1000 feet of
Voc ≤ Vmax cable with 60 pF/ft capacitance and 0.2 μH/ft
Isc ≤ Imax inductance. Calculate the barrier entity ratings.
Ca ≥ Ci + Ccable
La ≥ Li + Lcable Figure 1 shows a typical I.S. installation.

where: Calculate Ccable and Lcable


Voc = Barrier open circuit voltage Ccable = 60 pF/ft x 1000 ft

Vmax = Instrument Vmax = 60 nF


Lcable = 0.2 μH/ft x 1000 ft
Isc= Barrier short circuit current = 0.2 mH
Imax = Instrument Imax Determine Ca and La for the barrier
Ca= Barrier acceptable connected capacitance Ca w Ci(DVC6010)+ Ci(475) + Ccable
w 5 nF + 0 nF + 60 nF
Ci = Instrument total unprotected internal
capacitance Ca w 65 nF

Ccable = Signal cable total capacitance


La w Li(DVC6010)+Li(475) + Lcable
La = Barrier acceptable connected inductance
w 0.55 mH + 0 mH + 0.2 mH
Li = Instrument total unprotected internal inductance La w 0.75 mH

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Product Bulletin
9.2:001
February 2010 Hazardous Area Classifications
Determine Voc and Isc of the barrier. Note that in this Isc of the barrier must meet all of the following
example the output of the 475 (Voc(475) and Isc(475)) conditional requirements.
must also be considered because it can also add
energy to the loop besides just the barrier itself. Voc 1) Isc v Imax(DVC6010) + Isc(475)  226 mA +
of the barrier plus any additional voltage that could 0.032 mA  226.032 mA
be added to the loop from each device must be 2) Isc v Imax(DVC6010)  226 mA
subtracted from Vmax for each device. Isc of the
barrier plus any additional current that could be 3) Isc v Imax(475)  200 mA
added to the loop from each device must not exceed
Isc v 200 mA
Imax for each device.

Voc of the barrier must meet all of the following Note


conditional requirements.
Neither Emerson, Emerson Process
1) Voc v Vmax(DVC6010) − Voc(375)  30 VDC − 1.9 V Management nor any of their affiliated
dc  28.1 VDC entities assumes responsibility for the
selection, use, or maintenance of any
2) Voc v Vmax(DVC6010)  30 VDC product. Responsibility for the
3) Voc v Vmax(475)  30 VDC selection, use, and maintenance of any
product remains with the purchaser
Voc v 28.1 VDC and end user.

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Product Bulletin
9.2:001
Hazardous Area Classifications February 2010

Fisher and FIELDVUE are marks owned by one of the companies in the Emerson Process Management business division of Emerson Electric Co.
Emerson Process Management, Emerson, and the Emerson logo are trademarks and service marks of Emerson Electric Co. All other marks are
the property of their respective owners.
The contents of this publication are presented for informational purposes only, and while every effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, express or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which are available upon request. We reserve the right to modify or improve the
designs or specifications of such products at any time without notice. Neither Emerson, Emerson Process Management, nor any of their affiliated
entities assumes responsibility for the selection, use or maintenance of any product. Responsibility for proper selection, use, and maintenance of
any product remains solely with the purchaser and end user.

Emerson Process Management


Marshalltown, Iowa 50158 USA
Sorocaba, 18087 Brazil
Chatham, Kent ME4 4QZ UK
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Singapore 128461 Singapore
www.Fisher.com

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