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# 1.

OBJECTİVE

The main aim of this experiment is to study the behavior of the spring when exerting a force using
Hooke's law and examine simple harmonic motion.

2. BACKGROUND
 Hooke’s Law:
Hooke's law is that the stress of a material is proportional to the stress applied within that
material's elastic limit. When elastic materials are stretched, the atoms and molecules deform
until pressure is applied and when the stress is removed, they return to their initial state(What Is
Hooke’s Law? - Formula, Graph, Experiment Hooke’s Law Of Elasticity).
In mathematically Hooke’s law state as follows:
F s=K ∆ x (1)
Where F is the force exerted by the spring and it will be expressed in Newtons (N). And ∆ x is
the difference of the distance between two positions. And about K is the spring constant or a
stiffness and have a different value for each spring and it expressed in Newtons / Meter (N/m)
(Giuliodori et al.).

The gravitational force will be in the experiment because the inclined angle that stretches the
spring downwards.
F g=mg sin α (2)
Where m is the mass of the object, and it will be expressed in Kilo gram (Kg). And g is the free-
fall acceleration and it’s equal10 m/s 2. And about sin α is the inclined position of air table.

This force will be illustrated on the air table, the force is extracted on the table because the spring
is upwards. The spring will stretch when the two forces are equal. The equilibrium point will be
when all forces are equal.
F s=F g ( 3 )
K ∆ x=mg sin α (4)
 Simple Harmonic Motion:
Simple harmonic motion is a type of periodic motion in which the restoring force is directly
proportional to the displacement. It can serve as a mathematical model for a variety of
movements, such as spring oscillation(What Does Simple Harmonic Motion Mean?).

T =2 π
√ m( )
K
5
Where T is the time period that the time it takes for an object to complete one complete cycle of
its periodic motion and it will be expressed in Newtons (Sec). And m is the mass of the object
and it will be in kilo grams. And about K is the spring constant or a stiffness and have a different
value for each spring and it expressed in Newtons / Meter (N/m).

3. EXPERİMENTAL PROCEDURE
 Materials:
1. Spark Timer
2. Air table
3. Compressor
4. Shooters
5. Carbon Paper
6. Data sheet
7. Wooden Block
8. Spring

 Procedure:

 Hooke’s Law:
1. Level the air table to the inclined position by using the wood block.
2. Then fix the spring to the higher corner of the air table by using spring holder to get mass
string system and mark the bottom point of the spring on the data sheet.
3. Then attach one of the discs to the bottom of the spring.
4. Wait for the system to enter a state of equilibrium and then mark it on paper.
5. Add extra weight to the disc and wait for the system to enter a state of equilibrium and then
mark it on paper.
6. Then make a graph F g−∆ x , and you will get a straight line. the spring constant (K) in the
slop of the graph.

##  Simple Harmonic Motion:

1.Level the air table to the inclined position by using the wood block.
2. Then fix the spring to the higher corner of the air table by using spring holder to get mass
string system and tie one of the discs to the bottom of the spring on the data sheet.
3.Wait a while for the system to become stable, and then mark the paper in this position.
4.Pull the disc a little and mark this position as well. Keep depressing the compressor pedal. Then
leave the disc free. Means while pressing the timer pedal the spark and data acquisition.
5.When the system reaches its maximum height, stop depressing the spark timer pedal. So we can
get data for half a round.
6.After doing all steps you should calculate the period time of one cycle.

4. Experimental Results

 Hooke’s Law:
 For mass 1:
−3
m1=139.65 ×10 Kg
X 1 =8 cm

X 2 =19.5 cm
∆ x=19.5−8=11.5 cm
F=mg sin α ⇒ F 1=m1 g sin α
−3
F 1=139.65× 10 Kg× 10× sin 10=0.242 N
F1 0.242 N
F 1=K 1 ∆ x1 ⇒ K 1= = =2.104 N /m
∆ x 1 11.5 ×10−2 m

 For mass 2:
−3
m2=275.73 ×10 Kg
X 1 =10 cm

X 2 =22.5 cm
∆ x=22.5−10=12.5 cm
F=mg sin α ⇒ F 2=m2 g sin α
−3
F 2=275.73 ×10 Kg× 10× sin 10=0.475 N
F2 0.475 N
F 2=K 2 ∆ x2 ⇒ K 2= = =3.8 N /m
∆ x 2 12.5 ×10−2 m

 For mass 3:

m3=411.81× 10−3 Kg
X 1 =15.5 cm

X 2 =23 cm
∆ x=23−15.5=7.5 cm
F=mg sin α ⇒ F 3=m3 g sin α
−3
F 3=411.81 ×10 Kg ×10 ×sin 10=0.715 N
F3 0.715 N
F 3=K 3 ∆ x 3 ⇒ K 3 = = =9.53 N /m
∆ x3 7.5 ×10−2 m
Graph-1:

Fg-delta X
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

##  Simple Harmonic Motion:

 For mass 1:

T 1=2 π
√ m1
K1

−3
139.65 ×10 Kg
T 1=2 π =1.6 Sec
2.104 N /m
 For mass 2:

T 2=2 π
√ m2
K2

−3
275.73 ×10 Kg
T 1=2 π =1.7 Sec
3.8 N /m
 For mass 3:

T 3=2 π
√ m3
K3

−3
411.81× 10 Kg
T 3=2 π =1.3 Sec
9.53 N /m
5. Conclusion and Discussion
In this experiment, a spring was suspended horizontally on a pneumatic table at an inclined angle
using the spring holder to obtain a collective string system, and blocks of 139.65 g were added to
411.81 g. The lower position of the spring has been measured once it is in place. In this formation,
two equal and opposite forces acted on the suspended mass
Where gravity is directed downward and the force restored in the spring is directed upward, in the
direction opposite to the displacement. Using Hooke's Law (F = kx), the spring constant for each
measurement was calculated, and the spring constants for each displacement value are the same

Graph of the force causing extension, opposite to extension, x led to the expected straight line in the
range of forces examined and it complies with Hooke's law.
6. References
Giuliodori, Mauricio J., et al. ‘Hooke’s Law: Applications of a Recurring Principle’. American
Journal of Physiology - Advances in Physiology Education, vol. 33, no. 4, American
Physiological Society, 2009, pp. 293–96, doi:10.1152/advan.00045.2009.
What Does Simple Harmonic Motion Mean? https://www.definitions.net/definition/simple
harmonic motion. Accessed 18 Dec. 2021.
What Is Hooke’s Law? - Formula, Graph, Experiment Hooke’s Law Of Elasticity.
https://byjus.com/physics/hookes-law-equation-experiment/. Accessed 17 Dec. 2021.