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WITH A 3D MODEL

LEISTUNGSVERBESSERUNG VON WINDTURBINEN MIT

HORIZONTALER ACHSE (HAWT) MIT EINEM 3D-MODELL

Dem Fachbereich Lehrstuhl für Fluidmechanik

der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität

Erlangen-Nürnberg

zur

Erlangung des Doktorgrades Dr.-Ing.

vorgelegt von

YouJin Kim

aus Busan (Südkorea)

Als Dissertation genehmigt

von der Technischen Fakultät

vom Fachbereich Lehrstuhl für Fluidmechanik

der Friedirch-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Gutachter: Prof. Dr. –Ing. habil. Antonio Delgado,

Prof. Dr. Taeseong Kim (Loughborough University, UK)

2

Dedicated to my 아바 아버지

iii

DECLARATION

Ich versichere, dass ich die Arbeit ohne fremde Hilfe und ohne Benutzung

anderer als der angegebenen Quellen angefertigt habe, und dass die Arbeit in

gleicher oder ähnlicher Form noch keiner anderen Prüfungsbehörde vorgelegen

hat und von dieser als Teil einer Prüfungsleistung angenommen wurde. Alle

Ausführungen, die wörtlich oder sinngemäß übernommen wurden, sind als solche

gekennzeichnet.

I hereby declare that this thesis is my own work to the best of my knowledge

and belief without any help and without the use of sources other than those stated

in the thesis. This thesis has not previously been presented to any other

examination board and has not been previously published in identical or similar

form. All information taken from other sources is acknowledged as references.

____________________________________

YouJin Kim

iv

ABSTRACT

globally. The improvement of the performance of wind turbines can lower the cost

of this type of energy and secure ongoing success. Various aspects can lead to

improvements in performance. This study focuses on the computer-aided

investigation of aerodynamic performance, which can be improved by

optimization of the airfoil shape and its boundary layer.

A focus is on the role of the laminar boundary layer on the blade airfoil in

improving the aerodynamic performance of the wind turbine. The profile was

optimized by means of a Genetic Algorithm (GA). After the optimization, the

physical relationship between the laminar boundary layer and three-dimensional

rotating augmentation of the wind turbine rotor was found by implementation of

the 3D correction code.

The Gliding Ratio (GR), transition points, boundary layer thickness, and friction

coefficient distributions, which were calculated with the software XFOIL and

RFOIL, show that the optimized airfoil has the shape with larger boundary layer

and higher GR than the reference profile. The 3D-corrected polar data, calculated

by Hansen’s correction law, were used for the calculation of the power production

for two different wind turbines. It is to demonstrate that the optimized airfoil

shape can influence the wind turbine to produce greatly increased power

production. The optimized airfoil gives higher sensitivity on the 3D rotational

effect, which makes the optimized one has higher torque and the constant thrust of

the blade compared to the reference.

The Coriolis force related to the three-dimensional rotation of the rotor

generated radial momentum of the blade, which moved the separation bubble

towards the tip, while the delayed transition point decreased the separation

bubble formation. The optimized airfoil had smaller stall regions and fewer bubble

occurrences than the reference airfoil. This is shown in the comparisons of the

two-dimensional CFD flow simulation, which was performed with CFD OpenFoam

for both airfoils.

v

This study tries to close a knowledge gap in the area of laminar boundary layer

considerations of the airfoils of the wind turbine blade. The knowledge gap existed,

because the laminar layer in wind turbine and aeronautic applications was

considered to be an unimportant and in reality, scarcely-existing region by most

researchers and was therefore not emphasized in previous research. Furthermore,

the investigations on the physical connection between the airfoil boundary layer

and three-dimensional rotating augmentation of wind turbines can serve as a

cornerstone for future research on improving the prediction accuracy in the

aerodynamic design of wind turbine blades with three-dimensional rotation.

The performance improvements of wind turbines given by the slight change of

the airfoil curvature can be a great insight for effective aerodynamic improvement

in further airfoil research. This airfoil optimization with a laminar boundary layer

also demonstrates the connection between the airfoil and the holistic performance

improvement of the wind turbine, including aerodynamics and structural stability

at the same time.

vi

KURZFASSUNG

weltweiten Anstieg. Eine Verbesserung der Leistungsfähigkeit von

Windkraftanlagen kann die Kosten für diese Form der Energie senken und einen

anhaltenden Erfolg der Technologie sicherstellen.

Verschiedene Aspekte können zu einer Verbesserung der Leistungsfähigkeit

führen. Diese Studie konzentriert sich auf computergestützte Untersuchungen der

aerodynamische Eigenschaften, die durch eine Optimierung der Rotorblattform

und ihrer Grenzschicht verbessert werden kann.

Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Bedeutung der laminaren

Grenzschicht am Flügelprofil zur Verbesserung der aerodynamischen

Leistungsfähigkeit der Windturbine. Das Profil wurde mit Hilfe eines Genetischen

Algorithmus (GA) optimiert. Nach der Optimierung wurde die physikalische

Beziehung zwischen der laminaren Grenzschicht und der dreidimensionalen

Rotationsaugmentation des Windturbinenrotors durch die Implementierung eines

3D-Korrekturfaktors gefunden.

Gleitzahlwerte, Ü bergangspunkte, Grenzschichtdicke und die Verteilung des

Reibungskoeffizienten, die von der Software XFOIL und RFOIL berechnet wurden,

zeigen, dass das optimierte Flügelprofil eine größ ere Grenzschichtregion als das

Referenzprofil aufweist. Die 3D-korrigierten Profildaten, berechnet nach dem

Korrekturgesetz von Hansen, wurden in der Berechnung der Stromproduktion

zweier verschiedener Windturbinen verwendet, um zu zeigen, dass das optimierte

Profil zu einer Verdoppelung der Stromproduktion führen kann. Das optimierte

Schaufelblatt bietet eine höhere Empfindlichkeit für den 3D-Rotationseffekt,

wodurch das es im Vergleich zur Referenz ein höheres Drehmoment und einen

konstanten Schub der Schaufel aufweist.

Die Corioliskraft, die mit der dreidimensionalen Rotation des Rotors in

Beziehung steht, erzeugt ein Biegemoment am Flügel, das die Ablöseblase in

Richtung der Hinterkante bewegt, während der verlagerte Ü bergangspunkt die

Ausbildung der Ablöseblase verringert. Das optimierte Profil zeigte im Vergleich

vii

zum Referenzprofil kleinere Strömungsabrissbereiche und ein geringeres

Auftreten von Ablöseblasen.

Dies wird im Vergleich der zweidimensionalen CFD-Strömungssimulation

ersichtlich, die in OpenFoam für beide Flügelprofile durchgeführt wurde.

Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie schließ en eine Wissenslücke im Bereich der

laminaren Grenzschichtbetrachtung des Strömungsprofils bei

Windturbinenblättern. Diese Wissenslücke existierte, da die laminare Grenzschicht

in Windturbinen- und Luftfahrtanwendungen von den meisten Forschern als eine

unbedeutende und in der Realität kaum existierende Region betrachtet wurde und

daher in der Forschung bisher keine Beachtung gefunden hat. Des Weiteren kann

die Untersuchung der physikalischen Verbindung zwischen

Flügelprofilgrenzschicht und dreidimensionaler Rotationsaugmentation als

Grundlage für zukünftige Forschung an der Verbesserung der

Vorhersagegenauigkeit im aerodynamischen Design von Windturbinenblättern mit

dreidimensionaler Rotation dienen.

Die Leistungsverbesserungen von Windkraftanlagen durch die geringfügige

Ä nderung der Tragflächenkrümmung können ein wertvolle Erkenntnis für eine

effektive aerodynamische Verbesserung in der weiteren Tragflächenforschung

darstellen. Diese Tragflächenoptimierung mit einer laminaren Grenzschicht zeigt

auch den Zusammenhang zwischen dem Tragflächenprofil und der ganzheitlichen

Leistungsverbesserung der Windkraftanlage, einschließ lich Aerodynamik und

struktureller Stabilität.

viii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

For this thesis to be completed, Prof. Antonio Delgado is gratefully thanked for

his professional scientific teaching and abundantly kind heart. Dr. Ali Al-Abadi,

who was my first supervisor on wind energy, is also acknowledged as a thoughtful

and influential teacher for me. My German friends Ursula Witter and Frank

Mittmann should be mentioned with my gratitude for their kind hearts in

supporting my studies since our master’s student time. I also want to say thank

you to Dr. Sebastian Schafhirt for his kind help in my German abstract. Deepest

thanks go to Mrs. Elizabeth Lunyou Bardhan, who spiritually and emotionally

supported my long and hard work.

I acknowledge the depth of my parent’s love for raising me and supporting my

aim to be an academically independent woman scientist from an Asian culture. I

am grateful to my friends in South Korea and Germany.

The BB21 project supported by Busan Metropolitan City is acknowledged for

financial support.

Thank you to Kayla Friedman and Malcolm Morgan of the Centre for Sustainable

Development, University of Cambridge, UK, for producing the Microsoft Word

thesis template used to produce this document.

ix

CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................19

1.1 WIND ENERGY ........................................................................................................................19

1.2 AIRFOIL DESIGN ......................................................................................................................22

1.3 NUMERICAL METHODS ...........................................................................................................25

1.4 MOTIVATION ...........................................................................................................................31

2 SELECTED THEORETICAL ASPECTS ...................................................................................33

2.1 WIND TURBINE AIRFOIL ........................................................................................................33

2.1.1 Airfoil design ..............................................................................................................33

2.1.2 Fluid flow over an airfoil........................................................................................34

2.1.3 Genetic algorithm optimization ..........................................................................44

2.2 CFD SIMULATION ...................................................................................................................51

2.2.1 Wind turbine design theory .................................................................................57

2.2.2 Performance prediction .........................................................................................60

2.2.3 Wind turbine control...............................................................................................66

2.2.4 3D rotational effect ..................................................................................................68

3 METHODS EMPLOYED .............................................................................................................71

3.1 AIRFOIL OPTIMIZATION .........................................................................................................72

3.2 AIRFOIL CFD SIMULATION ....................................................................................................77

3.2.1 Mesh...............................................................................................................................77

3.2.2 OpenFoam simulation.............................................................................................78

3.3 HAWT PERFORMANCE SIMULATION ...................................................................................79

3.3.1 Qblade ...........................................................................................................................79

3.3.2 Simulation with 3D correction ............................................................................84

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION....................................................................................................85

4.2.1 Airfoil shape and Blade ..........................................................................................88

4.2.2 Pressure Coefficient .................................................................................................92

4.2.3 Lift and Drag Coefficient ........................................................................................94

4.2.4 Boundary layer results ...........................................................................................99

4.2.5 Power Curve with 3D correction ..................................................................... 103

4.4.2 Comparison of experiment and CFD .............................................................. 123

x

5 CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK............................................................................................. 124

6 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 126

7 APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................. 142

xi

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1. COMPARISON BETWEEN CONCEPT IN BIOLOGICAL GA AND CURRENT AIRFOIL

DESIGN.............................................................................................................................................72

TABLE 3. AIRFOIL PROPERTIES ...............................................................................................88

TABLE 4. GR, TRANSITION VALUES OF TOP AND BOTTOM EACH AIRFOILS AT ALPHA=7°,

RE=𝟏𝟎𝟔 ........................................................................................................................................89

TABLE 5. BLADE DESIGN INFORMATION [154] .....................................................................91

TABLE 6. CL, CD, TANGENTIAL FORCE OF BLADES WITH TWO AIRFOILS AT POS= 1.28M

AND 4M ........................................................................................................................................ 111

TABLE 7. SIN(𝝍) AND COS(𝝍) VALUES AT INFLOW ANGLE 𝝍 AT BLADE POS=4M....... 111

TABLE 8. CALCULATED VALUES OF EACH TERM AT EQUATION (45), (46) AT BLADE

POS=4M ...................................................................................................................................... 111

TABLE 9. ANGLE OF ATTACK (°) VALUES OF EACH AIRFOIL AT DIFFERENT FLOW REGIME

...................................................................................................................................................... 113

TABLE 10. COMMON AND DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF CFD AND EXPERIMENT ................... 123

xii

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1. INSTALLED CAPACITY [MW] OF WIND ENERGY FROM IRENA DATA [3] ......20

FIGURE 2. WIND ENERGY AMONG DIFFERENT RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES [3] ...........20

FIGURE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY [MW] OF THE NATIONS, WWEA [4] ............................21

FIGURE 4. WINDMILL OF JOHN SMEATON [6, 7] ...................................................................23

FIGURE 5. BIRD WING INSPIRATION TO OTTO LILIENTHAL [8] ...........................................24

FIGURE 6. AIRFOIL FAMILIES [12] ..........................................................................................24

FIGURE 7. COMPUTER CODES USED IN WIND TURBINE DESIGN [21]...................................26

FIGURE 8. THE WAKE GENERATED BY 3D ROTATION OF THE NREL PHASE VI WIND

TURBINE [70] ................................................................................................................................27

FIGURE 10. AIRFOIL PARAMETERS FOR AERODYNAMICS [77] ............................................36

FIGURE 11. LAMINAR SEPARATION BUBBLE (LSB) STRUCTURE [180] ...........................41

FIGURE 12. AIRFOIL BOUNDARY LAYER AND SEPARATION [167].......................................42

FIGURE 13. ALLELE CONCEPT OF PARTICULATE GENES OF MENDEL [62] .........................46

FIGURE 14. GENE STRUCTURE FROM CHROMOSOME AND CELL [63] ..................................47

FIGURE 15. AIRFOIL PARAMETERIZED BY B-SPLINE WITH 13 CONTROL POINTS [98] ....50

FIGURE 16. ACTUATOR DISC MODEL OF A WIND TURBINE [125] .......................................58

FIGURE 17. BETZ TRIANGLE [125] ........................................................................................60

FIGURE 18. ROTOR SECTION CONCEPT [64] .........................................................................62

FIGURE 19. DIMENSION REDUCTION AND FLOW FIELD SIMPLIFICATION OF LLT [127] ..63

FIGURE 20. WAKE GEOMETRY PROLONGATION [127] ........................................................65

FIGURE 21. WIND TURBINE CONTROL REGIME [138] .........................................................67

FIGURE 22. ACTIVE STALL CONTROL AT RATED (LEFT) AND ABOVE RATED (RIGHT) WIND

SPEED [140] ..................................................................................................................................67

FIGURE 24. PRESSURE TRANSDUCER FOR 3D MEASUREMENT [148] ................................70

FIGURE 25. THE WHOLE PROCESS FROM THE OPTIMIZATION TO PERFORMANCE

PREDICTION ....................................................................................................................................71

ENVIRONMENT................................................................................................................................73

xiii

FIGURE 27. AIRFOIL SHAPED WITH B-SPLINE TO BE FITTED AS THE REFERENCE AIRFOIL

S809 ...............................................................................................................................................74

FIGURE 28. DATA STRUCTURE EXAMPLE IN GENETIC ALGORITHM [91] ...........................75

FIGURE 29. MESH GEOMETRY .................................................................................................77

FIGURE 30. MESH OF AIRFOIL S809GX CLOSE TO THE AIRFOIL WALL. ...............................77

FIGURE 31. PARAVIEW FOR S809GX FLOW VISUALIZATION IN DYNAMIC STALL ..............79

FIGURE 32. BLADE CONSTRUCTION FROM QBLADE ..............................................................80

FIGURE 33. REFERENCE AIRFOIL S809 AND AIRFOIL S809GX FOR XFOIL ANALYSIS .....80

FIGURE 34. EXTRAPOLATION BY MONTGOMERIE METHOD .................................................81

FIGURE 35. BLADE CONSTRUCTION ........................................................................................82

FIGURE 36. ROTOR PERFORMANCE ........................................................................................82

FIGURE 37. TURBINE SIMULATION FROM BEM ....................................................................83

FIGURE 38. 3D POLAR CORRECTIONS OF DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF THE BLADE .................84

FIGURE 39. UPPER AND LOWER BOUNDS FOR THE B-SPLINE SHAPED AIRFOIL .................86

FIGURE 40. THE PROCESS OF THE GENETIC ALGORITHM INTERFACED WITH XFOIL.......87

FIGURE 41. OPTIMIZED AIRFOIL S809GX AND REFERENCE S809......................................88

FIGURE 42. BLADE 3D DESIGN WITH AIRFOIL S809 (LEFT) AND S809GX (RIGHT) .......89

FIGURE 43. BLADE DESIGN TOP VIEW WITH S809GX (LEFT) AND S809(RIGHT) ...........90

FIGURE 44. BLADE DESIGN WITH S809GX (LEFT) AND S809 (RIGHT) ............................90

ALPHA=8.5° .................................................................................................................................93

FIGURE 48. 𝑪𝒍 – ALPHA OF AIRFOIL S809 AND S809GX AND EXPERIMENT [154] AT

RE= 𝟏𝟎𝟔 .......................................................................................................................................94

FIGURE 49. 𝑪𝒍 –𝑪𝒅 OF AIRFOIL S809 AND S809GX AND EXPERIMENT [154] AT RE=

𝟏𝟎𝟔.................................................................................................................................................94

FIGURE 50. GR-ALPHA OF THE AIRFOILS FROM XFOIL (LEFT) AND RFOIL (RIGHT) ....95

FIGURE 51. GR-ALPHA VALUES FOR THE AIRFOILS AT EACH PART OF THE BLADE ...........96

FIGURE 52. 𝑪𝒍-ALPHA VALUES FOR AIRFOILS AT EACH PART OF THE BLADE ....................96

xiv

FIGURE 53. 𝑪𝒅-ALPHA VALUES WITH CD ANALYSIS, ROOT PART .......................................97

FIGURE 54. CD-ALPHA VALUES WITH CD ANALYSIS (ROOT PART) .....................................98

FIGURE 55. CD-ALPHA VALUES WITH CD ANALYSIS (MIDDLE PART) .................................98

FIGURE 56. CD-ALPHA VALUES WITH CD ANALYSIS (TIP PART) .........................................98

FIGURE 57. TRANSITION POINT (XTR) ON THE TOP OF TWO AIRFOILS AT DIFFERENT

ALPHA, RE=𝟏𝟎𝟔 ....................................................................................................................... 100

FIGURE 58. TRANSITION POINT (XTR) ON THE BOTTOM OF TWO AIRFOILS AT DIFFERENT

ALPHA, RE=𝟏𝟎𝟔 ....................................................................................................................... 100

FIGURE 59. BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS OF S809 AND S809GX AT ROOT SECTION .. 101

FIGURE 60. FRICTION COEFFICIENT CF OF TWO AIRFOILS AT ROOT SECTION ................. 102

FIGURE 61. BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS OF S809 AND S809GX AT MIDDLE SECTION

...................................................................................................................................................... 102

FIGURE 62. FRICTION COEFFICIENT CF OF TWO AIRFOILS AT MIDDLE SECTION ............. 103

FIGURE 63. S809GX CL WITH 3D CORRECTION LAW AT BLADE SECTION 30% ............ 104

FIGURE 64. S809GX CL WITH 3D CORRECTION LAW AT BLADE SECTION 46% ............ 105

FIGURE 65. S809GX CL WITH 3D CORRECTION LAW AT BLADE SECTION 63% ............ 105

FIGURE 66. THE POWER CALCULATED WITH 3D CORRECTION COMPARED WITH THE

EXPERIMENTAL DATA ................................................................................................................. 107

FIGURE 67. TORQUE OVER VELOCITY OF BLADE WITH REFERENCE AND OPTIMIZED

AIRFOIL......................................................................................................................................... 108

FIGURE 68. THRUST OVER VELOCITY OF BLADE WITH REFERENCE AND OPTIMIZED

AIRFOIL......................................................................................................................................... 108

FIGURE 69. CL OVER BLADE POSITION FOR TURBINE BLADE WITH REFERENCE AND

OPTIMIZED AIRFOIL ..................................................................................................................... 109

FIGURE 70. CD OVER BLADE POSITION FOR TURBINE BLADE WITH TWO AIRFOILS ........ 110

FIGURE 71. TANGENTIAL FORCE OVER BLADE POSITION FOR TURBINE BLADE WITH TWO

AIRFOILS ....................................................................................................................................... 110

FIGURE 72. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF BLADE WITH S809 WITH GR ......................... 114

FIGURE 73. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF BLADE WITH S809 WITH GR ......................... 114

FIGURE 74. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF BLADE WITH S809GX WITH VELOCITY.......... 114

FIGURE 75. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF BLADE WITH S809GX WITH VELOCITY.......... 115

xv

FIGURE 76. −𝑪𝒑 VALUES OF S809 COMPARED TO THE EXPERIMENT AT ALPHA = 12.2°

[194] ........................................................................................................................................... 116

FIGURE 77. −𝑪𝒑 VALUES OF S809 COMPARED TO THE EXPERIMENT AT ALPHA = 20°

[194] ........................................................................................................................................... 116

FIGURE 78. -𝑪𝒑 OF AIRFOIL S809 AND S809GX AT ALPHA=12.2° .............................. 117

FIGURE 79. 𝑪𝒑 AND CONTOUR LINE OF AIRFOIL S809 AT ALPHA=12.2° .................... 117

FIGURE 80. 𝑪𝒑 AND CONTOUR LINE OF AIRFOIL S809GX AT ALPHA=12.2° ............... 118

FIGURE 83. –𝑪𝒑 OF AIRFOIL S809 AND S809GX AT ALPHA=20° ................................ 120

FIGURE 84. 𝑪𝒑 AND CONTOUR LINE OF AIRFOIL S809 AT ALPHA=20° ........................ 121

FIGURE 85. 𝑪𝒑 AND CONTOUR LINE OF AIRFOIL S809 AT ALPHA=20° ........................ 121

xvi

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

AOA (Alpha) Angle of Attack

AEP Annual Energy Production

BEM Blade Element Method

pos Blade radius [m]

𝐷∗ Boundary layer thickness

CFD Computational fluid dynamics

DNA Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid

𝐶𝑑 Drag coefficient

FEM Finite Element Method

𝐶𝑑(𝑓) Friction drag coefficient

GA Genetic Algorithm

GR Glide Ratio

HAWT Horizontal axis wind turbine

𝑈𝑥 Incoming velocity in x direction

𝑈𝑦 Incoming velocity in y direction

𝐶𝑙 Lift coefficient

LLT Lifting Line Theory

LIC Line Integral Convolution

N.S. Navier-Stokes Equation

PDEs Partial Differential Equations

𝑃 Power [W]

𝐶𝑝 Pressure Coefficient

𝐶𝑝(𝑓) Pressure drag coefficient

RANS Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equation

rpm Rotation per minute

𝐶𝑓 Skin friction coefficient

𝐶𝑡 Thrust coefficient

TSR Tip Speed Ratio

𝑉 Velocity [m/s]

xvii

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX 2 ROTOR BLADE TABLE ...................................................................................... 147

APPENDIX 3 OPENFOAM DIRECTORY 0 .............................................................................. 148

APPENDIX 4 RFOIL RESULTS ............................................................................................... 152

APPENDIX 5 BASELINE COMPUTER ...................................................................................... 154

xviii

Chapter 1: Introduction

1 INTRODUCTION

The new energy technology which is alternative and sustainable for the

problems and limits of currently dominant energy sources, such as fossil fuels and

nuclear power, has been already discussed in many fields of societies [1, 2].

Among different kinds of alternative energy like solar, hydropower, biofuels,

etc., the wind energy has its own development history and portion to be placed as

one of the major alternative energy sources [3]. The installed capacity grows very

fast and its usage is constantly on the rise while the costs have been reduced,

Figure 1, Figure 2.

The increasing installed wind energy capacity can be contrasted with the

reduced usage of conventional energy technology, such as fuel oil, coal, and gas [4].

Although the conventional energy supply sources are largely subsidized, the wind

energy capacity added to the grid in a large number of markets around the world is

observed to be competitive against the conventional supply due to its cost stability,

advantageous utilities, and independent power producers, etc.

The globally increasing financial investment, the long-term goal of climate

negotiations promised by 186 countries in the Paris Agreement, and the

decreasing costs with the advancement of the technology are factors which

19

Chapter 1: Introduction

encourage the continuous growth of wind energy in the future. Figure 4 shows the

increasing wind energy installed capacity for each nation up to 2019, [4].

Figure 1. Installed Capacity [MW] of Wind Energy from IRENA data [3]

20

Chapter 1: Introduction

technology development is necessary to provide solutions for the challenges in this

field. Creative scientific contributions are responsible for improving the reliability

and predictability of this technology. This thesis also aims to explain a contribution

to improving efficiency in energy generation. Among many directions to achieve

this, the focus is on the increase of the wind turbine performance with the

emphasis of the aerodynamic aspects. The sectional shape of the blade, airfoil, is to

be investigated.

21

Chapter 1: Introduction

The geometric shape for mechanical force generation from the motion between

the curvature of an airfoil and the surrounding airflow is called the airfoil [5]. The

power production of a wind turbine is affected by the geometry of the blade

airfoils. Because the lifting efficiency is influenced by the airfoil, which impacts the

productivity of the energy conversion of the turbine [66].

The curved plate shapes which contribute to different kinds of machines

described by John Smeaton and H.F. Phillip were mentioned as the first reference

of the airfoil shape [6, 7], Figure 4. The birds’ wing shape observed by Otto

Lilienthal inspired the invention of the first airplane by the Wright brothers [8],

Figure 5. Santos-Dumont and Louis Bl𝑒́ riot made airfoils with slight camber [9, 10].

The advantages of a thick airfoil advantage were discovered by Ludwig Prandtl

through mathematical description and wind tunnel tests in 1917 [11]. Specific

airfoil families were generated by the U.S. National Advisory Committee for

Aeronautics (NACA) in the 1930s, and still influence airfoil design in today’s

applications [12], Figure 6. Eastman Jacobs proposed an airfoil design to generate

the required pressure distribution, which was opposite to the conventional

procedure. A higher Glide Ratio and smaller drag resulted from this method after

an increase in the laminar flow of the airfoil [13].

Different airfoil types have continuously been designed. The airfoil used in wind

turbine blade design was first adopted from the shapes used in aeronautic

applications. In 1993, Hansen and Butterfield developed an airfoil series for HAWT

blades with thin airfoils on the tip and a thick airfoil for the root [14]. After the

critical adverse effect of roughness on of the sensitivity was found, the necessity

for airfoils specially designed for wind turbine blades arose. The U.S. National

Research Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an airfoil series for the stall-

regulated, variable-pitch control wind turbine in 1987. The SERI airfoils [15] were

included in this series. Airfoils with low sensitivity to roughness, Gurney flaps and

trailing edge control were developed by the team at the Technical University of

Delft [16]. Airfoils with higher aerodynamic efficiency and a slender blade shape

were produced by the Risø group [17]. The tip region of the airfoil was numerically

22

Chapter 1: Introduction

roughness effect, structural stability, and moderate stall generation were found to

be the factors necessary for airfoils, especially for wind turbine blades.

For an airfoil design which contributes to a high and stable performance of wind

turbines, the codes developed by Eppler and Somers in the 1980s, XFOIL, started

to be used [19]. The stall region prediction accuracy of XFOIL was increased by

RFOIL, developed in 2003 by Timer and van Rooij of the TUDelft team. These were

important developments in designing airfoils, especially in the operating range of

wind turbines [20].

As mentioned above, higher aerodynamic efficiency, insensitivity to the

roughness effect, structural stability and smooth post-stall exhibition, etc, are

required for efficient wind turbine airfoil design. To satisfy these requirements,

this study selected boundary layer control of wind turbine airfoils, inspired by the

boundary layer manipulation of airplane airfoils by Eastman Jacob [13].

23

Chapter 1: Introduction

24

Chapter 1: Introduction

Codes for wind turbines

The numerical codes for wind turbines are used for the evaluation, prediction,

and specification of the performance and design of the turbines [21]. The

atmospheric conditions, aerodynamic forces on the wind turbine structure,

mechanical component dynamics, and the conversion of different parameters can

be modelled by the codes [22, 23, 24]. The results from the model codes have been

validated and verified for reliability by different researchers [25, 26, 27].

For the inflow and turbulent wind model, the turbulent intensity, shear stress,

mean hub height, wind speed, and various statistical values in the atmospheric

environment are necessary as input for the description of the turbulent flow field

and wind speed across the rotor. The values obtained from the model are used to

determine the aerodynamic loads on the wind turbine structure in aerodynamic

design codes [23]. The loads on the whole system are also generated from the

modelled structural dynamics, the control system. The dynamic responses are put

into the fatigue life model codes, which improves the wind turbine design in

accordance with the acceptance criteria [24]. The codes are actively interfaced

with each other as shown in Figure 7 [21].

This research uses various codes in different programs. Among many available

codes to estimate the wind turbine performance, this research utilizes the codes

which are as free as possible to lower the research costs. The airfoils are analysed

by the codes in the software XFOIL, which uses the analysis type of the viscous-

inviscid 2D panel method [19]. The software RFOIL, which is an upgraded version

of XFOIL with added terms in the equations for 3D description, are additionally

attached after the results from XFOIL for the added insurance of the assumptions

in the range of high angle of attack [20].

The resulting polar values are put into the Montgomerie and Viterna 360° polar

extrapolation [28]. The steady Blade Element Momentum (BEM) simulation of the

QBEM module is the next step for blade and turbine designs in the software QBlade

[29] based on the polar results of the previous steps. The 3D correction laws [30]

25

Chapter 1: Introduction

with an optimized airfoil compared with the reference airfoil.

The first consideration of the 3D rotational effect on the prediction of wind

turbine performance is from the work of Himmelskamp [34], which showed a

higher lift coefficient of the fan in the rotation. The higher lift coefficients were

also found in the experiments of Ronsten and Bruining [35, 36]. A prediction model

of 3D rotation with the Navier-Stokes equation was proposed by Hansen [37]. The

Navier-Stokes equation was developed into the quasi-3D equation, which includes

the viscous-inviscid interaction, by Snel [38, 39]. The quasi-3D models were

validated by Soerensen and Shen [40,41].

The rotational viscous influence on wind turbine blades was investigated

through the quasi-3D Navier-Stokes equation [42]. It was derived from the

variables of the Navier-Stokes equation written in cylindrical coordinates of the

rotating frame of reference [43,44]. The derived equations, which are the

26

Chapter 1: Introduction

continuity equation and the momentum equations for the peripheral, radial and

axial directions, were integrated along the radial direction with some assumptions,

which were checked by the fully 3D Navier-Stokes equations [45]. The model

indicated that the local chord and radius ratio and the twist angle of the blades

were related to the 3D rotational effects. Furthermore, Computational Fluid

Dynamics (CFD) studies for 3D rotational effects on wind turbine performance

were carried out by Duque [46], Le Pape, and Lecanu [47], Johansen [48] and

Bangga [49]. The numerical simulations were compared with the experimental

data for validation [70], Figure 8.

The physics of 3D rotation of the wind turbine is summarized as follows. The

hub parts of blades are the initiation point for the rotational effect of the complex

rotating flow [50]. At a high angle of attack under post-stall conditions [51], the

flow on the hub parts has more enhanced rotational characteristics. The secondary

flow is generated from the root section of the blade and the centrifugal force

moves the separated flow towards the middle section of the blade with developing

flow in the radial direction to become the radial flow component [42]. The inertial

forces of rotation, or Coriolis force, work to generate the flow near to the blade

walls to delay the stall effect during the rotating motion [42,52].

The Coriolis force was the main element for reducing the separation, rather than

the influence of centrifugal pumping on separation reduction according to

conventional expectations [42,53].

Figure 8. The wake generated by 3D rotation of the NREL Phase VI wind turbine [70]

27

Chapter 1: Introduction

The purpose of optimization is to determine the most efficient solutions among

alternatives in given problems. Although the optimization methods can be

variously categorized, the non-gradient and gradient optimizations are mentioned

as two large subdivisions based on the gradient of the objective functions [54,55].

The usage of optimization methods has increased in recent decades for solving

problems in wind turbine performance. Gradient-based and non-gradient based

optimization and meta-heuristic methods such as the Genetic Algorithm and

Particle Swarm Optimization are the major optimization methods in this respect

[56].

The gradient optimization method is used to find the local minimum of the

function needs. The related equations are to be differentiable and the calculation

processes for the solutions are faster than in the non-gradient cases, which causes

low robustness [57]. However, the disadvantage of convergence during the

processes requires adjustment of the design parameter. For instance, Sequential

Linear Programming (SPL) was used for better optimization convergence in site-

specific wind turbine design [58]. The Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP)

based optimizer was also utilized in a multidisciplinary design feasible (MDF)

process for the end unit cost reduction of electricity for a specific location [59].

Central differencing and a multi-start approach for improving the convergence

accuracy of the algorithm were adopted in studies to understand the cases which

require specific objectives and constraints [60]. They have been used for the

improvement of wind turbine design with consideration of different aspects. Liao

searched for the optimum solution of the minimum blade mass for reducing cost

production through an improved PSO algorithm [62]. Chen combined finite

element analysis and the particle swarm algorithm for optimizing the composite

structures of wind turbine blades [63].

On the other hand, non-gradient optimization algorithms can be run without the

differentiable equations. The design space of the problem is searched for the

optimal values within the global unit. Particle Swam Optimization (PSO) is one of

the major non-gradient optimization algorithms for wind turbine design solutions

[61].

28

Chapter 1: Introduction

method in wind turbine design. The fitness level of the candidate solution can be

calculated for many different sorts of problems, which is also used for finding new

designs of wind turbine airfoil shapes. The starting point of the algorithm is the

population unit, which consists of different solution individuals. It is a probabilistic

operation, rather than deterministic, which is advantageous in searching for global

solutions [66]. Diveux utilized the GA in grid-connected wind turbine system

optimization with a coupled components system in a non-linear way [64]. The GA

was also used for solving the discrete continuous multi-objective formulations in

wind turbine blade optimization by Jureczko [65]. The accuracy of the GA was

increased by the extended compact genetic algorithm (ECGA), designed by Liu for

reducing the population size and function evaluations [66]. Another case of the GA

hybridized with an inverse design method to deduce the design parameters of a

wind turbine for maximizing annual energy production was reported by Selig and

Coverstone-Carroll [67].

Although the GA has been used in different fields of wind turbine design as

outlined above and reported in the literature [68], airfoil optimization with

consideration of the boundary layer, especially the laminar boundary layer region,

has not considered much attention, to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is

because of the previously stressed limit of the laminarization on airfoils in airplane

blades [69]. The possibility and the validity of boundary layer control by the airfoil

design through shaping by GA optimization will be discussed in the following

sections.

CFD Simulation

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) realizes the calculation and visualization

of the flow fields around the wind turbine system. A deeper understanding of the

flow phenomena and the cost-saving of experiments are possible through CFD

calculations [71]. The physical model of the flow represents the flow effects more

accurately than the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method. For example, the

29

Chapter 1: Introduction

larger unit such as a wind farm [73], acoustic effect improvements [74], etc.

The backbone equations of the CFD calculations are the Euler equations of

motion for inviscid flow and the Navier-Stokes equations of motion for viscous

flow. The time-step resolved simulations perform unsteady process investigations

[71]. Any section of the flow volume, especially at a location where access to

measurements is difficult, can be suitably chosen for visualization by the CFD

method. If reasonable boundary conditions, an acceptable period of computing

time, and additional efforts to include intense modelling on stalling are considered

properly for steady and unsteady cases, the simulation results can be close to

reality [75, 76].

30

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.4 Motivation

This study proposes a way to increase the aerodynamic performance of HAWT

through airfoil optimization with the objective of a higher Gliding Ratio number

and the larger region of the laminar boundary layer. The Genetic Algorithm is used

for the airfoil design. The BEM and 3D rotation augmentation corrections are used

for the designed wind turbine power production. The difference of the fluid flow

over the changed airfoil shape is visualized by the CFD, OpenFoam. The question of

the aerodynamic advantage of laminar boundary layer expansion by the shape

change of the blade airfoil in a 3D rotating turbine is answered.

Recently, airfoil design history from airplane wings to wind turbine blades

reached a stagnation point, especially the design considering the laminar boundary

layer, based on the author’s literature review. Although laminar boundary layer

enlargement had been tried for the airfoils of aeronautic wings, research on the

airfoils of wind turbine blades for laminar layer expansion is rare. This is due to

the previous results, which question the limits of the laminar layer found in

airplane airfoils. Furthermore, atmospheric turbulence is usually mentioned as

destroying the extended laminar boundary layer of an airfoil in a 3D rotating wind

turbine. This makes research on the laminar boundary layer in wind turbine blades

a non-attractive topic.

Despite the previously mentioned research trend, this study focuses on

optimizing wind turbine airfoils for a larger laminar boundary layer for higher

aerodynamic performance. This reversed direction of study is based on the

serendipitous example of Eastman Jacobs, who successfully introduced the laminar

airfoil in supersonic aeronautic applications.

Moreover, the relationship between the physics of 3D rotational aerodynamics

performance and the boundary layer of the airfoils in wind turbines is investigated.

This physical connection is hypothesized as the reason behind the advantage of the

laminar boundary layer enlargement around the airfoil of wind turbine blades. It

also tries to compensate for the lack of knowledge about the laminar boundary

layer with consideration of 3D rotation augmentation in wind turbines. The results

from the 3D calculations, which provide a more precise prediction than 2D polar

31

Chapter 1: Introduction

codes such as BEM, suggest the possible future role of unrevealed physical

knowledge about the interaction between the specifically shaped airfoil and

rotational augmentation.

To provide greater accessibility to these physical questions for many readers,

author-coded algorithms and cost-free software such as the XFOIL, RFOIL, 3D

correction codes, OpenFoam, Qblade are used.

Chapter 2 Selected Theoretical Aspects explains the relevant theories from the

airfoil to the performance of wind turbines. Chapter 3, Methods Employed,

explains the detailed procedure used to get the results presented in this study.

Chapter 4, Results and Discussion, illustrates and interprets the results. Chapter 5

describes the conclusion and outlook for compensating the limit of this work

connected to further work. References are listed in Chapter 6, followed by the

Appendices in Chapter 7.

32

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

2 SELECTED THEORETICAL

ASPECTS

2.1.1 Airfoil design

Wind turbine airfoils should be designed with consideration of structural and

aerodynamic aspects, Figure 9. When the blades are divided into root, middle, and

tip parts, structural stability is mainly required for the root part, whereas

aerodynamic considerations are dominant for the tip part [14, 15].

For aerodynamic efficiency, the ratio of lift and drag coefficients or Glide Ratio

(GR) should be as high as possible for good turbine performance with a low

sensitivity effect [21]. Moreover, the airfoil should be designed with consideration

of the stall situation [20, 39]. As the stall can be abrupt and undesirable vibrations

can be induced on the blade, the transition and separation of the airfoil should be

designed to move gradually when the angle of attack increases [50]. The angle of

attack can change abruptly in the case of wind gusts, so the airfoil can be in the

stall or pre-stall zone [139, 140]. Therefore, stable performance at an off-design

angle of attack is required to be maintained [21].

Considering structural stability, appropriate thickness of the airfoil and the

chord-wise location of the maximum thickness should be distributed along the

blades about the necessary structural parameters such as blade strength and

stiffness [162].

With respect to the moment coefficient, small values are desired for reduced

control force. The airfoil types along the blade span-wise direction should be

distributed to have similar values of the moment coefficient for the prevention of

irregular performance of the wind turbine rotor [163, 164]. This supports the

33

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

reason for the trend in wind turbine airfoil development as the series of airfoils

family [18]. The sensitivity of the airfoil to roughness can be controlled by laminar

flow extension for the efficiency of an airfoil in clean conditions [165].

Aerodynamics

Understanding the flow around the airfoil is necessary for the design of the

airfoil with the desired objectives. The airflow around the airfoil generates the

forces on the body. According to the direction of the velocity of the flow, the lift and

drag forces are determined. The lift force is perpendicular to the velocity direction

whereas the drag is parallel to it.

In general, a minimum pressure point is close to the leading edge of the airfoil

upper surface. When the pressure decreases from the leading edge to the

minimum pressure point, the pressure distribution is called a favourable pressure

gradient. On the other hand, from the minimum point to the trailing edge of the

airfoil, the distribution becomes the adverse pressure gradient. When the flow

loses its momentum to overcome this increasing pressure region, the flow is

separated.

The equation (1) is used to define the pressure distribution around the airfoil.

The local pressure is 𝑝, the free stream static pressure is 𝑝∞ , and the free stream

dynamic pressure is 𝑞∞ .

34

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

𝒑 − 𝒑∞

𝑪𝒑 =

𝒒∞ (1)

To solve the fluid motion around an airfoil in 2D, the two components of a

coordinate system are needed. The normal velocity is the y-axis and the tangential

velocity is the x-axis. The velocity component of the span-wise direction, the z-axis,

is equal to be zero. The motion of fluid over an airfoil can also be described by the

Navier-Stokes equations [166].

The pressure distributions on the upper and lower sides of airfoils are calculated

through the velocities over the airfoil. Based on the pressure distribution, the net

force exerted on the airfoil from the airflow can be found. The net force vector has

two component vectors, one is perpendicular to the airfoil chord line and the other

is parallel to it. As mentioned in the first paragraph, the lift and drag force vector

can be found by decomposing the net force vector of the airfoil with the reference

direction of the flow velocity around the airfoil.

The free stream wind velocity is denoted as 𝑉∞ . The L is the lifting force and the

force parallel to 𝑉∞ is called the drag force, D. The lift and drag coefficients are

calculated with the lift and drag force divided by the dynamic force when the 𝜌 is

the air density and 𝑐 is the chord length of an airfoil [21], Figure 10.

𝑳

𝑪𝑳 = (2)

𝟏 𝟐

𝟐 𝝆𝑽∞ 𝒄

𝑫

𝑪𝒅 = (3)

𝟏 𝟐

𝟐 𝝆𝑽∞ 𝒄

The parameter α is the angle of attack (Alpha), the angle between the chord-line

and free fluid stream 𝑉∞ . The Reynolds number based on chord length c, flow speed

𝑐𝑉

and kinematic viscosity 𝜈 of flow is 𝑅𝑒 = .

𝜈

The ratio between the flow speed V and the speed of sound a is called the Mach

𝑉

number, 𝑀𝑎 = . The coefficients for lift, drag, and moment, 𝐶𝐿 , 𝐶𝐷 and 𝐶𝑚 ,

𝑎

35

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

Boundary layer

Dissimilar to the bulk flow around the airfoil where the airflow isn’t influenced

by the viscous forces close to the surface of the airfoil, there is the thin layer close

to the wall exists. The boundary layer is the thin flow region near to the wall

region, where the viscous effect is dominant. The overall fluid flow at high

Reynolds number can be divided into the bulk of the flow region, where the

viscosity can be neglected, and the thin boundary layer where the viscosity needs

to be considered [167].

Inside the boundary layer, the flow can be divided into two parts, the laminar

and turbulent regions. The fluid flow inside the boundary layer is normally laminar

flow at first. Then, due to the viscosity and nonlinear inertial forces, it makes a

transition into turbulent flow, which is chaotic and has higher dynamic force.

Laminar flow has low dynamic force than turbulent flow [167]. The roughness of

surface, free stream flow velocity, and the roughness of the airfoil surface, etc.

influence on the position of the transition. Moreover, the Reynolds number which

makes the boundary layer transition is determined by the geometry and surface

curvature of the airfoil.

At the laminar boundary layer where the velocity of the flow is considerably

lower than at some distance from the wall, the thickness of the layer is increased

36

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

along the plate or wall geometry [168]. The distance of the boundary layer is

arbitrarily taken as the point where the velocity reaches a certain percentage of

the outer velocity, for example, 99%. Through the equilibrium between the inertial

forces and the friction forces, the boundary layer thickness can be estimated [169].

For a plate of length x, with velocity of the outer flow 𝑈∞ , dynamic viscosity 𝜇,

kinematic viscosity 𝜈, and density of water 𝜚, the solution for the boundary layer

thickness δ is as follows [167]:

𝝁𝒙 𝝂𝒙

𝛅~√ =√ (4)

𝝔𝑼∞ 𝑼∞

The boundary layer thickness can be also estimated through the concept of the

displacement thickness, which is the thickness of the outer flow displaced by the

boundary layer. The displacement thickness 𝛿1 is expressed as

𝐲=𝟎

Where 𝑈 is the velocity on the outer edge of the boundary layer at position x.

The wall shear stress 𝜏𝑤 and the entire friction drag of the boundary layer region

can be calculated from the thickness value, δ. The wall shear stress is inversely

proportional to the boundary layer thickness. Therefore, the thinner the boundary

layer thickness, the higher is the wall shear stress [167].

The entire friction drag can be determined by integration of the wall shear stress

at position x. Therefore, reduction of the drag is achievable by manipulation of the

stress, friction, in the near-wall region [168].

The friction drag D of a plate wetted on the side with breadth b and length l is

𝒍

𝑫 = 𝒃 ∫ 𝛕𝐰 (𝐱)𝐝𝐱 (6)

𝟎

37

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

The skin friction drag is the friction between the drag between the fluid and the

surface and comes from the friction of the fluid against the skin of the object

through which fluid is moving. It can be thought of as the interaction between the

fluid and the skin of the body and is related to the area of the surface contacted by

the fluid. The skin friction coefficient is calculated from the wall shear stress and

the free-stream dynamic pressure according to the following equation, which is

valid in the laminar boundary layer region [167, 168]:

𝝉𝒘 (𝒙) 𝟎. 𝟔𝟔𝟒 𝒍

𝒄𝒇 = 𝝔 = √ (7)

𝑼 𝟐

∞ √𝑹𝒆 𝒙

𝟐

The boundary layer changes into a turbulent region from a laminar region at the

so-called ‘critical point’, x = 𝑥𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 . The critical Reynolds number which contains

the information on the fluid at the transition point is

𝑼𝒙

𝑹𝒆𝒙𝒄𝒓𝒊𝒕 = ( ) (8)

𝒗 𝒄𝒓𝒊𝒕

Although the transition from a laminar to a turbulent regime takes a finite length

within the boundary layer region, the transition point is assumed to be a certain

point. The freedom of the boundary layer from the perturbation of outer flow

influences the numerical value of 𝑅𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 [167].

Investigations on the laminar-turbulent transition in the boundary layer were

first carried out by Van der Hegge Zijnen [170]. The great increase in the boundary

layer thickness and wall shear stress are most noticeable in the transition region

[167].

At the turbulent boundary layer, the Reynolds number increases with the slowly

decreasing skin-friction and drag coefficients. In this region, the viscous sublayer is

the characteristic regime only in the turbulent regime. The random fluctuating

motion and clear forces of friction make the turbulent boundary layer free from

the influence of viscosity, which impacts on the laminar boundary layer [167, 171].

38

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

It is possible to manipulate the boundary layer around the airfoil by the design

of the geometry which causes the different distribution of the viscous dominant

flow region. The methods for altering the boundary layer are generally called

boundary layer control. Transition point control for increasing the laminar layer

causes a reduction in the skin friction whereas the separation control is to prevent

the separation to reduce the pressure drag [172].

Depending on the requirements of the controller, the methods can be

categorized into passive and active control methods. The uniform blowing, suction,

distributed roughness and vortex generators belong to passive methods. The

synthetic jets, oscillatory blowing and suction, and the heating wall belong to

active methods [173].

For example, the boundary layer suction of an airfoil in an active way stabilizes

the laminar region and postpones the turbulent part. A higher maximum lift

coefficient is acquired through postponed turbulent boundary layer separation.

The general growth of the boundary layer is also suppressed, and the boundary

layer remains attached to the surface, preventing separated flow [167, 173].

Likewise, when the transition of the boundary layer is postponed, the laminar

boundary layer can be enlarged and stabilized. The instability of the laminar region

is decreased and the wave which causes the transition from the laminar to the

turbulent boundary layer, which is called the Tollmien-Schlichting wave is

prevented [174]. Due to the friction and pressure drag reduction from the laminar

layer stabilization, the profile drag can also be decreased [167, 174].

The velocity gradient of laminar flow is smaller than that of turbulent flow. The

shear stress τ is based on the velocity gradient:

𝝏𝒖

𝛕 = 𝛍( ) (9)

𝝏𝒚

The friction drags and the skin-friction coefficient including the τ element are

smaller in the laminar boundary layer region [167].

39

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

The thickness of the laminar layer is also smaller than that with turbulent flow.

This thickness difference leads to a larger resisting force from the greater

displacement in the turbulent region. The resisting force leads to the pressure

drag, which is largely found in the turbulent region. Therefore, the smaller

thickness of the laminar boundary layer has a smaller pressure drag than for

turbulent flow [167, 175].

For a more stabilized laminar region and postponed transition of the boundary

layer at the airfoil surface, manipulation of the geometry of the airfoil is possible.

Boundary layer control by changing the leading edge shape was carried out by

some researchers [176], and the friction and boundary layer pressure distributions

are influenced by the surface shape of the airfoil [167]. This can represent a

passive way of boundary layer control, as the controller is not needed and physical

limitations in the method exist [173]. The enlarged laminar boundary layer length

with a delayed transition point causes changes in the nature of the disturbances

and stability of the laminar boundary layer in a positive direction, which decreases

the general drag on the boundary layer. The pressure gradients of the flow over

the surface are also controlled by airfoil shaping as it is connected to the stability

of the laminar boundary layer and changes the thickness of the boundary layer due

to the changed shape of the geometry [167, 176,178].

The fluid particles in the boundary layer are affected by the pressure

distribution at the outer flow. The strong friction forces interrupt the fluid

particles to overcome the increased pressure at a certain part of the geometry

[168]. However, when the pressure distribution exposed on the boundary layer is

very strong so as particles are unable to move along the direction of fluid flow, the

movement of particles is directed to the opposite side of the fluid flow. This fluid

flow situation with changed direction is called separation [77, 167, 177].

When the separation occurs with adequately increased pressure, the point of

separation can be estimated from the value of the wall shear stress, 𝜏𝑤 . As the

40

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

velocity gradient perpendicular to the wall becomes zero at the separation point,

the wall shear stress disappears [167, 168]:

𝝏𝒖

𝝉𝒘 = 𝝁( ) =𝟎 (10)

𝝏𝒚 𝒘

The backflow near the wall causes an increased thickness and strength of the

boundary layer. Furthermore, the mass of the boundary layer is moved towards

the outer fluid flow. Unless high momentum is put into the separated flow to

overcome the exerted adverse pressure gradient, the separated flow is maintained

[167]. Under this adverse pressure gradient, the laminar boundary layer region

separates from the surface, then it becomes transitional. When the separated layer

reattaches on the surface again, it forms a Laminar Separation Bubble (LSB) [179].

It is formed after the suction peak and the flow becomes turbulent after the

reattached region. As the turbulent boundary region with increased momentum

makes the flow attached before it reaches the trailing edge.

The LSB structure has mainly two different sections. The first section consists of

relatively slow circulatory flow with bubble formation. The second section has the

free shear layer and the separated shear layer has the transition point made by the

magnified disturbances generated in the unstable laminar layer area [181]. The

momentum transportation from the mixing dynamics makes the flow reattach on

41

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

the surface, Figure 11. The flow separation, transition, and reattachment are found

in the laminar separation bubbles [180].

From experimental data, the variables that influence the physical dimensions of

the separation bubble found to be Reynolds number, external disturbances and the

angle of attack [181]. The experiment results of Diwan and Ramesh showed that

the length and height of the bubble structure became larger as the flow velocity

increased. The height change was greater than the length change [182]. The

structure of the bubble also relied on the Reynolds number of the separated

boundary shear layer. The structure also depended on the parameters from the

pressure distribution in the region of the separation bubbles. The low-speed

velocity with low Reynolds number results in the longer laminar separation bubble

whereas the high-speed velocity with high Reynolds number causes the shorter

separation bubble [180, 183].

In the case of fluid flow around a shaped body such as an airfoil, additional

pressure forces on the geometry occur. From the leading edge of the airfoil surface,

a laminar boundary layer is formed, and the laminar-turbulent transition region is

developed after the critical point and the region after the transition region

becomes turbulent. A sudden large change in the drag coefficient of the boundary

layer region is found at the laminar-turbulent transition as a noticeable

characteristic, Figure 12. It was first mentioned by Eiffel, according to Chanetz

[189].

42

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

The following three characteristics found in the general boundary layer over the

plate can also be valid over the boundary layer on an airfoil. First, the boundary

layer thickness δ(𝑥) increases when the wall shear stress 𝜏𝑊 decreases. Second,

the turbulent boundary layer thickness increase downstream is larger than that for

the laminar boundary layer. Third, the pressure distribution of the outer flow is

important in the formation of the boundary layer [167, 184].

The inviscid outer flow increases the pressure distribution on the outer edge of

the boundary layer developed along the surface of the geometry and the pressure

imposed on the boundary layer by the outer flow depends on the position of the

airfoil surface [167, 168]. The airfoil, which is shaped for the larger laminar

boundary layer region at a certain angle of attack, causes a different pressure

distribution on the surface from the outer flow. This leads to smaller drag

compared with the non-shaped geometry [10, 167].

The pressure in the outer flow critically influences the position of the laminar-

turbulence transition. In the area of the airfoil nose where the pressure is minimal,

the boundary layer is laminar and the region with rising pressure induces a change

to the turbulent from the laminar region. The energizing momentum in the flow on

the turbulent boundary layer is larger than that for the laminar boundary layer

[167, 168, 184].

The upper side of the airfoil shows a more dramatic change in pressure than the

bottom side, hence, the possibility of separation is high at the upper part of

geometry [167]. In the non-separated flow situation, the lift-producing motion is

made from the outer flow. When the flow is separated, the lift-producing flow is

destroyed due to the greatly increased drag from the separation. Prevention of

separation is necessary to reduce the increased drag and maintain the lift-

producing flow motion [177, 178].

The angle of attack of inflow on the airfoil is also related to the separation

development [5, 167, 168]. At a low angle of attack, the boundary layer region of

flow over the airfoil is attached to the airfoil surface. The lift coefficient is

increased as the angle of attack increases due to the lift-producing force from the

pressure difference between the upper and the bottom surfaces of the airfoil. After

the maximum lift coefficient is generated, the boundary layer is detached because

43

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

the fluid particles cannot overcome the pressure gradient at the higher angle of

attack [185]. The detached boundary layer generates turbulence and separation,

which breaks the general pressure difference [186]. The drag increases during this

flow separation and a stall situation [167, 168].

Evolutionary computation

To shape the airfoil with the most desirable aerodynamics around the geometry,

the Genetic Algorithm optimization is used in this study. This optimization belongs

to evolutionary computation.

The problems of uncertainty, randomness, and non-linear interactions can be

solved by the concept of natural selection [78], through which biological

individuals survive [56].

When organisms live together in a certain ecosystem, the individuals compete

for limited resources within a given time. For individuals that are more fitted to the

demands of their environment, the possibility of their survival is higher than for

others who have a lower level of fitness. The organisms with a higher survival

possibility have more offspring than the others with a lower survival probability,

which leads the fittest organism types to survive in that ecosystem more

persistently than the others. In this process, the group with higher fitness and

survival rates is selected according to the requirements of the environment. In a

longer time perspective, the organism groups are thought to evolve into the group

with individuals with a higher fitness for the environmental demands, with

eliminations of the groups of individuals with lower fitness [79].

This principle is imitated by Evolutionary Computation (EC) with application of

biological concepts in an algorithm with the purpose of searching for optimal

solutions in certain scientific or engineering problems [80]. The algorithm is

programmed to move towards the best solution which is available within the

possible individual solutions within a given time. The traditional methods find the

solution with heuristically or randomly when EC selects the possible solution with

44

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

robustness compared with the traditional methods. The advantages of EC are the

simplicity of its approach to problems, its robust adaptation to changing

circumstances, and its flexibility for application in problem-solving processes in

different fields [56].

When the EC solves the problem, the user chooses the representation scheme to

make the boundary of the set of solutions for the algorithm so as to have a search

space for the solution. The initial population is generated with the composition of

several individual solutions. The individuals in the population are evaluated

separately by a fitness function, which is formulated to estimate the fitness level of

each individual in the population. Based on calculated fitness values [81], superior

individuals with higher fitness levels are chosen to be parents. The new

individuals, as offspring, are generated from the parents using reproduction

operators. After the evaluation of offspring fitness values, the survivors are

selected to form a new population, replacing the old population. The steps are

iteratively repeated until the solution and process meet the termination criteria.

The selection method sets the number of parents, offspring, and individuals to

survive for elaborating the evaluation steps in the algorithm [56, 78, 80].

Examples of EC are Ant colony optimization, Artificial immune system,

Evolutionary algorithm, Particle swarm optimization, Swarm intelligence, and

Genetic Algorithm. Among these, the Genetic Algorithm is used in this study as this

method is useful for airfoil shapes to be placed in a gene format [187].

Genetic algorithm

Unlike the gradient method which searches the local minimum of the function,

the non-gradient method finds the global minimum with the stochastic methods.

Because Genetic Algorithm is within the non-gradient method, it converges its final

values among the population, rather than a single point [54, 55]. As the objective of

this study is to find the proper shape of the airfoil, the Genetic Algorithm is chosen

also to have the possible solution designs as the population.

45

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

The algorithm set begins with the concept of the gene. The genes in biological

organisms are structurally independent of other genes [82], Figure 13. A fixed-

length bit string is used as the representation in a traditional genetic algorithm

when the string is evaluated as the combination of elements with structural

characteristics of the solution with no interactions with other strings [56].

The strings are reproduced by several reproduction operators. The most

frequently used operators are crossover and mutation [83]. The crossover uses

two strings as parents and swap them to form a new string with sequences from

parent springs. Through the mutation operator, a single bit in the string is flipped

to make new offspring strings. The parents are selected probabilistically according

to their fitness level regarding the environment and the generated offspring

replaces the parents [84].

understanding of the Genetic Algorithm. The biological reproduction and genetic

foundation of phenotypes were thought to be a process like liquid blending before

Mendel’s theory of particulate genes [85]. It replaces the defective and ambiguous

concept of inheritance blending when it comes to sexual reproduction. Mendel

suggested the term “allele”, the variant form of a given gene as the unit for specific

phenotype characteristics, of the gene rather than liquid concept [86], Figure 10.

Based on a particulate gene unit, natural selection changes the proportion of

alleles in a population with advantageous mutation for fixing the population to

have a higher survival rate with proper alleles [81]. The particulate nature of genes

46

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

also provides the conceptual foundation for the prediction of the improvement of

population phenotypes in biological reproduction processes to be seen as

evolution over generations [83]. The genetic makeup of new individuals in a

reproducing population is probabilistically selected results from the allele

composition of the previous generation [86]. Therefore, the particulate genes with

a different allele composition cause the stochasticity of generational development

in reproduction [87]. To provide a detailed biological background, following

section is provided.

Biological background

All morphological information is included in genes settled in chromosomes [88].

The chromosomes consist of Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA), Figure 14. The

chromosomes are divided into genes, which define the characteristics of species.

The alleles in genes are units to indicate a particular property of individuals. The

collection of all available alleles in genes is called the gene pool and decides the

probable variations for future generations. The gene pool size controls the degree

of variety of populations. The complete set of genes in an individual is termed the

genome [89].

Genetic Algorithm simplifies the concepts so that all genes are in the same

chromosome to make the genome and chromosome have the same meaning [56].

47

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

The total combination of genes is known as the genotype and the phenotype

depicts the decoded result of the genotype as a physical representation. The

selection of inheritance is based on phenotype and the unit of reproduction deals

with genotype recombination [90]. In complex biological species, the

chromosomes are usually settled with their copies to be diploid to allow a broader

diversity of alleles. On the other hand, a haploid consists of only one set of genes in

the chromosomes. The GA adopts the haploid system convenience in

implementation for computation [56, 91].

Parameterization

The first step in the design of a wind turbine airfoil is the mathematical

description of the airfoil structure, parameterization. Among various

parameterization methods for describing the shapes of airfoils, the B-spline is used

in this study [92], because of its broader application compared with other methods

such as orthogonal shape functions, linear combinations or the other spline

functions [93].

The spline functions are curves including a piecewise polynomial approximation

to make additional smoothness possible. Among various types of functions,

polynomial functions are mostly used in spline functions. The Joukowski

transformation, Hicks-Henne shape functions, splines, B-splines, non-uniform

rational B-splines, etc, are used for airfoil parameterization [97]. The B-spline is

shaped to curve closely to the given points, more smoothly than the other splines

[92, 93, 97].

The usefulness of the B-spline for describing airfoils can be appreciated from the

following examples. Fanjoy and Crossle used the B-spline with 21 design variables

in a method to describe any airfoils [94]. Viccini and Quagliarella also used the B-

spline for airfoil parameterization in a GA scheme [95]. Burgreen and Baysal made

use of B-spline series control points [96].

48

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

and conditions. When function F is a spline of degree 1 with the following three

conditions:

(2) F is continuous on [𝑎, 𝑏]

(3) The domain is partitioned as [𝑎 = 𝑡0 < 𝑡1 < 𝑡2 … < 𝑡𝑛 = 𝑏]

In each interval [𝑡𝑖 , 𝑡𝑖+1 ], F is a linear polynomial.

The B-spline, the basis of all splines, is numerically defined from setting an

infinite set of knots {𝑡𝑖 }:

{ 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝒕𝒊 = ∞ = − 𝐥𝐢𝐦𝒕−𝒊 (11)

𝒊→∞ 𝒊→∞

Depending on this set of knots, the B-spline is defined and its definition with

degree 0 is

𝟏 𝒕𝒊 ≤ 𝒙 < 𝒕𝒊+𝟏

𝑩𝟎𝒊 (𝒙) = { (12)

𝟎 𝒐𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒘𝒊𝒔𝒆

Any spline of degree 0, which is continuous from the right and is based on the

defined knots of the 0 degree B-spline, can be described as a linear combination of

the B-spline 𝐵𝑖0. If S corresponds to this case, it can be specified as

𝑺(𝒙) = 𝒃𝒊 ∑∞ 𝟎

𝒊=−∞ 𝑩𝒊 (𝒙) (14)

49

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

If 𝐵𝑖0 (𝑥) is set as a starting point, all the higher-degree B-splines can be

generated by recursive definition,

𝒙 − 𝒕𝒊 𝒕𝒊+𝒌+𝟏 − 𝒙

𝑩𝒌𝒊 (𝒙) = ( ) 𝑩𝒌−𝟏

𝒊 (𝒙) + ( ) 𝑩𝒌−𝟏 (𝒙) (𝒌 ≥ 𝟏) (15)

𝒕𝒊+𝒌 − 𝒕𝒊 𝒕𝒊+𝒌+𝟏 − 𝒕𝒊+𝟏 𝒊+𝟏

formulations is given in [92]. An example of B-spline representation is shown in

Figure 15.

50

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

Governing equation

The fluid flow and related phenomena can be described by partial or differential

equations. This section explains how airfoil flow visualization in this study is done

with the different CFD equations. The partial differential or integro-differential

equations cannot be solved by analytic methods. Therefore, the discretization

method is used to approximate the differential equations by algebraic equation

systems to make the equations solvable by computation [71].

The backbone equations for the CFD calculation are the Euler equations of

inviscid flow and the Navier-Stokes equation [99]. The unsteady process

investigation is done by time-step resolved simulation from CFD.

The Navier-Stokes equation is derived from the continuity equation of mass and

̅ and

momentum conservation. The equations below indicate the velocity vector V

divergence operator ∇ where 𝑢, 𝑣, 𝑤 refer to the velocity at the x, y, z axis,

respectively; 𝑝 refers to the pressure and 𝑓 refers to the friction with the viscous

force, 𝐹𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑠 [100].

̅ = 𝒖𝒙

𝐕 ̂ + 𝒗𝒚

̂ + 𝒘𝒛̂ (16)

𝝏(𝝆𝒖) 𝝏𝒑

̅) = −

+ 𝛁 · (𝝆𝒖𝑽 + 𝝆𝒇𝒙 + (𝑭𝒙 )𝒗𝒊𝒔𝒄𝒐𝒖𝒔 (17)

𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒙

𝝏(𝝆𝒗) 𝝏𝒑

̅) = −

+ 𝛁 · (𝝆𝒗𝑽 + 𝝆𝒇𝒚 + (𝑭𝒚 )𝒗𝒊𝒔𝒄𝒐𝒖𝒔 (18)

𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒚

𝝏(𝝆𝒘) 𝝏𝒑

̅) = −

+ 𝛁 · (𝝆𝒘𝑽 + 𝝆𝒇𝒛 + (𝑭𝒛 )𝒗𝒊𝒔𝒄𝒐𝒖𝒔 (19)

𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒛

Euler equations are derived with the condition of a steady-state flow to erase the

time partial derivatives and inviscid flow to eliminate viscous terms to have the

absence of body forces in x, y, z coordinates [100, 101].

𝝏𝒑

̅) = −

𝛁 · (𝝆𝒖𝑽 (20)

𝝏𝒙

51

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

𝝏𝒑

̅) = −

𝛁 · (𝝆𝒗𝑽 (21)

𝝏𝒚

𝝏𝒑

̅) = −

𝛁 · (𝝆𝒘𝑽 (22)

𝝏𝒛

For the airfoil 2D flow simulation, several methods are possible. The

aerodynamic and aeroelasticity characteristics for flow over an airfoil can be

acquired as constant values by using comparison of codes. The Reynolds-averaged

Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation is used for both compressible and incompressible

flow calculations.

For the turbulent model, the 𝑘 − ω SST model of Menter is frequently used and

transition is modelled with different types of models such as the 𝑒 𝑁 method, 𝑘 − ε

model, 𝑘 − ω SST model coupled with the γ equation LCTM of Menter. The

computation methods for different types of model combinations for higher

accuracy are explained in the reference [102].

Turbulence

To simulate the flow around an airfoil with a turbulent flow model, this study

uses the specific turbulence models. Before explaining the details about the model,

the general concept and the governing equations of a turbulent flow are

introduced in this section.

The turbulent flow was first recognized by Leonardo da Vinci, as seen in his

sketch book [103], and the descriptions of the turbulence were developed by

Boussinesq and Reynolds in the 19th century [104, 105]. The study was continued

by Prandtl, Taylor, Kolmogorov, Chapman, Tobak and Rotta, etc., in the 20th

century [107]. Turbulence modeling which describes the turbulent flow with the

statistical analyses was developed. The models mainly used the average of the

nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations [108, 109].

The Navier-Stokes equation for initiation point of turbulence modeling is

expressed as follows [106]:

52

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

𝜵·𝑼=𝟎 (23)

Where ∇ and Δ are the gradient and Laplace operator, respectively, 𝑈 indicates

𝜕

the velocity field of the fluid flow, subscript t stands for time differentiation, 𝜕𝑡, P is

For the turbulence expression, the Navier-tokes equation is rearranged with

Reynolds decomposition and body-force term cancellation, where Reynolds

decomposition is [112]

̅ + 𝒖′

𝑼=𝒖 (25)

The time averaging and spatial differentiation in the linear terms are done with

temporal averaging and differentiation of the left-hand side. The following

equation is the RANS equation for turbulence modeling [113]:

̅ 𝟐 + 𝛁 · ̅̅̅̅

𝛁·𝒖 𝒖′𝟐 = −𝛁𝒑

̅ + 𝝂𝚫𝒖

̅ (26)

𝑢′2 does not have an equation for its six independent

components, a “turbulence closure problem” arose; ̅̅̅̅

𝑢′2 is called the Reynolds

stress tensor [114]:

̅̅̅̅

𝒖′𝟐 ̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅̅

𝒖′𝒗′ 𝒖′𝒘′

̅̅̅̅

𝟐

𝒖′𝒗′ ̅̅̅̅

𝒖′ = ( ̅̅̅̅̅ 𝒗′𝟐 ̅̅̅̅̅̅

𝒗′𝒘′) (27)

𝒖′𝒘′ 𝒗′𝒘′ ̅̅̅̅̅

̅̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅̅ 𝒘′𝟐

𝝏 ̅

𝝏𝒑 𝟐

𝝏 ̅̅̅

𝒖 𝝏

𝒖𝒊 ̅̅̅𝒋 = − 𝝏𝒙 + 𝛎 𝝏𝒙 𝝏𝒙𝒊 − 𝝏𝒙 ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅

̅̅̅𝒖 𝒖′ 𝒊 𝒖′ 𝒋 , (i=1, 2, 3) (28)

𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝒊 𝒋 𝒋 𝒋

53

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

The RANS equations are usually used for turbulence flow modeling. The

equations of a certain model are mathematically easier to be solve than the

formulations describing reality. The complex formulation of the turbulence model

is a simplified description of the fluid flow in the reality.

The RANS models are classified in different ways. The number of additional

partial differential equations (PDEs) to be solved, besides the Navier-Stokes

equation, is one of the common standards for differentiation of models. The zero-,

one- and two-equation models are named from this standard. If there are no

additional differential equations to be solved, the model is called “algebraic”. The

opposite case is called the “differential” model.

The Boussinesq hypothesis is used in different types of models by relating the

turbulent shear stress to the mean flow strain rate, based on Newton’s law of

viscosity [117, 118]. The shear stress is proportional to the strain rate with

viscosity as the constant of proportionality according to Newton’s law of viscosity.

This led to the turbulent shear stress being proportional to the mean flow strain

rate [106]:

̅̅̅̅̅ ̅ 𝝏𝒗

𝟏 𝝏𝒖 ̅

𝒖′𝒗′ ~ ( + ) (29)

𝟐 𝝏𝒚 𝝏𝒙

results, the turbulent flow eddy viscosity 𝜐𝑇 is not supported by empirical results.

The turbulent shear stress with eddy viscosity results in the following hypothesis

[118]:

̅ 𝝏𝒗

𝝏𝒖 ̅

̅̅̅̅̅̅

−𝒖 ′ 𝒗′ = 𝝊 (

𝑻 + ) (30)

𝝏𝒚 𝝏𝒙

presumed to represent small-scale statistical flow behaviour, to the mean strain

rates and large-scale mean or statistical turbulent flow pattern. The eddy viscosity

𝜐𝑇 cannot be a constant, physical fluid property, and is a changeable parameter in

54

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

some fluid flow cases [120]. Moreover, the Reynolds stress tensor equations will

be developed with the time-averaging effect and vorticity effect. The RANS

equations are defective due to the aspects of time averaging, Reynolds

decomposition, generic form of the equation, and inequality with the time-

averaged Navier-Stokes equation [113].

The drawbacks of Reynolds decomposition, the absence of interactive small

scales in the RANS equations, the difference between RANS solutions and time-

averaged solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation also show the limitations of the

approach. This necessitates the modification of each model to improve the

accuracy [115, 116].

Among many turbulence models, the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) and 𝑘 − 𝜔 SST

model are used in this study for simulating fluid flow at the moderate and stall

angle of attack respectively. The models are incorporated in OpenFoam and their

accuracy in aerodynamic predictions has been proved. Especially, the advantage of

relative independence of the accuracy from the mesh number makes the SA model

more useful [188, 197].

The Spalart-Allmaras (SA) model is a one-equation turbulence model with the

advantage of a compromise between algebraic and two-equation models. It

provides sound results for various flow problems with numerical properties [121].

Fine grids are not necessary for the SA model, in contrast to the algebraic models

which demand finer grids for the velocity field gradient [104].

The model is principally a transport equation for the eddy viscosity. The

Reynolds stresses should be determined for the governing equations to be a closed

system. Based on the physical characteristics of turbulent flow, the terms were

assumed to describe diffusion, production and destruction of the turbulence [116].

As the eddy viscosity is a transportable scalar quantity, the following equation was

formulated as the transport equation, where 𝜐̃ is the working variable of the

turbulence model [119, 121]:

55

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

̃

𝝏𝝊 ̃

𝝏𝝊 𝟏 𝝏 ̃

𝝏𝝊 ̃ 𝝏𝝊

𝝏𝝊 ̃ ̃

𝝊

̃𝒋

+𝒖 = 𝒄𝒃𝟏 𝑺̃ 𝝊

̃+ [ ̃)

(( 𝝊 + 𝝊 ) + 𝒄𝒃𝟐 ] − 𝒄𝒘𝟏 𝒇𝒘 ( )𝟐

𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝝈 𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝒅 (31)

The first term on the right-hand side indicates production. In the model

assumptions, the eddy viscosity is considered as the capability of turbulent flow to

transport momentum. The production term is assumed to increase linearly with

the magnitude of the vorticity.

As the eddy viscosity assumption related to “level of activity” includes the

turbulent energy concept to build the destruction term, the third term on the right-

hand side is the destruction term. The faster-decaying motion in the outer part of

the boundary layer is expressed with the function 𝑓𝑤 [115, 116]. Because the

boundary layer conditions and the terms are incorporated in the model equations,

the SA model is independent of the cell number of the mesh compared to the other

models [197].

𝒌 − 𝝎 SST model

As the SA model has the limit on prediction at the higher angle of attack, the 𝑘 −

𝜔 SST model is used for the simulation at higher angle of attach. Although there are

many difficulties in the prediction of the stall flow at higher angle of attack regime

with different CFD models [198, 199, 200], the validated 𝑘 − 𝜔 SST simulation at

stall angle of attack (Alpha) = 20 ° of airfoil S809 [198] is based on the simulation

of this study.

The Menter 𝑘 − 𝜔 SST model has been upgraded from the previous 𝑘 − 𝜔

model by Wilcox. It is a two-equation eddy-viscosity model. The model applies 𝑘 −

𝜔 formulation in the boundary layer of the fluid and it also makes 𝑘 − 𝜀 model in

the free-stream. The increased accuracy on the prediction of the boundary layer,

adverse pressure gradients, and separating flow are accomplished by this model.

The k is for the turbulent kinetic energy and the omega is the speed of eddy

dissipation.

56

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

The two equations of the model for the turbulence kinetic energy and the

specific dissipation rate are written in (32) – (33). The closure coefficients and

auxiliary relations are found in [201, 202].

𝝏𝒌 𝝏𝒌 𝝏 𝝏𝒌

+ 𝑼𝒋 = 𝑷𝒌 − 𝜷∗ 𝒌𝝎 + [(𝝂 + 𝝈𝒌 𝝂𝑻 ) ] (32)

𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝝏𝒙𝒋

𝝏𝝎 𝝏𝝎 𝝏 𝝏𝝎 𝟏 𝝏𝒌 𝝏𝝎

+ 𝑼𝒋 = 𝜶𝑺𝟐 − 𝜷𝝎𝟐 + [(𝝂 + 𝝈𝝎 𝝂𝑻 ) ] + 𝟐(𝟏 − 𝑭𝟏 ) 𝝈𝝎𝟐 (33)

𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝝏𝒙𝒋 𝝎 𝝏𝒙𝒊 𝝏𝒙𝒊

Wind turbine power is produced by the interaction between the rotor and the

wind. Although a wind turbine is exposed to the wind with turbulent fluctuations,

the main elements to consider for wind turbine performance derive from the

aerodynamic forces calculated from the mean value of the incoming wind in design

theory [122].

The derivations for prediction of the steady-state wind turbine rotor

performance can be found in the analysis of Betz and Glauert in the 1930s,

considered to be the classical analysis of wind turbines [123]. The theoretical

performance limit is determined by idealized wind turbine rotor analysis. The

simple model of Betz and Glauert determines the power and thrust and the effect

of the rotor performance on the wind field of an idealized wind turbine rotor. The

linear momentum theory, which is the basis of the derivation, is from classical ship

propeller performance prediction [124].

The assumed control volume which surrounds the model wind turbine has the

boundaries of the stream tube and the two cross-sections of the stream tube.

The turbine is considered as an ‘actuator disc’ and pressure in the stream tube

through which the air is flowing is discontinued by the disc with some assumptions

[5]. The force of the wind on the wind turbine is opposite and equal to the net force

57

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

control volume [125], Figure 16.

If ν is the velocity for each position, 𝑣1 for incoming velocity and 𝑣2 for outer

velocity, 𝑝 is pressure, F is thrust force and A is the sectional area of the control

volume, the following reasoning for deduction of the relevant equations is possible.

Based on the conservation of linear momentum with the condition of one-

dimensional, incompressible, steady-state flow, the thrust force is calculated as

When

𝒅𝒎

𝒎̇ = = (𝝆𝑨𝒗)𝟏= (𝝆𝑨𝒗)𝟑 (steady-state flow) (35)

𝒅𝒕

𝑭 = 𝑚̇(𝑣1 - 𝑣3 ) (36)

58

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

Furthermore, the thrust force is also represented as the net force exertion on the

rotor plane expressed with the pressure on the rotor surface area A:

𝑭 = 𝑨𝜟𝒑 (37)

As no work was done on the rotor plane, the Bernoulli equation can be applied

on each surface of the rotor plane where air flow is coming in and out. The

resulting thrust with the Bernoulli equation [126] is

𝟏

𝑭 = 𝟐 𝝆𝑨(𝒗𝟏 𝟐 - 𝒗𝟑 𝟐 ) (38)

Following calculation with equations (32) and (33), and velocity at the rotor

plane can be derived:

𝟏

𝒗 = 𝟐(𝒗𝟏 + 𝒗𝟑 ) (39)

With the axial induction factor 𝑎, introduced to express the relative reduction

rate of the incoming wind velocity, the following deduction for calculation of the

power coefficient is possible, where 𝑃 is the power extracted at the rotor plane and

𝑃𝑤 is the power of blowing wind on wind turbine rotor [5]:

𝒗𝟏 − 𝒗

𝒂= (40)

𝒗𝟏

𝟏 𝟏

𝑷 = 𝑽̇∆𝒑 = 𝑨𝒗 ∆𝒑 = 𝟐 𝝆𝒗(𝒗𝟏 𝟐 - 𝒗𝟑 𝟐 )𝑨 = 𝟐 𝝆𝑨𝒗𝟑𝟏 𝟒𝒂(𝟏 − 𝒂)𝟐 (41)

𝒅𝑬 𝟏 𝒅𝒎 𝟐 𝟏

𝑷𝒘 = = 𝑬̇ = 𝒗 = 𝝆𝑨𝒗𝟑𝟏 (42)

𝒅𝒕 𝟐 𝒅𝒕 𝟏 𝟐

59

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

Blade element method (BEM)

The Blade Element Method (BEM) and Free Vortex (FV) are used to calculate the

power production of the designed wind turbine in this study. The BEM model

starts with the Betz design theory.

Betz design theory determines the ideal blade shape of the ‘Betz optimum rotor’

when a =1/3 without wake loss. The angles and velocities are shown in Figure 17.

The rotor design parameters, chord length, and pitch angle used for rotor

optimization are explained in this section.

Here 𝛼(𝑟) is the angle of attack, 𝛽(𝑟) is the sum of tip pitch angle and twist angle,

𝜑(𝑟) is the angle of relative wind to rotor plane, 𝑤 is the relative wind speed, 𝑣 is

the incoming wind speed, 𝑢 is the tip speed (𝜔𝑟), 𝜔 is the angular velocity and

𝐹𝐿 and 𝐹𝐷 indicate lift and drag forces exerted on the blade with 𝐹𝑋 and 𝐹𝑦 as

tangential and normal components of forces. The differential torque from the

tangential force at distance 𝑟 from the rotor center is 𝑑𝑄 when the blade number is

𝐵.

A parameter with subscript 1 means that it exists far in front of the rotor plane,

whereas the others without a subscript indicate its existence on the rotor plane.

60

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

𝜔𝑅 𝜔𝑟

The tip speed ratio is 𝜆 = and the local speed ratio is 𝜆(𝑟) = . With the

𝑣1 𝑣1

formulations based on the velocity triangle in Figure 14, the corresponding angles

and forces are following

𝒗 𝟐𝑹

𝝋(𝒓) = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 (43)

𝒖 𝟑𝝀𝒓

𝟏

𝒅𝑭𝑳 = 𝑪𝑳 𝝆𝒘𝟐 𝒄𝒅𝒓 (45)

𝟐

𝟏

𝒅𝑭𝑫 = 𝑪𝑫 𝝆𝒘𝟐 𝒄𝒅𝒓 (46)

𝟐

𝟏

𝒅𝑭𝒙 = 𝝆𝒘𝟐 𝒄𝒅𝒓(𝑪𝑳 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝝋) − 𝑪𝑫 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝝋)) (47)

𝟐

𝟏

𝒅𝑭𝒚 = 𝝆𝒘𝟐 𝒄𝒅𝒓(𝑪𝑳 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝝋) + 𝑪𝑫 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝝋)) (48)

𝟐

𝒅𝑸 = 𝑩𝒓𝒅𝑭𝒙 (49)

When the Glide Ratio (GR) of the airfoil is large enough, the drag coefficient can

be neglected to make the resultant power element of the blade equal to the

1

element power based on 𝑎 = 3 .

𝟏 𝟏𝟔 𝟏

𝒅𝑷 = 𝑩𝒅𝑭𝒙 r𝝎 = 𝑩 𝟐 𝝆𝒘𝟐 𝒄𝒅𝒓𝑪𝑳 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝝋)r𝝎 = 𝝆𝑨𝒗𝟑𝟏 𝟐𝝅𝒓𝒅𝒓 (50)

𝟐𝟕 𝟐

Analytic calculation of the chord length from the equation for element rotor

power leads to

𝟏𝟔𝝅𝑹 𝟏

𝒄(𝒓)𝐛𝐞𝐭𝐳 =

𝟗𝑩𝑪𝑳,𝒅 𝒓 𝟒 (51)

𝝀√𝝀𝟐 (𝑹)𝟐 + 𝟗

61

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

3

Where 𝑣1 = 2 𝑤 sin(𝜑), 𝑢 = 𝑤𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜑) and 𝐶𝐿,𝑑 is the drag coefficient of the design

angle of attack. The formulations are integrated to show the total sum of the rotor,

Figure 18.

The Free Vortex (FV) method is another way to calculate the wind turbine

performance This model starts with the concept of a wake, which is the backflow of

the air from the wind turbine. The wake generated by wind turbine performance is

simulated through lift line theory codes in the software Qblade. The code is based

on AMSW codes, using generalized lifting line theory [127], which originates from

the Prandtl lifting line theory [129]. For the case with local aerodynamic

characteristics varying with time and a significant wake effect, the AMSW code is

more precise than commonly used BEM theory codes [128].

The flow field around the blade 3D body is described by the velocity vector 𝑢

⃗,

distribution of sources σ and vortices ω

⃗⃗ . The dimension reduction from volume

integral to surface integral to line integral can be performed for simplification, as

the core concept of the lifting line method [127].

62

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

All vorticity and source singularities distributed on the figure surface are

gathered into the mean line of the figure and then those are combined into a single

point at the quarter position of the chord. The velocity distribution over the body

⃗ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) and the source term σ is ⃗∇·𝑢

is 𝑢 ⃗⃗ is ⃗∇ × 𝑢

⃗ when the vorticity ω ⃗.

The vortex sheet 𝛾 in lifting surface method is the integral of the vorticity ω

⃗⃗ in

the z direction and the vortex line Γ is the sum of the vortex sheet in the z

direction, Figure 19.

Figure 19. Dimension reduction and flow field simplification of LLT [127]

The bound vortices are located at the quarter position of the chord and at the

trailing edge. In the vortex-line model, the thickness and displacements are not

considered to make source term vanish and only vorticity effects exist. According

to Kelvin’s circulation theorem, vortex tubes cannot have free ends and must be

closed so as to make all vortex lines be seen as part of a closed vortex ring [130].

The total external force 𝐹 on the body, the fluid vorticity 𝜔

⃗ and the lift of vortices

⃗ below are taken from reference [131].

strengths 𝐿

63

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

⃗ = ∭ 𝝆(𝒖

𝑭 ⃗⃗⃗ )𝒅𝑽

⃗ ×𝝎 (52)

⃗ ×𝒖

⃗⃗⃗ = 𝛁

𝝎 ⃗ (53)

⃗ = 𝝆(𝒖

𝒅𝑳 ⃗ × ⃗𝚪)𝒅𝒍 = 𝝆𝚪(𝒖

⃗ × 𝒅𝒍) (54)

The induced velocity by a volume of vorticity into a vortex line element is given

by the Biot-Savart law [132]. Moreover, the vortex strength Γ of the rings is

calculated from equalization of the supplied aerodynamic lift and vortices strength

lift:

−𝟏 ⃗ × 𝒅𝒍

𝒓

⃗ 𝚪 (𝒙

𝒖 ⃗ 𝒑) = ∫𝚪 (55)

𝟒𝝅 𝒓𝟑

⃗ 𝒄𝒑 × 𝒅𝒍) · 𝒂 ⃗ 𝟑 )𝟐

⃗ 𝒄𝒑 × 𝒅𝒍) · 𝒂 (56)

Where 𝑥𝑝 is the evaluation point generated by position vectors from the start

and end of the vortex line and r is the position vector length. The vectors 𝑎1 and 𝑎3

indicate unit vectors in the chord-wise and normal directions. The velocity 𝑢

⃗ 𝑐𝑝 is

the total onset velocity at the control point location, 𝑥𝑐𝑝 , including the velocity

vectors of wind, motion and vortex-induced velocity [128].

64

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

As the initiation step of wake generation, the vorticity is shed from the trailing

edge of the given blade geometry.

Then it is flows downstream in the AWSM model with time advancement. The

bound vortices are located at the quarter position of the chord and the trailing

edge of the blade geometry with vortex rings [133], Figure 20.

The vortex lattice is formed with the vortex rings, joined vortex rings in older

vortex rings flowing from the trailing edge of blade airfoil with vortex strength Γ

[134]. The position of the down part of the wake is assigned at each time step by

transportation of the vortex-lattice nodes of the wake [134, 135]:

⃗ =𝒖

𝚫𝒙 ⃗ 𝒘𝒊𝒏𝒅 𝚫𝐭/𝚫𝒙

⃗ =𝒖

⃗ 𝚪 𝚫𝐭 (57)

The wake transportation is done separately with the initiation of wind velocity

and with the induced velocity, [127, 128].

65

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

This section briefly introduces two control modes of the wind turbine. The

control of wind turbine is to maximize and stabilize the power production for a

wide range of wind speeds, using various control strategies [5].

The operating conditions such as cut-in and cut-out wind velocity and excessive

dynamic mechanical loads are considered for effective wind turbine control.

Ultimately, low maintenance costs, safe operation, and long structural stability are

aimed for in control methods [125]. There are different types of control strategy,

having different benefits for each types of wind turbine design and operation.

First, when the power level reaches more than the prescribed safe margin, an

electronic controller detects the power output of the turbine to pitch the blades

according to wind speed so that the leading edge of the blade is moved into the

wind. This is called “pitch control” [136]. When the power level is lower, the blades

are pitched to be at the optimal angle of attack to extract the maximum energy.

For this control method, optimization of the pitch angle distribution is necessary

for the maximum energy level at low speeds and the optimum constant power at

wind speeds more than the rated wind speed [137].

On the other hand, there is the “stall control” method. The stall power control

can be subdivided into passive and active stall power control. In the passive case,

the blades are attached to the hub at a fixed angle. When the wind speed is more

than the safe limit, the angle of attack of the blade airfoil is increased so that

laminar flow is changed into turbulent flow. The twisting behaviour of the blade is

gradually applied along the longitudinal axis rather than abrupt motion. This

ensures that the blade is exposed to its critical stall value of the incoming wind

speed. Active stall power control is applied to larger wind turbines, usually larger

than 1MW rated capacity. It uses blades whose pitches are able to be changed. At

low wind speeds, the blades are pitched like a pitch controlled turbine to obtain a

higher torque or turning force [139].

66

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

When the rated wind power level is reached, at the point of stall, its control

mechanism acts differently than in pitch control. The blades are pitched in the

opposite direction compared with the direction where the pitch-controlled blades

are oriented when the electrical generator is overloaded due to the excessive wind

speed [138], Figures 21 – 22.

About -20° is known to be required for the full aerodynamic braking. The angle

of attack becomes the stall condition in this direction.

Figure 22. Active stall control at rated (left) and above rated (right) wind speed [140]

67

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

Through this active stall control, the power output is controlled with prevention

of overshooting of the rated power from the generator at the beginning of wind

gusts. At high wind speeds, the rated power can be preserved through this method

whereas passive stall control normally causes a decrease in power output in its

beginning phase at high wind speeds where the blades experience a deeper stall

than the blades controlled by the active stall method [141]. This study adopts the

wind turbine model with the stall control method.

The airfoil of wind turbine is exposed to the 3D rotational effect, unlikely the

airfoils in the airplane. Therefore, the numerical model to describe the enhanced

aerodynamic performance by the rotation around the wind turbine is necessary.

The impact of improved aerodynamics from the rotation is called the rotational

augmentation [52]. The software RFOIL uses the governing equation with the

centrifugal, Coriolis terms, higher-order terms, and radial pressure gradient to

depict the 3D rotation. Moreover, there is the quasi 3D Navier Stokes equation as

the 3D correction of flow equation in 2D [20, 40, 41].

The quasi-3D Navier-Stokes equation was derived from the variables of the

Navier- Stokes equation with cylindrical coordinates, which are on the rotating

frame of reference, Figure 23.

68

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

is the axial velocity, 𝛾 is the twist angle, and 𝛺 is the rotational speed. Far from the

airfoil, the velocities are

𝑾𝜣 = −𝜴𝒓 (58)

𝑾𝐳 = 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕 (59)

𝑾𝐫 = 𝟎 (60)

For the peripheral, radial and axial directions, the continuity and momentum

equations are derived with some assumptions which are checked with the fully 3D

equations [45]. The model indicated that the local chord to radius ratio and the

twist angle of the blades were related to the 3D rotational effects.

The model was simulated for laminar and turbulent cases. In the laminar flow

simulation, the physics of 3D rotation was revealed through the radial velocity

field generation. It was taken from the production term of the radial momentum

equation. It causes the mass suction of the corresponding plane, which impacts the

separation bubble reduction [50]. As a result, the pressure on the side with the

radial velocity field, the suction side, is decreased with the proportion of the

reduced mass and separation bubbles [35].

In turbulent flow simulation, the calculations were made to formulate the 3D

correction law. The results were obtained from the performance of the 𝑘 − 𝜔

model with the wall functions and fully turbulent flow conditions, the C-type

197x45 grid with 145 nodes on the airfoil [146].

The load coefficients were modified by the semi-empirical correction law [39].

According to Chaviaropoulos and Hansen [42], the constants for the lift coefficient

and its corresponding correction law are following when = 2.2, ℎ = 1 and 𝑛 = 4.

𝒄 𝒉

𝑪𝒍,𝟑𝑫 = 𝑪𝒍,𝟐𝑫 + 𝒂 ( ) 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒏 (𝒕𝒘𝒊𝒔𝒕)𝚫𝑪𝒍 (61)

𝒓

69

Chapter 2: Selected theoretical aspects

results showed that the measured power of the 3D rotating wind turbine in a UAE

wind tunnel test is 15-20% higher than the 2D power production calculation [70].

The flow field structures over the blades under rotational augmentation were

depicted by the correlation between the normal force coefficient standard

deviation and the local inflow condition by Schreck [147]. The 3D measurements

from institutes such as SERI [148] indicate the sophisticated fluid flow phenomena

over the blades which cannot be explained by 2D calculations, Figure 24.

70

Chapter 3: Methods employed

3 METHODS EMPLOYED

The Figure 25 describes the whole process of the method, explained in the

following sections.

.

Figure 25. The whole process from the optimization to performance prediction

71

Chapter 3: Methods employed

Genetic Algorithm codes

The GA optimization toolbox in MATLAB was used to run the set of algorithms.

The comparison between basic GA concepts and the current variables of this study

is in Table 1. The objective function was set to generate an airfoil with a higher

Glide Ratio (GR) value and higher transition point (Xtr), targeted for the larger

laminar layer region. The corresponding values are calculated by interfaced XFOIL

[19].

With the coordinates describing a certain airfoil, Reynolds number and Mach

number, XFOIL shows the results for the pressure distribution, lift, and drag

coefficients of the inserted airfoil.

The bounds for generating different airfoil shapes were set as upper and lower

bounds of up and down surfaces of airfoils, parameterized by a B-spline function in

MATLAB [149].

Gene

of airfoil surface

Environment

transition point

Fitness level Calculation results of objective function

Table 1. Comparison between concept in biological GA and current airfoil design

As if the birds of Galapagos island are evolved to have the fittest beak for

obtaining the food in the environment, the airfoil shapes are set to be evolved to

have the highest GR and transition point in the settled environment of MATLAB GA

codes, Figure 26.

72

Chapter 3: Methods employed

Figure 26. Bird beaks in natural selection and airfoil shape in GA environment

The MATLAB code to dictate a B-spline is as follows [98],

𝑃 = [𝑥; 𝑦]

𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑠 = [𝑃 𝑃]

𝑘𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑠 = −2 ∗ 𝑎: 2 ∗ 𝑎 + 𝑛

𝑘 = 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ(𝑘𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑠) − 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ(𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑠)

𝐵𝑠𝑝 = 𝑠𝑝𝑚𝑎𝑘(𝑘𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑠, 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓)

Based on certain conditions, Bsp is the B-form of the spline specified by the

knots and coeffs information, the order k is the number of knots minus the number

of coefficients and a is a factor used to define the order automatically based on the

number of points n (a = 0.25n+0.75). The P is the upper and lower point values,

which are found by defining values of x and y for all points; 𝑥 is defined by creating

a vector of 𝑛 = 2 linearly spaced numbers from 1 (the trailing edge) to 0 (the

leading edge) for the upper surface and vice versa for the corresponding lower

surface.

73

Chapter 3: Methods employed

The 𝑦 points are set as variables to be chosen between the upper and lower

bounds by the algorithm:

𝑛 𝑛

𝑥 = [𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒 (1,0, ) , 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒(0,1, )]

2 2

The bounds used in the present study for limiting the selecting range of 𝑦 points

in the GA operation are shown in Figure 24. The suction side and pressure side of

an airfoil are denoted upper and lower surfaces. The upper and lower bounds (UB,

LB) were fixed for each upper surface and lower surface (US, LS).

The variable numbers, k order, were set from a previous study which

investigated the best options for maximizing the resulting GR value of the final

airfoil in GA [98, 149].

The upper and lower bounds (UB, LB) of upstream and lower stream (US, LS)

were set to be the range for the algorithm with fixed 𝑥 values and making 𝑦 values

the variable, Figure 27.

Figure 27. Airfoil shaped with B-spline to be fitted as the reference airfoil S809

Conceptually, the airfoils are considered as individuals which are exposed to

survival rate evaluation. The environment for the individual to survive was set to

74

Chapter 3: Methods employed

demand a higher maximum Glide Ratio (GR) and a larger laminar boundary layer

of airfoils, recognized by larger transition points.

In MATLAB, the variable points of an airfoil were translated into elements in the

matrix and chromosomes were composed for each individual with different 𝑦 point

values. A data structure example is shown in Figure 28 [98].

To generate an airfoil with a higher Glide Ratio (GR) and larger laminar

boundary layer region (transition points, Xtr) at the same time, the objective

function was formulated to evaluate both characteristics of the airfoil.

Among many m.files in MATLAB for running this operation, one which has an

objective function was commanded to be interfaced with XFOIL.

The main m.file was set for options of the GA tool box with population size 5,

Generation 100, MutationFcn with mutationadaptfeasible. The initial population

was set with specific individual points narrowed from the method in a previous

study [98, 149].

The main file connected the algorithm with m.file including the objective

function code, written as f=(-(TXtr+BXtr+GR)), to give the finally optimized

airfoil with maximized GR and transition point values. By adding the transition

point value and GR value, an airfoil which has higher points for both characteristics

could be chosen. A minus point was used in the objective function due to the

convergence characteristic of the GA toolbox in MATLAB.

The GR, TXtr and BXtr values were obtained from the results of XFOIL

calculation, where TXtr indicates the transition point on the airfoil suction side and

75

Chapter 3: Methods employed

BXtr the transition point on the pressure side. The algorithm flow diagram will be

shown in Chapter 4.

76

Chapter 3: Methods employed

3.2.1 Mesh

77

Chapter 3: Methods employed

The C type mesh is generated by the mesh generation tools in SimFlow [150].

The size of the mesh and the fine mesh close to the wall are shown in Figure 29, 30.

The surface cell thickness is 2 ∗ 10−4 [𝑚], minimum surface cell length is

2 ∗ 10−3 [𝑚], and maximum surface cell length is 8 ∗ 10−3 [𝑚]. With grading 1.1,

the cell number is 60257 with 121800 nodes. At the upper surface, the min y+ is

0.125 and the max is 15.453 with an average of 2.999. At the lower surface, the min

y+ is 0.135 and the max is 15.032 with the average 2.439.

The software OpenFoam is open to any one as a C++ library [151]. The

applications are categorized as solvers to deal with problems in continuum

mechanics and utilities for controlling data. Based on the physical and

computational knowledge, the users can create solvers and utilities in the

software. It is constantly upgraded with newly created solvers by a large user

community in various science and engineering fields. To run the library, Linux

commands are required. To utilize OpenFoam libraries in a graphic user interface,

the software SimFlow is used. The SimFlow makes the connected steps from mesh

generation to post-process in ParaView for the results generation. Different kinds

of the latest turbulence models are available with discretization schemes and

numerical methods. The velocities, pressure, lift and drag forces can be calculated

and visualized [150].

After the mesh is set, the boundaries of each mesh section should be set as a

patch for inlet, outlet. The upper, lower, and tip part should be wall while the

airfoil part is empty. The Steady-state for operation time, Incompressible for flow,

and Turbulence model is set with the solver SIMPLE. The turbulence setting part

has the RANS section to select with the SA model at Alpha=12.2° and the 𝑘 −

𝜔 SST model at Alpha=20°.

The boundary condition inlet flows, Initial condition velocity flow should be set

as the velocity=15m/s which is proper with Re=106 from the experimental results

[194]. The discretization, solution, parameter, monitor and run part settings are

78

Chapter 3: Methods employed

according to the reference, [196]. The post processing and visualization are

available in ParaView, Figure 31.

3.3.1 Qblade

The software Qblade is an open-source tool for wind turbine simulation

developed by the research team at the Technical University of Berlin. It has many

functions for simulating turbine performance under various wind conditions. The

initial guessing of the preliminary design of a wind turbine is possible with the

methods and tools equipped in Qblade.

Safe operation under different atmospheric environments with a considerable

lifetime is required when a novel wind turbine is designed. The aerodynamics and

structural and aeroelastic aspects should be evaluated for these requirements. The

characteristics of inserted airfoils are calculated from XFOIL and integrated into

Qblade and 360° polar extrapolation is done with Montgomerie or Viterna

methods. HAWT performances are simulated based on BEM methods with certain

79

Chapter 3: Methods employed

simulation parameters and added effects, Figure 32. The airfoil polar calculation

with XFOIL, connected to the blade simulation and the turbine performance

simulation by BEM and FV calculations are used in this study with the only

variation of the airfoil type.

Simulation settings

(1) Airfoil analysis

After two different types of airfoils are inserted, different Reynolds numbers for

the tip, middle and root parts were set as 5.5*105 , 8.5*105 and 9.5*105 , Figure 33.

Figure 33. Reference airfoil S809 and airfoil S809gx for XFOIL analysis

80

Chapter 3: Methods employed

The XFOIL results from an airfoil in the angle of attack range 0° to 25° are

expanded into the range up to 360°, by the Montgomerie extrapolation method,

Figure 34.

The blades with airfoils S809 and S809gx were subjected to rotor analysis.. The

chord length and twist angle distributions were fixed following the NREL UAE

Phase VI wind turbine reference [16], Figure 35.

Based on BEM calculation, the corrections were set for tip loss, root loss, 3D

correction, Reynolds drag coefficient and foil interpolation. The blade was

discretized into 40 pieces and the convergence maximum epsilon was set as

0.1*10−2. The maximum number of iterations was set as 100 when the Relax

Factor is 0.35 with a Rho value of 1.225 and viscosity as 0.1647*10−5 .

Analysis settings were set at Tip Speed Ratio Starts at 0.1*10−4 and ends at 12

with Wind Speed at 6.8m/s.

81

Chapter 3: Methods employed

Rotor performance values such as Power [W], Thrust [N] for different TSR and

Glide Ratio (GR) for radial position pos [m] were set to be calculated, Figure 36.

82

Chapter 3: Methods employed

To obtain Power, Turbine data was set to have Stall power regulation. The cut-in

velocity was set as 5m/s with cut-out velocity 25 m/s. The rotational speed was

71.63 rpm according to the reference and Weibull Settings were fixed as k=2 and

A=9, Figure 37.

83

Chapter 3: Methods employed

Polar correction

(1) The 2D polar values from XFOIL at each blade section are extracted, Figure

38.

(2) The extracted Cl values are modified for 3D correction according to the

equations (59) from reference Hansen.

𝒄 𝒉

𝑪𝒍,𝟑𝑫 = 𝑪𝒍,𝟐𝑫 + 𝒂 ( ) 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒏 (𝒕𝒘𝒊𝒔𝒕)𝚫𝑪𝒍 (62)

𝒓

(3) The corrected polar values from the 3D correction equation are incorporated

into the Qblade blade design section

(4) QBEM and QLLT simulations are run with the corrected polars.

84

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

4 RESULTS AND

DISCUSSION

The set of MATLAB m.files are written with the settings of the optimal

conditions of the Genetic Algorithm of the current airfoil type [98], Table 2. The

control points of the B-spline are 10 with 𝑘 number 7. The generation is set up to

100. The mutation function is on.

[~,~,UB,LB,nvars]=input0;

options = gaoptimset(@ga);

options =

gaoptimset(options,'Display','off','PopulationSize',5,'Generation',100,'MutationFcn',

@mutationadaptfeasible);

[X,fval,exitflag,output,population,score] =

ga(@objXtrGR,nvars,[],[],[],[],LB,UB,[],options);

Xtr=-fval

85

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

The frame of GA 𝑦 points variation ranges is set based on the reference airfoil

S809, Figure 39.

Figure 39. Upper and lower bounds for the B-spline shaped airfoil

The whole process of the coded Genetic Algorithm (GA) interfaced with XFOIL is

shown in Figure 40.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Figure 40. The process of the Genetic Algorithm interfaced with XFOIL

87

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

4.2.1 Airfoil shape and Blade

Airfoil

The optimized airfoil is named S809gx. The “g” represents its increased GR

(Glide Ratio) and “x” represents the Xtr (transition point), Figure 41.

S809 S809gx

Thickness (%) 20.99 20.3

Max. thickness possible (%) 38.3 38.7

Max. camber (%) 0.99 0.87

Max. camber possible (%) 83.3 43.6

Table 3. Airfoil properties

The thickness difference between the two airfoils is not significant. Whereas, the

upper and lower curvatures have slightly different curving orbits. The leading edge

of the optimized airfoil has a more rounded shape than the reference airfoil. The

trailing edge part is slightly thicker for the S809gx, Table 3.

The GR value of the resultant airfoil shows 128% larger from XFOIL calculation

and 123% larger by RFOIL at design angle of attack. The transition points of the

upper and lower surface of the airfoil S809gx also are located toward tail more

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

than the reference, indicating its increased laminar boundary layer region. These

values result from the target angle of attack 7° and Reynolds number of GA as

mentioned in Ch 3.1, Table 4.

XFOIL RFOIL

GR Top_Xtr Bot_Xtr GR Top_Xtr Bot_Xtr

S809 71.45 0.1792 0.5278 69.51 0.1624 0.5403

S809gx 91.75 0.4541 0.6842 85.29 0.2722 0.6767

Table 4. GR, transition values of top and bottom each airfoils at Alpha=7°, Re=𝟏𝟎𝟔

Blade

The blade is designed based on the chord size and pitch angle distribution based

on the reference blade information [154]. The only change is the airfoil type. It is

made to show the airfoil shape influence on the performances of the wind turbine.

Figure 42 – 44, Table 5. The detailed information of the blade design is in Appendix

2.

Figure 42. Blade 3D design with airfoil S809 (left) and S809gx (right)

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Figure 43. Blade design top view with S809gx (left) and S809(right)

Figure 44. Blade design with S809gx (left) and S809 (right)

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Radial Chord

Twist [°] Airfoil Type

Position [m] Length [m]

0.51 0.22 0.00 Circular

0.66 0.22 0.00 Circular

0.88 0.18 0.00 Circular

1.01 0.35 6.70 Circular

1.07 0.44 9.90 Circular

1.13 0.54 13.40 Circular

1.26 0.74 20.04 S809/S809gx

1.34 0.73 18.07 S809/S809gx

1.51 0.71 14.29 S809/S809gx

1.65 0.70 11.91 S809/S809gx

1.95 0.67 7.98 S809/S809gx

2.26 0.64 5.31 S809/S809gx

2.34 0.63 4.71 S809/S809gx

2.56 0.61 3.42 S809/S809gx

2.87 0.57 2.08 S809/S809gx

3.17 0.54 1.15 S809/S809gx

3.19 0.54 1.12 S809/S809gx

3.48 0.51 0.49 S809/S809gx

3.78 0.48 -0.02 S809/S809gx

4.02 0.46 -0.38 S809/S809gx

4.09 0.45 -0.48 S809/S809gx

4.39 0.42 -0.92 S809/S809gx

4.70 0.39 -1.35 S809/S809gx

4.78 0.38 -1.47 S809/S809gx

5.00 0.36 -1.78 S809/S809gx

5.31 0.33 -2.19 S809/S809gx

5.53 0.31 -2.50 S809/S809gx

Table 5. Blade design information [154]

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

To demonstrate the validity of following XFOIL calculations of airfoil polar

values, the simulated XFOIL results of Pressure Coefficient distributions of airfoil

S809 and its experimental results [154] are simultaneously plotted as below.

The 𝐶𝑝 values are extracted from three different angles of attack 1°, 5.2°, and

8.5°. The 𝐶𝑙 values of each angle of attack are 0.27, 0.77 and 1.01 at the reference

airfoil S809. The 𝐶𝑝 distributions of the airfoil s809gx are also calculated by XFOIL

at the same angle of attacks, 1°, 5.2°, and 8.5°. Figure 45 – 47.

The XFOIL and experimental results show good agreement for three angles of

attack regions, except small discrepancies in separation and laminar separation

bubble region [154]. The reference airfoil S809 shows bigger differences in

pressure coefficient, in other words, lift force. However, the reference airfoil

indicates more drastic evidence of laminar separation bubble formation than the

optimized S809gx on the mid-chord region at an angle of attack 5.2° and 8.5°.

After the pressure distribution reaches the suction peak, minimum pressure, at

each angle of attack, adverse pressure gradients occur on both airfoils. Because the

laminar layer region is set to be larger at the optimized airfoil S809gx overall

angles of attack, the laminar separation formation, and its reattachment occur

earlier and mildly.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Figure 47. 𝑪𝒑 of S809 and S809gx with experimental result [154] at Alpha=8.5°

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

The lift and drag coefficient over angle of attack (Alpha) of each airfoils are

calculated by XFOIL and RFOIL. The XFOIL results are firstly compared with

experimental results [154], Figure 48-49.

Figure 48. 𝑪𝒍 – Alpha of airfoil S809 and S809gx and experiment [154] at Re= 𝟏𝟎𝟔

Figure 49. 𝑪𝒍 –𝑪𝒅 of airfoil S809 and S809gx and experiment [154] at Re= 𝟏𝟎𝟔

The XFOIL result shows a higher GR at the target angle of attack 7°, and the

maximum GR value is similar for two airfoils. However, all the GR values from

RFOIL are higher at the optimized airfoil S809gx over all angles of attack from

RFOIL calculations. The shape characteristics of the airfoil S809gx tend to increase

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

the GR graph more than the reference airfoil, if it is calculated with the centrifugal,

Coriolis terms, higher-order terms and radial pressure gradient in the governing

equations of RFOIL [20], Figure 50.

Figure 50. GR-Alpha of the airfoils from XFOIL (left) and RFOIL (right)

The 𝐶𝑙 /𝐶𝑑 are calculated by XFOIL and RFOIL for each part of the blades by

differentiation of Re number. The root part Re number is 5.5*105 , the middle part

is 8.5*105 , the tip part is 9.5*105 . Although the maximum GR values for S809 and

S809gx for each part of the blade are similar, the series of S809gx airfoils show a

larger range of angles of attack with an increasing tendency of the GR values. It

means that airfoil S809gx has a delayed point of AOA to start the flow separation

or stall. In other words, the x-axis lengths of airfoil S809gx, which shows increasing

GR in graph, are broader at S809gx than S809. The tip part has a 125% larger

length and the root part 130%, Figure 51.

In the Alpha regime, the starting point of decreasing the 𝐶𝑙 value is higher at the

airfoil S809gx series than the airfoil S809 series. As the separation occurs after the

alpha where maximum 𝐶𝑙 is reached, the separation of the S809gx airfoils needs a

higher alpha from the inflow wind than the S809 airfoils.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Figure 51. GR-Alpha values for the airfoils at each part of the blade

Specifically, on the tip part of the blade, the stall range of the blade for S809 is

initiated from an AOA of 17.5° whereas the blade for S809gx starts from an Alpha

of 19.5°. The viscous flow with higher friction factors starts later at the optimized

airfoil. The stall range of the blade for S809gx is 48.4% of that for the blade for the

reference airfoil, Figure 52 – 53.

Figure 52. 𝑪𝒍 -Alpha values for airfoils at each part of the blade

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

The drag coefficients of the S809gx series are smaller than those of the reference

in all angles of attack regime. A large increase in drag is found at a smaller Alpha in

the S809 airfoil distribution than for S809gx. The smaller drag coefficients for

S809gx support previous results for the optimized shape which caused a smaller

𝐶𝑝 difference. The smaller drag also contributes to the larger range of Alpha with

increasing GR and Cl of S809gx. All the factors show that there is a higher

possibility of the optimized airfoil shape to cause lower drag from the surface-flow

interaction in the viscous flow region. The highest 𝐶𝑑 value at the root part of the

blade with airfoil S809 is 0.35 whereas the maximum 𝐶𝑑 value of the blade with

S809gx is 0.15. Especially the root part shows the largest difference in the drag

coefficient, Figure 54.

The drag distributions are subdivided to check the detailed influence of the

optimized airfoil shape on the drag. The drag distributions are divided into

pressure and friction drag. Figures 54 - 56 show the subdivided drag coefficients

for each part of the blade, root, middle, and tip. The pressure drags are very

different between the two types of airfoils whereas the friction drags show a

negligible difference.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Although the thicknesses of two airfoils are similar, the boundary layer

thicknesses are different at two airfoils as it is shown in the next section 4.2.4.

The thinner boundary layer of the optimized airfoil causes a reduction in the

resisting force at the outer flow, which results in smaller pressure drag. Also, the

decreased differences of 𝐶𝑝 values and adverse pressure gradient found in

previous section support the smaller pressure drag of the optimized airfoil S809gx.

Furthermore, the effect of the reduced separation at the optimized airfoil can be

caused from the reduced pressure drag at the airfoil S809gx.

Transition points at boundary layer

A comparison of the transition point of the two airfoils is calculated by XFOIL.

The transition points of the airfoil S809 are compared to the experimental data

[154], too. At the top of the airfoil S809gx, the laminar region decreases as the

angle of attack increases. From Alpha=6.5° to 15°, airfoil S809gx has a larger

laminar boundary layer region than airfoil S809. At around Alpha ≈15.5°, the

boundary layers of both airfoils are completely turbulent.

On the bottom of the airfoils S809 and S809gx, the laminar region increases and

the boundary layer of S809gx get laminar from Alpha = 10.5°. Airfoil S809 has a

smaller area of the laminar boundary layer than S809gx at the bottom sides. The

transition points are plotted when leading edge is at point 0, and the trailing edge

is located at point 1 of airfoil span, Figure 57 - 58.

A broader laminar boundary region is found for airfoil S809gx than S809 in all

regions. A similar pattern of the results from RFOIL calculations are also given in

Appendix 4.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Figure 57. Transition point (Xtr) on the top of two airfoils at different Alpha, Re=𝟏𝟎𝟔

Figure 58. Transition point (Xtr) on the bottom of two airfoils at different Alpha, Re=𝟏𝟎𝟔

𝑫∗ and 𝑪𝒇 values

The thicknesses of the boundary layer at the root and middle section of the blade

are shown in Figure 59 – 60. The Reynolds number at each section are 5.5*106

and 8.5*106 . The thicker boundary layer at the reference airfoil is found at the root

section.

Based on the boundary layer equation (3), the velocity at outer flow is smaller at

the airfoil S809 than the S809gx in the root section of the blade. It is also

supported by the pressure distribution in Figure 45 -47, which shows higher

pressure difference distribution made by the reference airfoil shape.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

assumed that the shear stress is larger and the airfoil S809gx in the root section.

This larger shear stress influences the higher friction coefficient, especially at the

nose part of the airfoil, Figure 60.

On the other hand, in the middle section with a higher Re number, the thickness

of the reference airfoil is greatly decreased than the optimized one, Figure 61.

Therefore, the friction coefficient at the reference airfoil is higher at the leading

edge, Figure 62. The outer velocity of the reference airfoil is far larger at the

reference one, and it can be assumed that the velocity distribution difference of the

airfoil is more drastic at the reference airfoil.

The thickness of the boundary layer around the airfoil is depended on the airfoil

shape and the Reynolds number, and the optimized airfoil has fewer variances in

thickness change and the velocity distribution in outer flow than the reference

airfoil.

Figure 59. Boundary layer thickness of S809 and S809gx at root section

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Figure 61. Boundary layer thickness of S809 and S809gx at middle section

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

section

Lift Coefficient with 3D correction

The 3D correction law of Hansen [42] is applied for the 𝐶𝑙 correction of all

sections of the blade. The comparable reference experimental data are from [191].

Figure 63 - 65 shows the correction values of each representative blade section.

As revealed in reference [42], the 3D effect is more evident in the sections where

are close to the root of the blade. The 3D rotational effect decreased as the sections

are toward the tip of the blade. There is a high possibility of separation bubble

formation at the inboard part of the blades when the rotor is rotated due to the

higher incoming angles. However, the radial velocity component generated by the

3D rotating blades hinders the formation of the bubbles.

It is the reason for the higher 𝐶𝑙 values overall angle of attack at the root part of

the blade with 3D correction law. The radial velocity component is from the

Coriolis effects, as it is reasoned by the 3D-quasi-Navier-Stokes model, which

includes the production terms of the radial momentum of 3D rotation [40]. As the

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

of Figure 50, the power improvement in the optimized airfoil blade wind turbine is

greater than the reference.

Moreover, the delayed start of the boundary layer transition on the surface of

the optimized airfoil with a larger laminar boundary layer region decreases the

possibility of a separation bubble formation, which occurs at the transition area

inside the boundary layer [30], Figure 63 – 65. The decreased boundary layer

thickness at the airfoil S809gx in section 4.2.4 also support these results.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Power Curve

The increased GR targeted Alpha 7° in optimized airfoil resulted in the position

of highest GR at larger Alpha than the reference when the highest GR of the

reference S809 is reached at Alpha 5° from XFOIL results in section 4.2.3. The

delayed peak of the GR-Alpha graph caused by pressure drag reduction at the

airfoil S809gx influences the turbine power calculation, Figure 66.

Results of the power production calculations in the velocity range 3 – 25m/s by

BEM and FV codes which have the 3D corrected 2D airfoil polar data are shown in

Figure 56. The experimental data [153] are used as a reference. The BEM and FV

codes with 3D correction could predict reference wind turbine power performance

as similar to the experimental data up to velocity 15m/s. On the other hand, BEM

codes without 3D correction showed a far less accurate prediction of reference

wind turbine power.

The BEM and FV codes with 3D correction of wind turbines with optimized

airfoil could predict its power performance improvement at most 16~ 17 times

higher at V=15m/s. Physically, reduced separation caused by the optimized airfoil

shape with a larger laminar boundary layer which delays the start point of

maximum lift and transition. It could enhance the rotational effect of the wind

turbine with optimized airfoil to have higher power production. The increased GR

ratio in all angles of attack region of the optimized airfoil with RFOIL supports this

improved power production with 3D correction, which includes the radial

pressure and other 3D rotation related terms.

The 3D rotating effect which also delays the separation and secondary flows

from the root part of the rotor enhances the delayed separation of the blades more

dramatically in the optimized airfoil, as this airfoil shape shows higher

improvement in 3D effect than the reference airfoil. The detailed analysis of

increased power by the airfoil S809gx is explained in the next section.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Figure 66. The power calculated with 3D correction compared with the experimental data

The increased power calculation from the optimized airfoil is based on the BEM

equation (45)-(48) in Section 2.2. The equation (48) tells us that power increase is

directly connected to the tangential force value from (45). The improved power

from the blade of the airfoil S809gx is from the increased torque of the blade.

𝟏

𝒅𝑭𝒙 = 𝝆𝒘𝟐 𝒄𝒅𝒓(𝑪𝑳 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝝋) − 𝑪𝑫 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝝋)) (45)

𝟐

𝟏

𝒅𝑭𝒚 = 𝝆𝒘𝟐 𝒄𝒅𝒓(𝑪𝑳 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝝋) + 𝑪𝑫 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝝋)) (46)

𝟐

𝒅𝑸 = 𝑩𝒓𝒅𝑭𝒙 (47)

𝟏 𝟏𝟔 𝟏

𝒅𝑷 = 𝑩𝒅𝑭𝒙 r𝝎 = 𝑩 𝟐 𝝆𝒘𝟐 𝒄𝒅𝒓𝑪𝑳 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝝋)r𝝎 = 𝝆𝑨𝒗𝟑𝟏 𝟐𝝅𝒓𝒅𝒓 (48)

𝟐𝟕 𝟐

The different torque distributions from different wind turbine blades are in

Figure 67. It shows how torque values are greatly produced from the blade with

airfoil s809gx to influence power production based on equation (48). Although

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

production to be higher at the blade with airfoil S809gx, their combined influence

on normal force is negligible based on equation (46), Figure 68.

Figure 67. Torque over Velocity of blade with reference and optimized airfoil

Figure 68. Thrust over Velocity of blade with reference and optimized airfoil

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

The optimized airfoil shows an advantageous shape for generating higher torque

values overall input velocity ranges while it results in small changes in thrust

distribution in the same velocity regime.

To show the details of changed 𝐶𝑙 and 𝐶𝑑 of the optimized airfoil S809gx and its

connected change in torque and thrust, the values of 𝐶𝑙 and 𝐶𝑑 at wind speed

15m/s are shown in Figure 69, 70. The wind velocity 15m/s is chosen as it is the

point where Power and Torque values are significantly improved with the

optimized airfoil. The combined effect of the increased 𝐶𝑙 values and decreased 𝐶𝑑

values make the optimized airfoil blade has increased tangential force over the

whole blade region, especially at the inboard section at pos=1m and tip part

pos=4m.

The tangential forces show the largest difference at position 1.28m and 4m,

Figure 71. For the analysis of tangential force difference, the comparison of 𝐶𝑙 and

𝐶𝑑 values of these positions of the blade is in Table 6.

Figure 69. Cl over blade position for turbine blade with reference and optimized airfoil

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Figure 70. Cd over blade position for turbine blade with two airfoils

Figure 71. Tangential force over blade position for turbine blade with two airfoils

The optimized airfoil shape, which causes increased 𝐶𝑙 and decreased 𝐶𝑑 value,

makes tangential force increment c.a. 12 times higher at position 4m and 1.5 times

higher at 1.28m. The combined effects of increased tangential force at each point of

a blade by different airfoil shapes impact a blade with optimized airfoil to have

higher tangential force, in other words, torque. Based on equation (45), (47), (48)

the increased torque leads to increased power while thrust force is based on

normal force, from equation (46).

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

pos = 1.28m

𝐶𝑙 𝐶𝑑 Tangential Force [N/m]

S809gx 2.3569 0.1804 23.25

S809 1.7318 0.3351 16.15

pos = 4m

𝐶𝑙 𝐶𝑑 Tangential Force [N/m]

S809gx 1.2924 0.2318 10.50

S809 0.8211 0.3419 0.88

Table 6. Cl, Cd, Tangential Force of blades with two airfoils at pos= 1.28m and 4m

The changed 𝐶𝑙 and 𝐶𝑑 profile of the optimized airfoil causes different impact on

the tangential force and normal force due to its calculation results from equation

(45), (46). The calculated values of each term in tangential force equation (45) and

normal force equation (46) are compared in Table 8, based on the inflow angle 𝜓

at pos = 4m of Table 7.

S809gx S809

sin(𝜓) 0.3955 0.4099

cos(𝜓) 0.9184 0.9121

Table 7. Sin(𝝍) and cos(𝝍) values at inflow angle 𝝍 at blade pos=4m

𝐶𝑙𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜓) 𝐶𝑙𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜓)

𝐶𝑙𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜓) 𝐶𝑑𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜓) 𝐶𝑙𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜓) 𝐶𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜓)

−𝐶𝑑𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜓) + 𝐶𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜓)

S809gx 0.2983 1.2786 0.5111 0.2128 1.1869 0.0917

S809 0.0247 0.8891 0.3366 0.3119 0.7490 0.1402

Table 8. Calculated values of each term at equation (45), (46) at blade pos=4m

tangential force equation (45) is 12 times larger than the reference. When the

value from 𝐶𝑙𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜓) + 𝐶𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜓) of normal force equation (46) is 1.4 times larger.

It shows the different combinations of changed 𝐶𝑙 and 𝐶𝑑 values multiplied with

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜓) and 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜓) largely influence tangential force equation (45) while it

insignificantly impacts the normal force equation (46).

In detail, the optimized airfoil with increased 𝐶𝑙 and decreased 𝐶𝑑 values multiplied

with 𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜓) and 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜓) makes the minus calculation result of equation (45) bigger

than the reference. On the other hand, the increased 𝐶𝑙 and decreased 𝐶𝑑 of the

optimized airfoil multiplied with 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜓) and 𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜓) have smaller influence when

each term is added in equation (46).

It explains why increased lift and reduced drag coefficients, GR ratio, caused by

the optimized airfoil shape influence tangential force more than the normal force.

The optimization of the S809gx airfoil shape resulted in different 𝐶𝑙 and 𝐶𝑑

distribution overall velocity range. The difference in tangential and normal forces

are also generated in each blade position. When the tangential force is connected

to the torque value while the normal force is related to the thrust force.

The different 𝐶𝑙 and 𝐶𝑑 values of the airfoils are related to the different

boundary layer parameters and pressure distribution around the two different

airfoils as it is mentioned in section 4.2.1 – 4.2.3.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Flow regime table

The blade with different airfoil receives different angle of attack at the same

inflow velocity because of its dissimilar airfoil curvature. The flow regime table

shows the subdivision of angle of attack and velocity distribution based on the

various flow behaviour. It is to check how the fluid flow behaves over the angle of

attack and velocity at each blade position for two airfoils.

The categorization of the flow regime is by the flow conditions, Table 9. When

the lift coefficient increases linearly, the flow region is fully attached, and the lift

coefficient values get flat out until it shows the maximum peak value.

Correspondingly, the GR graph increases linearly then decreases from the point of

the separation or adverse pressure gradient. This region of the graph with a

relatively flat tendency of lift coefficient and the peak value of the GR graph

indicate the separation and transition of the flow. When the lift coefficient and GR

value gradually decreases from the maximum peak value, the flow experiences the

onset of the flow separation, and the dynamic stall occurs [154, 190, 191].

The categorization of flow behaviour at a different angle of attack is shown in

Figure 72 – 73. Based on various angles of attack region, the velocity distribution

over the blade position with flow pattern is also depicted in Figure 74 – 75.

attached transition stall

S809 root 0~5 5 ~ 6.5 6.5~25

S809 middle 0~5 5 ~ 6.5 6.5~25

S809 tip 0~6.5 6.5~7 7~25

S809gx root 0~5 5~7 7~25

S809gx middle 0~5 5~7 7~25

S809gx tip 0~6 6~8.5 8.5~25

Table 9. Angle of attack (°) values of each airfoil at different flow regime

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Based on the flow regime table, the angle of attack (Alpha) 12.2° and 20° are in

the stall regime. Two alpha values are chosen for the CFD simulation to compare

the different fluid stall behaviour of both airfoils in next section.

Validation Data

The OpenFoam simulation of the reference airfoil S809 is compared to the

experimental results of the pressure coefficient values at Re=106 . The two cases of

the angle of attacks are simulated, Alpha=12.2°, and Alpha=20° with comparison

from the experimental data [194]. Except for the small discrepancies at the middle

and trailing edge part of the airfoil, the simulation and experimental data show

good agreement in the case of Alpha=12.2°, Figure 76.

At the Alpha=20°, which shows the extreme stall flow development in the airfoil

has disagreement between simulated results and experimental data [198] at the

nose section. In general, the pressure coefficients around the other part of airfoil

show good agreement between experiment and simulation results except for the

front 10% region of airfoil nose. The left part of the airfoil surface and the lower

surface flow visualization can be accepted at Alpha=20°.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

Figure 76. −𝑪𝒑 values of S809 compared to the experiment at Alpha = 12.2° [194]

Figure 77. −𝑪𝒑 values of S809 compared to the experiment at Alpha = 20° [194]

The pressure distribution and the velocity Line Integral Convolution (LIC) [195]

of two airfoils at Alpha=12.2° are in Figure 78 – 82. The pressure difference from

the upper and lower part of the airfoil is bigger at the reference airfoil S809. It also

shows the higher pressure distribution at the top and the bottom of the airfoil

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

separation possibility.

117

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

The velocity LIC shows a similar distribution pattern, however, the reference has

slightly bigger vortex formation at the airfoil tail from the larger adverse pressure

gradients.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

119

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

The pressure coefficients of two airfoils show the start point of the separation at

the upper surface occurs at the rear position at the airfoil S809gx. It is also shown

in pressure visualization, Figure 84 -85. The airfoil S809 has the smallest pressure

spot near to the leading edge, which implies the trailing edge vortex formation.

As the trailing edge vortex is more evident at the airfoil S809 in Alpha=12.2°,

the trailing edge vortex, separation, and the flow stall occur in a broader region at

the reference airfoil. The flow separation is formed in the rear part of the upper

surface at the airfoil S809gx from the reduced adverse pressure gradient, which is

caused by the rounder nose and symmetric airfoil geometry. The reduced stall and

separation at the higher stall angle of attack regime at the airfoil S809gx explains

its improved aerodynamic performance and increased impact from the 3D

correction law.

120

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

121

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

122

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion

The experimental observations of flow behaviour at a different angle of attacks

for the airfoil S809 [156] are compared with the CFD simulation results.

The experimental model had a 600mm chord and a 1248mm span. In the upper

space, span-wise orifices were located to observe the two-dimensional flow at the

various angles of attack. In the wind tunnel model with turbulence 0.02% at

10m/s, a multi-tube manometer measured the pressures and moments on the

airfoil. An airfoil surface coated with oil and microphone detection found the

transition points of the boundary layer [156, 157].

Table 10 illustrates the common and different points between the experimental

and CFD results of flow behaviour in the stall situation.

CFD Experiment

Common aspects

Turbulent, trailing edge separation at suction side at higher AOA

Stall becomes apparent as AOA increases

Bubble formation and propagation towards downstream as AOA increases,

constant bubble length

Different aspects

Detailed laminar separation

Detailed chronology of

bubbles at lower AOA

separation, stall and LSB

The AOA changes to see the

Fixed AOA with varied time

change of LSB location

Table 10. Common and different aspects of CFD and Experiment

The current CFD results ensured the capture of the characteristics of flow about

the airfoil surface and stall appearance as in the experiments. The CFD results also

described the chronology of bubble flow and movement tendency in accordance

with the experimental results [156, 158].

123

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Outlook

5 CONCLUSION AND

OUTLOOK

The airfoil is designed with a Genetic Algorithm with the objective function of

higher GR and transition point. It is to find the specific shape of the airfoil for

higher aerodynamic performance in a wind turbine with enlargement of its

laminar boundary layer region. The reference is the airfoil S809 from NREL Phase

VI wind turbine. The optimized airfoil, S809gx, shows a more rounded leading

edge and symmetric geometry with the similar thickness of the reference. The

blade design is based on the parameters of the reference with the only variance of

the airfoil type.

As the GR value and transition point are set to be higher at targeted Alpha 7°, the

maximum peak of the GR-Alpha graph is located at the higher Alpha from XFOIL

calculation. When the GR is calculated with 3D rotational terms from RFOIL, the

S809gx airfoil shows higher values in all Alpha regime. The highest GR at the S09gx

is 1.1 times higher than the reference. It shows the optimized airfoil receives a

more positive influence on GR from the 3D rotational effect than the reference.

The delayed maximum peak of GR graph and reduced separation and adverse

pressure gradient occur in higher Alpha at the optimized airfoil. The drag

coefficient shows smaller values at the S809gx over all alpha regime, especially

pressure drag is greatly decreased. The changed boundary layer transition by the

airfoil shape impacts the outer velocity distribution of the S809gx to be higher at

the root and smaller at the middle section.

Like the GR calculation from RFOIL, the power calculation with 3D correction at

inflow velocity from 0 to 25m/s shows the wind turbine with the optimized airfoil

blade has higher power production. Specifically, at the velocity 15m/s, the power

values reach c.a. 1.6 times higher at the wind turbine with S809gx. The 3D rotation

124

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Outlook

augmentation especially at the root section of the blades with the airfoil S809gx

which receives higher enhancement by the radial pressure gradient and the

Coriolis force. Moreover, the reduced separation and adverse pressure gradient at

the optimized airfoil result in the power increase. In detail, the increased 𝐶𝑙 and

decreased 𝐶𝑑 of the airfoil S809gx cause the improved torque with the relatively

constant thrust. It shows the optimized airfoil S809gx shape is advantageous to

lead the rise in the torque by the combination of 𝐶𝑙 , 𝐶𝑑 , and different inflow angles

caused by the delicately shaped curvature especially at the stall inflow velocity

V=15m/s.

The visualization of flow around the airfoils is simulated by CFD OpenFoam with

the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) and 𝑘 − 𝜔 SST turbulence model. The greater

differences of 𝐶𝑝 over the optimized airfoil are found at blade position 1.28m and

4m when the input velocity is 15m/s. The location of maximum and minimum

pressure spots is also found to be at the nose and upper surface of the airfoil,

respectively. The smaller region of stall and reduction of the laminar separation of

bubbles are found at the flow around the optimized airfoil.

In summary, it is shown that the optimized airfoil shape targeted for higher GR

and larger laminar boundary layer affect the pressure distribution around the

airfoil and blade. This changed pressure distribution leads the airfoil to have

increased power with higher torque and small change in thrust. The increased

torque causes aerodynamic performance improvement while the relatively

constant thrust allows the structural stability. The small change in the airfoil

curvature leads the detailed variances on aerodynamic parameters of the blade

and the wind turbine. The changed airfoil shape of S809gx also demonstrates

increased sensitivity on influence from the 3D rotational effects.

In future studies, the airfoil optimization for the higher laminar layer region

based on different reference airfoils and wind turbines can be carried out for

generalization of the role of the enlargement of the laminar boundary layer.

The details on different 3D rotation effect sensitivity from the airfoil curvature

are also necessary to reveal the knowledge between aerodynamic improvement

and airfoil in a wind turbine. Besides, the experiments to compare the fluid flow

around two different airfoils are needed.

125

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141

Chapter 7: Appendices

7 APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1 S809GX COORDINATES ................................................................................... 143

APPENDIX 2 ROTOR BLADE TABLE ...................................................................................... 147

APPENDIX 3 OPENFOAM DIRECTORY 0 .............................................................................. 148

APPENDIX 4 RFOIL RESULTS ............................................................................................... 152

APPENDIX 5 BASELINE COMPUTER ...................................................................................... 154

142

Chapter 7: Appendices

1 0

0.99609 0.00254

0.98021 0.00667

0.96805 0.0091

0.95344 0.01185

0.93651 0.01492

0.92604 0.01682

0.91779 0.0183

0.89737 0.0219

0.87567 0.02592

0.85303 0.03005

0.82965 0.03449

0.80584 0.03904

0.78161 0.04391

0.75717 0.04888

0.73252 0.05407

0.70786 0.05946

0.68321 0.06497

0.65855 0.07047

0.6339 0.07608

0.60914 0.08158

0.58798 0.08602

0.58449 0.08676

0.55983 0.09174

0.53508 0.09618

0.51042 0.1002

0.48577 0.10359

0.46101 0.10623

0.43636 0.10824

143

Chapter 7: Appendices

0.4117 0.10941

0.38694 0.10994

0.36229 0.10972

0.33764 0.10888

0.31288 0.10729

0.28822 0.10507

0.26357 0.10232

0.23902 0.09883

0.21469 0.0948

0.19046 0.09025

0.16665 0.08507

0.14337 0.07936

0.12083 0.07322

0.09935 0.06655

0.07915 0.05946

0.07364 0.05745

0.06063 0.05206

0.04402 0.04444

0.02973 0.0365

0.01799 0.02846

0.00899 0.02042

0.00296 0.01238

0 0.00444

0.00021 -.00339

0.0036 -0.0109

0.01005 -0.0182

0.01947 -.02518

0.03164 -.03185

0.04624 -0.0382

0.06317 -.04433

0.07364 -.04761

144

Chapter 7: Appendices

0.0819 -.05015

0.10232 -.05566

0.12401 -.06105

0.14665 -.06613

0.17003 -0.071

0.19384 -.07555

0.21807 -.07967

0.24251 -.08348

0.26717 -.08666

0.29182 -0.0893

0.31647 -.09131

0.34113 -.09258

0.36578 -.09311

0.39054 -.09301

0.4117 -.09227

0.41519 -.09216

0.43985 -.09068

0.46461 -.08867

0.48926 -.08602

0.51391 -.08306

0.53867 -.07967

0.56333 -.07597

0.58798 -.07195

0.61274 -.06782

0.63739 -.06338

0.66205 -.05894

0.68681 -.05428

0.71146 -.04962

0.73611 -.04507

0.76415 -.03978

0.785 -.03598

145

Chapter 7: Appendices

0.80923 -.03174

0.83303 -.02762

0.85631 -.02381

0.90033 -.01704

0.92054 -.01407

0.92604 -.01333

0.93905 -.01153

0.95567 -.00921

0.96995 -0.0072

0.9817 -0.0054

0.99069 -0.0037

0.99672 -.00222

1 0

146

Chapter 7: Appendices

Radial Chord Twist [deg] Pitch Thread Airfoil

Position [m] length [m] Axis offset [m] Axis in [% chord]

8.83E-01 1.83E-01 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 2.50E-01 Circular

1.01E+00 3.49E-01 6.70E+00 0.00E+00 2.50E-01 Circular

1.26E+00 7.37E-01 2.00E+01 0.00E+00 2.50E-01 s809(gx)

1.51E+00 7.11E-01 1.43E+01 0.00E+00 2.50E-01 s809(gx)

2.26E+00 6.36E-01 5.31E+00 0.00E+00 2.50E-01 s809(gx)

3.19E+00 5.42E-01 1.12E+00 0.00E+00 2.50E-01 s809(gx)

3.78E+00 4.82E-01 -1.50E-02 0.00E+00 2.50E-01 s809(gx)

4.09E+00 4.51E-01 -4.75E-01 0.00E+00 2.50E-01 s809(gx)

4.70E+00 3.89E-01 -1.35E+0 0.00E+00 2.50E-01 s809(gx)

5.53E+00 3.05E-01 -2.50E+0 0.00E+00 2.50E-01 s809(gx)

147

Chapter 7: Appendices

(1) P file

Inlet

{

Type freestreamPressure;

}

exit

{

type freestreamPressure;

}

top

{

type freestreamPressure;

}

bottom

{

type freestreamPressure;

}

airfoil

{

type zeroGradient;

}

front

{

type empty;

}

back

{

type empty;

}

148

Chapter 7: Appendices

(2) U file (𝑈𝑥 ,𝑈𝑦 and 𝑈𝑧 are the velocity for each 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 coordinate)

Inlet

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform (𝑼𝒙 𝑼𝒚 𝑼𝒛 );

}

exit

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform (𝑼𝒙 𝑼𝒚 𝑼𝒛 );

}

bottom

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform (𝑼𝒙 𝑼𝒚 𝑼𝒛 );

}

top

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform (𝑼𝒙 𝑼𝒚 𝑼𝒛 );

}

airfoil

{

type fixedValue;

value uniform (𝟎 𝟎 𝟎);

}

front

type empty;

}

back

{

type empty;}

149

Chapter 7: Appendices

Inlet

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform 0.14;

}

exit

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform 0.14;

}

bottom

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform 0.14;

}

top

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform 0.14;

}

airfoil

{

type nutUspaldingWallFunction;

value uniform 0;

}

front

type empty;

}

back

{

type empty;}

150

Chapter 7: Appendices

Inlet

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform 0.14;

}

exit

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform 0.14;

}

bottom

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform 0.14;

}

top

{

type freestream;

freestreamValue uniform 0.14;

}

airfoil

{

type fixedValue;

value uniform 0;

}

Front

{

type empty;

}

back

{

type empty;

}

151

Chapter 7: Appendices

Cl distributions versus angle of attack

152

Chapter 7: Appendices

S809_S, S stands for the suction side

S809_P, P stands for the pressure side

153

Chapter 7: Appendices

Computer 1

Computer 2

154