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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

di1 ( t )
1. v2(t) = M21 = − M 21 (400)(120π ) sin(120π t )
dt

Taking peak values and noting sign is irrelevant, 100 = M21(400)(120π).

Thus, M21 = 663.1 μH

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

2.
di2
v1 = M 12 therefore
dt
1 ⎛ 115 2 ⎞
i2 =
1
M 12 ∫ v1 dt = ⎜⎜
M 12 ⎝ 120π ⎠
(
⎟⎟ sin 120π t − 16
o
)

1 ⎛ 115 2 ⎞
Equating peak values, M 12 = ⎜ ⎟ = 9.59 mH
45 ⎜⎝ 120π ⎟⎠

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

3. 1 and 3, 2 and 4

1 and 4, 2 and 3

3 and 1, 2 and 4

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

di1 di
4. (a) v1 = − L1 +M 2
dt dt

Substituting in i1 = 30 sin 80t and i2 = 30 cos 80t, we find that

v1 = –2400 cos 80t – 1200 sin 80t

⎛ 1200 ⎞
= – 24002 + 12002 cos ⎜ 80t − tan −1 ⎟
⎝ 2400 ⎠

= –2683 cos (80t – 26.57o) V

di2 di
(b) v2 = − L2 +M 1
dt dt

Substituting in i1 = 30 sin 80t and i2 = 30 cos 80t, we find that

v2 = 7200 sin 80t + 1200 cos 80t

⎛ 7200 ⎞
= 72002 + 12002 cos ⎜ 80t − tan −1 ⎟
⎝ 2400 ⎠

= 7299 cos (80t – 80.54o) V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

⎛ di di ⎞
5. (a) v1 = − ⎜ L1 1 + M 2 ⎟
⎝ dt dt ⎠

Substituting in i1 = 3 cos 800t nA and i2 = 2 cos 800t nA,we find that

v1 = − ⎡⎣ −(22 × 10−6 )(3)(800) × 10−9 sin 800t − (5 × 10−6 )(2)(800) × 10−9 sin 800t ⎤⎦

= 60.8 sin 800t pV

⎛ di di ⎞
(b) v2 = + ⎜ L2 2 + M 1 ⎟
⎝ dt dt ⎠

Substituting in i1 = 3 cos 800t nA and i2 = 2 cos 800t nA,we find that

v1 = −(15 × 10−6 )(2)(800) ×10−9 sin 800t − (5 × 10−6 )(3)(800) ×10−9 sin 800t

= 36 sin 800t pV

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

di1 di
6. 8 + 0.4 2 = 5e − t [1]
dt dt

di1 di
0.4 + 8 2 = 3e −2t [2]
dt dt

Let i1 = ae −t + be−2t and i2 = ce−t + de−2t

Then from Eq. [1] we have

–8a – 0.4c = 5 [3] and –16b – 0.8d = 0 [4]

And from Eq. [2] we have

–0.4a – 8c = 0 [5] and –0.8b – 16d = 3 [6]

Solving, we find that a = –0.6266, b = 0.0094, c = 0.03133, and d = –0.1880

di1 d
(a) = ⎣⎡ −0.6266e −t + 0.0094e−2t ⎦⎤ = 0.6266e− t − 0.0188e−2t A/s
dt dt

di2 d
(b) = ⎡0.0313e −t − 0.1880e−2t ⎦⎤ = −0.0313e − t + 0.376e −2t A/s
dt dt ⎣

(c) i1 = −0.6266e −t + 0.0094e−2t A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

⎛ di1 di2 ⎞ −3 −t
7. ⎜ −2 + 1.5 ⎟ ×10 = 2e [1]
⎝ dt dt ⎠

⎛ di1 di2 ⎞ −3t


⎜ −1.5 + 2 ⎟ = 4e [2]
⎝ dt dt ⎠

Let i1 = ae −t + be−3t and i2 = ce− t + de−3t

Then from Eq. [1] we have

2a – 1.5c = 2×103 [3] and 6b – 4.5d = 0 [4]

And from Eq. [2] we have

1.5a – 2c = 0 [5] and 4.5b – 6d = 4×103 [6]

Solving, we find that a = 2286, b = -1143, c = 1714, and d = –1524

di1 d
(a) = ⎡⎣ 2286e −t − 1143e−3t ⎤⎦ = −2286e − t + 3429e −3t A/s
dt dt

di2 d
(b) = ⎡⎣1714e −t − 1524e−3t ⎤⎦ = −1714e− t + 4572e−3t A/s
dt dt

(c) i2 = 1714e− t + 4572e−3t A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

8.
(a) −V2 = jω 0.4 1∠0
V2 = − j100π× 0.4 × 1∠0 = 126 ∠ 90o V
Thus, v(t) = 126 cos (100πt + 90o) V
(b) Define V2 across the 2-H inductor with + reference at the dot, and a clockwise
currents I1 and I2, respectively, in each mesh. Then,
V = -V2 and we may also write
V
V2 = jωL2 I2 + jωMI1 or -V = jωL2 + jωM
10
Solving for V,

− ( j100π )(0.4) 125.7∠ − 90o 125.7∠ - 90o


V= = = = 2.000 ∠ - 179.1o
1 + ( j100π )(2 ) 1 + j 62.83 62.84∠89.09o
Thus,
v(t) = 2 cos (100πt – 179.1o) V.

(c) Define V1 across the left inductor, and V2 across the right inductor, with the “+”
reference at the respective dot; also define two clockwise mesh currents I1 and I2.
Then,
V1 = jωL1 I1 + jω M I 2
V2 = jωL2 I 2 + jω M I1
1∠0 − V1
Now I1 = and Vout = −V2
4
V
and I 2 = out
10

⎡1∠0 − V1 ⎤ V
⇒ V1 = jωL1 ⎢ ⎥ + jωM out EQN 1
⎣ 4 ⎦ 10
V ⎡1∠0 − V1 ⎤
−Vout = jωL2 out + jωM ⎢ ⎥⎦ EQN 2
10 ⎣ 4
⎡ jωL1 − j ωM ⎤ ⎡ jωL1 1∠0 ⎤
⎢1 − 4 10 ⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎢
V 4 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥
⎢ jωM −1 +
jωL2 ⎥ ⎣Vout ⎦ ⎢ jωM 1∠0 ⎥
⎣⎢ 4 10 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 4 ⎦⎥
⎡1 − j 39 − j12.6 ⎤ ⎡ V1 ⎤ ⎡ 39.3 j ⎤
⎢ j 31.4 −1 + j 62.8⎥ ⎢V ⎥ = ⎢31.4 j ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ out ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

Solving, we find that Vout (= V) = 1.20 ∠ -2.108o V and hence

v(t) = 1.2 cos (100πt – 2.108o) V.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

9.
(a) 100 = (50 + j 200) I1 + j300 I2 , (2000 + j 500) I2 + j 300 I1 = 0
− j3 ⎛ 900 ⎞
∴ I2 = , 100 = ⎜ 50 + j 200 + ⎟ I1
20 + j 5 ⎝ 20 + j 5 ⎠
900 + j 4250
∴100 = I1 ∴ I1 = 0.47451 ∠ − 64.01° A
20 + j 5
1
∴ PS ,abS = − × 100 × 0.4745cos 64.01° = −10.399 W
2

2
1 1 − j3
(b) P50 = × 50 × 0.47452 = 5.630 W, P2000 = × 2000 × 0.47452 × = 4.769 W
2 2 20 + j 5

(c) 0 each

(d) 0

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

10. iS 1 = 4t A, iS 2 = 10t A

(a) v AG = 20 × 4 + 4 ×10 = 120 V

(b) vCG = −4 × 6 = −24 V

(c) vBG = 3 × 10 + 4 × 4 − 6 × 4 = 30 + 16 − 24 = 22 V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

11.
100
(a) Vab ,oc = (− j 300) = 145.52∠ − 165.96° V
50 + j 200
100 = (50 + j 200) I1 + j 300 I2SC , j 500 I2SC + j 300 I1 = 0
5 ⎡ ⎛ 5⎞ ⎤
∴ I1 = − I2 SC , 100 = ⎢ (50 + j 200) ⎜ − ⎟ + j 300 ⎥ I2 SC ∴ I2 SC = 1.1142∠158.199° A
3 ⎣ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎦
145.52∠ − 165.96°
∴ Zth = Vab ,bc / I2 SC = = 130.60∠35.84° = 105.88 + j 76.47 Ω
1.1142∠158.199°

145.52
(b) Z L = 105.88 − j 76.47 Ω ∴ IL = = 0.6872 A
2 × 105.88
1
∴ PL max = × 0.68722 × 105.88 = 25.00 W
2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

12.
KVL Loop 1 100 ∠0 = 2(I1 – I2) + jω3 (I1 – I3) + jω2 (I2 – I3)
KVL Loop 2 2(I2 – I1) + 10I2 + jω4 (I2 – I3) + jω2 (I1 – I3) = 0
KVL Loop 3 5I3 + jω3 (I3 – I1) + jω2 (I3 – I2) + jω4 (I3 – I2) + jω2 (I3 – I1) = 0
∴LINEAR EQUATIONS

⎡ 2 + jω 3 − 2 + jω 2 − jω 5 ⎤ ⎡ I1 ⎤ ⎡100∠0⎤
⎢− 2 + jω 2 12 + jω 4 − jω 6 ⎥ ⎢I ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ − jω 5 jω 2 5 + j11⎥⎦ ⎢⎣I 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

Since ω = 2πf = 2π(50) = 314.2 rad/s, the matrix becomes

⎡ 2 + j 942.6 − 2 + j 628.4 − j1571 ⎤ ⎡ I1 ⎤ ⎡100∠0⎤


⎢− 2 + j 628.4 12 + j1257 − j1885 ⎥ ⎢I 2 ⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥
⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣ − j1571 j 628.4 5 + j 3456⎥⎦ ⎢⎣I 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

Solving using a scientific calculator or MATLAB, we find that


I1 = 278.5 ∠ -89.65o mA, I2 = 39.78 ∠ -89.43o mA, I3 = 119.4 ∠ -89.58o mA.
Returning to the time domain, we thus find that
i1(t) = 278.5 cos (100πt – 89.65o) mA, i2(t) = 39.78 cos (100πt – 89.43o) mA, and
i3(t) = 119.4 cos (100πt – 89.58o) mA.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

13.
10t 2u (t ) 1000t 2
vs = = 0.01i ′ ∴ i ′ = u (t )
t 2 + 0.01 t 2 + 0.01
S S

15t 2 1500t 2

vx = 0.015i S = 2 u (t ), 100vx = 2 u (t )
t + 0.01 t + 0.01
d ⎛ 15t 2 ⎞ (t 2 + 0.01)2t − t 2 × 2t
∴ iC = 100 × 10−6 v′x = 10−4 ⎜ 2 u (t ) ⎟ = 15 × 10−4 u (t )
dt ⎝ t + 0.01 ⎠ (t 2 + 0.01) 2

0.02t 30t
∴ iC = 15 × 10−4 ∴ iC (t ) = 2 μA, t>0
(t + 0.01)
2 2
(t + 0.01) 2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

14.
(a) v A (t ) = L1i′1 − Mi′2, vB (t ) = L1i1′ − Mi′2 + L 2i′2 − Mi1′

(b) V1(jω) = jωL1 IA + jωM(IB + IA)

V2(jω) = jωL2 (IB + IA) + jωMIA

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

15.

(a) 100 = j5ω (I1 – I2) + j3ωI2 + 6(I1 – I3) [1]

(4 + j4ω)I2 + j3ω (I1 – I2) + j2ω (I3 – I2) + j6ω (I2 – I3) – j2ω I2 + j5ω (I2 – I1)
– j3ω I2 = 0 [2]

6 (I3 – I1) + j6ω (I3 – I2) + j2ω I2 + 5 I3 = 0 [3]

Collecting terms,

(6 + j5ω) I1 – j2ω I2 – 6 I3 = 100 [1]

-j2ω I1 + (4 + j5ω) I2 – j4ω I3 = 0 [2]

-6 I1 - j4ω I2 + (11 + j6ω) I3 = 0 [3]

(b) For ω = 2 rad/s, we find

(6 + j10) I1 – j4 I2 – 6 I3 = 100

-j4 I1 + (4 + j10) I2 – j8 I3 = 0

-6 I1 – j8 I2 + (11 + j12) I3 = 0

Solving, I3 = 4.32 ∠ -54.30o A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

16.
(a)
Va = jωL1 I a + jωM I b I a = I1
Vb = jωL2 I b + jωM I a Ib = − I 2

V1 = I1 R1 + Va
= I1 R1 + jω L1 I a + jωM I b
= I1 R1 + jω L1 I1 − jωM I 2

V2 = I 2 R2 − Vb
= I 2 R2 − jω L2 I b − jωM I a
= I 2 R2 + jω L2 I 2 − jωM I1

(b) Assuming that the systems connecting the transformer are fully isolated.

Va = jωL1 I a + jωMI b I a = − I1
Vb = jωL2 I b + jωMI a Ib = − I 2

V1 = I1 R − Va
= I1 R − jωL1 I a − jωM I b
= I1 R + jωL1 I1 + jωM I 2

V2 = Vb + I b R2
= − I 2 R2 + jω L2 I b + jωM I a
= − I 2 R2 − jω L2 I 2 − jωM I1

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

17.
(a)
ω2 (0.2) 2
Z = 2 + jω0.1 +
5 + jω 0.5
5ω2 (0.2) 2 jω0.5 ω2 (0.2) 2
= 2 + jω 0.1 + 2 − 2
5 + (ω0.5) 2 5 + (ω0.5) 2
0.2ω2 ⎡ 0.02ω2 ⎤
= 2+ + ω ⎢ −
25 + 0.25ω2 ⎥⎦
j 0.1
25 + 0.25ω2 ⎣

(b)

(c) Zin(jω) at ω = 50 is equal to 2 + 0.769 + j(50)(0.023) = 2.77 + j1.15 Ω.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

18.
ω2 M 2
Z in = Z11 +
Z 22
ω2 M 2
= jω50 ×10−3 +
8 + jω10 × 10−3
ω2 M 2 8 jω10 ×10−3 ω2 M
⇒ Z in = jω50 ×10−3 + −
82 + (ω10 × 10−3 ) 2 82 + (ω10 × 10−3 ) 2
ω2 M 2 8 ⎡ −3 10 ×10−3 ω2 M 2 ⎤
= 2 + jω ⎢50 × 10 − 2 ⎥
8 + (ω10 × 10−3 ) 2 ⎣ 8 + (ω10 ×10−3 ) 2 ⎦

In this circuit the real power delivered by the source is all consumed at the speaker, so
2
1
⎛ 20 ⎞
2
V
P = rms ⇒ 3.2 = ⎜ × ω M 28
2
⎟ −3 2
⎝ 2 ⎠ 8 (ω10 ×10 )
2
R
ω2 M 2 8 202
⇒ 2 = = 62.5 W
8 + (ω10 × 10−3 ) 2 2 × 3.2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

19. iS 1 = 2 cos10t A, iS 2 = 1.2 cos10t A

(a) v1 = 0.6(−20sin10t ) − 0.2(−12sin10t ) + 0.5(−32sin10t ) + 9.6 cos10t


∴ v1 = 9.6 cos10t − 25.6sin10t = 27.34 cos (10t + 69.44°) V

(b) v2 = 0.8(−12sin10t ) − 0.2(−20sin10t ) − 16sin10t + 9.6 cos10t


∴ v2 = 9.6 cos10t − 21.6sin10t = 23.64 cos (10t + 66.04°) V

1 1
(c) PS 1 = × 27.34 × 2 cos 69.44° = 9.601 W, PS 2 = × 23.64 × 1.2 cos 66.04° = 5.760 W
2 2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

20.
Va = jω8 I a + jω4 I b
* Vb = jω10 I b + jω4 I a = jω10 I b + jω5 I c
Vc = jω6 I c + jω5 I b

Also I = − I a = − I b = I c

Now examine equation *.

− jω10 I − jω4 I = − jω10 I + jω5 I c

∴ the only solution to this circuit is I = and hence

v(t ) = 120 cos ωt V.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

21.
100 = j10 I1 − j15 I2
0 = j 200 I2 − j15 I1 − j15 IL
0 = (5 + j10) IL − j15 I2
5 + j10 1+ j2 ⎛ 1+ j2 ⎞
∴ I2 = IL = IL ∴ 0 = j 200 ⎜ − j15 ⎟ IL − j15 I1
j15 j3 ⎝ j3 ⎠
⎛ 400 200 ⎞ j118.33 + 66.67
∴0 = ⎜ j − j15 + ⎟ IL − j15 I1 ∴ I1 = IL
⎝ 3 3 ⎠ j15
⎡2 ⎤
∴100 = ⎢ (66.67 + j118.33) − 5 − j10 ⎥ IL = (39.44 + j 68.89) IL
⎣3 ⎦
∴ IL = 1.2597∠ − 60.21° A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

22. is = 2 cos10t A, t = 0

1 1
(a) a − b O.C. ∴ w(0) = × 5 × 22 + × 4 × 22 = 10 + 8 = 18 J
2 2
1
(b) a − b S.C. ω = 10, IS = 2∠0° A, M = 12 = 3 H
2
j 20 3
( j 30 + 5) I2 − j10 3 × 2, ∴ I2 = = 1.1390∠9.462°A ∴ i2 = 1.1390 cos (10t + 9.462°) A
5 + j 30
1
∴ i2 (0) = 1.1235− ∴ w(0) = 10 + 8 − 3 × 2 × 1.1235 + × 3 × 1.12352 = 16.001 J
2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

23.
Vs = 12∠0° V rms, ω = 100 rad/s
12 = (6 + j 20) I1 + j100(0.4K) I2 , (24 + j80) I2 + j 40K I1 = 0
3 + j10 ⎡ 3 + j10 ⎤
∴ I1 = I2 ∴12 = ⎢(6 + j 20) + j 40K ⎥ I2
− j 5K ⎣ − j 5K ⎦
18 − 200 + j 60 + j 60 + 200K 2 − j 60K
∴12 = I2 ∴ I2 =
− j 5K −182 + 200K 2 + j120
602 K 2 24 86, 400 K 2 2.16K 2
∴ P24 = = = W
(200K 2 − 182) 2 + 1202 40, 000K 4 − 72,800K 2 + 47,524 K 4 − 1.82K 2 + 1.1881

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

24. M

• • 2Ω M
k=
Zin → L1 L2

ω = 250k rad / s
j10 Ω

M = L1 L2 = 2 × 80 × 10−6
= 12.6μH
ω2 M 2 R22 − jM 2 ω2 X 22
Zin n = Z11 + +
R222 + X 222 2
R22 + X 222

Z11 = j × 250 ×103 × 2 ×10−6 R22 = 2Ω


= j 0.5 X 22 = (250 × 103 ) (80 ×10−6 )
= 20
Thus, Zin = j0.5 + 19.8/404 – j198/ 404

= 0.049 + j0.010 Ω.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

25. ω = 100 rad/s

(a) K1 → j 50Ω, K 2 → j 20Ω, 1H → j100 Ω


100 = j200 I1 − j 50 I2 − j 20 I3
0 = (10 + j100) I2 − j 50 I1
0 = (20 + j100) I3 − j 20 I1
j2 j5 ⎡ j5 j2 ⎤
∴ I3 = I1 , I2 = I1 ∴10 = ⎢ j 20 − j 5 − j2
2 + j10 ⎥⎦
I1
2 + j10 1 + j10 ⎣ 1 + j10
⎛ 25 4 ⎞
∴10 = ⎜ j 20 + + ⎟ I1 ∴ I1 = 0.5833 ∠ − 88.92° A, I2 = 0.2902∠ − 83.20° A,
⎝ 1 + j10 2 + j10 ⎠
I3 = 0.11440 ∠ − 77.61° A ∴ P10Ω = 0.29022 ×10 = 0.8422 W

(b) P20 = 0.11442 × 20 = 0.2617 W

(c) Pgen = 100 × 0.5833cos88.92° = 1.1039 W

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

26.
M
(a) k=
L1 L2
⇒ M = 0.4 5 × 1.8
= 1.2H

(b) I1 + I 2 = I 3
⇒ I 2 = I 3 − I1
−t −t
= 5 × 10 − 4 × 10
5 10

(c) The total energy stored at t = 0.

I1 = 4 A I 2 = 1A
1 1
W total = L1 I12 + L2 I 22 + M 12 I1 I 2
2 2
1 1
= × 5 × 16 + × 1.8 × 1 − 1.2 × 4 × 1
2 2
= 40 + 0.9 − 4.8
= 36.1J

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

27.
K → j1000K L1L 2 , L1 → j1000L1 , L 2 → j1000L 2
∴ Vs = (2 + j1000L1 ) I1 − j1000K L1L 2 I2
0 = − j1000K L1L 2 I1 + (40 + j1000L 2 ) I2
40 + j1000L 2
ω = 1000 rad/s ∴ I1 = I2
j1000K L1L 2
(2 + j1000L1 )(40 + j1000L 2 ) + 106 K 2 L1L 2
∴ Vs = I2
j1000K L1L 2
j1000K L1L 2
∴ I2 =
80 + j 40, 000L1 + j 2000L 2 − 106 L1L 2 (1 − K 2 )
V2 j 40, 000K L1L 2
∴ =
Vs 80 − 10 L1L 2 (1 − K 2 ) + j (40, 000L1 + 2000L 2 )
6

V2 j 40 × 5 j 200
(a) L1 = 10−3 , L2 = 25 ×10−3 , K = 1 ∴ = = = 1.6609∠41.63°
Vs 80 − 0 + j (40 + 50) 80 + j 90

(b) V2 j 40, 000 × 0.99 × 5


L1 = 1, L 2 = 25, K = 0.99 ∴ =
V3 80 − 25 ×10 (1 − 0.992 ) + j (40, 000 + 50, 000)
6

V2 j198, 000
∴ = = 0.3917∠ − 79.74°
VS 80 − 497,500 + j 90, 000

V2 j 40, 000 × 5 j 200, 000


(c) L1 = 1, L 2 = 25, K = 1 ∴ = = = 2.222∠0.05093°
Vs 80 − 0 + j 90, 000 80 + j 90, 000

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

28.
(a) L AB ,CDOC = 10 mH, LCD , ABOC = 5 mH
L AB ,CDSC = 8 mH
∴ L1 = 10 mH, L 2 = 5 mH, 8 = 10 − M + M (5 − M) (mH)
M(5 − M)
∴ 8 = 10 − M + , ∴ 5M = (10 − 8)5 + 5M − M 2 ∴ M = 3.162 mH (= 10)
5
3.162
∴K = ∴ K = 0.4472
50

(b) Dots at A and D, i1 = 5 A, wtot = 100 mJ


1 1
∴100 ×10−3 = × 10 × 10−3 × 25 + × 5 × 10−3 i22 − 10 × 5i2 × 10−3
2 2
2 10 ± 40 − 40
100 = 125 + 2.5i22 − 5 10 i2 ∴ i22 − 2 10 i2 + 10 = 0, i2 = = 10
2
∴ i2 = 3.162 A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

29. Define coil voltages v1 and v2 with the “+” reference at the respective dot.
Also define two clockwise mesh currents i1 and i2. We may then write:
dI1 dI
v1 = L1 +M 2
dt dt M = k L1 L2
dI dI
v2 = L2 2 + M 1 ω = 2π60 rad / s
dt dt
or, using phasor notation,
V1 = jωL1 I1 + jωM I 2
V2 = jωL2 I 2 + jωM I1

100∠0 = 50 I1 + jωL1 I1 + jωM I 2


−25 I 2 = jωL2 I 2 + jωM I1

Rearrange: [50 + jωL1 ] I1 + jωMI 2 = 100∠0


jωMI1 [−25 + jωL2 ] I 2 = 0
or ⎡50 + jωL1 jωM ⎤ ⎡ I1 ⎤ ⎡100∠0 ⎤
⎢ jωM =
⎣ −25 + jωL2 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ I 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

We can solve for I2 and V2 = −25I2:


j1.658
V2 = −
k L1L 2 + 1

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

30.

i1 = 2 cos 500t A Wmax at t = 0


1 1 1
∴ wmax = × 4 × 22 + × 6 × 22 + × 5 × 22 + 3 × 22
2 2 2
= 8 + 12 + 10 + 12 = 42 J

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ω 2M 2
31. (a) Reflected impedance = .
Z 22
Z 22 = 2 + 7∠320 + jω10−2 where ω = 100π

Thus, the reflected impedance is 4.56 – j3.94 nΩ (essentially zero).

(b) Zin = Z11 + reflected impedance = 10 + jω(20×10–2) + (4.56 – j3.94)×10–9

= 10 + j62.84 Ω (essentially Z11 due to small reflected impedance)

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ω 2M 2 ω 2M 2
32. Reflected impedance = = .
Z 22 3.5 + j (ω L2 + X L )

ω 210−6
We therefore require 1 + jω ( 3 ×10−3 ) = .
3.5 + j (10−3 ω + X L )
Thus,

⎡ ω 210−6 ⎤
XL = − j ⎢ − 3.5 − j10 −3
ω ⎥ = −0.448 + j 3.438 .
(
⎢⎣1 + jω 3 × 10−3 ) ⎥⎦

This is physically impossible; to be built, XL must be a real number.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

33. M = 5 H.

L1 – M = 4 H, therefore L1 = 9 H
L2 – M = 6 H, therefore L2 = 11 H.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

34. Lz = L1 – M = 300 – 200 = 100 mH

Ly = L2 – M = 500 – 200 = 300 mH

Lx = M = 200 mH

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

35.
(a) All DC: L1− 2 = 2 − 1 = 1 H

(b) AB SC: L1− 2 = −1 + 2 8 = 0.6 H

(c) BC SC: L1− 2 = 2 + ( −1) 9 = 2 − 9 / 8 = 0.875 H

(d) AC SC: L1− 2 = (2 − 1) (1 + 2) = 1 3 = 0.750 H

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

36.
IL 1 ⎛ j 2ω ⎞
(a) = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
VS j 2ω (20 + jω ) ⎝ 20 + j 3ω ⎠
15 + j 3ω +
20 + j 3ω

j 2ω
=
300 − 11ω 2 + j145ω

−145 ± 1452 − 13, 200


(b) vs (t ) = 100u (t ), is (0) = 0, iL (0) = 0, s1,2 = = −2.570, − 10.612
22
iL = iLf + iLn , iLf = 0, ∴ iL = Ae −2.57 t + Be −10.61t , ∴ 0 = A + B
100 = 15is + 5i′s − 2i′L , 0 = 20iL + 3i′L − 2i′s At t = 0 + : 100 = 0 + 5i′s (0 + ) − 2i′L (0 + ) and
0 = 0 + 3i′L (0+ ) − 2i′s (0+ ) ∴ i′s (0+ ) = 1.5i′L (0+ ) ∴100 = 7.5i′L (0+ ) − 2i′L (0+ ) = 5.5i′L (0+ )
∴ i′L (0+ ) = 18.182 A/s ∴18.182 = −2.57A − 10.61B = −2.57A + 10.61A = 8.042A
∴ A = 2.261, B = −2.261, iL (t ) = 2.261(e −2.57 t − e−10.612t ) A, t > 0

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

37.

(a) Open-Circuit

Z ocT × A = jω4 M Ω
Z ocT × B = jω4 M Ω

(b) Short-Circuit

T×A T ×B
Z SS = Z SS = − jω4 M Ω + jω8 jω10 M Ω

(c) If the secondary is connected in parallel with the primary

Z inT × A = − jω4 − jω10 + jω8 M Ω


Z inT ×B = jω26 jω12 − jω8 M Ω

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

38. Define three clockwise mesh currents I1, I2, and I3 beginning with the left-most mesh.
Vs = j8ω I1 – j4ω I2
0 = -4jω I1 + (5 + j6ω) I2 – j2ω I3
0 = -j2ω I2 + (3 + jω) I3
Solving, I3 = jω / (15 + j17ω). Since Vo = 3 I3,
Vo j 3ω
=
VS 15 + j17ω

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

39. Leq = 2/ 3 + 1 + 2 + 6/5 = 4.867 H

Z(jω) = 10 jω (4.867)/ (10 + jω4.867)

= j4.867ω/ (1 + j0.4867ω) Ω.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

40.
ω = 100 rad/s
Vs = 100∠0° V rms

j 400(10 − j 200) 80, 000 + j 4, 000


(a) Zina −b = 20 + j 600 + = 20 + j 600 +
10 + j 200 10 + j 200
= 210.7∠73.48o V and Voc = 0.

100( j 400)
(b) VOC ,cd = = 39.99∠1.146° V rms
20 + j1000
j 400(20 + j 600) −240, 000 + j8, 000
Zincd , VS = 0 = − j 200 + = − j 200 + = 40.19∠85.44°Ω
20 + j1000 20 + j1, 000

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

41. L1 = 1 H, L 2 = 4 H, K = 1, ω = 1000 rad/s

106 × 1× 4
(a) Z L = 1000 Ω ∴ Zin = j1000 + = 24.98 + j 0.6246 Ω
j 4000 + 100

4 × 106
(b) Z L = j1000 × 0.1 ∴ Zin = j1000 + = j 24.39 Ω
j 4000 + j100

4 × 106
(c) ZL = − j100 ∴ Zin = j1000 + = − j 25.46 Ω
j 4000 − j100

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

42.

L1 = 6 H, L 2 = 12 H, M = 5 H

#1, LinAB ,CDOC = 6 H

#2, LinCD , ABOC = 12 H

#3, LinAB ,CDSC = 1 + 7 5 = 3.917 H

#4, LinCD , ABSC = 7 + 5 1 = 7.833 H

#5, LinAC , BDSC = 7 + 1 = 8 H

#6, LinAB , ACSC , BDSC = 7 1 + 5 = 5.875 H

#7, LinAD , BCSC = 11 + 17 = 28 H

#8, LinAB , ADSC = −5 + 11/17 = 1.6786 H

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

43.
ω2 M 2
Z in = Z11 +
R22 + jX 22
1 1
= 31.83 ⇒ ω = = 314 rad / s
ωC 31.83 × C
ie. a 50Hz system
ω2 k 2 L1 L2
Z in = 20 + jω100 × 10−3 +
2 − j 31.83
ω2 k 2 L1 L2 2 jω2 k 2 L1 L2 31.83
Z in = 20 + jω100 × 10−3 + −
22 + 31.832 22 + 31.832
⎡ 493 7840 ⎤ 2
= 20 + j 31.4 + ⎢ −j k
⎣1020 1020 ⎥⎦
= 20 + j 31.4 + [0.483 − j 7.69]k 2
(a) Z in (k = 0) = 20 + j 31.4 Ω
(b) Z in (k = 0.5) = 20.2 + j 27.6 Ω
(c) Z in (k = 0.9) = 20.4 + j 24.5 Ω
(d) Z (k = 1.0) = 20.5 + j 23.7 Ω
in

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

44. ↑ L1 → 125 H, L 2 → 20 H, K = 1, ∴ M = 2500 = 50 H, jωM = j 5000 Ω

j 5000(10 − j 3000)
(a) Zina −b = 20 + j 7500 +
10 + j 2000
15 × 106 + j 50, 000
= 20 + j 7500 + = 82.499∠0.2170° Ω
10 + j 2000
= 82.498 + j 0.3125− Ω VOC = 0
100( j 5000)
(b) VOC ,cd = = 39.99995∠0.09167° V rms
20 + j12,500
j 5000(20 + j 7500)
Zincd , VS = 0 = − j 3000 + = 3.19999 + j 0.00512 Ω
20 + j12,500

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

45.

280
∴ Ia = × 2 = 0.438A
1280
1000
Ib = × 2 = 1.56A
1280

∴ I1 = 1.56A
⇒ I 2 = 5 × 1.56 = 7.8A
⇒ I 3 = 1.5 × 7.8 A = 11.7A

⇒ P(1k ) = I a2 R
= 0.4382 × 1× 103
= 192W
⇒ P(30Ω) = I12 R = (1.56) 2 × 30
= 73W
⇒ P(1Ω) = I R = 7.82 ×1
2
2

= 60.8W
⇒ P(4Ω) = I 32 R = 11.7 2 × 4
= 548W

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

46.
(a) R L sees 10 × 42 = 160 Ω ∴ use R L = 160 Ω
2
⎛ 100 ⎞
PL max =⎜ ⎟ ×10 = 250 W
⎝ 20 ⎠
(b) R L = 100 Ω
V2 − V1 3V1
I 2 = I1 / 4, V2 = 4 V1 ∴ I X = =
40 40
⎛ 3V ⎞ I 3V 4V
∴100 = 10 ⎜ I1 1 ⎟ + V1 , 1 = 1 + 1
⎝ 40 ⎠ 4 40 100
100
∴ I1 = 0.46V1 ∴100 = 10(0.46V1 − 0.075V1 ) + V1 = 4.85 V1 ∴ V1 =
4.85
400 82.47 2
∴ V2 = 4V1 = = 82.47 V ∴ PL = = 68.02 W
4.85 100

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

47.
V2 V
I2 = ∴ I1 = 2 , V1 = 5V2
8 40
∴100 = 300(C + 0.025) V2 + 5V2
100
∴ V2 =
12.5 + 300C

82
(a) C = 0 ∴ V2 = 8 V ∴ PL = = 8 W
8

2
100 ⎛ 100 ⎞ 1
(b) C = 0.04 ∴ V2 = ∴ PL = ⎜ ⎟ = 2.082 W (neg. fdbk )
24.5 ⎝ 24.5 ⎠ 8

100 2002
(c) C = −0.04 ∴ V2 = = 200 V ∴ PL = = 5000 W (pos. fdbk )
0.5 8

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

48.
Apply Vab = 1 V ∴ Ix = 0.05 A, V2 = 4 V
4 −1
∴ 4 = 60 I2 + 20 × 0.05 ∴ I2 = = 0.05 A
60
∴ I1 = 0.2 A ∴ Iin = 0.25 A ∴ R th = 4 Ω, Vth = 0

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

49.
Pgen = 1000 W, P100 = 500 W
500
∴ IL = = 5 A, VL = 100 5 V
100
1000
IS = = 10 A ∴ V1 = 100 − 40 = 60 V
100
100
Now, P25 = 1000 − 500 − 102 × 4 = 100W ∴ I X = = 2 A; also
25
2
Ix = b 5 = 2, b = = 0.8944
5

1 300
Around center mesh: 60a = 2 × 25 + 100 5 ∴a = =5
0.8944 60

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

50. 2
(a) ⎛ 4 ⎞ 16 16 22 22 2
3× ⎜ ⎟ = Ω, +2= Ω, (3) = 66 Ω
⎝ 3⎠ 3 3 3 3
100
66 + 25 = 91Ω = 1.0989∠0° A = I1
91

(b) I2 = 3I1 = 3.297∠0° A

4
(c) I3 = − × 3.297 = 4.396∠180° A
3

(d) P25 = 25 ×1.09892 = 30.19 W

(e) P2 = 3.297 2 × 2 = 21.74 W

(f) P3 = 4.3962 × 3 = 57.96 W

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

51.
V1 = 2.5 V2 , I1 = 0.4 I2 , I50 = I2 + 0.1 V2
60 + 2.5 V2
∴ 60 = 40(0.4 I2 ) − 2.5V2 ∴ I2 =
16
Also, 60 = 50 ( I2 + 0.1 V2 ) + V2 = 50 I2 + 6V2
⎛ 60 + 2.5 V2 ⎞
∴ 60 = 50 ⎜ ⎟ + 6 V2 = 187.5 + (7.8125 + 6) V2
⎝ 16 ⎠
60 − 187.5
∴ V2 = = −9.231 V
13.8125

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

52.

400
= 16 Ω, 16 48 = 12Ω, 12 + 4 = 16 Ω
52
16 10
= 4 Ω ∴ Is = = 2 A ∴ P1 = 4 W
2 2
4 +1
2
= 1 A ∴ P4 = 4 W, 10 − 2 × 1 = 8 V
2
8 × 2 = 16 V, 16 − 4 × 1 = 12 V, 122 / 48 = 3 W = P48 , 12 × 5 = 60 V
602
P400 = =9 W
400

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53.

I1 = 2I 2 , 2I 2 = I s + I x ∴ I x + I s − 2I 2 = 0
1
100 = 3I s + (4I 2 + 20I 2 − 20I x )
2
∴10I x − 3I s − 12I 2 = −100
100 = 3 I s − 5I x + 20I 2 − 20I x
∴ 25I x − 3I s − 20I 2 = −100
0 1 −2

−100 −3 −12

−100 −3 −20 0 + 100(−26) − 100(−18) −800


∴IX = = = = 4.819 A
1 1 −2 1(60 − 36) − 10(−20 − 6) + 25(−12 − 6) −166

10 −3 −12

25 −3 −20

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54.

(a) 25 25 100
50 10 = Ω ∴ VAB = 1× 4 × = V
3 3 3
2
⎛ 100 ⎞ 1 1000
∴ P10AB = ⎜ ⎟ = = 111.11 W
⎝ 3 ⎠ 10 9
25 252
VCD = 1× 3 × = 25 V, P10CD = = 62.5 W
3 10

(b) Specify 3 A and 4 A in secondaries

I AB = I f + 4
25 25
ICD = − Ib − 3 ∴ (I f + 4) = (−I f − 3)
3 3
∴ 2I f = −7, I f = −3.5 A
25 25
∴ VAB = VCD = (−3.5 + 4) = V
3 6
2
⎛ 25 ⎞ 1
∴ P10 AB = P10CD =⎜ ⎟ = 1.7361 W
⎝ 6 ⎠ 10

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

55. Corrections required to the problem text: both speakers that comprise the load
are 4-Ω devices. We desire a circuit that will connect the signal generator (whose
Thévenin resistance is 4 Ω) to the individual speakers such that one speaker receives
twice the power delivered to the other. One possible solution of many:

We can see from analysing the above circuit that the voltage across the right-most
1.732
speaker will be or 2 times that across the left speaker. Since power is
1.225
proportional to voltage squared, twice as much power is delivered to the right
speaker.

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56. (a) We assume Vsecondary = 230∠0o V as a phasor reference. Then,


8000 o
Iunity PF load = ∠0 = 34.8∠0o A and
230

I0.8 PF load =
15000
230
( )
∠ − cos −1 0.8 = 65.2∠ − 36.9o A

Thus, Iprimary =
230
2300
(
34.8∠0o + 65.2∠ - 36.9o )
= 0.1 (86.9 – j39.1) = 9.5 ∠-24.3o A

(b) The magnitude of the secondary current is limited to 25×103/230 = 109 A.


If we include a new load operating at 0.95 PF lagging, whose current is
I0.95 PF load = | I0.95 PF load | ∠ (-cos-1 0.95) = | I0.95 PF load | ∠ -18.2o A,
then the new total secondary current is
86.9 – j39.1 + | I0.95 PF load | cos 18.2o – j | I0.95 PF load | sin 18.2o A.
Thus, we may equate this to the maximum rated current of the secondary:

109 = (86.9 + | I 0.95 PF load | cos 18.2o )


2
+ (39.1 + | I 0.95 PF load | sin 18.2o )
2

Solving, we find
- 189 ± 189 2 + (4)(2800)
| I 0.95 PF load |2 =
2
So, |I0.95 PF load | = 13.8 A (or –203 A, which is nonsense).
This transformer, then, can deliver to the additional load a power of
13.8×0.95×230 = 3 kW.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to
teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

57. After careful examination of the circuit diagram, we (fortunately or unfortunately)


determine that the meter determines individual IQ based on age alone. A simplified
version of the circuit then, is simply a 120 V ac source, a 28.8-kΩ resistor and a
(242)RA resistor all connected in series. The IQ result is equal to the power (W)
dissipated in resistor RA divided by 1000.
2
⎛ 120 ⎞
P = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ × 576R A
⎝ 28.8 × 10 + 576R A ⎠
3

2
1 ⎛ 120 ⎞
Thus, IQ = ⎜⎜ ⎟ × 576 × Age
1000 ⎝ 28.8 × 10 + 576 × Age ⎟⎠
3

(a) Implementation of the above equation with a given age will yield the “measured”
IQ.
(b) The maximum IQ is achieved when maximum power is delivered to resistor RA,
which will occur when 576RA = 28.8×103, or the person’s age is 50 years.
(c) Well, now, this arguably depends on your answer to part (a), and your own sense
of ethics. Hopefully you’ll do the right thing, and simply write to the Better Business
Bureau. And watch less television.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to
teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

58. We require a transformer that converts 240 V ac to 120 V ac, so that a turns ratio of
2:1 is needed. We attach a male european plug to the primary coil, and a female US
plug to the secondary coil. Unfortunately, we are not given the current requirements
of the CD writer, so that we will have to over-rate the transformer to ensure that it
doesn’t overheat. Checking specifications on the web for an example CD writer, we
find that the power supply provides a dual DC output: 1.2 A at 5 V, and 0.8 A at 12 V.
This corresponds to a total DC power delivery of 15.6 W. Assuming a moderately
efficient ac to DC converter is being used (e.g. 80% efficient), the unit will draw
approximately 15.6/0.8 or 20 W from the wall socket. Thus, the secondary coil
should be rated for at least that (let’s go for 40 W, corresponding to a peak current
draw of about 333 mA). Thus, we include a 300-mA fuse in series with the
secondary coil and the US plug for safety.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to
teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

59. You need to purchase (and wire in) a three-phase transformer rated at
( )3 (208)(10) = 3.6 kVA. The turns ratio for each phase needs to be 400:208 or
1.923.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to
teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Thirteen Solutions 10 March 2006

60. (a) The input to the left of the unit will have the shape:

and the output voltage will be:

We need to reduce the magnitude from 115-V (rms) to a peak voltage of 5 V. The
corresponding peak voltage at the input will be 115 2 = 162.6 V, so we require a
transformer with a turns ratio of 162.6:5 or about 32.5:1, connected as shown:

115 V
±
rms ac

a = 1/ 32.5

(b) If we wish to reduce the “ripple” in the output voltage, we can connect a capacitor
in parallel with the output terminals. The necessary size will depend on the maximum
allowable ripple voltage and the minimum anticipated load resistance. When the input
voltage swings negative and the output voltage tries to reduce to follow, current will
flow out of the capacitor to reduce the amount of voltage drop that would otherwise
occur.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to
teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.