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T E N S E S

Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
V la forma initiala Am/are/is + V _ing Have/has + V3 Have been + V_ing
• Usually • Now [!!] nu se indica cind • Since
• Often e rezultatul. • For
• Every [+] I am playing. • Just
• Always [-] I’m not playing. • Ever [X]: to be, feel, see,
[?] Am I playing? • Never hear, understand,
[?] do? does? • For ages recognize, forget,
• Since know, love, like,
• Already have(ca posesie).-nu
se formeaza
• Yet
• Today
• This Nu e precizat pina
cind continua

Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
V + _ed // V2 Was/were + V_ing Had + V3 // Had been + V_ing
• Last week • Yesterday P.simple • Since
• Yesterday • While • By • For
• Ago • Whole • Before
• Just now [!!] • When • After O actiune inceputa in
• From trecut ce a durat
[?] Did? • Till 2 actiuni terminate pina acum/ care a
una inaintea alteia. inceput si a durat
Ex: I was sleeping pina la alta actiune in
when mother came trecut

Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
Shall/will + V (gr I) Will be + V_ing Will have + V3 Will have been +
• Tomorrow • Tomorrow at • By V_ing
• Next • When
• Following • From Este o actiune care
• Till va fi terminate pina
[-] shall not  shan’t • At la alta actiune in
will not  won’t viitor.
[?] shal/will + .. [-] .. will not be V_ing.
(pronume) [?] will .. be V_ing?

Passive Voice - ( to be + V3 )


Pr.S I watch a film. Pr.S A film is watched by me.
Pr.C I am watching a film. Pr.C A film is being watched by me.
Pr.P I have watched a film. Pr.P A film has been watched by me.
P.S I watched a film. P.S A film was watched by me.
P.C I was watching a film. P.C A film was being watched by me.
P.P I had watched a film. P.P A film had been watched by me.
F. I will watch a film. F. A film will be watched by me.
Reported / Indirect Speech
He says: “ She loves me”  {1} Past S : {2} “Pr.S”  P.S Nu
se schimba
He says (that) she loves him. (doar) “Pr.C”  P.C
“Pr.P”  P.P
He said: “She loves me” “P.S”  P.P
He said (that) she loved him. “F.”  F - in the past.
Conditionalul II, III

Conditionals Subjonctive Mood (wish, if only)

0. If …  general truth [Pr.S] I wish + P.S (regrets about
something in the present)
1. If Pr.S  will + V (infinitive) [P.S] I wish + P.P (regrets for unlikely or
impossible things in the past)
2. If P.S  would + V (infinitive) -Use if only instead of I wish with the same
use of tenses.
3. If P.P  would have + V3 [regret past]
4. if P.P  would + V (infinitive)

Supositional Mood
That(….) should (Pr.S) ex: It is necessary (that) ypu should know this thing.
Is used after the Expresions:
- is necessary
- is advisable
- is ordered
- sugest

Future in the past

He will come  He said (that) he would come.
 - In propozitiile cu 2 actiuni cu viitor, in partea secundara dupa cuvintele: “if” “when” “as
soon as” “before” “after” “until” a!iigfise foloseaste Present Simple.

Plural Nouns (latin) Transformari:

-us  -i { R/I Speech } todaythat day
-is  -es tomorrowthe
next/following day
-a  -ae yesterdaythe day
-on  -a thisthat
-um  -a thesethose
-ex/ -ix  -ices herethere
Modal Verbs
Modal verbs give additional information about the mood of the main verb that follows it. In other
words, they help to incorporate or add the level of necessity:
(must = obligation, requirement, no choice);
(should = recommendation);
(can/could = it is possible);
(may/might = option, choice).
(used to + Vinf = obisnuinta in trecut);
(to be used to + Ving = obisnuinta in present);
(get used to + V3 = dupa o intimplare)

Phrasal Verbs
Phrasal Verbs are commonly used combination of “verb + preposition” or “verb + adverb

(eg: to get up, to listen to, to congratulate on, to participate in, to depend on, etc).

Sometimes the primary meaning of a verb is completely changed. In such way a new verb is
formed which may have a totally different idiomatic meaning or even several meanings.

Adjective or Adverb
An adjective tells us more about a noun.We use adjectives before nouns and after a few verbs:
“to look” “to feel”
“to be” “to taste” “to smell” “to seem”.

An adverb tells us more about a verb. It tells us in what way someone does something or in what
way something happens. We also use adverbs before adjectives and other adverbs (eg: “terribly
sorry” “incredibly easy”).

You can use an adverb before a past participle (eg: “totally disappointed” “seriously surprised”).

Order of Adjectives
Noun Ordinals; Enumerators Descriptive Little Color Categorizing Noun Head
determiners only ; many, adjectives adjectives adjuncts noun of
, possessive other Old Compo
nouns & und
their New

first three small new whit suburban brick houses
this next
other famous little red English silk dress
my dad’s last
five fine old blac naval leathe belts
k r

“The” with the Geographical Nouns

 with water use “The”, but lakes
Ex : Baikal is deep / The Lake Baikal is deep.
 Tot ce este pe uscat fara articole in afara de insule si deserturi
- un grup de insule  cu articol
- o insula  fara articol
Exceptii: The UK, The USA, The Ukraine, The USSR, The Vatican, The Netherlands,
The Congo, The Crimea, The Hague
 Lant de munti  cu articol
Un pisc  fara articol

It is the form of the verb that combines the characteristics of a noun and a verb; and is
nonfinite with the ending “ing”

Active Pasive
Simple I hate washing. (actiuni I hate being washed.
Gerund concomitente)
Perfect I deny having washed my cat. I deny having been washed by my cat.

The verbs we usw gerund after: The verbs used with prepositions
To avoid, to burst out , can’t help , to To accuse of, to agree to, to approve of, to
deny. to enjoy, to excuse, to finish , to be afraid of, to congratulate on, to depend
forgive, to give up , to go on , to keep on, on, to dream of, to feel like, to insist on, to
to mind, to postpone , to put of, to stop look forward to, to object to, to persist in,
to prevent from, to succeed in, to suspect
of, to thank for, to think of

Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions

• agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle
• argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition
• compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes
• correspond to a thing, with a person
• differ from an unlike thing, with a person
• live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people

Simple To write To be written
Continuous To be writing -----------
Perfect To have written To have been written
Perfect To have been writing -----------

Bare Infinitive
Is used after
• auxiliary verbs
• modal verbs, except ought
• verbs denoting sence perception: to hear, to see, to feel, to watch, etc.
• verb to let
• to make (to make smb to do smth) and to have (to cause smb to do smth)
• to bid
• to know (to see, to observe)
• the expressions had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot but, nothing
but, cannot choose but