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Urchins:  broadcast  spawners  

Ecological  Physiology    
•  Understand  how  organisms  func:on  in  and  respond  to   +  
their  natural  physical  environments  
–  At  numerous  stages  of  a  life  cycle  
–  Combines  abio:c  &  bio:c  factors  
•  Example:  feeding  sea  urchin  larvae  on  our  CA  coast  

Strongylocentrotus  purpuratus  
Purple  sea  urchin  

Purple  urchin     DO  NEARSHORE  OCEANOGRAPHIC  PROCESSES  


UNDERLIE  BETWEEN-­‐SITE  DIFFERENCES?  
Strongylocentrotus  purpuratus  

•  Development  in  3  weeks  


•  Obligate  planktotroph  
•  Swimming  form  
•  Develops  in  water  masses  
•  Variable  environment  

•  What  about  natural  variability?  

The  Oregon  coast:     SeaFET  pH  Sensor   •  SeaFET  developed  by  Dr.  Todd  
Martz,  SIO  

Home  of  the  purple  urchin   •  Measures  in  situ  pH  using  two  
reference  electrodes  
•  Can  store  ~  11,000  data  points  
•  Deployed  7/23/10  –  8/17/10  
•  Recorded  temperature  and  pH  every  
10  min  

Stearns  Wharf  

Francis  Chan  &  Burke  Hale  OSU  (many  thanks!):    


  70m  mid-­‐shelf  off  Strawberry  Hill,  Oregon   Mohawk  Reef  
  Time-­‐series  started  April  09  through  September  09   (SBC  LTER  Site)  
~  8  m  depth  
C.  Nelson  

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Elevated  CO2  @  1450  ppm  reduces  size  of  


larvae,  but  they  s:ll  develop  

Yu,  Martz,  Hofmann  (2011)  JEMBE  (in  press)     Yu  et  al.  (2011)  JEMBE  (in  press)  

                 Present-­‐day  pH  Environment   “Skin  in,  Skin  out”  


Molecular   Subcellular   Organism   PopulaOon   Community  
Santa  Barbara  Channel   McMurdo  Sound,  Antarc:ca  

Gene   pHe/phi   Metabolic  rate   Disease   Reef-­‐wide    


Expression   Biochemical   Energe:cs   calcifica:on  
Proteomics   Enzymes   Acid/base  phys.  
Photosynthesis   Growth   Recruitment  
Oxida:ve  stress   Reproduc:on   Species    
    Calcifica:on   Interac:ons  
Local    
Development   Adapta:on   (trophic)  
Respira:on  
Osmoregula:on   Demographics  

Yu,  Martz,  Hofmann  (2011)     Matson,  Martz,  Hofmann  (2011)    


DOI:  10.1016/j.jembe.2011.02.016   (unpubl.  results)  
Symbiosis  

I.  Physiological  response     Acclima:za:on  


on  different  :me  scales  
•  Physiological,  
•  Different  :mescales   biochemical,  or  
–  Acclima:za:on   anatomical  change  
–  Acclima:on     within  an  individual  
–  Short  term  =  acute  
animal  during  its  life  
–  Developmental   •  Results  from  chronic  
•  Temperature-­‐dependent   exposure  in  the  
sex-­‐determina:on  (TSD)   natural  environment  
–  Genotypic  change  –  true   to  new,  naturally  
adapta:on,  local   occurring  condi:ons  
adapta:on   •  Generally  reversible  

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Acclima:on   AcclimaOon  Responses  


•  Physiological,  
biochemical,  or  
anatomical  change   -­‐   Fry’s  tolerance  windows  
within  an  individual  
during  its  life:me  
•  Experimentally  
induced  by  an  
inves:gator  
•  Generally  reversible  

Hofmann  &  Todgham  (2010)  Annu.  Rev.  Physiol.  72:      

Phenotypic  plas:city   Phenotypic  Plas:city  


• The  phenotype  is  the  
•  Can  be  irreversible  or  reversible  
product  of  interac:ons  
between  the  genotype  and   • Irreversible  
the  environment   – Developmental  plas:city  
• Reversible  
– Acclima?on  -­‐  lab  
– Acclima?za?on  –  natural  environment  

II.  Physiological  Regula:on   Thermoconformer  


•  Strategies  for  coping  with  changing  
condi:ons    
• Conformers  –  allow  internal  condi:ons  to    
change  with  external  condi:ons  
• Regulators  –  maintain  rela:vely  constant  
internal  condi:ons  regardless  of  external  
condi:ons    

Figure  1.4  

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Conformers   Regulators  
•  Maintain  rela:vely  
constant  internal  
•  Allow  internal  condi:ons   condi:ons  regardless  of  
to  change  when  faced   the  condi:ons  in  the  
with  varia:ons  in   external  environment  
external  condi:ons   •  Keep  internal  
•  Internal  environment   environment  within  
adjusts  to  reflect  external   narrow  limits  
condi:ons  

Conformers  vs.  regulators   Homeostasis  


•  Maintenance  of  internal  condi:ons  in  the  face  
of  environmental  perturba:ons  
•  Controlled  by  feedback  loops  or  reflex  control  
pathways  
– Nega:ve  feedback  loops  
– Posi:ve  feedback  loops  

Phenotypes  are  the  product  of  


Unifying  Themes  in  Physiology  
evolu:on  
•  Physiological  processes  obey  physical  and  chemical   Nothing  in  Biology  Makes  Sense  Except  in  the  
laws   Light  of  Evolu:on    
-­‐  Theodosius  Dobzhansky    
•  Physiological  processes  are  usually  regulated   •  Despite  the  diversity  the  form  and  func:on  of  
•  Physiological  phenotype  is  a  product  of  the  genotype   organisms,  there  are  many  similari:es  
and  the  environment   •  Species  that  are  closely  related  to  each  other  are  
likely  to  share  more  common  features  than  species  
that  are  distantly  related  
•  An  understanding  of  evolu:on  is  necessary  to  
•  Genotype  is  the  product  of  evolu:on     understand  physiological  diversity  

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List  of  concepts  


1.  Defini:on  of  ecological  physiology  
2.  Physiological  responses  differ  on  :me  scale  
3.  Physiological  responses  &  regula:on  
4.  Physiology  is  integrated  over  levels  of  
biological  organiza:on  

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