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STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC-ASD

Technical Note

Calculation of Stress Ratios

This Technical Note explains that the stress ratios in UBC97-ASD are calcu-

lated in the same way as described in the Technical Note Calculation of Stress

Ratios for Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89, with some modifications as de-

scribed herein.

In the calculation of the axial and bending stress ratios, first, for each station

along the length of the member, the actual stresses are calculated for each

load combination. Then the corresponding allowable stresses are calculated.

Then, the stress ratios are calculated at each station for each member under

the influence of each of the design load combinations. The controlling stress

ratio is then obtained, along with the associated station and load combination.

A stress ratio greater than 1.0 indicates an overstress. Similarly, a shear ca-

pacity ratio is also calculated separately.

During the design, the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not

considered.

With the computed allowable axial and bending stress values and the factored

axial and bending member stresses at each station, an interaction stress ratio

is produced for each of the load combinations as follows (ASD H1, H2, SAM

6):

! If fa is compressive and fa / Fa, > 0.15, the combined stress ratio is given

by the larger of

+ + , and (ASD H1-1, SAM 6.1)

Fa fa fa

1 − Fb33 1 −

F ' e33 F ' e22

fa f f

+ b33 + b22 , where (ASD H1-2, SAM 6.1)

Q(0.60Fy ) Fb33 Fb22

Steel Frame Design UBC-ASD Calculation of Stress Ratios

fa = axial stress

12π 2 E

F'e = . (ASD H1)

23(Kl / r )2

A factor of 4/3 is NOT applied on Fe and 0.6Fy if the load combination in-

cludes any wind load or seismic load (UBC 1612.3.1).

Cm33 and Cm22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the

member length. They are calculated as described in Technical Note

Calculation of Stress Ratios for Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89.

When the stress ratio is calculated for Special Seismic Load Combinations,

the column axial allowable stress in compression is taken to be 1.7Fa in-

stead of Fa (UBC 2213.4.2).

for the combined stress ratio.

fa f f

+ b33 + b22 (ASD H1-3, SAM 6.1)

Fa Fb33 Fb22

fa f f

+ b33 + b22 , and (ASD H2-1, SAM 6.2)

Fa Fb33 Fb22

f b33 f

+ b22 , where

Fb33 Fb22

fa, fb33, fb22, Fa, Fb33, and Fb22 are as defined earlier in this technical note.

However, either Fb33 or Fb22 need not be less than 0.6Fy in the first equation

Steel Frame Design UBC-ASD Calculation of Stress Ratios

(ASD H2-1). The second equation considers flexural buckling without any

beneficial effect from axial compression.

When the stress ratio is calculated for Special Seismic Load Combinations,

the column axial allowable stress in tension is taken to be Fy instead of Fa

(UBC 2213.4.2).

For circular and pipe sections, an SRSS combination is first made of the two

bending components before adding the axial load component, instead of the

simple addition implied by the above formula.

For Single-angle sections, the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the

properties about the principal axis (ASD SAM 5.3, 6.1.5). For I, Box, Channel,

T, Double-angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular sections, the principal axes

coincide with their geometric axes. For Single-angle sections, principal axes

are determined in the program. For general sections, it is assumed that all

section properties are given in terms of the principal directions, and conse-

quently, no effort is made to determine the principal directions.

earthquake and wind loads, allowable stresses are NOT increased by a factor

of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (UBC 1612.3.1, 2209.3).

Shear Stresses

From the allowable shear stress values and the factored shear stress values

at each station, shear stress ratios for major and minor directions are com-

puted for each of the load combinations as follows:

fv 2

, and

Fv

fv 3

.

Fv

For Single-angle sections, the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions

along the geometric axis. For all other sections, the shear stress is calculated

along the principle axes that coincide with the geometric axes.

earthquake and wind loads, allowable shear stresses are NOT increased by a

factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (UBC 1612.3.1, 2209.3).

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