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Karaj Branch

Dr. M. Khosravy 1

Introduction

Thermodynamics: Energy can be transferred between a system and its surroundings. A system interacts with its surroundings by exchanging work and heat Deals with equilibrium states Does not give information about:

Rates at which energy is transferred Mechanisms through with energy is transferred

In this chapter we will learn ! What is heat transfer ! How is heat transferred ! Relevance and importance

Dr. M. Khosravy 2

Definitions

Heat transfer is thermal energy transfer that is induced by a temperature difference (or gradient)

Modes of heat transfer Conduction heat transfer: Occurs when a temperature gradient exists through a solid or a stationary fluid (liquid or gas). Convection heat transfer: Occurs within a moving fluid, or between a solid surface and a moving fluid, when they are at different temperatures Thermal radiation: Heat transfer between two surfaces (that are not in contact), often in the absence of an intervening medium.

Dr. M. Khosravy 3

A closed container filled with hot coffee is in a room whose air and walls are at a fixed temperature. Identify all heat transfer processes that contribute to cooling of the coffee. Comment on features that would contribute to a superior container design.

Dr. M. Khosravy

1. Conduction

Transfer of energy from the more energetic to less energetic particles of a substance by collisions between atoms and/or molecules.

! Atomic and molecular activity random molecular motion (diffusion) T1 T1>T2

xo

qx

T2

Dr. M. Khosravy

T2

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1. Conduction

Consider a brick wall, of thickness L=0.3 m which in a cold winter day is exposed to a constant inside temperature, T1=20C and a constant outside temperature, T2=-20C. ! Under steady-state conditions the temperature varies linearly as a function of x. Wall Area, A ! The rate of conductive heat qx T1=20C transfer in the x-direction depends on

T x

T2= -20C

L=0.3 m

q" " x

Dr. M. Khosravy

T1 ! T2 L

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1. Conduction

The proportionality constant is a transport property, known as thermal conductivity k (units W/m.K) T "T !T q" = k 1 2 = k x L L

For the brick wall, k=0.72 W/m.K (assumed constant), therefore qx = 96 W/m2 ? How would this value change if instead of the brick wall we had a piece of polyurethane insulating foam of the same dimensions? (k=0.026 W/m.K) rate in the x-direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of transfer. product of the flux and the area: qx= qx . A

Dr. M. Khosravy

! qx is the heat flux (units W/m2 or (J/s)/m2), which is the heat transfer

! The heat rate, qx (units W=J/s) through a plane wall of area A is the

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1. Conduction

In the general case the rate of heat transfer in the x-direction is expressed in terms of the Fourier law:

q" = ! k x

dT dx

T1(high)

qx

T2 (low)

Minus sign because heat flows from high to low T ! For a linear profile

x1 x

x2

dT (T2 ! T1 ) = <0 dx ( x2 ! x1 )

Dr. M. Khosravy

2. Convection

Energy transfer by random molecular motion (as in conduction) plus bulk (macroscopic) motion of the fluid.

Convection: transport by random motion of molecules and by bulk motion of fluid. Advection: transport due solely to bulk fluid motion.

! Forced convection: Caused by external means ! Natural (free) convection: flow induced by buoyancy forces, arising from density differences arising from temperature variations in the fluid The above cases involve sensible heat (internal energy) of the fluid ! Latent heat exchange is associated with phase changes boiling and condensation.

Dr. M. Khosravy

2. Convection

Air at 20C blows over a hot plate, which is maintained at a temperature Ts=300C and has dimensions 20x40 cm.

Air q

T! = 20! C

TS = 300! C

The convective heat flux is proportional to

q" # TS " T! x

Dr. M. Khosravy 10

2. Convection

The proportionality constant is the convection heat transfer coefficient, h (W/m2.K)

For air h=25 W/m2.K, therefore the heat flux is qx = 7,000 W/m2

W/m2.K) or flowing water (h=50 W/m2.K)

? How would this value change if instead of blowing air we had still air (h=5

The heat rate, is qx= qx . A = qx . (0.2 x 0.4) = 560 W. The heat transfer coefficient depends on surface geometry, nature of

the fluid motion, as well as fluid properties. For typical ranges of values, see Table 1.1 textbook. In this solution we assumed that heat flux is positive when heat is transferred from the surface to the fluid

11

Dr. M. Khosravy

3. Radiation

Thermal radiation is energy emitted by matter Energy is transported by electromagnetic waves (or photons). Can occur from solid surfaces, liquids and gases. Dos not require presence of a medium

! Emissive power E is the rate at which energy is released per unit area (W/ m2) (radiation emitted from the surface) ! Irradiation G is the rate of incident radiation per unit area (W/m2) of the surface (radiation absorbed by the surface), originating from its surroundings

12

Surroundings at Tsur

Surface at Ts

Dr. M. Khosravy

3. Radiation

For an ideal radiator, or blackbody:

"" qemitted = Eb = !Ts4

Stefan-Boltzmann law

where Ts is the absolute temperature of the surface (K) and s is the StefanBoltzmann constant, (s = 5.67x10-8 W/m2.K4)

" qemitted = E = !"Ts4

e is the emissivity

0 ! " !1 a !1

" 4 qincident = G = !"Tsur

Dr. M. Khosravy

13

Assuming a = e, the net radiation heat transfer from the surface, per unit area is

" 4 qrad = "#(Ts4 ! Tsur )

3. Radiation

The net radiation heat exchange can be also expressed in the form:

where

Dr. M. Khosravy

14

Identify the heat transfer processes that determine the temperature of an asphalt pavement on a summer day

Dr. M. Khosravy

15

Identify the heat transfer processes that occur on your forearm, when you are wearing a short-sleeved shirt, while you are sitting in a room. Suppose you maintain the thermostat of your home at 15C throughout the winter months. You are able to tolerate this if the outside air temperature exceedes 10C, but feel cold if the temperature becomes lower. Are you imagining things?

Dr. M. Khosravy

16

Example 1

Satellites and spacecrafts are exposed to extremely high radiant energy from the sun. Propose a method to dissipate the heat, so that the surface temperature of a spacecraft in orbit can be maintained to 300 K.

Given a=0.4, e=0.7, qsolar = 1000 W, Ts=300K, Tspace=0 K, s = 5.67x10-8 W/m2.K4

Dr. M. Khosravy

17

An uninsulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and the walls are at 25C. The outside diameter of the pipe is 70 mm, and its surface temperature and emissivity are 200C and 0.8 respectively. What are the surface emissive power (E), and irradiation (G)? If the coefficient associated with free convection heat transfer from the surface to the air is h=15 W/m2.K, what is the rate of heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe, q?

Dr. M. Khosravy

18

Accumulation = Creation Destruction + Flow in Flow out

Rate Equation

Rate of Rate of Rate of Rate of Rate of Accumulation = Creation Destruction + Flow in Flow out

Applicable to any extensive property: mass, energy, entropy, momentum, electric charge

Dr. M. Khosravy 19

A system is defined as an arbitrary volume of a substance across whose boundaries no mass is exchanged. The system may experience change in its momentum or energy but there is no transfer of mass between the system and its surroundings. The system is closed . A control volume is an arbitrary volume across whose boundaries mass, momentum and energy are transferred. The control volume may be stationary or in motion. Mass can be exchanged across its boundaries. Useful in fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer

Dr. M. Khosravy

20

In analyzing fluid motion we may take two paths: 1. Working with a finite region (=the control volume), making a balance of flow in versus flow out and determining flow effects such as forces, or total energy exchange. This is the control volume method. This approach is also called macroscopic or integral method of analysis . 2. Analysing the detailed flow pattern at every point (x,y,z) in the field. This is the differential analysis, sometimes also called microscopic .

Dr. M. Khosravy

21

Conservation of Energy

Surroundings, S Control Volume (CV) Boundary, B (Control Surface, CS) -Accumulation

(Storage) Addition through inlet

! Est ! -Generation E g

! Ein

! Eout

dE ! ! ! ! Ein + E g ! Eout = st = E st dt

(1.1)

! Inflow and outflow are surface phenomena ! Generation and accumulation are volumetric phenomena

Dr. M. Khosravy 22

Dr. M. Khosravy

23

! Rate of Energy Flow into CV:

& # V2 ! ! + g z ! mout + qout + Wout ! Rate of Energy Flow out of CV: $ ut + $ ! 2 % "out

d dt

Dr. M. Khosravy 24

! Substituting in equation (1.1) and assuming steady-state conditions:

&, # ) V2 ! ! * ut + ' min + qin + Win ! + g z' $* 2 $+ ! (in % " &, # ) V2 ! ! * ut + ' mout + qout + Wout ! = 0 + g z' $* 2 $+ ! (out % "

"Convention

Dr. M. Khosravy

q is positive when transferred from surroundings to system. W is positive when transferred from system to surroundings

25

For steady-state conditions the energy balance reduces to:

' $ ' $ V2 V2 ! ! ! % ut + + g z " min ! % ut + + g z " mout + q ! Wnet ,out = 0 % " % " 2 2 & #in & #out

(1.2)

" The work term is divided in two contributions: Flow work, associated to pressure forces (=pu, where u is the specific volume) and (shaft) work done by the system. The net work is: Injection Work

Dr. M. Khosravy 26

' $ ' $ V2 V2 ! ! m% u + p( + + g z " ! m% u + p( + + g z" + % " % " 2 2 & #in & #out ! + q !W =0

shaft

Recall:

! m = !VAc ! ! = VA = m " c

Units of [J/s]

Dr. M. Khosravy 27

For steady state conditions, no changes in kinetic or potential energy, no thermal energy generation, neglible pressure drop:

! q = mC p (Tout ! Tin )

Dr. M. Khosravy

28

In an orbiting space station, an electronic package is housed in a compartment having a surface area As=1 m2, which is exposed to space. Under normal operating conditions, the electronics dissipate 1kW, all of which must be transferred from the exposed surface to space. (a) If the surface emissivity is 1.0 and the surface is not exposed to the sun, what is its steady-state temperature? (b) If the surface is exposed to a solar flux of 750 W/m2 and its absorptivity to solar radiation is 0.25, what is its steady-state temperature?

Dr. M. Khosravy

29

For a control surface:

qcond qrad

! ! Ein ! Eout = 0 or

T1

qconv T x

Dr. M. Khosravy

T2

T!

30

The roof of a car in a parking lot absorbs a solar radiant flux of 800 W/m2, while the underside is perfectly insulated. The convection coefficient between the roof and the ambient air is 12 W/m2.K. a) Neglecting radiation exchange with the surroundings, calculate the temperature of the roof under steady-state conditions, if the ambient air temperature is 20C. b) For the same ambient air temperature, calculate the temperature of the roof it its surface emissivity is 0.8

Dr. M. Khosravy

31

Chapter 1: Summary

Modes of Heat Transfer:

Conduction Convection Radiation

q" = ! k x

dT dx

! Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume ! Surface Energy Balance (does not consider volumetric phenomena)

Dr. M. Khosravy

32

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