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EMS 375 Teaching Portfolio

Deborah L. Boxall
April 29, 2005
(Page numbers are linked)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Artifacts for student development (descriptions) ...........................................................................3


Learning planner .......................................................................................................................4
Kinetic theory of gases: student misconceptions ......................................................................5
STAD cooperative learning lesson plan ...................................................................................6

Artifacts for multiple instructional strategies (descriptions) ........................................................ 13


Direct instruction lesson plan.................................................................................................. 14
5-E Learning cycle lesson plan ............................................................................................... 21
Coin Calorimetry lab worksheet ............................................................................................. 25

Artifacts for motivation and management (descriptions) ............................................................. 29


Free Energy worksheet ........................................................................................................... 30
Free Energy quiz ..................................................................................................................... 32
STAD lesson plan signs .......................................................................................................... 34
Team recognition certificates.................................................................................................. 36

Artifacts for communication and technology (descriptions) ........................................................ 38


Specific heat slide show (external filename: specificheat.pps)
TI-83/CBL-2 Instruction sheet................................................................................................ 39
Kinetic Theory of Gases: Technology Integration.................................................................. 40
Reaction rates slide show (external filename: reactionrates.pps)
Script for reaction rates slide show......................................................................................... 42

Artifacts for planning (descriptions)............................................................................................. 43


Kinetic Theory of Gases: Cross-Curricular Integration.......................................................... 44
Token economy....................................................................................................................... 46

Artifacts for assessment (descriptions)......................................................................................... 48


Enthalpy of solution worksheet .............................................................................................. 49
Kinetic theory of gases: unit test............................................................................................. 53
Thermochemistry: unit test (traditional) ................................................................................ 56
Thermochemistry: alternative unit test ................................................................................... 64
Concept interview ................................................................................................................... 66
Graphic organizer.................................................................................................................... 68
Transparency 2 (STAD).......................................................................................................... 71
ARTIFACTS FOR STUDENT DEVELOPMENT

Instruction to enhance cognitive development:


On page 4 is a scanned version of a poster entitled Learning Planner that was prepared to
illustrate my philosophy of education for an Educational Psychology class in which I was
enrolled during Spring, 2004. As can be seen from examination of the text on the poster, I
believe that students learn best when given the opportunity to examine their own misconceptions
and preconceptions through self-evaluative quizzes. Students must learn a variety of new
information ranging from factual content knowledge to the more in-depth conceptual
understanding. While the factual content knowledge is best taught using frequent reviews,
engaging the students in active discussion is a more efficacious teaching strategy for the more
conceptual topics. A variety of learning styles are also addressed ranging from auditory (Sing
along: The Element Song), kinesthetic (Acting Out) to visual (Re-evaluation: Concept
Mapping).

Kinetic Theory of Gases: Student Misconceptions (pg. 5) illustrates some of the preconceptions
that students may have about this particular topic that could potentially prevent learning. A
teacher can identify such potential misconceptions using a formative informal concept interview
on the topic.

Instruction to enhance social development:


On pages 6 through 12 is a Student Teams-Achievement Division (STAD) Cooperative Learning
Lesson Plan that has been included in this portfolio as an example of a teaching methodology
that promotes improved student social skills as well as introducing students to thermodynamics.
The instruction component utilizes directed questioning so that the topic can be developed from
student responses. After the central topics (enthalpy, entropy and free energy) have been
introduced, the students are divided out into groups of three or four where they work together to
complete the Free Energy Worksheet. While completion of the worksheet is done as a team,
individual student accountability is ensured by administering the Free Energy Quiz on the
information shortly after the worksheet is completed.
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Student Misconceptions

Instead of thinking that: Students may think that:


1. Compression of a gas results in 1. Gases can be compressed to zero
condensation of the gas into a liquid, volume.
which has a definite volume.
2. Gas pressure is the amount of force per 2. Gas pressure is the same as force.
unit area exerted by the gas molecules on
the walls of the container.
3. Increasing the pressure on a gas decreases 3. Increasing the pressure on a gas
the average distance between the gas makes the gas molecules get smaller.
molecules.
4. Adding heat energy to a gas causes the 4. Heating a gas makes the molecules
average intermolecular distance to get bigger.
increase.
5. An expanding gas has to work against the 5. A gas expanding against the
pressure exerted by the atmosphere. atmosphere is in free expansion.
6. Pure gases and gas mixtures at the same 6. Gas mixtures occupy more volume
temperature and pressure occupy the same than pure gases at the same
volume regardless of their composition. temperature and pressure.
7. Gases at the same temperature and volume 7. Low molecular weight gases exert
exert the same pressure. While the higher greater pressure on the walls of their
molecular weight gases will have a lower container than high molecular
average velocity than the lighter gases, the weight gases in the same container at
momentum of the two types of gases is the the same temperature.
same.
8. The space between gas molecules is 8. The space between gas molecules is
empty. filled with air.
9. Since gases occupy the entire volume of 9. A void is formed within the
their container, releasing some of the gas container when some of the gas in
causes the remaining gas to redistribute the container is released.
within the container.
10. Heating air makes it rise because the 10. Heating air makes it rise because
intermolecular distance increases, which heat rises.
causes the density of the air to decrease.
STAD Cooperative Lesson Plan

THERMOCHEMISTRY:
Free Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy

Academic Chemistry
Grades 9-12
Textbook: Chemistry: Addison-Wesley, 5th ed., (Prentice Hall: 2000), Chpt. 11 (pp 307-13),
Chpt. 19 (pp 551-7).

SWBAT:
• Distinguish between physical and chemical changes.
• Identify the direction of heat flow from calorimetric data.
• Define the terms endothermic, exothermic, free energy, and entropy.
• Distinguish between spontaneous and nonspontaneous reactions and processes.
• Apply their understanding of the relationship between free energy, enthalpy and entropy to
deduce the direction of change for these parameters from experimental data.

NCSCOS:
• Competency Goal 2: The learner will build an understanding of regularities in chemistry.
2.05 Identify the indicators of chemical change (precipitate formation, gas evolution,
absorption or release of heat).
• Competency Goal 3: The learner will build an understanding of energy changes in chemistry.
3.02 Analyze the law of conservation of energy, energy transformation, and various
forms of energy involved in chemical reactions.
3.04 Analyze calorimetric measurement in simple systems and the energy involved in
changes in state.
3.05 Analyze the relationship between energy transfer and disorder in the universe.

Materials:
12 copies of Free Energy worksheet
12 copies of Free Energy Worksheet: Answer Key
7 Group ID cards printed out on card stock
26 copies of Free Energy quiz (for second class period)
1 Superteam certificate
1 Greatteam certificate

Directions for Substitute Teachers:


Before class begins, arrange the student tables into groups of four. Place one Group ID card in
the center of each pair of tables. Put Transparency 1 on the overhead projector and tell the
students to find their assigned group’s table as the students enter the classroom.

Reaction equations that need to be written on the board are indicated in outlined boxes as
illustrated below:
(NH4)3PO4 (s) → 3NH4+(aq) + PO43- (aq)
Answers to questions that are to be addressed by the students (eg. Q1, Q2..) are given in italics.
Anticipatory Set: (~ 5 minutes)

A thought experiment: 10.0 g of solid ammonium phosphate ((NH4)3PO4) is added to 100.0 g of


water that is initially at a temperature of 25 °C. The temperature of the water decreases as the
salt dissolves and reaches a final temperature of 22.7 °C when all of the salt has dissolved.

Q1. Thinking back to our previous discussions about calorimetry, is the salt the system or the
surroundings? (the system) What are the surroundings? (the water)
Q2. Was heat energy exchanged between the system and the surroundings (yes). How can you
tell? (the temperature of the water decreased)
Q3. Is this like the phase changes we’ve been discussing? (No, because it involves breaking
chemical bonds)

Instruction: (~ 35 minutes)
Just like with physical changes, chemical changes require that energy be transferred between the
system, which is the reacting species, and the surrounding solvent. So let’s think about how we
can deduce the direction of energy flow:
Q4. What does a negative ∆T tell you about the direction of heat flow when the salt dissolves?
(the heat energy needed to break the ionic bonds so the salt can dissolve is absorbed from the
surrounding water…heat flows from the surroundings into the system).
This is how you’d write the reaction equation for the dissolution of ammonium phosphate in
water (Write this on the board, leaving enough space for a second equation to be written next to
it)

(NH4)3PO4 (s) → 3NH4+(aq) + PO43- (aq)

Let’s calculate the amount of heat that was used to break the ionic bonds in the salt:

gfm[(NH4)3PO4] = 114.9 g/mol 10.0 g of (NH4)3PO4 → 8.7 x 10-2 moles (NH4)3PO4

∆T = -2.3 °C mass(H20) = 100.0 g

heat absorbed from water = mCp∆T = (100.0g)(4.184 J/g°C)(-2.3°C) = -962 J

molar heat of reaction = +962 J / 0.087 moles = 11 kJ/mol

*Stress that the heat of the reaction is of the same magnitude but of opposite sign.
Exothermic example

Consider the following reaction: (Write it on the board next to the first reaction)

3NH3 (aq) + H3PO4 (aq) → 3NH4+(aq) + PO43- (aq)

Q5. If the same molar amounts of the reactants as in the first example (8.7 x 10–2 mol NH3 and
H3PO4) are added to 100.0 g of water, would you expect to get the same ∆T? (Most students will
say that it should be the same since are producing the same products)

Actually, this is an example of an exothermic reaction in that heat is transferred from the
reactants to the surroundings. A ∆T of +13.3°C would be observed if we were to carry out this
reaction.

Define the terms endothermic (heat absorbed during a reaction) and exothermic (heat given off
during a reaction). Write below the dissolution equation ∆H = +11 kJ/mol. Write below the
neutralization equation ∆H = -64 kJ/mol. Emphasize that exothermic reactions have negative
enthalpy values while endothermic are positive.

Free Energy: Spontaneous vs. nonspontaneous reactions

Consider the following reaction:

2NaHCO3 (s) → Na2CO3 (s) + H2O (g) + CO2 (g) ∆Hrxn = +129 kJ/mol

The reactant in this case is sodium bicarbonate, more commonly known as baking soda and it’s
decomposing to form sodium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide. Sodium carbonate is used to
form soaps and detergents. Note that this reaction is endothermic.

Q6. In our first thought experiment, ammonium phosphate would spontaneously dissolve in
water even though it was an endothermic reaction. Has anyone ever noticed baking soda
spontaneously decomposing to sodium carbonate? (No…doesn’t happen at room temperature)

Q7. Can you think of a way to make this nonspontaneous reaction become spontaneous…to
make it happen? (Heat it up)

The reason why it was necessary to add heat to the second endothermic reaction before it would
occur has to do with a new term that I’d like to introduce to you…

∆Grxn = Free energy of the reaction

See page 549 of text for definition: free energy is energy that’s available to do work.
Perhaps more significant to our study of chemistry is to state that spontaneous processes release
free energy and nonspontaneous processes absorb free energy. Hence:

If ∆G < 0 → SPONTANEOUS If ∆G > 0 → NONSPONTANEOUS

Q8: So, thinking back to our exothermic and endothermic reactions (point)…are they
spontaneous reactions or not? (Yes…the temperature change tells us that the reaction
occurred…hence was spontaneous)

Let’s consider use the endothermic reaction to try to tease out the relationship between enthalpy
and free energy. We know that it’s a spontaneous reaction so ∆G is negative. We know that it’s
an endothermic reaction so ∆H is positive. The only way a positive enthalpy value can lead to a
negative free energy value is if some value larger than the enthalpy value is subtracted from the
enthalpy:

∆G = ∆H – something

Next consideration…a nonspontaneous process (a positive ∆G) with a large endothermic


enthalpy value such as the decomposition of sodium bicarbonate can be made spontaneous by
increasing the temperature…that tells us that temperature has something to do with the
‘something’ in this expression. (erase ‘something’ and change to the following)

∆G = ∆H – T∆S

This new term, ∆S, is the change in the entropy of the system. Entropy is defined as being the
degree of disorder or randomness of the system. For example, when a solid is melted its entropy
increases a little bit, but not nearly as much as the increase in entropy that’s observed when a
liquid is vaporized.

∆S ≈ 0 for solid → liquid ∆S > 0 for liquid → gas

Another example of entropy in action…


Q9: What combination of heads and tails would you expect to get the most often if you were to
toss 10 pennies 100 times? (50:50 mix of heads and tails) What combination would you expect
to get the least often (all heads or all tails)

The reason you expect to get the 50:50 mix the most often is because it can be obtained the
greatest number of ways, while there is only one way to get either all heads or all tails. The
50:50 mix of coins has the greatest degree of disorder in it and thus the greatest entropy.

Looking back once again at our endothermic reaction, the reason this reaction occurs
spontaneously is because the entropy change is large enough to counteract the effect of the
positive enthalpy value and result in a negative free energy value. The chemical system has gone
from one equivalent of a highly organized solid lattice to two equivalents of ions that are
dispersed throughout the solution.

Guided Practice: (~ 15 minutes)


Put up Transparency 2 and fill in the columns under ∆G, ∆H and ∆S. Assess student
understanding by their ability to deduce the signs for ∆G, ∆H and ∆S.

Let’s look at a few more examples:


What can we say about enthalpy, entropy and free energy in each of the following?

H2O (s) → H2O (l), T = 293 K


Q10. What is 293 K in Celsius? (20°C) Ice will spontaneously melt at 20°C, so –∆G, heat is
absorbed from the surroundings when water undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid so
+∆H, and there is small increase in the disorder to the system so we’ll write it as 0/+.

H2O (s) → H2O (l), T = 253 K


Q11. What is the temperature now? (-20°C) Ice will not spontaneously melt at –20°C so +∆G,
enthalpy is still positive, and the ∆S would still be 0/+.

H2O (l) → H2O (g), T = 383 K (temp = 110°C)


Q12. Does water spontaneously go to its gas phase at this temperature? (Yes) What is the sign on
∆G? (negative) What is the sign on ∆H? (positive) Since a gas is being formed, ∆S is large and
positive.

NaOH (s) → Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq), ∆T > 0


The temperature change tells us that the reaction occurs (-∆G) and that it is exothermic (-∆H).
Going from a solid to solvated ions so ∆S is positive, but probably not very large.(0/+).

CsCl (s) → Cs+ (aq) + Cl- (aq), ∆T < 0


Q13. What is the sign of ∆G? (negative) How about ∆H (positive…endothermic) and ∆S? (small
and positive).

2C2H2 (g) + 5O2 (g) → 4CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g), ∆T > 0


Q14. What is the sign of ∆G? (negative) How about ∆H (negative…exothermic)? What about
∆S? (negative…entropy is decreasing because the reaction started out with 7 equivalents of gas
phase reactants and formed only 6 equivalents of gas phase products.)

Q15. What would ∆S be if the H2O formed was in its liquid phase? (∆S would be negative and
larger in magnitude since have 7 equivalents of gas phase reactants going to only 4 equivalents
of gas phase products.)
OK…let’s review before we break up into our teams: (Put up transparency 3…text below)

• Chemical reactions can either give off or absorb heat energy.


• If heat is absorbed, the heat of reaction is endothermic. (∆H > 0)
• If heat is given off, the heat of reaction is exothermic. (∆H < 0)
• Spontaneous reactions always have a negative free energy.
• Spontaneous endothermic reactions are driven by a large positive increase in entropy.
• Nonspontaneous reactions (∆G > 0) can be made spontaneous by increasing the temperature
of the reaction.
• The relationship between free energy, enthalpy, temperature and entropy is given by Gibb’s
Free Energy expression:

∆G = ∆H – T∆S

********************** End of Direct Instruction Component ***********************

Team Study: (30 minutes total)


Put up transparency 1 and tell the students to find their team tables if they haven’t already done
so. Once everyone is seated in their teams, tell them that their first task is to choose a team
name. Remind the students that they’ll be working in these teams for several weeks so they want
to pick something they’ll want to use for that long. After about 5 minutes, hand out the
worksheets and answer sheets: 2 each to the groups of four and only one worksheet and answer
sheet to the teams of three. This will ensure that the students work cooperatively on completing
the worksheets rather than independently. Tell the students that they have 20 minutes to work on
the worksheets together this class period and that they’ll have 20 more minutes next class before
they take the quiz on the material.

Five minutes before the end of the class period, have the students gather up the materials
(worksheets, answer sheets, and Group ID tags) and bring them up to the front of the room.

SECOND CLASS PERIOD


As with the first class period, arrange the student tables into groups of four. Place one Group ID
card in the center of each pair of tables. Also put the worksheets and answer sheets out on the
tables. Put Transparency 1 on the overhead projector and tell the students to find their assigned
group’s table as the students enter the classroom.

After the students are seated in their teams, put Transparency 2 back up on the projector and tell
the students they have 20 minutes to study the material together before they take a quiz on it.

Quiz: (40 minutes)

Closure: (30 minutes)


After collecting the quizzes, go over the ∆G, ∆H, ∆S table from the quiz to reemphasize the
relationships between temperature change, heat flow and the free energy of the reactions. Also
emphasize the importance of paying attention to the phases that are involved when evaluating
extent and direction of entropy change.

Use the remainder of the class period to introduce calculations involving ∆H, ∆G and ∆S (next
lesson plan).

THIRD CLASS PERIOD

At the beginning of the class, announce each teams improvement points from the quiz the day
before. Direct the students’ attention to the two signs posted in the classroom that explain how
improvement points are awarded and the criteria for winning the Greatteam and Superteam
awards (signs attached). Present the Superteam and Greatteam Certificates to the winning teams.
Have the students pin their certificates up on the bulletin board for that week’s winners.
ARTIFACTS FOR MULTIPLE INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

Multiple instructional strategies:


In addition to the STAD cooperative learning lesson plan, lesson plans utilizing direct instruction
(pp. 14-20) and the 5-E learning cycle (pp. 21-24) methodologies are also included. The
determination of which lesson plan would yield the greatest degree of learning would depend
upon the intellectual sophistication of the students. For example, students with relatively weak
critical thinking skills would learn best under direct instruction, while the more advanced
students would achieve greater intrinsic motivation to learn the material from the more hands-on,
discovery-based approach utilized in the 5-E learning cycle.

Problem based learning:


The Coin Calorimetry lab worksheet has been included (pp. 25-28) as an example of an
instructional focus that required the students to demonstrate both problem solving and
performance skills. The worksheet contained enough prompts to facilitate the students deriving
the equation relating heat and specific heat for a particular substance, as well as performing the
necessary calorimetric calculations needed to elucidate the specific heat of the coins used in the
experiment.
Direct Instruction Lesson Plan Deborah L. Boxall
Academic Chemistry

CALCULATING HEATING CURVES:


Phase Transitions and Specific Heat

SWBAT:
1. Distinguish between heat and temperature
2. Evaluate the relative heat content of different masses of the same substance
3. Calculate a heating curve of water given the values for specific heat and enthalpy of
transition for the three phases.
4. Sketch a cooling curve from a given or calculated heating curve.
5. Predict the rate of temperature increase for two different phases of a substance given
the specific heat of the two phases (faster, slower).
6. Predict how heating rate will affect the shape of the heating curve.
7. Compare (shorter, longer) the duration of two phase transitions given appropriate heat
of transition values.

NCSCOS:
Competency Goal 3: The learner will build an understanding of energy changes in
chemistry.
3.03 Compare and contrast the nature of heat and temperature.
3.04 Analyze calorimetric measurement in simple systems and the energy
involved in changes in state.

Materials:
75 g lead fishing weights
75 g wax candles
Calculating a Heating Curve worksheet (2 pages)

Safety:
Lead is toxic and should not be ingested. Additionally, the fishing weights should not be
thrown as injury may result.

Anticipatory Set: (~ 5 minutes)


Show the students a drawing of two beakers sitting on a hot plate labeled as both
containing 18 g of water, but one is at –10 °C and the other is at 90 °C. Ask the students
to make a prediction by a show of hands whether the temperature of the two beakers of
water will increase by 10°C at the same rate, or at different rates. If students predict
different rates, ask them to predict which beaker (the ice or the liquid water) will heat up
faster. Tell them that the object of the lesson is for them to learn how to calculate how a
substance will heat up if supplied by a constant source of external heating.

Instruction: (~15 min)


1. Remind students of the fundamental differences between the solid, liquid and gaseous
phases of a substance in terms of each phase’s internal energy [NCSCOS 1.04].
2. Define heat: the amount of internal energy in a substance.

1
Direct Instruction Lesson Plan Deborah L. Boxall
Academic Chemistry

3. Have students give examples of various sources of internal energy using prompts and
cues as necessary. [Intermolecular: NCSCOS 1.07; Kinetic molecular theory:
NCSCOS 1.06].
4. Define temperature: a measure of the average molecular energy
5. Stress that heat is an extensive property while temperature is an intensive property
using this example: a 100 g block of lead vs. a 10 g block of lead, both at 40 °C
(remind them that this is a bit above body temperature) contains ten times as much
heat.
6. Assess student understanding of the distinction between heat and temperature by
handing out the fishing weights and candles of equivalent weight. Ask the students
whether it will take the same amount of heat to increase the temperature of both the
Pb and the paraffin by 5°C. Once they have answered, put up the transparency with
the specific heat capacities of Pb and paraffin and define specific heat capacity. Stress
the concept that specific heat allows the heating characteristics of different materials
to be compared without having to account for the extensive nature of heat.
7. Point out that the heat capacity of paraffin is almost 20 times larger than that of Pb,
and will thus require almost 20x as much heat to raise the temperature by 5°. (This
example also evaluates possible material based misconceptions about heat).
8. If students seem confused by concept, provide paraffin/water example for additional
reinforcement.
9. Define phase transitions: solid -> liquid, liquid -> gas
10. Ask students if they think the temperature of a heated substance undergoing a phase
change will increase or stay the same. Point out that all of the heat absorbed by a
substance goes to breaking intermolecular bonds and cannot increase the average
molecular energy of the substance as a whole. Hence, the temperature is invariant.
11. Define ∆Hfus: a measure of the energy contained in the intermolecular bonds in the
solid phase of the substance on a per mole basis (ice example). Point out that ‘fusion’
refers to the melting process.
12. Define ∆Hvap: a measure of the energy contained in the intermolecular bonds in the
liquid phase of the substance on a per mole basis (water example).
13. Put up the transparency with the completed Worksheet data table. Direct students to
complete their own data tables while handing out the worksheets. Model doing the
calculations in steps 1-5 by either writing directly onto transparency version of the
blank worksheet, or onto the chalkboard. Show the students how to fill in the
calculated values into the worksheet Data Table.

Guided Practice: (~20 minutes)


1. Have the students calculate the remainder of the values in the Worksheet Data Table
using steps 1-5 from the Calculating a Heating Curve worksheet.
2. Check the students’ plots for accuracy and demonstration of understanding that:
a) specific heat influences temperature change of a substance upon heating
b) temperature is invariant during a phase transition
c) the duration of a phase transition depends upon the enthalpy of that transition
3. Ask the students what they think the answers are to the Questions to Ponder.
a) Assess student understanding of the relationship between a heating and cooling
curve by drawing a cooling curve on the board and having the students identify it.

2
Direct Instruction Lesson Plan Deborah L. Boxall
Academic Chemistry

b) Assess student understanding of the effect of heating rate on the shape of the
heating curve by drawing two superimposed heating curves depicting different
heat rates, and have the students identify which curve corresponds to the greater
heating rate.

Closure: (~5 minutes)


Show the students what their heating curves should have looked like. Point out that the
lower heat capacity of the solid and gaseous phases compared to the liquid phase is
reflected in the steeper slope for the two phases (it heats up more quickly). Point out that
the temperature is invariant during a phase transition, and that the duration of the
transition increases as the enthalpy of the transition increases. Show the students the last
transparency with H2PEw values on it as well. Ask them to predict the differences
between the heating curves for water and for H2PEw. (looking for duration of phase
transition).

Independent Practice: (Homework)


1. Calculate the Temperature vs. time values needed to plot a heating curve for flatulase,
H2PEw (a fictitious compound from the planet Flatulon) using the following data:

Specific Heat
H2PEw Phase Tm = 30 °C
(J g-1 °C-1)
Solid 10.5 ∆Hfus = 20.2 kJ/mol
Liquid 4.0 Tb = 90 °C
Gas 16.5 ∆Hvap = 10.3 kJ/mol

Temperature range: –20 °C to 120 °C Heating rate: 200 W


Mass of H2PEw: 130 g moles of H2PEw: 2.1 moles

Assess student understanding using the same criteria as in the Guided Practice.

3
Calculating a Heating Curve

Blank Worksheet
Name: _______________________________ Date: ___________________

Specific Heat
H2O Phase Tm = 0°C
(J g-1 °C-1)
Solid 2.0 ∆Hfus = 6.01 kJ/mol
Liquid 4.18 Τb = 100 °C
Gas 2.0 ∆Hvap = 40.7 kJ/mol

Mass of H2O (g): Moles of H2O:

Initial T (°C): Final T (°C):

Heating rate (W):

Heating curve calculations:


1. Calculate temperature change from initial temperature to first phase transition
(∆T1):

2. Calculate amount of heat (q1) required to produce ∆T1 [q = (mass H2O)(Cp)(∆T)]

3. Calculate length of time required to deliver q1 (t = q/W):

4. Calculate amount of heat (qp) required for first phase change


[qp = (moles H2O)(∆Hp)]:

5. Calculate length of time required to deliver qp:

6. Repeat steps 1-3 for time needed for second temperature ramp (t3).

7. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for time required for second phase change (t4).

8. Repeat steps 1-3 for time needed for final temperature change (t5).

9. Plot Temperature vs. time using your calculated values.


Calculating a Heating Curve

Data Table
Temp.
∆T (°C) q (J) Time (s) Total time (s)
(°C)
------------ ------------ 0 0

Plot your calculated heating curve below. Label time spans corresponding to phase
transitions.

Questions to ponder:

1. What would the cooling curve for this sample of water look like?

2. How would the appearance of the plot change if the water were heated at twice the
heating rate? One-half of the heating rate?
Calculating a Heating Curve

Worksheet Answer Key


Name: _______________________________ Date: ___________________

Specific Heat
H2O Phase Tm = 0°C
(J g-1 °C-1)
Solid 2.0 ∆Hfus = 6.01 kJ/mol
Liquid 4.18 Τb = 100 °C
Gas 2.0 ∆Hvap = 40.7 kJ/mol

Mass of H2O (g): 18 g Moles of H2O: 1.0 mole

Initial T (°C): -20 °C Final T (°C): 120 °C

Heating rate (W): 200 W

Heating curve calculations:


1. Calculate temperature change from initial temperature to first phase transition
(∆T1): ∆T1 = Tf – Ti = (0 °C – (-20 °C)) = 20 °C

2. Calculate amount of heat (q1) required to produce ∆T1 [q = (mass H2O)(Cp)(∆T)]

q1 = (18 g)(2.0 Jg-1 °C-1)(20 °C) = 720 J

3. Calculate length of time required to deliver q1 (t = q/W):

T1 = 720 J/200 J s-1

4. Calculate amount of heat (qp) required for first phase change


[qp = (moles H2O)(∆Hp)]:
qfus = (1.0 mole H2O)(6010 J/mol H2O) = 6010 J

5. Calculate length of time required to deliver qp:

6. Repeat steps 1-3 for time needed for second temperature ramp (t3).

7. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for time required for second phase change (t4).

8. Repeat steps 1-3 for time needed for final temperature change (t5).

9. Plot Temperature vs. time using your calculated values.


Calculating a Heating Curve

Data Table
Temp.
∆T (°C) q (J) Time (s) Total time (s)
(°C)
-20 ------------ ------------ 0 0
0 20 720 3.6 3.6
0 Solid -> liquid 6010 30.1 33.7
100 100 7524 37.6 71.3
100 Liquid -> gas 40700 203.5 274.8
120 20 720 3.6 278.4

Plot your calculated heating curve below. Label time spans corresponding to phase
transitions.

Heating curve for H2O at 200 W

140
120
Liquid -> gas
100
Temperature (°C)

80
60
40
Solid -> liquid
20
0
-20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
time (s)
-40

Questions to ponder:

1. What would the cooling curve for this sample of water look like?

2. How would the appearance of the plot change if the water were heated at twice the
heating rate? One-half of the heating rate?
Deborah L. Boxall Learning Cycle Lesson Plan

EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS:


Heat of solution and Hess’s Law

Academic Chemistry
Grades 9-12
Textbook: Chemistry: Addison-Wesley, 5th ed., (Prentice Hall: 2000), Chpt. 11 (pp 311-16).

SWBAT:
• Distinguish between exothermic and endothermic processes
• Use relative temperature changes to compare the endothermicity of two reactions.
• Define lattice energy and understand that breaking the ionic bonds in a crystal lattice is
always an endothermic process.
• Understand that formation of a hydration sphere around ions is an exothermic process
• Relate ion size and charge to the enthalpy of hydration
• Relate ion size and charge to the lattice energy of the salt.
• Calculate enthalpy of solvation for a salt given the lattice energy and enthalpy of hydration
for the ions comprising the salt.
• Predict the relative lattice energies of different salts using their knowledge of how ion size
and charge affects the lattice energy.
• Draw a diagram to illustrate the combination of endothermic and exothermic processes
occurring when a salt dissolves.
• Use the diagram to calculate the lattice energy of a salt given calorimetric data and enthalpies
of hydration.

NCSCOS:
1.07 Assess the structure of ionic compounds relating bonding and molecular geometry to
chemical and physical properties.
2.01 Analyze periodic nature of trends in chemical properties and examine the use of the
Periodic Table to predict ionic radii.
2.05 Identify the indicators of chemical change, such as the absorption or release of heat.
3.02 Analyze the law of conservation of energy, energy transformation, and various forms of
energy involved in chemical reactions.
3.03 Compare and contrast the nature of heat and temperature.
3.04 Analyze calorimetric measurement in simple systems.

Materials:
Ice Melter (mixture of NaCl, KCl, urea, and a surfactant)
Table salt (NaCl)
Baking soda (NaHCO3)
Drano (mixture of NaOH and Al pieces)
Wax paper
Tooth picks
Plastic cups
Small ziplock baggies
Measuring spoons (~Tbsp size)
Safety
Drano contains sodium hydroxide (NaOH), which is a caustic. Students must wear goggles
when working with this material and wash their hands thoroughly after they’re finished. Also,
the reaction of Drano with water produces a lot of heat and hydrogen gas, so care should be
taken to avoid thermal burns and producing a combustible amount of H2 gas. For this reason,
small portions of Drano should be added to water in open plastic cups.

Engage (~10 min)


Ask the students if any of them had trouble getting home on January 19th (the day a 1” snowfall
gridlocked Raleigh). Tell them about how slippery it was because the cars had packed the snow
down into ice and the salt trucks couldn’t get through to salt the roads. Ask the students if they
know why the roads would have been less slippery if the salt trucks had been able to get through.
Try to get several alternatives so that student preconceptions related to the action of salt on ice,
and possible prior knowledge of exothermic reactions can be assessed.

Show the students an empty Ice Melter bag, and then read the ingredients and the description
from the back. Specifically:
Ace Ice Melter
RAPIDLY MELTS ICE AND SNOW AND PREVENTS RE-FREEZING
Ace Ice Melter features a special custom blend of superior ice melting
ingredients. Together they melt even the most stubborn ice an snow and work to
prevent re-freezing.
• Melts ice down to 0°F (-18 °C).
Active Ingredients
KCl
NaCl
NH2CONH2 (urea)
C7O6H14 (methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside; a surfactant)

Put 1 Tbsp of the water each into two baggies. Tell the students that you’re going to add some
Ice Melter to one of the baggies and ask them to predict what will happen. Make sure to get
input from several students. Have one of the students hold both baggies in either hand, then add
1 Tbsp of Ice Melter to one of the baggies and ask the student to mix the contents. Have the
student describe their observations (should observe that an endothermic reaction occurred rather
than the exothermic reaction that they most likely predicted).

Assessment of prior knowledge: Students that were previously been exposed to concepts
involving solutions (Chpt 17 in text) and the colligative property of freezing point depression
(Chpt 18 in text) may be able to relate the activity of the Ice ‘Melter’ to freezing point
depression. If this idea is brought up during class discussion, ensure that the students understand
that the Ice Melter stops working below –18°C because there is no longer any liquid water
present.
Explore (30 minutes)
Ask the students to describe what they think happened, and list their explanations on the board.
Be sure to provide sufficient cueing that the students describe the properties of ionic solids. Tell
them you want them to find out if dissolving a substance always results in an endothermic heat
of solution. Have the students do the two-baggie experiment with sodium chloride and sodium
bicarbonate (both are endothermic).

Next, read the back of the Drano bottle to the students and ask them what the precautions tell
them about its likely reaction with water. Since they should predict an exothermic reaction, tell
them that they need to use their plastic cups for the next part of the experiment. Have the
students put on their goggles, and then to pour a small portion of Drano out onto their piece of
wax paper. Ask them to observe what the Drano looks like (blue and white solid with bits of
metal present). Tell them to put some water in one of their cups, and then add the Drano to the
water. They should get gas evolution and notice that the solution gets very hot. Ask them what
they think the difference between the reactions with NaCl, NaHCO3, and Drano is. Use
questions to guide the students into suggesting that it’s the reaction between the NaOH and the
metal bits that’s producing the heat. This will also assess whether the students believe that all
spontaneous chemical reactions are exothermic. Suggest to the students that they use the
toothpicks to remove the metal bits from the Drano mixture, and then try the dissolution reaction
again. They should observe that the solution still gets very hot, but that there’s no gas evolution.
Ask them to explain the heat source in this case.

Explain (15 minutes)


Ask the following questions:
1. How should I write the reaction equation out for when we dissolved table salt in water? (Be
sure to get the students to provide the states of matter)
2. Is heat a product of this reaction? (No) So, is this an endothermic or exothermic reaction?
(endothermic) So is the sign of the enthalpy of solution positive or negative? (positive) and
we know that energy is absorbed when the salt is dissolved.
3. What processes do you think are going on that would absorb energy? (most will only be able
to come up with ionic bond breaking) Use this definition to define lattice energy. Ask the
students if they think all lattice energy values will be positive. (Yes…the enthalpy of
crystallization must be negative for a stable crystal lattice to exist). Write all lattice energies
are > 0 on the board.
4. How would I write the reaction equations for the other two reactions that we looked at? (get
phases as before, and ask about sign of ∆Hsoln)
5. Which one of these three reactions absorbed the most energy from the surroundings?
(NaHCO3) How can you tell? (seemed to get the coldest)
6. What is the most significant difference between these reactions? Why do you think the
dissolution of NaOH is exothermic while the other two were endothermic? Put up
Transparency 1 with the Enthalpies of hydration covered.
7. Looking at just the lattice energy values, would you have expected the enthalpy of solution of
NaOH to be endothermic or exothermic? Why?
8. What else do you think could be going on to result in an exothermic enthalpy of solution?
(list explanations on the board)
9. What does it mean when we write that an ion is in its aqueous phase? (that there are water
molecules associated with the ions)
10. Do you think it requires energy or releases energy when water molecules form a hydration
sphere around an ion? (releases…greater stability implies lower energy)

Conclusion to draw from student responses: Energy is absorbed during the dissolution process.
However, not all ∆Hsoln are endothermic. Energy released during hydration of ions in the solution
can be sufficient to result in an exothermic ∆Hsoln.

Elaborate (25 minutes)


Introduce Hess’s Law: The enthalpy change of a reaction is the sum of the enthalpy changes for
each step of the reaction. Uncover the equation on Transparency 1. Ask the students what the
advantage would be to using Hess’s Law (don’t have to do the experiment in order to find out
whether a reaction is going to be exo- or endothermic).

Handout the Enthalpy of Solution Worksheet, and use directed questioning to guide the students
individually through the worksheet. Encourage them to look up the table depicting the relative
ionic radii (pg 399) when comparing lattice energies and heats of hydration listed in Tables 1 and
2.

Evaluate (done while the students are working on the worksheets)


Completion of the worksheet, especially the Born-Haber cycle diagram, comprises an authentic
assessment of student understanding. In order for this to be an effective vehicle, the students
must be provided with just enough guidance to complete the worksheet independently. Potential
conceptual difficulties are present in the calculations concerning the Group II halides.

Closure (10 minutes)


Draw the two Born-Haber diagrams on the board using student input. Emphasize that ‘heat
released’ indicates an exothermic reaction, while ‘heat absorbed’ indicates an endothermic
reaction. Ask the students how the diagrams would have changed if the Mg salts had been used
instead (both have exothermic heats of solution of about 100 kJ/mol).

In preparation for the next summative evaluation, tell the students that they will need to be able
to:
• Predict how lattice energy and enthalpy of hydration change with ionic size and charge
• Apply Hess’s Law to the calculation of ∆Hsoln, lattice energy or ∆Hhyd if given two out of the
three values
• Interpret a Born-Haber diagram
COIN CALORIMETRY

Procedure:
1. Add 400 mL of hot water to a 600 mL beaker, and heat to boiling on a hot plate.
2. Count and weigh the coins, weigh the coffee cup calorimeter (two nested styrofoam cups)
empty, and after adding 75 mL of water to the inner cup. Record your data below.
3. Put the calorimeter containing 75 mL of water into a 400 mL beaker for additional stability.
4. Put the coins in the plastic sandwich bag, and use the tongs to suspend the coins in the
boiling water (Twater > 70 °C is OK).
5. Collect temperature data from the calorimeter water for one minute, then move the
temperature probe to the hot water bath. Collect temperature data from the hot water bath for
one more minute.
6. Transfer both the temperature probe and the bag of coins to the calorimeter.
7. Collect temperature data from the calorimeter for two minutes, swirling the calorimeter
gently every 30 seconds. Press the [STO] key on the TI-83 to stop data collection.
8. Plot out the data and determine the plateau temperature of the calorimeter water before the
coins were added (Ti) and the plateau temperature of the hot water bath before the coins
were transferred to the calorimeter (Ti, coins).
9. Determine the plateau temperature of the calorimeter water after the coins were added (Tf).

Data:
Type and number of coins:

Mass of coins: Mass of empty calorimeter:

Mass of calorimeter and water: Mass of water:

Ti (calorimeter): Tf (calorimeter):

∆T (calorimeter): (Tf – Ti)

Ti, coins: ∆T of coins: (Tf – Ti, coins)


Data Analysis:
1. Complete the picture of the calorimeter containing water and coins below. Indicate the
direction of heat flow on the diagram.

2. Given that the specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g°C, how much heat was absorbed by the water
in the calorimeter?

3. Write a mathematical expression relating heat (q) to specific heat.

4. How much heat was given up by the coins?

5. What is the specific heat of the coinage metal? (Hint: Combine the answers from questions 2
and 3, and solve for the specific heat of the metal).
Answer key

COIN CALORIMETRY

Procedure:
10. Add 400 mL of hot water to a 600 mL beaker, and heat to boiling on a hot plate.
11. Count and weigh the coins, weigh the coffee cup calorimeter (two nested styrofoam cups)
empty, and after adding 75 mL of water to the inner cup. Record your data below.
12. Put the calorimeter containing 75 mL of water into a 400 mL beaker for additional stability.
13. Put the coins in the plastic sandwich bag, and use the tongs to suspend the coins in the
boiling water (Twater > 70 °C is OK).
14. Collect temperature data from the calorimeter water for one minute, then move the
temperature probe to the hot water bath. Collect temperature data from the hot water bath for
one more minute.
15. Transfer both the temperature probe and the bag of coins to the calorimeter.
16. Collect temperature data from the calorimeter for two minutes, swirling the calorimeter
gently every 30 seconds. Press the [STO] key on the TI-83 to stop data collection.
17. Plot out the data and determine the plateau temperature of the calorimeter water before the
coins were added (Ti) and the plateau temperature of the hot water bath before the coins
were transferred to the calorimeter (Ti, coins).
18. Determine the plateau temperature of the calorimeter water after the coins were added (Tf).

Data:
Type and number of coins: See tables for expected data

Mass of coins: Mass of empty calorimeter:

Mass of calorimeter and water: Mass of water: 50.0 g

Ti (calorimeter): 20 °C Tf (calorimeter):

∆T (calorimeter): (Tf – Ti)

Ti, coins: 100 °C ∆T of coins: (Tf – Ti, coins)


Data Analysis:
1. Complete the picture of the calorimeter containing water and coins below. Indicate the
direction of heat flow on the diagram.

H2O
q

2. Given that the specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g°C, how much heat was absorbed by the water
in the calorimeter?
Use dimensional analysis to determine

# and type ∆T (°C) q (J) # coin ∆T q (J)


of coin
7 US pennies 3.1 648 14 US pennies 5.9 1234
2 C Nickels 1.5 314 5 C Nickels 3.7 773
4 C Dimes 1.4 293 8 C Dimes 2.7 564
4 C pennies 1.9 397 8 C pennies 3.6 752

3. Write a mathematical expression relating heat (q) to specific heat.

q = (mass H2O)(specific heat)(∆T)

4. How much heat was given up by the coins?


qcoins = -qwater

# and type qcoins (J) # and type of qcoins (J)


of coin coin
7 US pennies -648 14 US pennies -1234
2 C Nickels -314 5 C Nickels -773
4 C Dimes -293 8 C Dimes -564
4 C pennies -397 8 C pennies -752

5. What is the specific heat of the coinage metal? (Hint: Combine the answers from questions 2
and 3, and solve for the specific heat of the metal).

Cu: 0.384 J/g°C Ni: 0.444 J/g°C


ARTIFACTS FOR MOTIVATION AND MANAGEMENT

Individual motivation and engagement:


The Free Energy Quiz (pg. 32), which is administered following the STAD team study session
encourages individual motivation and engagement because their individual grade will depend on
how well they were able to learn the material as part of the group. By making the group members
interdependent (the team score depends upon the average number of improvement points in the
group), each individual member is also motivated to interact with their group members and
complete the Free Energy Worksheet during the group study session so that they can all learn the
material and do well.

Group motivation and engagement:


Since there are not enough Free Energy Worksheets (pp. 30-31) provided for each student to
have their own copy, the members of each group must work together to complete the worksheet.

The STAD lesson plan signs (pp. 34-35) are to be posted in the classroom in order to engender
greater team effort and cooperation. The team recognition certificates (pp. 36-37) provide the
extrinsic motivation that might be needed to get all of the groups working toward a common
goal.
Free Energy Worksheet

1. Label each of the following as either a physical change (P) or a chemical change (C) :
_____ CO2 (s) → CO2 (g) _____ C6H12O6 (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + H2O (g)
_____ 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (g) _____ H2O (g) → H2O (l)
_____ NaCl (s) → NaCl (l) _____NaCl (s) → Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
_____Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) → PbI2 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq)
2. What is an endothermic process?
3. What is an exothermic process?
4. How can you tell whether a reaction is endothermic or exothermic?
5. What is free energy?
6. How is the spontaneity of a reaction related to its free energy?
7. What is entropy?
8. Indicate whether each of the following physical and chemical changes results in a positive
(+), negative (-) or negligible (0/+ or 0/-) ∆S value:
_____ CO2 (s) → CO2 (g) _____ C6H12O6 (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + H2O (g)
_____ 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (g) _____ H2O (g) → H2O (l)
_____ NaCl (s) → NaCl (l) _____NaCl (s) → Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
_____Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) → PbI2 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq)
9. What is the mathematical expression that relates free energy, enthalpy and entropy?

10. Is it true that all spontaneous reactions are exothermic? Explain your answer.

11. For each of the following, indicate the sign of ∆G and ∆H. Also, if it is possible to evaluate
∆S, indicate whether ∆S is positive, negative or negligible.
a. Dissolving 10.0 g of a solid in 100 g of water results in a ∆T = +3°
b. The melting of ice at room temperature
c. Condensation of water vapor at 120°C
d. Condensation of water vapor at 80°C
e. Sublimation of dry ice at room temperature
Free Energy Worksheet: Answer Key
1. Label each of the following as either a physical change (P) or a chemical change (C) :
P CO2 (s) → CO2 (g) C C6H12O6 (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + H2O (l)
C 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (g) P H2O (g) → H2O (l)
P NaCl (s) → NaCl (l) C NaCl (s) → Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
C Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) → PbI2 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq)
2. What is an endothermic process? One that absorbs heat from the surroundings
3. What is an exothermic process? One that gives off heat to the surroundings
4. How can you tell whether a reaction is endothermic or exothermic? Endothermic
reactions have negative ∆T’s, exothermic rxns have positive ∆T’s
5. What is free energy? Free energy is energy that’s available to do work
6. How is the spontaneity of a reaction related to its free energy? Spontaneous reactions
have negative free energy values
7. What is entropy? Entropy is the amount of disorder in a system
8. Indicate whether each of the following physical and chemical changes results in a positive
(+), negative (-) or negligible (0) ∆S value:
+ CO2 (s) → CO2 (g) 0 C6H12O6 (s) + 6O2 (g) → 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)
− 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (g) − H2O (g) → H2O (l)
0/+ NaCl (s) → NaCl (l) 0/+ NaCl (s) → Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
0/− Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) → PbI2 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq)
9. What is the mathematical expression that relates free energy, enthalpy and entropy?
∆G = ∆H-T∆S
10. Is it true that all spontaneous reactions are exothermic? Explain your answer. No,
endothermic reactions can be spontaneous if there is a large +∆S to offset the
effect of the +∆H
11. For each of the following, indicate the sign of ∆G and ∆H. Also, if it is possible to evaluate
∆S, indicate whether ∆S is positive, negative or negligible.
a. Dissolving 10.0 g of a solid in 100 g of water results in a ∆T = +3° -∆G, -∆H, 0/+ ∆S
b. The melting of ice at room temperature -∆G, +∆H, 0/+ ∆S
c. Condensation of water vapor at 120°C +∆G, -∆H, -∆S
d. Condensation of water vapor at 80°C -∆G, -∆H, -∆S
e. Sublimation of dry ice at room temperature -∆G, +∆H, +∆S
Name: Date:

Free Energy Quiz


_____ 1. What is always true for a spontaneous process?
a) –∆H b) +∆H c) –∆G d) +∆G e) +∆S
_____ 2. What is true for an endothermic reaction?
a) –∆H b) +∆H c) –∆G d) +∆G e) +∆S
_____ 3. What is true for a spontaneous endothermic reaction?
a) –∆H,+∆S b) -∆H, -∆G c) +∆H, +∆G d) +∆H, +∆S e) +∆G, +∆S

_____ 4. What is true for a spontaneous exothermic reaction?


a) –∆H,+∆S b) -∆H, -∆G c) +∆H, +∆G d) +∆H, +∆S e) +∆G, +∆S

5. Identify whether each of the following is a physical (P) or chemical (C) process.
2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (l) Ba2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) → BaSO4 (s)

Hg (l) → Hg (g) C2H5OH (g) → C2H5OH (l)

NaCl (s) → Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) CaCO3 (s) → CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

6. Identify whether entropy is increasing (I) or decreasing (D) in each of the following:
2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (l) Ba2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) → BaSO4 (s)

Hg (l) → Hg (g) C2H5OH (g) → C2H5OH (l)

NaCl (s) → Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) CaCO3 (s) → CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

7. Complete the table below by filling in the appropriate signs for ∆G, ∆H and ∆S.

∆G ∆H ∆S

Freezing of water at 25°C

H2O (s) → H2O (l); T = 25°C

Nonspontaneous, exothermic process

NaCl (s) → NaCl (l); T = 25°C [Tmp(NaCl) = 801°C]

Condensation of ethanol vapor at 25°C; Tbp = 78.3°C


Name: Answer Key Date:

Free Energy Quiz


C 1.
_____ What is always true for a spontaneous process?
a) –∆H b) +∆H c) –∆G d) +∆G e) +∆S
B 2.
_____ What is true for an endothermic reaction?
a) –∆H b) +∆H c) –∆G d) +∆G e) +∆S
D 3.
_____ What is true for a spontaneous endothermic reaction?
a) –∆H,+∆S b) -∆H, -∆G c) +∆H, +∆G d) +∆H, +∆S e) +∆G, +∆S

B 4.
_____ What is always true for a spontaneous exothermic reaction?
a) –∆H,+∆S b) -∆H, -∆G c) +∆H, +∆G d) +∆H, +∆S e) +∆G, +∆S

5. Identify whether each of the following is a physical (P) or chemical (C) process.
C 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (l) C Ba2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) → BaSO4 (s)

P Hg (l) → Hg (g) P C2H5OH (g) → C2H5OH (l)

C NaCl (s) → Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) C CaCO3 (s) → CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

6. Identify whether entropy is increasing (I) or decreasing (D) in each of the following:
D 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (l) D Ba2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) → BaSO4 (s)

I Hg (l) → Hg (g) D C2H5OH (g) → C2H5OH (l)

I NaCl (s) → Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) I CaCO3 (s) → CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

7. Complete the table below by filling in the appropriate signs for ∆G, ∆H and ∆S.

∆G ∆H ∆S

Freezing of water at 25°C + − −

H2O (s) → H2O (l); T = 25°C − + +

A nonspontaneous, exothermic process + − −

NaCl (s) → NaCl (l); T = 25°C [Tmp(NaCl) = 801°C] + + +

Condensation of ethanol vapor at 25°C; Tbp = 78.3°C − − −


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ARTIFACTS FOR COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY

Communication strategies:
Two of the weaknesses of direct instruction is that information is most often communicated
verbally and the student plays a relatively passive role in the learning process. I have tried to
incorporate questioning and illustrations (pictures on the board) into all of my lesson plans so
that the students will be more actively engaged; however, neither of these approaches fully
addresses the two weaknesses. For this reason, I have prepared a PowerPoint slideshow
(external to this portfolio file, specificheat.pps) that uses visuals to communicate the anticipatory
set and definition of specific heat as well as requiring direct student interaction. This PowerPoint
show could be used in tandem with a lesson, to augment a lesson, or placed on-line for students
that were unable to attend the lesson.

Enrichment through technology:


There are three examples of the use of technology to enrich instruction. The first, the Coin
Calorimetry Lab, utilized student TI-83 Plus calculators interfaced with the CBL-2 portable data
collection device outfitted with a temperature probe. Students used the data logging function
provided by the TI-83/CBL-2 system to record their temperature data before and after adding the
hot coins to the water in the calorimetry cup. While alcohol thermometers could also have been
used for this experiment, they did not offer the level of precision to distinguish between the
specific heats of copper and nickel, 0.383 J/g°C and 0.444 J/g°C respectively. The step-by step
instructions for data logging have been included here on pg. 39.
The second example is a calculator-based lab (pp. 40-41) that guides the students through the
steps necessary to calculate and graph the atmospheric thermoclines and determine the
dependence of pressure upon density of particles.
The third example is another external PowerPoint slideshow (reactionrates.pps) that is intended
to be included as a visual aid to a discussion about the effect of surface area upon reaction rates.
The script that accompanies this slide show is included on pg 42.
COLLECTING TEMPERATURE DATA WITH THE TI-83/CBL-2 PORTABLE
LABORATORY

The following steps will take you through the set-up and the use of the CBL 2 with the TI-83
Plus calculator to conduct a simple temperature data collection.

1. Insert the calculator into the cradle on top of the CBL 2 unit and click into place.
2. Place one end of the six inch unit to unit link cable into the port on the bottom of the
calculator and the other end into the CBL 2 unit.
3. Plug the temperature probe into the port labeled: CH 1 on the left hand side of the CBL 2
unit.
4. Turn the calculator [ON].
5. Reset the memory on your calculator by pressing [2ND] then [MEM] which is the [+] key.
Then choose "RESET" which is 7 by scrolling down or clicking the [7] key.
6. Choose 1,"All RAM" then 2, "RESET" on the next screen. A warning will be displayed that
says, "Resetting RAM erases all data and programs from RAM."
7. A screen will be displayed that says "RAM cleared." Press [ENTER] and the word "DONE"
will appear on the screen.
8. Put the calculator in receive mode by pressing [2ND] then [LINK]. Arrow over so that
"RECEIVE" is highlighted then press [ENTER].
9. The calculator will display a "Waiting" screen. Press the <TRANSFER> button on the CBL
2 unit. The CBL 2 unit detects which calculator is connected and sends the appropriate
version of the DataMate software to the calculator.
10. The calculator will display a "Receiving" screen. When the calculator has received the
program, "Done" will be displayed on the screen.
11. To run the DataMate program, click the [APPS] button on the calculator and then arrow up
or down to highlight the DataMate program. Press [ENTER].
12. A screen is displayed which says, "CHECKING SENSORS." If the calculator has identified
the temperature sensor correctly, a screen will be displayed that says, "CH 1: TEMP (C) and
the current reading as determined by the temperature sensor.
13. Start collecting data by pressing [2] which is "START." A real-time graph of the temperature
will be displayed.
14. After you are finished collecting data, press the [STO] key. Your graph will be displayed on
the screen.
15. Use the arrow keys to move through each data point on the graph. The graph can be saved for
retrieval at a later time.
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Technology Integration Lesson
NC Competency Goals:
Chemistry:
1.06 Analyze the basic assumptions of kinetic molecular theory and its applications.
2.02 Analyze the mole concept and Avogadro's number and use them to calculate the number of
gas molecules from mass of the gas.
Computer/Technology Skills:
3.1 Select and use appropriate technology tools to efficiently collect, analyze, and display data.
3.3 Use a calculator, scientific calculator, or graphing calculator for problem-solving.

Lesson objectives:
• Use dimensional analysis to convert from non-SI pressure units to SI units.
• Use Gay-Lussac’s discovery that air composition is invariant with altitude to calculate the
effective molar mass of air.
• Use Avogadro’s number to calculate the number of molecules of a gas from moles.
• Utilize TI-83 or TI-82 graphing calculators to generate plots of altitude vs. temperature,
pressure vs. temperature and pressure vs. number of molecules from atmospheric data.
• Observe that pressure is directly dependent upon the number of molecules present.

Lesson plan:
Draw the table below on the board, omitting the numbers in the shaded areas.

Table of Atmospheric Data


Altitude Temperature Temperature Pressure Pressure Mass in Total
(km) (°C) (K) (mm Hg) (kPa) 1-L sample Molecules
(g)
0 20 293 760 101.3 1.20 2.50E+22
5 -12 261 407 54.2 0.73 1.52E+22
10 -45 228 218 29.1 0.41 8.54E+21
12 -60 213 170 22.7 0.37 7.71E+21
20 -53 220 62 8.3 0.13 2.71E+21
30 -38 235 18 2.4 0.035 7.29E+20
40 -18 255 5.1 0.68 0.009 1.87E+20
50 2 275 1.5 0.20 0.003 6.25E+19
60 -26 247 0.42 0.056 0.0007 1.46E+19
80 -87 186 0.03 0.0040 0.00007 1.46E+18

Break the students into groups and then assign some of the temperature and pressure conversions
to each group. Fill in the table with student values.

Tell the students that--Gay-Lussac was a scientist who was interested in the properties of gases.
In 1802, he set a record by ascending to 23,000 ft (~ 7 km) in a hot air balloon to investigate
whether altitude affected the composition of the air. He found that it doesn’t. Because of his
discovery, we can find the effective gram molecular mass (gmm) of air at all altitudes:
gmm = 0.78(gmm N2) + 0.21(gmm O2) + 0.01(gam Ar)

gmm = 21.8 + 6.7 + 0.4 = 28.9 g/mol air

We can use Avogadro’s number to find the number of gas molecules in the air at each altitude:

 mol air  6.02 x 10 23 molecules 


grams of sample   = molecules of air
 28 . 9 g 
 mol air 

Have each group calculate the total number of molecules for the same altitudes as assigned
previously.

Have each group generate plots of altitude vs. temperature from atmospheric data using TI-83 or
TI-82 graphing calculators. Should get something like:
Altitude vs. Temperature
100
80
Altitude (km)

60
40
20
0
150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (K)

Discuss with the students possible reasons why the slope of the plot is not constant:
• changes as you go from one layer of the atmosphere to another
• absorption of solar radiation by oxygen in middle layer results in heating of gases

Plot pressure vs. temperature from 0 to 12 km (troposphere) and pressure vs. number of
molecules for the entire data set. Have the students find the best line for each plot. Discuss
possible reasons why the P vs. T plot is not linear as expected (since not using a constant
number of moles of gas), but P vs. number of molecules is and relate the latter result to kinetic
theory of gases.
Pressure vs. Temperature Molecules vs. Pressure

150 150
Pressure (kPa)
Pressure (kPa)

100 100

50 50

0 0
150 200 250 300 350 0 100 200 300

Number of molecules ( x1020)


Temperature (K)
Script for Rates of Reactions PowerPoint slideshow

I’d like to talk to all of you today about dust explosions. Now, I don’t mean the proliferation in
dust bunnies that I see in my house, at least, when there’s a big project due. Instead, I’m talking
about actual explosions. For example:
• In 1977, a grain elevator exploded in Westwood, LA… the blast blew away the top 100 feet
of headspace off of the grain elevator, killed 36 people and injured 9. It was the worst
disaster in US history of its kind at the time.
• A little bit more recently, a flour mill in Columbus, OH, exploded killing one person and
injuring 5.
• And close to home, here in NC the West Pharmaceutical Services plant in Kinston exploded
January 29th, 2003. The source of the explosion was later found to be a build-up of
polyethylene dust in the suspended ceiling.

OK…so how is it that all these different kinds of dust are exploding? Well, the key thing to
think about is that an explosion tells you that the rate of whatever reaction is occurring is very,
very fast. So, we saw one example of a flour mill exploding…the flour dust in the air was
rapidly combusted. Does that mean that flour is flammable? Let’s see… [pour out small amount
of flour onto Al foil and try to ignite with long handled lighter…will singe a bit, but nothing
else]. Hmm…not too exciting. Well, if you stop and think about it there’s a big difference
between flour dust in the air and flour in a pile…Can anyone think of what that might be?
[looking for surface area]. I’d like to demonstrate the flour explosion myself, but I’ve been
having trouble getting it to go off reliably. Fortunately, the good people in the Science Ed dept
at Purdue University have been kind enough to post a video clip of a dust explosion which I’ll
play for you now. [Click on icon]
Say as the clip is playing: What they’re going to do is light the candle then suspend it into the
large metal can that you see the candle hanging off of. Then they’ll take the rubber tubing that is
connected to a port a bit above the candle flame and pour some very fine, very dry lycopodium
dust (or dried moss dust) down the tubing…the dust hits the flame and voi la!

Now there aren’t that many dust explosions per year, maybe around 10 in a particularly bad
year, because the dust must be present in concentrations greater than 50 g per cubic meter and
the dust particles need to have diameters less than 0.1 mm. So here’s an illustration of what
happens during a dust explosion:
• First you have the dust of the right size and concentration dispersed in a confined area
• A spark or some other ignition source ignites one of the dust particles
• Which then ignites all of the particles around it..
• And so on…
• While I couldn’t get the animation to cooperate with me on this, the rate of ignition
escalates as the ignition front advances

So, hopefully you’ve learned a little something about dust explosions, and more importantly how
reaction rates are increased by an increase in surface area.
ARTIFACTS FOR PLANNING

Meeting NCSCOS standards:


In addition to meeting the specific NCSCOS standards listed in each of the lesson plans
presented here (Thermochemistry: Direct Instruction, Cooperative Learning, 5-E Learning
Cycle), an effort has been made to address the instructional strands that are the underlying basis
for the competency goals in chemistry. Specifically, showing real world relevance (strand:
Science in Personal and Social Perspectives), incorporating some of the history of chemistry into
the discussions (strand: Nature of Science), and requiring the students to predict outcomes of
their various discovery based exercises (strand: Science as Inquiry) are examples of strategies
that I have employed to enhance the student’s learning experience. A lesson plan entitled
Kinetic Theory of Gases: Cross-Curricular Integration (pp. 44-45) that incorporates both
chemical history and earth science into a lesson on gas laws has been included to illustrate my
approach.

Meeting student needs:


Of the lesson plans included in this portfolio, I think the 5-E Learning Cycle lesson plan allows
the greatest degree of flexibility for a class consisting of students with differing skill levels. The
labels on the Ice Melter mixture and Drano are read to the students and they are asked to predict
what they think will happen when the salts are dissolved in water. However, for any lesson plan
to be effective, the students must come prepared and ready to learn to class. For that reason, I
have included a plan for instituting a token economy (pp. 46-47) in the classroom that should
result in the students being better prepared for class and promote improved social skills amongst
the students.
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Cross-Curricular Integration
Interdisciplinary content areas: History and meteorology (Earth Science)

NC Competency Goals:
Chemistry 1.06 Analyze the basic assumptions of kinetic molecular theory and its
applications.
World History 7.01 Assess the degree to which discoveries, innovations, and technologies
have accelerated change.
7.02 Examine the causes and effects of scientific revolutions and cite their
major costs and benefits.
Earth Science 5.02 Analyze the structure of the atmosphere.
5.03 Analyze weather systems.
5.04 Analyze atmospheric pressure.
5.05 Analyze air masses and the life cycle of weather systems.
5.06 Evaluate meteorological observing, analysis, and prediction.

I. Lesson Objectives
A. Describe the historical events that surrounded development of the gas laws.
B. Identify the variables and state the relationship between them for the three gas laws.
C. Connect common weather sayings to the appropriate gas law.
D. Solve conceptual “real-world” problems using the gas laws.

II. Lesson Plan


A. History and the Gas Laws

Evangelisto Torricelli served as Galileo’s secretary and invented the first barometer
in 1643. Torricelli’s barometer used changes in the height of a column of mercury
to measure changes in air pressure.

The invention of the barometer allowed Robert Boyle to discover the relationship
between the pressure and the volume of a gas in 1661. Boyle’s Law states that as
pressure on a gas increases its volume will decrease. Boyle also knew that
temperature affected both the pressure and volume of a gas, but couldn’t determine
the relationship since he had no way to measure temperature. It wasn’t until the
invention of the air thermometer by Guillaume Amontons in 1702 that the affect of
temperature on gas properties could be investigated.

Jacques Charles, a French physicist and chemist, released the first hydrogen filled
balloon in 1783. It ascended 3 km and traveled 43 km in 2 hours. While Amontons
was actually the first to investigate the relationship between the volume and
temperature of a gas, Charles came to be credited with the discovery due to some
unpublished experiments in 1787. Charles’ Law states that the volume of a gas will
increase with temperature.
Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac published his systematic investigations of the relationship
between a gases volume and temperature in 1808. However, since he referenced
Charles’ unpublished results, the relationship came to be called Charles’ Law.
Interestingly, Gay-Lussac was also a balloonist who had previously set a record in
1802 when he ascended to 23,000 feet to investigate whether altitude affected the
composition of the air. He found that it doesn’t. The final gas law, which states that
the pressure of a gas will increase with temperature, is commonly attributed to Gay-
Lussac; however, he is better known for his law of combining volumes.

B. Meterology and the Gas Laws


In addition to allowing Boyle to investigate gas properties, the invention of the barometer,
also called a water glass, also allowed early meteorologists to predict the weather. For
example, there’s a saying that:
“When the glass falls low, prepare for a blow;
When it rises high, let all your kites fly.”
This saying tells us that you can expect a storm when there’s low air pressure, and good
weather when there’s high pressure.

A saying that predicts weather without using a barometer is:


“If birds fly low, expect rain and a blow.”
The reason why this saying is a good predictor is that it’s harder for birds to fly when there’s
low air pressure. Since low air pressure also accompanies storms, low flying birds are a sign
that a storm is likely.

C. Practice Problems-Some real world examples

1. Why is it a bad idea to throw empty spray cans in a fire? (Hint: Are they really empty?)

2. You open a jar of instant coffee in Denver (1 mile above sea level) that was sealed at sea
level in a plant in Brazil, and it blows coffee bits up at your face. Why?

3. Arthur and Zaphod are going scuba diving in some rather cold water to try to retrieve their
copy of the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy that has fallen overboard. While their air tanks
were initially fully charged at 200 atm, Arthur notices that Zaphod’s tank reads 190 atm
almost immediately after jumping into the water. Should he drag Zaphod back up to the
surface? (Hint: The water is very cold.)
IV. Sources
A. Gas Law History excerpted from Encarta Encyclopedia and
web.fccj.org/~ethall/gaslaw/gaslaw.htm.
B. Weather sayings from wilstar.com/skywatch.htm
Classroom Token Economy (Grades 9-12, Physical sciences)

Introduction to students. The goal behind establishing a token economy in a secondary science

education class would be to motivate students to perform tasks that are not intrinsically

motivating. Such tasks include bringing necessary materials to class everyday (paper, pencils,

textbook, calculators), completing independent homework and classwork assignments,

participating in class discussions, and remaining on task and working cooperatively when

engaged in group activities. The token economy would be introduced to the students by telling

them that I want them all to excel in my class, so I was going to give points (the tokens) to

students who completed all of these tasks on a daily basis. As each student obtains a total of 20

points, they would have to exchange their points for one of the rewards listed below. The

students can also use their tokens to purchase materials or rent a calculator for that class period

that they may have forgotten and need to complete their assignments. If there is another adult in

the room or a student assistant, their role will be to help keep track of each student’s points,

earned and exchanged, on the record sheet shown below. After two months, the efficacy of this

system will be evaluated by assessing improvement in the student’s grades on exams and

quizzes. If there has not been a significant improvement in student performance, the rules will

be modified to include points for improved test performance.

Rules

1. All students start out with 5 points. This is to avoid negative point values while the

students are becoming accustomed to the system.

2. Students receive 1 point for bringing their calculators, paper and writing utensil to class.

They do not receive a point if any one of the three items is missing.
3. Students receive 1 point for each complete (must be neatly done or is not complete)

homework or graded classwork assignment.

4. Since cooperative effort during group work will result in a more timely completion of the

group project, all of the members of the first group that completes a group assignment

will receive 2 points each. The members of the second group to complete the group

assignment will receive 1 point each.

List of rewards

Reward Tokens required Reward Tokens required


2 sheets of paper 1 Pencil 2
Eraser 2 Candy bar 4
Rent calculator 5 Homework pass 10
1 extra credit point on Drop lowest quiz
5 20
next exam grade

Daily Point Tally

Student Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday


Prev. Ex.
name M H C G M H C G M H C G M H C G M H C G
A 5 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
B 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

Table Key: Prev: Point carryover from previous week, Ex: Points exchanged from reward list,
M: Materials brought to class, H: completed homework, C: completed graded classwork, G:
group work points

In the example above, both students started the week with 5 points. Student A was in the group

that finished first on Tuesday and received 2 points for that. Student B’s group finished second

so received 1 point for that. Student B forgot to bring their homework on Tuesday and their

materials on Wednesday. Student B exchanged some of their points for a pencil so they could

complete their classwork assignment on Wednesday.


ARTIFACTS FOR ASSESSMENT

Formal assessment:
The Free Energy Quiz from the STAD Lesson plan (pg. 32) has been included as an example of
a formal formative assessment on thermochemistry.
The Enthalpy of Solution Worksheet (pp. 49-52) has also been included as an example of a
formative assessment that could be used as either a formal or informal assessment of student
understanding depending upon the degree of difficulty that the students are having with the
concepts presented in class.

Two examples of summative traditional formal assessments have been included in this portfolio.
The first example (pp. 53-55) was written to be a unit test on the kinetic theory of gases. In
addition to multiple choice, matching and completion questions, this exam includes two free-
response essay questions and two interdisciplinary bonus questions. The second exam (pp. 56-
63) was written to be a unit test on thermochemistry and thermodynamics. As with the first
example, it includes a number of different question formats but has been included in this
portfolio due to its implicit assessment of the students’ problem solving skills.

One example of an alternative summative formal assessment with its accompanying rubric is
included on pp 64-65.

Informal assessment:
A concept interview that was intended to identify potential student misconceptions regarding the
properties of gases is shown on pp. 66-67. Collecting such data about an upcoming topic can be
used to tailor the lesson plans to better fit with the strengths and weaknesses of a particular group
of students.

The graphic organizer for a unit on the kinetic theory of gases (pp. 68-70) provides not only a
quick means to assess student understanding of the relationships between the various gas laws,
but can also be used by the student as a study aid.

Transparency 2 from the STAD Lesson plan (pp. 71-72) can be used to gather informal
assessment data on student conceptual understanding of the factors that affect the spontaneity of
a physical or chemical process as well as indicators of enthalpic or entropic change. In order for
this assessment to be reflective of student understanding, input must be obtained from all of the
students in the class. Students that seem to be having difficulty with the concepts should be
queried a number of times using different questioning formats in order to ensure that they will be
able to learn the material.
Enthalpy of Solution Worksheet

Name: Date:

Table 1: Lattice energy values (kJ/mol)


LiF 1030 NaF 910 KF 808
LiCl 834 NaCl 769 KCl 701
LiBr 788 NaBr 732 KBr 671
LiI 730 NaI 682 KI 632
MgCl2 2326 CaCl2 2223 SrCl2 2127

1. Look at the values in Table 1 and record any observations about the values you can make
below:

Table 2: Ion hydration enthalpy


Cations ∆Hhyd (kJ/mol) Anions ∆Hhyd (kJ/mol)
+
Li (aq) -520 F- (aq) -506
Na+ (aq) -405 Cl- (aq) -361
+
K (aq) -321 Br- (aq) -337
2+
Mg (aq) -1920 I- (aq) -296
Ca2+ (aq) -1650 OH- (aq) -523
2+
Sr (aq) -1480 NO3- (aq) -335

2. Look at the values in Table 2 and record any observations you can make about the values
below:
3. Calculate the ∆Hsoln for each of the following:

MgCl2 CaCl2 SrCl2

4. Circle which one of the following is likely to have the largest lattice energy. On the blank at
the end of each line, state the determining characteristic(s) (cation/anion, charge/size)
a) Li2SO4 Na2SO4 CaSO4
b) Na2Se Na2O Na2S
c) Al(OH)3 Al(NO3)3 AlCl3
d) AlF3 InPO4 CsCl

5. Compare the ∆Hsoln of the Group II fluorides (below) to the values you found for the Group II
chlorides in number 3.
MgF2: -17 kJ/mol CaF2: -51 kJ/mol SrF2: -14 kJ/mol

What other bonding interactions could possibly explain why the fluorides do not follow the same
size/charge trends observed for the chloride analogues? (Hint: remember that the salts are being
dissolved in water)

6. Draw an energy diagram to calculate the lattice energy for each of the following potassium
salts:

KOH dissolved in water KNO3 dissolved in water


55 kJ/mol heat released 29 kJ/mol heat absorbed

E E

KOH (s) KNO3 (s)


Enthalpy of Solution Worksheet

Name: Answer Key Date:

Table 1: Lattice energy values (kJ/mol)


LiF 1030 NaF 910 KF 808
LiCl 834 NaCl 769 KCl 701
LiBr 788 NaBr 732 KBr 671
LiI 730 NaI 682 KI 632
MgCl2 2326 CaCl2 2223 SrCl2 2127

1. Look at the values in Table 1 and record any observations about the values you can make
below:

• The lattice energy decreases as the size of the anion or the cation increases.
• The lattice energy seems to increase as the charge on the cation increases;
however, this might be due to the additional bonds that are formed between
one divalent cation and two monovalent anions.

Table 2: Ion hydration enthalpy


Cations ∆Hhyd (kJ/mol) Anions ∆Hhyd (kJ/mol)
+
Li (aq) -520 F- (aq) -506
+
Na (aq) -405 Cl- (aq) -361
K+ (aq) -321 Br- (aq) -337
2+
Mg (aq) -1920 I- (aq) -296
Ca2+ (aq) -1650 OH- (aq) -523
2+
Sr (aq) -1480 NO3- (aq) -335

2. Look at the values in Table 2 and record any observations you can make about the values
below:

• The heat of hydration become less exothermic as the size of the cation or the
anion increases. This trend is also true for the divalent cations and the
polyatomic anions.
• The heat of hydration is significantly more exothermic for the divalent cations
than it is for the monovalent cations.
3. Calculate the ∆Hsoln for each of the following:

MgCl2 -316 kJ/mol CaCl2 -149 kJ/mol SrCl2 -75 kJ/mol

4. Circle which one of the following is likely to have the largest lattice energy. On the blank at
the end of each line, state the determining characteristic(s) (cation/anion, charge/size)
a) Li2SO4 Na2SO4 CaSO4 divalent cation
b) Na2Se Na2O Na2S smallest anion size
c) Al(OH)3 Al(NO3)3 AlCl3 smallest anion size
d) AlF3 InPO4 CsCl smallest anion size, trivalent
cation
5. Compare the ∆Hsoln of the Group II fluorides (below) to the values you found for the Group II
chlorides in number 3.
MgF2: -17 kJ/mol CaF2: -51 kJ/mol SrF2: -14 kJ/mol

What other bonding interactions could possibly explain why the fluorides do not follow the same
size/charge trends observed for the chloride analogues? (Hint: remember that the salts are being
dissolved in water)

• Formation of hydrogen bonds between the water and the fluoride anion
• Formation of HF

6. Draw an energy diagram to calculate the lattice energy for each of the following potassium
salts:

KOH dissolved in water KNO3 dissolved in water


55 kJ/mol heat released 29 kJ/mol heat absorbed
K+ + NO3-

K+ + OH - U = 685 kJ/mol -321 kJ/mol

K+ (aq) + NO3-
U = 789 kJ/mol
-321 kJ/mol
E +
K (aq) + OH - E
-335 kJ/mol
K+ (aq) + NO3- (aq)

KOH (s) -523 kJ/mol KNO3 (s) +29 kJ/mol


∆Hsoln -55 kJ/mol

K+ (aq) + OH- (aq)


Sample Unit Test
Kinetic Theory of Gases

I. Warm Up: Please write the letter of the best choice in the blank to the left.

_____ 1. Why is the Kelvin temperature scale used when solving gas law problems?
a) to make the math more complicated
b) it’s used for historical reasons
c) to prevent negative volumes
d) to prevent positive pressures

_____ 2. How would the number of molecules of two different gases compare if their partial
pressures in the same container were identical?
a) They would be the same
b) There would be fewer molecules of the heavier gas
c) There would be more molecules of the heavier gas
d) There’s not enough information to tell

_____ 3. What happens to gas molecules when the gas is compressed?


a) The molecules flatten out
b) The molecules get closer together
c) The molecules slow down
d) The molecules stop moving

_____ 4. Boyle’s Law states that the pressure and volume of a gas is:
a) conversely proportional
b) directly proportional
c) inversely proportional
d) reversely proportional

_____ 5. Avogadro’s hypothesis states that one mole of gas at STP will have a volume of:
a) 2.24 mL
b) 22.4 mL
c) 2.24 L
d) 22.4 L

II. Word Play: Match each definition below to the word bank at the right.

_____ 1. Force per unit area a) Charles’ Law


_____ 2. Movement of gases from regions of high concentration b) Kinetic Theory of
to lower concentration Gases
_____ 3. Volume and temperature of a gas are directly related c) Ideal Gas Law
_____ 4. As the temperature of a gas increases, the average d) Diffusion
speed of the gas molecules increases
_____ 5. PV=nRT e) Pressure
III. The Crunch: Please show your work in the space provided

1. What is the volume of 0.25 moles of a gas at STP?

2. If the atmosphere is 78% N2, 21% O2 and 1% Ar, what is the partial pressure of each gas at
sea level (101.3 kPa)?

3. A balloonist puts 1.25 x 105 L of air into her balloon at 25 °C at atmospheric pressure. The
air is heated to 200 °C at constant pressure. What is the volume of air at this temperature?

4. Which gas effuses faster-hydrogen or chlorine? How much faster?

5. A 45 g sample of a volatile liquid is completely vaporized in a 10 L container at 100 °C and


100 kPa. What is the molecular mass of the gas?
IV. Home stretch: Please answer the following conceptual questions as completely as
possible.

1. What are three differences between ideal gases and real gases?

2. Draw a picture of a balloon of gas at STP at the molecular level. Draw another picture that
illustrates how conditions change at the molecular level when the temperature of the gas is
decreased, and explain what happens.

V. Bonus questions:

1. Why didn’t Robert Boyle investigate the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas?

2. You’re out at Jordan Lake and you notice a flock of ducks flying across the lake barely above
the surface. What is likely to happen?
Name: Date:

THERMOCHEMISTRY: EXAM

Part I. Warm-up exercises (Fill in the blank and multiple choice)

1. Label each of the following as either a physical change (P) or a chemical change (C) (4 pts):
_____ CO2 (s) → CO2 (g) _____ C6H12O6 (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + H2O (g)
_____ 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (g) _____ NaCl (s) → NaCl (l)
2. Indicate whether each of the following physical and chemical changes results in a positive
(+), negative (-) or negligible (0/+ or 0/-) ∆S value (4 pts):
_____ CO2 (s) → CO2 (g) _____ C6H12O6 (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + H2O (g)
_____ 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (g) _____ NaCl (s) → NaCl (l)
3. Circle which one of the following is likely to have the largest lattice energy. List the
determining characteristics (cation/anion, charge/size) in the accompanying blank (5 pts):
a) Li2SO4 Na2SO4 CaSO4
b) Al(OH)3 Al(NO3)3 AlF3
c) AlF3 InPO4 CsCl
_____4. An endothermic process (2 pts):
a) absorbs energy from the surroundings b) releases heat to the surroundings
c) has a negative ∆H d) both (a) and (c)
_____5. Spontaneous reactions (2 pts):
a) Always release heat energy b) Always have a negative ∆H
c) Always have a negative ∆G d) Always have a positive ∆H
_____6. The mathematical expression that relates free energy, enthalpy and entropy is (2 pts):
a) ∆H = ∆G – T∆S b) ∆S = ∆H – T∆G c) ∆G = ∆H – T∆S d) ∆H = ∆S – T∆G
_____7. Sodium acetate dissolves readily in water according to the following equation:
NaC2H3O2 (s) → NaC2H3O2 (aq) ∆H = -17.3 kJ/mol
The temperature of the water used to dissolve the sodium acetate will (2 pts):
a) not change b) increase
c) decrease d) impossible to tell from the information given

1
8. For each of the following, indicate the sign of ∆G and ∆H (5 pts).

∆G ∆H

a) Dissolving a solid in water results in a ∆T = +3°………….


b) The melting of ice at room temperature…………………...
c) Condensation of water vapor at 120°C……………………
d) Condensation of water vapor at 80°C……………………..
e) Sublimation of dry ice at room temperature………………

Part II. Time to turn up the heat! (Calculations-Please show your work in the space provided.)
Questions 1-4 refer to flatulite (H2PEw, gfm = 61.90 g/mol), a fictitious flammable compound
from the planet Flatulon. It has a melting point of 132°C and a boiling point of 215°C.

1. A 135-g piece of solid flatulite is heated to 90.5 °C and then dropped into 75.5 g of water that
is initially at 21.3 °C. What is the specific heat of solid flatulite if the final temperature of
the water is 32.3 °C? (CpH2O(l) = 4.18 J/g°C) (4 pts)

2. What is the molar heat of fusion of flatulite if it requires 311 J of heat energy to completely
melt 55.7 g of the solid? (2 pts)

3. What is the molar heat of condensation of flatulite if it requires 658 J of heat energy to
completely vaporize 112 g of liquid flatulite? (3 pts)

2
4. The combustion of flatulite is an exothermic reaction.
H2PEw (s) +3O2 (g) → 2H20 (l) + P2O5 (s) + 2Ew2O (s) ∆Hrxn = -139 kJ
a) Calculate the amount of heat liberated when 4.79 g of H2PEw reacts with excess oxygen.
(3pts)

b) What would the ∆Hrxn be if gaseous water were formed instead of liquid water? [∆Hf
(H2O(l) = -285.8 kJ/mol), ∆Hf (H2O(g) = -241.8 kJ/mol] (3 pts)

5. Find the standard enthalpy of formation of phosphorus pentachloride from its elements (5
pts).
2P (s) + 5 Cl2 (g) → 2PCl5 (s)
Use the following thermochemical equations.
PCl5 (s) → PCl3 (g) + Cl2 (g) ∆H = 87.9 kJ
2P (s) + 3Cl2 (g) → 2PCl3 (g) ∆H –574 kJ

3
III. The final cool-down (diagramming)

1. Draw an energy diagram that could be used to calculate the lattice energy for each of the
following potassium salts. Indicate on the diagram the additional pieces of information
needed to complete the calculation. (10 pts)

KOH dissolved in water


55 kJ/mol heat released

KOH (s)

2. Draw a diagram that illustrates the direction of heat flow, and the temperature of the system
vs. the surroundings for an endothermic reaction. Please identify the system and the
surroundings on the diagram. (4 pts)

4
Name: Answer Key Date:

THERMOCHEMISTRY: EXAM
(60 pts total)
Part II. Warm-up exercises (Fill in the blank and multiple choice)

1. Label each of the following as either a physical change (P) or a chemical change (C) (4 pts):
P CO2 (s) → CO2 (g) __C C6H12O6 (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + H2O (g)
C 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (g) P NaCl (s) → NaCl (l)
2. Indicate whether each of the following physical and chemical changes results in a positive
(+), negative (-) or negligible (0/+ or 0/-) ∆S value (4 pts):
+ CO2 (s) → CO2 (g) + H12O6 (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + H2O (g)
 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (g) 0/+ NaCl (s) → NaCl (l)
3. Circle which one of the following is likely to have the largest lattice energy. List the
determining characteristics (cation/anion, charge/size) in the accompanying blank (5 pts):
a) Li2SO4 Na2SO4 CaSO4 cation charge
b) Al(OH)3 Al(NO3)3 AlF3 anion size
c) AlF3 InPO4 CsCl cation charge, anion size
_____4.
A An endothermic process (2 pts):
b) absorbs energy from the surroundings b) releases heat to the surroundings
d) has a negative ∆H d) both (a) and (c)
C
_____5. Spontaneous reactions (2 pts):
c) Always release heat energy b) Always have a negative ∆H
c) Always have a negative ∆G d) Always have a positive ∆H
C
_____6. The mathematical expression that relates free energy, enthalpy and entropy is (2 pts):
a) ∆H = ∆G – T∆S b) ∆S = ∆H – T∆G c) ∆G = ∆H – T∆S d) ∆H = ∆S – T∆G
_____7.
B Sodium acetate dissolves readily in water according to the following equation:
NaC2H3O2 (s) → NaC2H3O2 (aq) ∆H = -17.3 kJ/mol
The temperature of the water used to dissolve the sodium acetate will (2 pts):
a) not change b) increase
c) decrease d) impossible to tell from the information given

5
8. For each of the following, indicate the sign of ∆G and ∆H (5 pts).

∆G ∆H
Negative Negative
a) Dissolving a solid in water results in a ∆T = +3°………….
b) The melting of ice at room temperature…………………... Negative Positive

c) Condensation of water vapor at 120°C…………………… Positive Negative


Negative Negative
d) Condensation of water vapor at 80°C……………………..
Negative Positive
e) Sublimation of dry ice at room temperature………………

Part II. Time to turn up the heat! (Calculations-Please show your work in the space provided.)
Questions 1-4 refer to flatulite (H2PEw, gfm = 61.90 g/mol), a fictitious flammable compound
from the planet Flatulon. It has a melting point of 132°C and a boiling point of 215°C.

1. A 135-g piece of solid flatulite is heated to 90.5 °C and then dropped into 75.5 g of water that
is initially at 21.3 °C. What is the specific heat of solid flatulite if the final temperature of
the water is 32.3 °C? (CpH2O(l) = 4.18 J/g°C) (4 pts)

qw= (4.18 J/g°C)(75.5 g)(32.3°C – 21.3°C) = 3471 J (1 pt)


qFt = -qw = -3471 J (1 pt)
Cp(Ft) = -3471 J/[(32.3°C – 90.5°C)(135 g) = 0.442 J/g°C (2 pts)

2. What is the molar heat of fusion of flatulite if it requires 311 J of heat energy to completely
melt 55.7 g of the solid? (2 pts)

55.7 g/(61.9 g/mol) = 0.8998 mol Ft (1 pt)

∆Hfus = 311 J/0.900 mol = 346 J/mol (1 pt)

3. What is the molar heat of condensation of flatulite if it requires 658 J of heat energy to
completely vaporize 112 g of liquid flatulite? (3 pts)

112 g/61.9 g/mol = 1.809 mol Ft (1 pt)


∆Hconds = -∆Hvap (1 pt for keeping track of sign change)
∆Hconds = -658J/1.809 mol = -364 J/mol (1 pt)

6
4. The combustion of flatulite is an exothermic reaction.
H2PEw (s) +3O2 (g) → 2H20 (l) + P2O5 (s) + 2Ew2O (s) ∆Hrxn = -139 kJ
a) Calculate the amount of heat liberated when 4.79 g of H2PEw reacts with excess oxygen.
(3pts)

4.79 g/61.9 g/mol = 0.0774 mol Ft (1 pt)


q = (0.0774 mol Ft)(-139 kJ/mol) = -10.8 kJ (1 pt)
10.8 kJ of heat are liberated (1 pt for equating neg sign with heat release)

d) What would the ∆Hrxn be if gaseous water were formed instead of liquid water? [∆Hf
(H2O(l) = -285.8 kJ/mol), ∆Hf (H2O(g) = -241.8 kJ/mol] (3 pts)

∆Hrxn = Σ∆H(products) - Σ∆H(reactants)


-139 kJ = [2(Hf(H2Ol) + Hf(P2O5) + 2Hf(Ew2O)]-[Hf(H2PEw)] (1 pt)
Subtract off contribution from 2 equivalents of liquid water, add in contribution
from 2 equivalents of gaseous water (1 pt for including coefficients)

New ∆Hrxn = -95 kJ (1 pt)

5. Find the standard enthalpy of formation of phosphorus pentachloride from its elements (5
pts).
2P (s) + 5 Cl2 (g) → 2PCl5 (s)
Use the following thermochemical equations.
PCl5 (s) → PCl3 (g) + Cl2 (g) ∆H = 87.9 kJ
2P (s) + 3Cl2 (g) → 2PCl3 (g) ∆H –574 kJ

2x [Cl2 (g) + 2PCl3 (g) → PCl5 (s)] 2x (-87.9 kJ) (1 pt for neg sign, 1 pt for coeff)
+ 2P (s) + 3Cl2 (g) → 2PCl3 (g) -574 kJ (1 pt)

2P (s) + 5 Cl2 (g) → 2PCl5 (s) -749.8 kJ = ∆Hrxn (1 pt)

∆Hf(PCl5) = ½ ∆Hrxn = -374.9 kJ (1 pt)

7
III. The final cool-down (diagramming)

1. Draw an energy diagram that could be used to calculate the lattice energy for potassium
hydroxide. Identify the species present at each energy level, and label the enthalpy changes.
Indicate on the diagram the additional pieces of information needed to complete the
calculation. (11 pts)

KOH dissolved in water


55 kJ/mol heat released

K+(g) + OH–(g) 1 pt for each arrow in correct


direction (4 pts)
U ∆Hhyd (K+) 1 pt each for labeling horizontal
E +
K (aq) + OH - lines (3 pts)

1 pt for labeling each enthalpy


∆Hhyd (OH ) - change (4 pts)
KOH (s)
∆Hsoln -55 kJ/mol

K+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

2. Draw a diagram that illustrates the direction of heat flow, and the temperature of the system
vs. the surroundings for an endothermic reaction. Please identify the system and the
surroundings on the diagram. (3 pts)

surroundings
1 pt for q arrow direction
Tsys < Tsurr 1 pt for sys/surr ID
1 pt for correct T relationship

system
q

8
Name: Date:

THERMOCHEMISTRY
Alternative Assessment

Part I. Turning up the heat! (40 points) We have been studying how heat and chemical change
are related. Use your knowledge of enthalpy, specific heat and calorimetry to:
a) Design an experiment to measure the heat of combustion of potato chips.
b) Assuming 100% combustion, calculate the magnitude of the experimental values that you
will need to collect.
c) Predict potential sources of error that would lead to less than 100% combustion.
d) Describe in general terms one other technique that could be used to examine the efficiency of
potato chip combustion.

Rubric
Points → 6 8 10
Experimental • The materials and • Most of the materials and • All of the materials and
design equipment list is missing. equipment needed are listed equipment needed is listed
• The experimental apparatus • The experimental apparatus • The experimental apparatus
is not diagrammed. is missing some of the finer is clearly diagramed
• The experimental procedure details • The experimental procedure
is incomplete. • The experimental procedure provides sufficient detail for
is complete, but not someone else to perform the
sufficiently detailed for experiment
another person to perform
the experiment.
Calculations • While the ingredient list • The ingredient list from a • The ingredient list from a
from a package of potato package of potato chips has package of potato chips has
chips has been included, been used as a resource been used as a resource
there were no calculations • An attempt has been made • The effect of the salt and fat
done that used it as a to address the effect that the content of the chips has been
resource fat and salt content will considered
• Little if no computational have on the results, but no • The quantities of materials
rationale is provided to actual calculations were used for the experiment have
support the quantity of the performed been adjusted to achieve
materials to be used in the • Most of the quantities used experimentally realizable
experiment for the experiment will values
yield experimentally
realizable values
Sources of • List is missing, or includes • List is comprehensive, but • List is comprehensive and
error only human error lacks a prediction of includes analysis of how the
potential impact upon final potential error would impact
results the final results
Follow-up • A duplicate of the first • Missing essential detail • Sufficiently detailed to
experiment experiment with only the needed to evaluate evaluate the feasibility of the
quantities changed feasibility of approach approach
Part II. Chilling out. (20 points) Keep a journal for three days (5 points for journal) and record
any examples of endothermic physical or chemical processes that you encounter during that time.
Be sure to include estimates of the duration of the observation, temperature changes, and any
other observations that might enhance your data analysis. After collecting your data, compile
your observations into physical and chemical processes then rank them within their group from
the greatest amount of energy transferred to the least. Discuss any trends that you can deduce
from your two lists.

Rubric
Points → 3 4 5
Journal • Observations do not cover • Observations have been • Detailed observations have
all three days, and lack logged for the three days, been logged for all three
detail but are missing most if not days
all of the additional data
that needed to be collected
Data • The data has not been • Either the division of the • The chemical and physical
Organization organized into any coherent observations between the processes have been
structure two main categories is correctly separated into two
incorrect lists.
• The observations have been
OR appropriately ranked
according to energy
• The ranking of the extent of transferred within each main
energy transfer is incorrect. category
Trends • Little or no effort was made • Only information presented • Outside information has
to analyze the data in class was used to analyze been utilized in order to
the data analyze the data
The concept interview subjects were four female Apex High Academic Chemistry students. They had finished their lab earlier than
the rest of the class and were available for the interview. The class has not yet studied the properties of gases. The interview was cut a
little short because there was only 20 minutes left before class ended.

Interview

Blow up a balloon, hold it closed and then ask,

Student# 1 2 3 4

Can you draw a picture of A balloon with dots A balloon with dots
A balloon with dots in A balloon with dots
what you think it looks like evenly distributed evenly distributed
the center and shading
inside? (They drew:) throughout throughout

What would it sound like? Nothing A hum Nothing Like waves

Blow up the balloon some more and ask,

A larger balloon with A larger balloon with A larger balloon with A larger balloon with
What would your picture look
more dots, but still darker dots and dots evenly distributed dots evenly distributed
like now? (They drew: )
mostly in center shading throughout throughout

What would happen if I kept


It would pop It would pop It would pop It would pop
blowing up the balloon?

Because the outside


Because there’s too
Why would it do that? would be stretched too I don’t know I don’t know
much stuff inside
thinly
Let’s use something a little stronger than a balloon. Let’s imagine that I’ve got a very heavy duty air pump attached to a steel can and
that I pump it up to about 30 psi, which is about the same as an automobile tire.

What would happen if I


The stuff inside would
were to heat it up a little Nothing Nothing Nothing
move around faster
bit?

The movement inside of


What would happen if I
The can would melt Nothing Nothing the can would get so fast
were to heat it up a lot?
that the can would burst.
The molecules inside are
moving around so much,
To student#4: Why
and they’re trying to stay
would the can burst?
away from each other at
the same time.

Now imagine that I have a hula hoop with a rubber sheet stretched over it.

What would happen if


we were all to throw The center would stretch The center would stretch The center would stretch The center would stretch
tennis balls at the rubber out. out. out. out.
sheet?

What would happen if


It would stretch even
we were to throw the Stretch more Stretch more Stretch more
more
balls harder?
Grade level: High school chemistry
Concept: Properties of gases
Lesson objective:
After completing this lesson, the students will be able to
• Compile a list of the gas laws containing both the formula and the associated
name
• Complete the flow chart using their compiled list
• Use the flow chart to solve word problems involving the gas laws

Lesson Plan:
After being introduced to the gas laws (Boyle’s, Charles’, Gay-Lussac, combined and
ideal), the students will form groups of 2-3 people and compile a list of the named gas
laws and their formulae. After having the list checked for accuracy, the group will be
given a copy of the graphic organizer (flow chart). The group will then utilize
discussion and their list to complete the flow chart. Completion of the flow chart will
focus the students’ attention on the interrelationships of the four variables (P, V, T
and n) encountered in gas law word problems. The students will then check their
own flow chart for accuracy by using it to solve a series of gas law word problems.
After all of the groups have completed the word problems, a student from each group
will be asked to explain how they went about solving one of the problems. Groups
that had difficulty completing either the flow chart or solving the problems will be
asked to explain what they were able to accomplish and then provided with sufficient
coaching from either the teacher or from other groups (who have already presented a
problem and upon the teacher’s request to provide assistance) to finish working
through the problem.
Does the problem
involve:

Yes Yes No
Pressure?

No No Yes

P1 P2
= # moles?
No
T1 T2

Yes

(Student version)
Does the problem
involve:

Pressure?
Yes
Volume?
Yes
Temperature?
No
P1V1 = P2 V2
Boyle’s Law
No No Yes

V1 V2 P1 P2 P1V1 P2 V2
= = # moles?
No
=
T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2
Charles’ Law Gay-Lussac’s Law Yes Combined Gas Law

PV = nRT Ideal Gas Law


(Completed version)
∆G ∆H ∆S

H2O (s) → H2O (l)


T = 293 K

H2O (s) → H2O (l)


T = 253 K

H2O (l) → H2O (g)


T = 383 K

+ -
NaOH (s) → Na (aq) + OH (aq)
∆T > 0
+ -
CsCl (s) → Cs (aq) + Cl (aq)
∆T < 0

2C2H2 (g) + 5O 2 (g) → 4CO 2 (g) + 2H2O (g)


∆T > 0
Transparency 2
∆G ∆H ∆S

H2O (s) → H2O (l)


T = 293 K
− + 0/+

H2O (s) → H2O (l)


T = 253 K
+ + 0/+

H2O (l) → H2O (g)


T = 383 K
− + +

+ -
NaOH (s) → Na (aq) + OH (aq)
∆T > 0
− − +

+ -
CsCl (s) → Cs (aq) + Cl (aq)
∆T < 0
− + 0/+

2C2H2 (g) + 5O2 (g) → 4CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g)


∆T > 0
− − −
Key: Transparency 2