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# Chapter 1

## Introduction to Heat Transfer

Karaj Branch
Dr. M. Khosravy 1

Introduction
Thermodynamics: Energy can be transferred between a system and its surroundings. A system interacts with its surroundings by exchanging work and heat Deals with equilibrium states Does not give information about:
Rates at which energy is transferred Mechanisms through with energy is transferred

In this chapter we will learn ! What is heat transfer ! How is heat transferred ! Relevance and importance
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Definitions
Heat transfer is thermal energy transfer that is induced by a temperature difference (or gradient)

Modes of heat transfer Conduction heat transfer: Occurs when a temperature gradient exists through a solid or a stationary fluid (liquid or gas). Convection heat transfer: Occurs within a moving fluid, or between a solid surface and a moving fluid, when they are at different temperatures Thermal radiation: Heat transfer between two surfaces (that are not in contact), often in the absence of an intervening medium.
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## Example: Design of a container

A closed container filled with hot coffee is in a room whose air and walls are at a fixed temperature. Identify all heat transfer processes that contribute to cooling of the coffee. Comment on features that would contribute to a superior container design.

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1. Conduction
Transfer of energy from the more energetic to less energetic particles of a substance by collisions between atoms and/or molecules.
! Atomic and molecular activity random molecular motion (diffusion) T1 T1>T2

xo

qx

T2
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T2
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1. Conduction
Consider a brick wall, of thickness L=0.3 m which in a cold winter day is exposed to a constant inside temperature, T1=20C and a constant outside temperature, T2=-20C. ! Under steady-state conditions the temperature varies linearly as a function of x. Wall Area, A ! The rate of conductive heat qx T1=20C transfer in the x-direction depends on

T x

T2= -20C

L=0.3 m

q" " x
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T1 ! T2 L
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1. Conduction
The proportionality constant is a transport property, known as thermal conductivity k (units W/m.K) T "T !T q" = k 1 2 = k x L L

For the brick wall, k=0.72 W/m.K (assumed constant), therefore qx = 96 W/m2 ? How would this value change if instead of the brick wall we had a piece of polyurethane insulating foam of the same dimensions? (k=0.026 W/m.K) rate in the x-direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of transfer. product of the flux and the area: qx= qx . A
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! qx is the heat flux (units W/m2 or (J/s)/m2), which is the heat transfer
! The heat rate, qx (units W=J/s) through a plane wall of area A is the
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1. Conduction
In the general case the rate of heat transfer in the x-direction is expressed in terms of the Fourier law:

q" = ! k x

dT dx

T1(high)

qx
T2 (low)

Minus sign because heat flows from high to low T ! For a linear profile

x1 x

x2

dT (T2 ! T1 ) = <0 dx ( x2 ! x1 )

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2. Convection
Energy transfer by random molecular motion (as in conduction) plus bulk (macroscopic) motion of the fluid.
Convection: transport by random motion of molecules and by bulk motion of fluid. Advection: transport due solely to bulk fluid motion.

! Forced convection: Caused by external means ! Natural (free) convection: flow induced by buoyancy forces, arising from density differences arising from temperature variations in the fluid The above cases involve sensible heat (internal energy) of the fluid ! Latent heat exchange is associated with phase changes boiling and condensation.

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2. Convection
Air at 20C blows over a hot plate, which is maintained at a temperature Ts=300C and has dimensions 20x40 cm.

Air q

T! = 20! C

TS = 300! C
The convective heat flux is proportional to

q" # TS " T! x
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2. Convection
The proportionality constant is the convection heat transfer coefficient, h (W/m2.K)

## Newton s law of Cooling

For air h=25 W/m2.K, therefore the heat flux is qx = 7,000 W/m2
W/m2.K) or flowing water (h=50 W/m2.K)

? How would this value change if instead of blowing air we had still air (h=5

The heat rate, is qx= qx . A = qx . (0.2 x 0.4) = 560 W. The heat transfer coefficient depends on surface geometry, nature of
the fluid motion, as well as fluid properties. For typical ranges of values, see Table 1.1 textbook. In this solution we assumed that heat flux is positive when heat is transferred from the surface to the fluid
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Thermal radiation is energy emitted by matter Energy is transported by electromagnetic waves (or photons). Can occur from solid surfaces, liquids and gases. Dos not require presence of a medium
! Emissive power E is the rate at which energy is released per unit area (W/ m2) (radiation emitted from the surface) ! Irradiation G is the rate of incident radiation per unit area (W/m2) of the surface (radiation absorbed by the surface), originating from its surroundings
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Surroundings at Tsur

## " " qincident = G qemitted = E

Surface at Ts
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For an ideal radiator, or blackbody:
"" qemitted = Eb = !Ts4
Stefan-Boltzmann law
where Ts is the absolute temperature of the surface (K) and s is the StefanBoltzmann constant, (s = 5.67x10-8 W/m2.K4)

## For a real (non-ideal) surface:

" qemitted = E = !"Ts4

e is the emissivity

0 ! " !1 a !1

## The irradiation G, originating from the surroundings is:

" 4 qincident = G = !"Tsur

## a is the absorptivity 0! For a grey surface, a=e

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Assuming a = e, the net radiation heat transfer from the surface, per unit area is
" 4 qrad = "#(Ts4 ! Tsur )

The net radiation heat exchange can be also expressed in the form:

where

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## Summary: Heat Transfer Processes

Identify the heat transfer processes that determine the temperature of an asphalt pavement on a summer day

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## Summary: Heat Transfer Processes

Identify the heat transfer processes that occur on your forearm, when you are wearing a short-sleeved shirt, while you are sitting in a room. Suppose you maintain the thermostat of your home at 15C throughout the winter months. You are able to tolerate this if the outside air temperature exceedes 10C, but feel cold if the temperature becomes lower. Are you imagining things?

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Example 1
Satellites and spacecrafts are exposed to extremely high radiant energy from the sun. Propose a method to dissipate the heat, so that the surface temperature of a spacecraft in orbit can be maintained to 300 K.
Given a=0.4, e=0.7, qsolar = 1000 W, Ts=300K, Tspace=0 K, s = 5.67x10-8 W/m2.K4

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## Example 2 (1.2 Textbook)

An uninsulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and the walls are at 25C. The outside diameter of the pipe is 70 mm, and its surface temperature and emissivity are 200C and 0.8 respectively. What are the surface emissive power (E), and irradiation (G)? If the coefficient associated with free convection heat transfer from the surface to the air is h=15 W/m2.K, what is the rate of heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe, q?

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## Reminder: The General Balance Equation

Accumulation = Creation Destruction + Flow in Flow out

Rate Equation

Rate of Rate of Rate of Rate of Rate of Accumulation = Creation Destruction + Flow in Flow out
Applicable to any extensive property: mass, energy, entropy, momentum, electric charge
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## Reminder: System and Control Volume

A system is defined as an arbitrary volume of a substance across whose boundaries no mass is exchanged. The system may experience change in its momentum or energy but there is no transfer of mass between the system and its surroundings. The system is closed . A control volume is an arbitrary volume across whose boundaries mass, momentum and energy are transferred. The control volume may be stationary or in motion. Mass can be exchanged across its boundaries. Useful in fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer

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## Reminder: Approaches for Analysis of Flow

In analyzing fluid motion we may take two paths: 1. Working with a finite region (=the control volume), making a balance of flow in versus flow out and determining flow effects such as forces, or total energy exchange. This is the control volume method. This approach is also called macroscopic or integral method of analysis . 2. Analysing the detailed flow pattern at every point (x,y,z) in the field. This is the differential analysis, sometimes also called microscopic .

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Conservation of Energy
Surroundings, S Control Volume (CV) Boundary, B (Control Surface, CS) -Accumulation

! Est ! -Generation E g

## Loss through outlet

! Ein

! Eout
dE ! ! ! ! Ein + E g ! Eout = st = E st dt
(1.1)

## Energy conservation on a rate basis: Units W=J/s

! Inflow and outflow are surface phenomena ! Generation and accumulation are volumetric phenomena
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## The Energy Balance

! Rate of Energy Flow into CV:

## & # V2 ! ! \$ ut + + g z ! min + qin + Win \$ ! 2 % "in

& # V2 ! ! + g z ! mout + qout + Wout ! Rate of Energy Flow out of CV: \$ ut + \$ ! 2 % "out

d dt

## ut :internal energy, V: velocity, z: potential energy, q: heat rate, W: work

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## The Energy Balance

! Substituting in equation (1.1) and assuming steady-state conditions:

&, # ) V2 ! ! * ut + ' min + qin + Win ! + g z' \$* 2 \$+ ! (in % " &, # ) V2 ! ! * ut + ' mout + qout + Wout ! = 0 + g z' \$* 2 \$+ ! (out % "
"Convention

## qnet ,in = qin ! qout ! ! ! Wnet ,out = Wout ! Win

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q is positive when transferred from surroundings to system. W is positive when transferred from system to surroundings
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## The Energy Balance

For steady-state conditions the energy balance reduces to:

' \$ ' \$ V2 V2 ! ! ! % ut + + g z " min ! % ut + + g z " mout + q ! Wnet ,out = 0 % " % " 2 2 & #in & #out

(1.2)

" The work term is divided in two contributions: Flow work, associated to pressure forces (=pu, where u is the specific volume) and (shaft) work done by the system. The net work is: Injection Work

## ! ! ! ! Wnet ,out = Wshaft + [(P ! ) m]out " [(P ! ) m]in

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' \$ ' \$ V2 V2 ! ! m% u + p( + + g z " ! m% u + p( + + g z" + % " % " 2 2 & #in & #out ! + q !W =0
shaft

Recall:

! m = !VAc ! ! = VA = m " c

Units of [J/s]

## ! Enthalpy per i = ut + p! and (i in ! i out ) = c p (Tin ! Tout ) unit mass:

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## Volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

For steady state conditions, no changes in kinetic or potential energy, no thermal energy generation, neglible pressure drop:

! q = mC p (Tout ! Tin )

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## Example (Problem 1.36 textbook)

In an orbiting space station, an electronic package is housed in a compartment having a surface area As=1 m2, which is exposed to space. Under normal operating conditions, the electronics dissipate 1kW, all of which must be transferred from the exposed surface to space. (a) If the surface emissivity is 1.0 and the surface is not exposed to the sun, what is its steady-state temperature? (b) If the surface is exposed to a solar flux of 750 W/m2 and its absorptivity to solar radiation is 0.25, what is its steady-state temperature?

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## Surface Energy Balance

For a control surface:
! ! Ein ! Eout = 0 or

T1

qconv T x
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T2

T!
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## Example (Problem 1.55 textbook)

The roof of a car in a parking lot absorbs a solar radiant flux of 800 W/m2, while the underside is perfectly insulated. The convection coefficient between the roof and the ambient air is 12 W/m2.K. a) Neglecting radiation exchange with the surroundings, calculate the temperature of the roof under steady-state conditions, if the ambient air temperature is 20C. b) For the same ambient air temperature, calculate the temperature of the roof it its surface emissivity is 0.8

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Chapter 1: Summary
Modes of Heat Transfer:

q" = ! k x

dT dx

## Energy Balances written on a rate basis (J/s):

! Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume ! Surface Energy Balance (does not consider volumetric phenomena)

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