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Practical 13 The relationship between the pressure and volume of


a gas

Purpose Safety

The aim of this experiment is to verify the The apparatus should include a protective
relationship between the pressure ( p) and volume plastic screen around the glass tube.
(V ) for a gas. However, a safety screen is advisable.
Do not increase the pressure to more than
300 kPa.

You will need:


• Boyle’s law apparatus • Length of thick-walled rubber • Thermometer
• Bicycle pump tubing • Safety screen

Experimental instructions
Use the special apparatus shown in the diagram.
trapped air
Using the bicycle pump, pump up the oil until the volume
of trapped air is less than half the original value as shown on
the vertical scale.

Record the pressure (p) and volume (V ). The tube


containing the air can be taken as having a uniform bore, so
the length of the trapped air column is proportional to its
volume.
oil
Slowly reduce the pressure by opening the valve at the base
of the apparatus after disconnecting the pump. Close the
valve after the oil level has fallen a little, wait for any excess
oil to drain down the sides, and then take another reading of
p and V.
kPa Repeat the procedure to gain as many readings as possible
as the pressure of the trapped air, and therefore the oil level,
falls.
to pump Take readings of the air temperature next to the apparatus
to make sure that it does not alter significantly during the
experiment.

Figure 1:  Boyle’s law apparatus

Analysis and conclusions


Plot two graphs:
a one of p against V and ​ 1 ​   .
b one of p against __
V
From your graphs, deduce the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas at a
constant temperature.

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