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Ans:- Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organizations) from a population of

interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population

from which they were chosen. It is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of a

subset of individual observations within a population of individuals intended to yield some

knowledge about the population of concern, especially for the purposes of making predictions

based on statistical inference

ëesearchers rarely survey the entire population for two reasons: the cost is too high, and the

population is dynamic in that the individuals making up the population may change over time. The

three main advantages of sampling are that the cost is lower, data collection is faster, and since

the data set is smaller it is possible to ensure homogeneity and to improve the accuracy and

quality of the data.

Each observation measures one or more properties (such as weight, location, colour) of

observable bodies distinguished as independent objects or individuals. In survey sampling, survey

weights can be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design. ëesults from probability theory

and statistical theory are employed to guide practice. In business and medical research, sampling

is widely used for gathering information about a population.

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  : The sample represents a much larger "population", and

must faithfully replicate the population's chemical composition. Choosing suitable samples can be

difficult. The toughest sampling problems occurs during sampling a small number of particles.

2. 

   
  : At some point before the actual analysis, the size of the

sample will be decreased to fit the instrument or procedure. Before that reduction step, the sample

must be thoroughly mixed and usually ground into tiny pieces, mainly when many particle sizes are

present.
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  : Both the initial sample gathering and later

sample size reductions should comprise randomization. Mainly, the sample or sampling area is

divided into many real or imaginary zones, from which portions are drawn creating the smaller

sample portion. Mostly the actual zones that are sampled are chosen by a random number

generator. Such combined samples are termed as composite samples. Combined zones may be

diverse physical portions of a large sample, or samples co llected at different times.


 
 
     are the strategies applied by researchers during the statistical

sampling process.„ This process is done when the researchers aims to draw conclusions for the

entire population after conducting a study on a sample taken from the same population.

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There are various sampling techniques of selecting samples from population in accordance with

needs. The various sampling techniques include : -

-$."$'&'!$%"&'()*+('|, : In Probability Sampling Technique every object of

the population has equal chance or probability of being selected as a part or respondent of the

sample. This sampling technique is free from any kind of discrimination because probability or

chance of any respondent is equal and varies from method to method of probability sampling . In

this sampling technique, the researcher must guarantee that every individual has an equal

opportunity for selection and this can be achieved if the researcher utilizes randomization. The

advantage of using a random sample is the absence of both systematic and sampling bias. If

random selection was done properly, the sample is therefore representative of the entire

population. The effect of this is a minimal or absent systematic bias which is the difference

between the results from the sample and the results from the population. Sam pling bias is also

eliminated since the subjects are randomly chosen. The various types of probability sampling

techniques include :-

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  :- A probability sampling technique in which each element in the

population has a known and equal probability of selection is known as simple random sampling
(SëS). Every element is selected independently of every other element and the sample is drawn

by a random procedure from a sampling frame. This method is equivalent to a lottery system in

which names are placed in a container, the container is shaken, and the names of the winners are

then drawn out in unbiased manner.

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  :- Stratified sampling is a probability sampling technique wherein

the researcher divides the entire population into different subgroups or strata, then randomly

selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata.„ëesearchers usually use stratified

random sampling if they want to study a particular subgroup within the population. It is also

preferred over the simple random sampling because it warrants more precise statistical outcomes.

-.)  
 
 
   In systematic random sampling, the researcher first

randomly picks the first item or subject from the population. Then, the researcher will select each

n'th subject from the list. The procedure involved in systema tic random sampling is very easy and

can be done manually and the results are representative of the population unless certain

characteristics of the population are repeated for every n'th individual which is highly unlikely.

Systematic sampling is a random sampling technique which is frequently chosen by researchers

for its simplicity and its periodic quality.

4.) *   
 
  :- Cluster sampling is a sampling technique where the entire

population is divided into groups, or clusters, and a random sample of these clusters are selected.

All observations in the selected clusters are included in the sample. It is typically used when the

researcher cannot get a complete list of the members of a population they wish to study but can

get a complete list of groups or 'clusters' of the population. It is also used when a random sample

would produce a list of subjects so widely scattered that surveying them would prove to be far too

expensive. This sampling technique may well be more practical and/or economical than simple

random sampling or stratified sampling .

5.) Multi-Stage Random Sampling:- Multi-stage sampling is like cluster sampling, but involves selecting

a sample within each chosen cluster, rather than including all units in the cluster . Thus, multi-stage
sampling involves selecting a sample in at least two stages. In the first stage, large groups or

clusters are selected. These clusters are designed to contain more population units than are

required for the final sample. In the second stage, population units are chosen from selected

clusters to derive a final sample. If more than two stages are used, the process of choosing

population units within clusters continues until the final sample is achieved.

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     :- Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique

where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population

equal chances of being selected. Most researchers are bounded by time, money and workforce

and because of these limitations, it is almost impossible to randomly sample the entire population

and it is often necessary to employ another sampling technique, the non-probability sampling

technique.In contrast with probability sampling, non -probability sample is not a product of a

randomized selection processes. Subjects in a non -probability sample are usually selected on the

basis of their accessibility or by the purposive personal judgment of the resea rcher.The downside

of this is that an unknown proportion of the entire population was not sampled. This entails that the

sample may or may not represent the entire population accurately. Therefore, the results of the

research cannot be used in generalizations pertaining to the entire population. The various types

of non probability sampling techniques include : -

1.) *    
  :- Convenience sampling is a non -probability sampling technique

where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the

researcher. The subjects are selected just because they are easiest to recruit for the study and the

researcher did not consider selecting subjects that are representative of the entire population. In all

forms of research, it would be ideal to test the entire population, but in most cases, the population

is just too large that it is impossible to include e very individual. This is the reason why most

researchers rely on sampling techniques like convenience sampling, the most common of all

sampling techniques. Many researchers prefer this sampling technique because it is fast,

inexpensive, easy and the subjects are readily available . The most obvious criticism about

convenience sampling is sampling bias and that the sample is not representative of the entire
population. This may be the biggest disadvantage when using a convenience sample because it

leads to more problems and criticisms.

2.) | 

  :- Quota sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the

assembled sample has the same proportions of individuals as the entire population with respect to

known characteristics, traits or focused phenomenon. In addition to this, the researcher must make

sure that the composition of the final sa mple to be used in the study meets the research¶s quota

criteria.

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O The first step in non-probability quota sampling is to divide the population into exclusive

subgroups.

O Then, the researcher must identify the proportions of these subgroups in the population; this

same proportion will be applied in the sampling process.

O Finally, the researcher selects subjects from the various subgroups while taking into

consideration the proportions noted in the previous step.

O The final step ensures that the sample is representative of the entire population. It also

allows the researcher to study traits and characteristics that are noted for each subgroup.

-.)    
  :- Judgmental sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where

the researcher selects units to be sampled based on their knowledge and professional judgment.

This type of sampling technique is also known as ÷ ÷  ÷


 and    

 ÷
 .Purposive sampling is used in cases where the specialty of an authority can select a

more representative sample that can bring more accurate results than by using other probability

sampling techniques. The process involves noth ing but purposely handpicking individuals from the

population based on the authority¶s or the researcher¶s knowledge and judgment .

4.)  0

  :- Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling technique that is used

by researchers to identify potential subjects in studies where subjects are hard to

locate.ëesearchers use this sampling method if the sample for the study is very rare or is limited to
a very small subgroup of the population. This type of sampling technique works like chain referral.

After observing the initial subject, the researcher asks for assistance from the subject to help

identify people with a similar trait of interest. The process of snowball sampling is much like asking

your subjects to nominate another person with the same trait as your next s ubject. The researcher

then observes the nominated subjects and continues in the same way until the obtaining sufficient

number of subjects.

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In general, Business ëesearch refers to any type of researching done when starting or running any

kind of business. For example, starting any type of business requires research into the target

customer and the competition to create a business plan. Conducting business market research in

existing businesses is helpful in keeping in touch with consumer demand. Small business research

begins with researching an idea and a name and continues with research based on customer

demand and other businesses offering similar products or services. All business research is done

to learn information that could make the company mo re successful.

Business research methods vary depending on the size of the company and the type of

information needed. For instance, customer research may involve finding out both a customer¶s

feelings about and experiences using a product or service. The methods used to gauge customer

satisfaction may be questionnaires, interviews or seminars. ëesearching public data can provide

businesses with statistics on financial and educational i nformation in regards to customer

demographics and product usage, such as the hours of television viewed per week by people in a

certain geographic area. Business research used for advertising purposes is common because

marketing dollars must be carefully spent to increase sales and brand recognition from ads.

Most industries have trade journals that include research reports and statistics that relate to a

certain type of business. International information is especially important to businesses that have

ties with other countries and need to understand more about the cultures and demographics of

other nations.    


 often generates vast quantities of data, especially in market -
focused research such as demographics. Sampling techniques in business research allow

researchers to work with a more manageable subset of data that they believe accurately

represents the trends in the larger collection.

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Businesses gain research data from which to take samples in two distinct ways. The first, primary

research, involves digging up data from its sources. Surveys are the most popular form of primary

research, whether conducted in person, over the phone, via the Internet or by any other means.

The results of primary research are proprietary, meaning no other company has access to the

results of primary research unless it is specifically granted by the researcher or made available to

the public.

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When primary research results are shared with other research ers, the other researchers are

performing secondary research. Secondary research essentially relies of the efforts of others who

have taken the time to compile large sets of relevant and valuable data. Looking up average

income figures from the Bureau of Labour Statistics is an example of secondary research. Since

the bureau has already performed the extensive surveying and compiling of the data, other

business researchers can take advantage of the data with little or no cost.



 

ëandom sampling involves choosing a certain number of data items completely at random, then

using the sample for further analysis. ëandom sampling can be an effective technique when

analyzing fairly homogeneous sets of data. Like a company looking to determine the perce ntage of

people who are diagnosed morbidly obese in a particular state. ëather than working with a data

set of several million entries, the company could reasonably analyze a random sample of several

hundred entries to arrive at a number that approximates the statistic of the entire data set 
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Nth name sampling, also referred to as systematic sampling, is similar to random sampling, except

that it reduces the influence of arbitrary data selection. Systematic sampling involves selecting

every nth data entry for inclusion in a sample. If business had a data set of one million survey

responses, for example, it could select every thousandth entry to include in a sample, leaving you

with a more manageable sample of one thousand entries.

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Controlled sampling takes highly specific samples from a fairly heterogeneous set of data.

Controlled sampling is most valuable when performing secondary research, since primary

research can be designed to target only specific responden ts if desired. Imagine a company that

purchases a large data set containing information on survey respondents' age, ethnicity, education

and income levels. If a company wanted to determine the average income levels for a certain age

group, the company could build a sample consisting only of entries that meet the specific age

criteria before calculating the income figure.

The main types of Non Probability Sampling used in Business ëesearch include: -

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O Availability sampling, sometimes called convenience, haphazard or accidental sampling, is

a method of choosing subjects for a survey that are easy to find. For example, if you are a

business located in a busy shopping center and you want to know why passers by may or

may not be coming into your store, you can stand in the doorway and hand out surveys --

perhaps with a coupon attached to encourage people to participate in the survey.

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O Quota sampling implies that you must know something about the population you are

sampling. For example, you may want to ensure that your surveys reach a number of men
and women that reflect the percentage of men and women in the actual population. To

perform quota sampling, you would use the same technique as you would use to make an

availability sample, only you would ensure the surveys are distributed to the right

percentages of the population -- in this example, roughly 50 percent female and 50 percent

male.

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O Snowball sampling is where a researcher speaks to one person and then asks her to

identify other members of the population that the researcher could speak to. This method

works well for populations that are hard to identify. For example, one wants to speak to a

population of illega l immigrants to find out if his business caters to them; there's no list of

illegal immigrants that exists, so the population is hard to survey without snowball samplin g.


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Ans:- ëesearch design in the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain

answers to research questions and to contro l variance. The research design constitutes the

blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysi s of data. It aids the in the allocation of

limited resources by posing crucial choices: Is the blueprint to include experiments, interviews,

observation, the analysis of records, simulation, or some combination of these? Are the methods

of data collection and the research situation to be high ly structured? Is an intensive study of a

small sample more effective than a less intensive study of large sample? Should the analysis be

primarily quantitative or qualitative?

The plan is the outline of the research scheme on which the researcher is to work. The structure of

the research work is a more specific scheme and the strategy suggests how the research will be

carried out i.e. methods to be used for the collection and analysis of data. In brief, research design

is the blueprint of research. It is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the

information needed for solving the problem. Questionnaires, forms and samples for investigation

are decided while framing research design. Finally, the research design enables the researcher to

arrive at certain meaningful conclusions at the end of proposed study.

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Business research can be defined as the plan and structure of enquiry, formulated in order to

obtain answers to resea rch questions on business aspects. The research design outlines the

actual research problem on hand and the process for solving it. A good research design will clearly

describe the techniques to be used for selecting samples, collecting data, managing costs and

other aspects that are essential for conducting business research

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 1  :- Exploratory research is a type of research conducted for a

problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research

design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only

with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a

perceived problem does not actually exist. Exploratory research often relies on secondary

research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as

informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal

approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot

studies. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature. For example,

ëSS feeds efficiently supply researchers with up-to-date information; major search engine search

results may be sent by email to researchers by services such as Google Alerts; comprehensive

search results are tracked over lengthy periods of time by services such as Google Trends; and

websites may be created to attract worldwide feedback on any subject.

.The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision -making by themselves, but

they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although the results of qualitative

research can give some indication as to the "why", "how" and "when" something occurs, it cannot

tell us "how often" or "how many".

'    when the sale has been decreased in the last few months, immediately the managers

use to undertake the operation to know the reasons for the same. There are many reasons for the

sales decrease. Such as interior quality of goods, increase in competition, incomplete and

ineffective advertisements, lack of capable and trained salesmen, use of imprope r distribution

method etc. In these circumstances, the actual reasons can be found by making an exploratory

research. Normally the exploratory research process is made ready on the basis of secondary

information. There is no particular design for explorati on. The researcher can change his direction

and approach in context to the relation of new ideas and factors. From the viewpoint of nature the

exploratory study is a primary investigation and the researcher himself also does not possess full

knowledge about it. So, he is unable to prepare the entire questions of the research matters.
As the objective of exploratory research is of creating new ideas the customers giving response

are given full chance of presenting their ideas independently. Many times the re sponding

customers are called in a group and they are being interviewed in a group. Due to these types of

interviews the customers responding don¶t feel shy or unsociable and they all can participate in

group discussion without any fear. An interviewer mus t take the interview continuously without any

barriers with concentration on subject and without asking the personal questions.

Many times this type of study is based on certain firms or individual case analysis. The information

about new relations and some new ideas in context to the main subject can be acquired through

the deep analysis of the case. The summary made by studying the case must be taken as

indicated summary but not as the final one. As these types of studies are based on the analysis of

limited firms or individuals and on their characteristics and specialties, their results are also

universally acknowledged.

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 1  :- In many circumstances the descriptive study is being used.

The descriptive study becomes necessary when the researcher is interested in knowing the

characteristics of a particular group such as age, caste, education, occupation, income, interests

etc. Besides this, when out of the given fixed group the percentage of particular behaviorist people

is to be known, any particular matter is to be presented, or to decide the relation between two

factors even at that time the descriptive study is undertaken. The objective of this type of study is

to acquire the answer to the question like who, what, when, where and how in connection with the

particular subject during the scrutiny.

There is also a belief that the descriptive study is based on the reality and is also very easy. This is

also not perfectly true. The descriptive study is also complex and even for thi s the researcher must

have a high designation and scientific proficiency.

The descriptive study possesses a proper structure. In the approach of study the revolution is

required through scrutiny. But the descriptive study approach is rigid. Every time chan ges can¶t, be

made in it. So, the researcher must plan about the required information and the questions related
to research and methods to be used etc. If the researcher is not alert about this matter on initial

stages, then he will fail to acquire the com plete information. Not only this but the method to acquire

the information will also¶ become complex and expensive.

The descriptive study can be divided into two parts: (a) Cross sectional studies, (b) Longitudinal

studies.

Out of both these the cross sectional studies are used more.

(a) Cross sectional studies: Cross sectional studies are related to the study of particular

demonstrated matters of the given group of people. It includes housewives, merchants, shops and

other particular individuals. The infor mation about the different characteristics of fixed

demonstrated persons is collected and then it is an analyzed. The cross sectional studies can be

made in two ways : (1) Area wise study. (2) ëesearch trough Survey.

The difference between the both is of m ethod and proficiency only.

1.)Area wise study: In it the scientific scrutiny is made of the factors having connection and

interrelation with the real situation. As the facts taking place in it are scrutinized scientifically, it is

more reliable. This kind of study is made in castes, schools, industries, organizations and

institutions and in different areas of human being.

2.) ëesearch through survey: This is another type of cross sectional studies. Its main advantage is

its vast scope. From the vast population the detailed information can be acquired through

sampling. Besides this as the information can be received at very less cost, it is less expensive

method. The sampling survey is less time consuming method compared to the complete

investigation.

(b)Longitudinal studies: Longitudinal studies are based on the penal data and penal method. The

people interviewed and responding demonstrators, who are said to be in a penal are related to the

measures of the same factors The various products purchased by ea ch family regularly are
included in the weekly, monthly or fortnight panel reports On the basis of the data during this time

period the changes taking place in purchasing behavior can be known.

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 1  :-„ Causal ëesearch explores the effect of one thing on another and

more specifically, the effect of one variable on another. The research is used to measure what

impact a specific change will have on existing norms and allows market researchers to predict

hypothetical scenarios upon which a company can base its business plan. As the name indicates,

causal design investigates the cause and effect relationship between two or more variables. This

design measures the extent of relationship between the variables. Casual research designs

attempt to specify the nature of functional relationship between two or more variables. Casual

research is useful to show the impact of one variable on the other.

In the causal design the causal relations are being scrutinized between two or more factors. For

instance the producer has sold his products during two different times i.e. T-l and T-2. The sales

made during T-2 time are more than the T-l time. During the T-2 time the advertisement campaign

was implemented by the firm for the product. The producer wants to know about the sales

increment took place due to the advertisement during the T-2 time. In this entire situation a causal

design is to be prepared for the marketing research.

The causal research is based on the proper examination of the reasons. On the basis of necessary

profit by logical estimations the future imaginations are mad e or are being rejected. John Stewart

Mill has prepared some principles based on logic for the causal research. These principles include

the method of reciprocal description, method of rejection, description, variation etc.

The reciprocal description metho d means, ³When there is only one condition in two or more

circumstances of given incident at that time such a condition is recognized as the reason or effect

of that event.´ In this way if observation-Z and conditions-C are found in each circumstance then

the conclusion can be arrived that C and Z both have causal relations between them.
This method is helpful to remove the unwanted factors. As in above example the A, B, D and E

factors are not the reasons for the result Z, so they can be removed. There are following limitations

of this method:

(1) The factors that are not considered are imagined that they are not even consistent. This matter

is not proper. In fact there are many other factors, which affect on Z observation.

(2) Condition-C comes into existence only when other conditions do not exist.

(-) It is not always possible that observation-Z creates only due to¶ condition-C. For this many

other reasons can also responsible.

Against the above limitations there are also following observation of this met hod:

(1) This method removes the inconsistent factor. Because of this, the work of researcher becomes

easy.

(2) The factors created at a time indicate this method.

(-) This method also indicates that a factor -C is definitely created to get the result -Z.

The second principle of Stewart. Mill is about the negative explanation. This principle states that

when condition-C is not present, the result-Z will also not exist and also on these bases it can be

said that there is causal relation between condition -C and result-Z.

In both the above methods the logical ³structure is methods same. So, even in this method also

the above mentioned limitations can be seen. None of the methods is perfect out of the two

methods. Even though while using any of the two present m ethods by considering its main

limitations and by trying to decrease the possible adverse effects, the appropriate summaries can

be acquired as much as possible.

For example, price and market demand relationship or relationship between market competition

and sales performance is established by a causal design. Even the positive/negative effect of
advertising on sales can be studied through casual research. The relationship between the casual

factors can be studied through casual research. In addition, the v ariables which create effect on

other variables can be studied in depth through casual research . Taking an another example, if a

clothing company currently sells blue denim jeans, causal research can measure the impact of the

company changing the product d esign to the colour white. Following the research, company

bosses will be able to decide whether changing the colour of the jeans to white would be profitable.

For instance the market is studied to understand the contribution of good salesman that provides a

market share that is satisfactory. Simultaneously it also studies how poor salesmen contribute to a

dissatisfactory market share.

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