Sie sind auf Seite 1von 212

See notice on first page

GPRS
WL9019
GPRS Overview Course
Instructor Guide

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f
January 2002
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
This document contains proprietary information
of Lucent Technologies and is not to be disclosed or used
except in accordance with applicable agreements
Copyright 2002 Lucent Technologies
Unpublished and Not for Publication
All Rights Reserved

See notice on first page

This material is protected by the copyright and trade secret laws of the United States and other countries. It may not be reproduced, distributed,
or altered in any fashion by any entity (either internal or external to Lucent Technologies), except in accordance with applicable agreements,
contracts or licensing, without the express written consent of Lucent Technologies and the business management owner of the material.
For permission to reproduce or distribute, please contact:
Product Development Manager

1 317 322 6847 (outside continental US)


1 800 645 6759 (inside continental US)

Notice

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this document was complete and accurate at the time of printing.
Nevertheless, the authors retain the right to modify the information. This customer document describes all the hardware units and functions
known at the present time. Descriptions may be included for units which are not present at the customer site. The exact scope of delivery is
described in the respective purchase contract.
Mandatory customer information

This document does not contain any mandatory customer information.


Trademarks

No trademarks are used in this document.


Ordering information

The ordering number for this document is WL9019-90-IG.en.UL.


Support
Information product support

Contact your local Lucent Technologies Customer Service Organization representative if you wish to report errors or questions regarding the
contents of this document. If you are unable to locate a customer service center, contact Lucent Technologies at the following fax number:
Customer Response Center GSM
Telefax +49 911 526 3198
Technical support

Contact your local Lucent Technologies Customer Service Organization representative if you encounter problems with the product or have
questions regarding the product. If you are unable to locate a customer service center, contact Lucent Technologies at the following fax number:
Customer Response Center GSM
Telefax +49 911 526 3198

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

See notice on first page

Lucent Technologies
values your comments!
GPRS
WL9019
GPRS Overview Course
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL

Issue f

January 2002

Lucent Technologies welcomes your comments on this information product. Your opinion is of great value and helps us to
improve.
1.

Was the information product:


Yes

No

Not
applicable

In the language of your choice?


In the desired media (paper, CD-ROM, etc.)?
Available when you needed it?
Please provide any additional comments:
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.

Please rate the effectiveness of this information product:


Excellent

More than
satisfactory

Satisfactory

Less than
satisfactory

Unsatisfactory

Not
applicable

Ease of use
Level of detail
Readability and clarity
Organization
Completeness
Technical accuracy
Quality of translation
Appearance
If your response to any of the above questions is Less than satisfactory or Unsatisfactory, please explain your rating.
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
3.

If you could change one thing about this information product, what would it be?

________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
4.

Please write any other comments about this information product:

________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
Please complete the following if we may contact you for clarification or to address your concerns:

Name: ______________________________________________________
Company/organization: ______________________________

Date: ________________________________

Telephone number: ________________________________

Address: ____________________________________________________________________________________________
Email address: ______________________________

Job function: __________________________________________

If you choose to complete this form online, go to http://www.lucent-info.com/comments


Otherwise fax to 407 767 2760 (U.S.) or +1 407 767 2760 (outside the U.S.) or email comments to ctiphotline@lucent.com

See notice on first page

See notice on first page

Lucent Technologies
values your comments!
GPRS
WL9019
GPRS Overview Course
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL

Issue f

January 2002

Lucent Technologies welcomes your comments on this information product. Your opinion is of great value and helps us to
improve.
1.

Was the information product:


Yes

No

Not
applicable

In the language of your choice?


In the desired media (paper, CD-ROM, etc.)?
Available when you needed it?
Please provide any additional comments:
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.

Please rate the effectiveness of this information product:


Excellent

More than
satisfactory

Satisfactory

Less than
satisfactory

Unsatisfactory

Not
applicable

Ease of use
Level of detail
Readability and clarity
Organization
Completeness
Technical accuracy
Quality of translation
Appearance
If your response to any of the above questions is Less than satisfactory or Unsatisfactory, please explain your rating.
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
3.

If you could change one thing about this information product, what would it be?

________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
4.

Please write any other comments about this information product:

________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
Please complete the following if we may contact you for clarification or to address your concerns:

Name: ______________________________________________________
Company/organization: ______________________________

Date: ________________________________

Telephone number: ________________________________

Address: ____________________________________________________________________________________________
Email address: ______________________________

Job function: __________________________________________

If you choose to complete this form online, go to http://www.lucent-info.com/comments


Otherwise fax to 407 767 2760 (U.S.) or +1 407 767 2760 (outside the U.S.) or email comments to ctiphotline@lucent.com

See notice on first page

Contents

About this information product


BOOKMARK1::About this information product

Purpose

xi

Reason for reissue

xi

Safety labels

xi

How to use this information product

xi

Conventions used

xi

Related documentation

xii

Related training

xii

Figures

xii

BOOKMARK2::Purpose

BOOKMARK3::Reason for reissue

BOOKMARK4::Safety labels

BOOKMARK5::How to use this information product

BOOKMARK6::Conventions used

BOOKMARK7::Related documentation

BOOKMARK8::Related training

BOOKMARK9::Figures

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Introduction
BOOKMARK10::1 Introduction

Overview

1-1

What is General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)?

1-2

Development and History

1-6

The Services GPRS Provides

1-8

The Benefits GPRS Provides

1-9

BOOKMARK11::Overview

BOOKMARK12::What is General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)?

BOOKMARK13::Development and History

BOOKMARK14::The Services GPRS Provides

BOOKMARK15::The Benefits GPRS Provides

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

System Overview
BOOKMARK16::2 System Overview

Overview

2-1

BOOKMARK17::Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

CONTENTS
iii

GPRS Network Architecture

2-3

Mobile Station

2-5

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

2-7

BOOKMARK18::GPRS Network Architecture

BOOKMARK19::Mobile Station

BOOKMARK20::Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Base Station Controller Frame (BCF-2000)

2-11

Speech Transcoder Frame (STF)

2-12

Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC)

2-13

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)

2-15

The GPRS Backbone System (GBS)

2-18

New Network Area

2-21

New Network Elements - Functional Entities

2-22

Processes

2-28

Frame Relay

2-30

New Network Interfaces

2-33

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

2-35

GPRS Introduction to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

2-37

GPRS Introduction to the BCF-2000

2-39

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

2-42

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) and GPRS

2-52

BOOKMARK21::Base Station Controller Frame (BCF-2000)

BOOKMARK22::Speech Transcoder Frame (STF)

BOOKMARK23::Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC)

BOOKMARK24::Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)

BOOKMARK25::The GPRS Backbone System (GBS)

BOOKMARK26::New Network Area

BOOKMARK27::New Network Elements - Functional Entities

BOOKMARK28::Processes

BOOKMARK29::Frame Relay

BOOKMARK30::New Network Interfaces

BOOKMARK31::Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

BOOKMARK32::GPRS Introduction to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

BOOKMARK33::GPRS Introduction to the BCF-2000

BOOKMARK34::GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

BOOKMARK35::Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) and GPRS

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Interfaces
BOOKMARK36::3 Interfaces

Overview

3-1

GSM System Interfaces

3-2

GPRS System Interfaces

3-4

BOOKMARK37::Overview

BOOKMARK38::GSM System Interfaces

BOOKMARK39::GPRS System Interfaces

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The TCP/IP Suite


BOOKMARK40::4 The TCP/IP Suite

Overview

4-1

BOOKMARK41::Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

CONTENTS
iv

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Architecture of the TCP/IP Suite

4-2

IP Addressing

4-5

Address Resolution

4-8

BOOKMARK42::Architecture of the TCP/IP Suite

BOOKMARK43::IP Addressing

BOOKMARK44::Address Resolution

Internet Protocol (IP)

4-11

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

4-12

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

4-13

GTP

4-14

TCP/IP Example

4-15

BOOKMARK45::Internet Protocol (IP)

BOOKMARK46::Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

BOOKMARK47::User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

BOOKMARK48::GTP

BOOKMARK49::TCP/IP Example

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols


BOOKMARK50::5 GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

Overview

5-1

The GPRS Signaling Plane

5-3

The GPRS Transmission Plane

5-7

BOOKMARK51::Overview

BOOKMARK52::The GPRS Signaling Plane

BOOKMARK53::The GPRS Transmission Plane

Protocols
on the Gn Interface
n

5-10

Protocols
on the Gb Interface
b

5-12

Protocols
on the Um Interface
m

5-19

GPRS MS Protocols

5-23

The GPRS Air Interface

5-24

GPRS Logical Channels

5-25

Mapping of Packet Data Logical Channels onto Physical Channels

5-27

Quality of Service

5-32

GPRS MS

5-36

BOOKMARK54::Protocols on the G

BOOKMARK55::Protocols on the G

BOOKMARK56::Protocols on the U

Interface

Interface

Interface

BOOKMARK57::GPRS MS Protocols

BOOKMARK58::The GPRS Air Interface

BOOKMARK59::GPRS Logical Channels

BOOKMARK60::Mapping of Packet Data Logical Channels onto Physical Channels

BOOKMARK61::Quality of Service

BOOKMARK62::GPRS MS

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Procedures
BOOKMARK63::6 GPRS Procedures

Overview

6-1

Mobility Management

6-3

BOOKMARK64::Overview

BOOKMARK65::Mobility Management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

CONTENTS
v

GPRS Attach Procedure

6-7

BOOKMARK66::GPRS Attach Procedure

Detach Procedures

6-12

SGSN Initiated Detach Procedure

6-15

HLR Initiated Detach Procedure

6-17

Routing Area Update

6-19

Inter SGSN Routing Area Update Procedure

6-21

Combined Intra SGSN RA/LA Update Procedure

6-25

Combined Inter SGSN RA/LA Update Procedure

6-28

CS Paging Procedure

6-34

PS Paging Procedure

6-36

Authentication Procedure

6-38

Identity Check Procedure

6-39

Network Requested PDP Context Activation Procedure

6-40

MS Initiated PDP Context Deactivation Procedure

6-43

SGSN Initiated PDP Context Deactivation Procedure

6-44

GGSN Initiated PDP Context Deactivation Procedure

6-45

BOOKMARK67::Detach Procedures

BOOKMARK68::SGSN Initiated Detach Procedure

BOOKMARK69::HLR Initiated Detach Procedure

BOOKMARK70::Routing Area Update

BOOKMARK71::Inter SGSN Routing Area Update Procedure

BOOKMARK72::Combined Intra SGSN RA/LA Update Procedure

BOOKMARK73::Combined Inter SGSN RA/LA Update Procedure

BOOKMARK74::CS Paging Procedure

BOOKMARK75::PS Paging Procedure

BOOKMARK76::Authentication Procedure

BOOKMARK77::Identity Check Procedure

BOOKMARK78::Network Requested PDP Context Activation Procedure

BOOKMARK79::MS Initiated PDP Context Deactivation Procedure

BOOKMARK80::SGSN Initiated PDP Context Deactivation Procedure

BOOKMARK81::GGSN Initiated PDP Context Deactivation Procedure

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Call Management
BOOKMARK82::7 Call Management

Overview

7-1

GPRS - BSS Mobile Originated Packet Transfer

7-2

GPRS - BSS Mobile Terminated Packet Transfer

7-4

BOOKMARK83::Overview

BOOKMARK84::GPRS - BSS Mobile Originated Packet Transfer

BOOKMARK85::GPRS - BSS Mobile Terminated Packet Transfer

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Radio Resource Management


BOOKMARK86::8 Radio Resource Management

Overview

8-1

Multislotting Operation Effects

8-2

Channel Coding Schemes

8-4

BOOKMARK87::Overview

BOOKMARK88::Multislotting Operation Effects

BOOKMARK89::Channel Coding Schemes

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

CONTENTS
vi

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Future Enhancements
BOOKMARK90::9 Future Enhancements

Overview

9-1

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)

9-2

BOOKMARK91::Overview

BOOKMARK92::Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GL

Glossary

GL-1

BOOKMARK93::Glossary

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

IN

Index

IN-1

BOOKMARK94::Index

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

CONTENTS
vii

List of Figures

Introduction
1-1

GSM System Architecture

1-2

1-2

New and affected Network Elements

1-4

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

System Overview
2-1

GSM System Architecture

2-4

2-2

Architecture Overview

2-19

2-3

Location and Routing Areas

2-21

2-4

Possible Placement of PCU within the Lucent BSS

2-25

2-5

New GPRS Interfaces

2-33

2-6

Distribution of functionality

2-40

2-7

GPRS Impact on NSS

2-53

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Interfaces
3-1

GSM Interfaces

3-2

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The TCP/IP Suite


4-1

TCP/IP Suite

4-2

4-2

IP Addressing Scheme

4-6

4-3

Router Address

4-7

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

FIGURES
ix

4-4

Message Exchange Process

4-5

Message Flow

4-9
4-15

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols


5-1

MAP Signaling

5-3

5-2

BSSAP Signaling

5-5

5-3

GGSN Activity

5-11

5-4

SNDCP Service Model

5-13

5-5

SGSN Activity

5-18

5-6

RLC/MAC Blocks

5-19

5-7

Air Interface

5-21

5-8

BSS Activity

5-22

5-9

MS Activity

5-23

5-10

Logical channels for GPRS

5-24

5-11

52 Multiframe

5-28

5-12

Operation Effects

5-31

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Procedures
6-1

GPRS Attach/Detach States

6-5

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Call Management
7-1

GPRS Mobile Originated Packet Transfer

7-3

7-2

GPRS Mobile Terminated Packet Transfer

7-5

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

FIGURES
x

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

About this information product

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Purpose

This document is designed as a reference for the participants of the


WL9019.
It includes information of the different network elements about:

Reason for reissue


Safety labels

How to use this


information product

Conventions used

The structure

The functions.

This document has been fully revised.


This document does not contain any handling instructions. For this
reason, no notices regarding hazards when using the equipment
described here are necessary.
Start with the first chapter and work though the course documentation
to the end.

There are no special conventions used in this information product

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002
,

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

xi

GPRS Overview Course

Related documentation

About this information product

The following documents can provide additional useful information:

Related training

The following course is available:

Figures

GPRS Introduction Procedure (401-380-060)

WL9001 GSM System Introduction.

All descriptions are clarified by illustrations wherever possible. These


figures are diagrams and do not contain all the possible details or
information on special cases.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

xii

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002
,

Introduction

Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose

General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) has been specified to optimize


the way data is carried over GSM networks with new requirements for
features, network capacity and bearer services.
This chapter gives an overview of a General Packet Radio Services
(GPRS) network and other Data Networks in Europe and throughout
the world. This section also lists the history of GPRS, the services
provided and the main benefits.
After finishing this chapter, the student should be able to:

Explain the concept of a GPRS network.

Compare GPRS to other Data Networks.

List the benefits of a GPRS network.

Summarize the most significant parts of GPRS development.

Contents
What is General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)?

1-2

Development and History

1-6

The Services GPRS Provides

1-8

The Benefits GPRS Provides

1-9

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

1-1

Introduction

What
is General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)?
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction

GPRS is a data service for GSM, the European standard digital


cellular service. It is a packet-switched mobile data service, a wireless
packet based network. GPRS, further enhancing GSM networks to
carry data, is also an important component in the GSM evolution
entitled GSM+. High-speed mobile data usage is enabled with GPRS.
Figure 1-1 GSM System Architecture

The GSM system architecture includes the air interface (Um), the Abis,
the A Interface and others mentioned later in this document. The GSM
functionality is between the Mobile station (MS), the Base Station
Subsystem (BSS) and the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). The BSS
includes two types of elements: the Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
which handles the radio interfaces towards the MS and the Base
Station Controller (BSC) which manages the radio resource and
controls handovers. A BSC can manage several BTSs. Through the
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

What is General Packet Radio Service


(GPRS)?

Introduction

MSC, the GSM system communicates to other networks such as the


Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Integrated Services
Digital Network (ISDN), Circuit Switched Public Data Network
(CSPDN) and Packet Switched Public Data Network (PSPDN). The
OMC configures, administers and maintains the Network. GSM
specifies four databases, the Home Location Register (HLR), the
Visitor Location Register (VLR) and the Authentication Centre (AUC)
and Equipment Identity Register (EIR).
If GPRS is compared to GSM data services, the following applies:

In GSM all the data that has to be sent, is sent via a circuit
switched connection. This means, that a link has to be established
and is used and maintained from setup until release. The data is
sent via one physical timeslot and has a maximum data rate of
9.6 kbps.

In GPRS all the data that has to be sent, is split into several
smaller data packets first. Those packets are then sent
individually across the GPRS network and each of those packets
can travel on a different route.
The packets arrive at the right destination address and could be
reassembled in the right order, because every single packet
contains the destination address and information about the
sequencing of the different packets.
In GPRS, one user can occupy more than one timeslot or more
than one user can be on a single timeslot.
Depending on different aspects, a maximum data rate of 171.2
kbps could be achieved.

For GPRS the ETSI Standard introduces two new elements, the
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and the Gateway GPRS Support

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

1-3

What is General Packet Radio Service


(GPRS)?

Introduction

Node (GGSN) are introduced to create an end-to-end packet transfer


mode.
Figure 1-2 New and affected Network Elements

The HLR is enhanced with GPRS subscriber data and routing


information. Two services are provided;

Point-To-Point (PTP)

Point-To-Multipoint (PTM) (not yet specified by the Standards)

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has


specified GPRS as an overlay to the existing GSM network to provide
packet data services.
In order to operate a GPRS service over a GSM network, new
functionality has to be introduced into existing GSM network
elements and new network elements have to be integrated into the
existing operators GSM networks.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1-4

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

What is General Packet Radio Service


(GPRS)?

Introduction

The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) of GSM has to be upgraded to


support GPRS. The BSS works with the GPRS Support Node (GSN)
to provide GPRS service in a similar manner to its interaction with
the Switching subsystem for the circuit switched services.
Independent packet routing and transfer within the Public Land
Mobile Network (PLMN) is supported by a new logical network node
called the GPRS Support Node (GSN).
The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) acts as a logical interface
to external packet data networks.
The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) is responsible for the
delivery of packets to the MSs within its service area. Within the
GPRS network, Protocol Data Units (PDUs) are encapsulated at the
originating GSN and decapsulated at the destination GSN.
In between the GSNs, Internet Protocol (IP) is used as the backbone
to transfer PDUs. This whole process is defined as tunnelling in
GPRS. The GGSN also maintains routing information used to tunnel
the PDUs to the SGSN that is currently serving the MS. All GPRS
user related data needed by the SGSN to perform the routing and data
transfer functionality is stored within the HLR.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

1-5

Introduction

Development
and History
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Development

Over the last ten years, there have been numerous predictions that
Mobile Data is about to explode in the marketplace and indeed, most
of the data trends confirm this. With the rapidly advancing technology
it does appear that mobile data will become a widespread reality, but
perhaps not quite as quickly as first thought. Until now, the only GSM
data services available have been the Short Message Service (SMS)
and low speed bearer services for fax and data transmission at 9.6
kbps (per user). The general take up of these services has been slow
and only a very small percentage of mobile users (estimated at 3-5%)
are enabled for data services.
The current data rate for GSM is 9.6 kbps per user. To maintain
competitive edge, modifications and enhancements will need to be
made. The proposed enhancements will mean an increase in the
amount of user data to be carried across the network. These have
included the High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) which has
data rates up to 57.6 kbps (4 TS with 14.4 kbps) and General Packet
Radio Service (GPRS) which has up to 171.2 kbps (8 TS with 21.4
kbps).

History

The following section lists the main development dates associated


with GPRS.

GPRS has been established at the European Telecommunications


Standards Institute (ETSI) in 1994

ETSI R97 was the first issue of the GPRS standards

History of Data Networks


Date

Event

1969

Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U.S.


Department of Defense (ARPA) Contract award

1983

APPnet moves to TCIP/IP

1987

National Science Foundations TCIP/IP based


NETwork (NSFnet) funded to provide regional
sites & backbone

1991

Gopher is introduced

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1-6

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Development and History

Introduction

Date

Event

1991

Commercial Internet Exchange CCIX7 set up for


commercial traffic

1992

First Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD)


specifications appear

1992

World-wide web is introduced

1993

Wireless Data Cellular Digital Packet Data


(CDPD) forum started

1994

GPRS introduced to ETSI subcommittees & first


commercial CDPD networks

1998

GPRS Phase 1 standards published

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

1-7

Introduction

The
Services GPRS Provides
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction

The services provided by GPRS are extensive. GPRS is ideal for


sending and receiving bursty data via the Mobile Station (MS). This
enables the user to send information via e-mail and also have access
to Mobile Internet/Intranet Services, like Emerging services, and
WWW access.
It could also be used for the following:

Consumer services
-

Train/flight tables, traffic info, sport scores, news, weather,


telephone directory, dictionary search etc.

E-Commerce: Credit Card checks, ticketing

Vertical Market Applications


These include:
-

Transportation: vehicle load monitoring

Emergency Services: command and control

Field Service: job dispatch, issue and control

Utilities: meter reading

Image Transmission - Low resolution, Sketches and Images

Telemetry - Logging and Slow Update Tele-control such as


Tele-Traffic control, Automatic Vehicle location (AVL)

Location Services, LCS (ETSI Specified)

Point-To-Point (PTP) and Point-To-Multipoint (PTM) packet


services Vertical Market Applications (will be defined later)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1-8

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Introduction

The
Benefits GPRS Provides
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction

The data transferred in GPRS is encapsulated into short packets with a


header containing the origin and destination address.
The packets are then sent individually over the transmission network.
Packets originating from one user may take different routes through
the network to the receiver. Packets originating from many users can
be interleaved, so that the transmission capacity is shared. No pre-set
time-slots are used on the air interface.
Instead, network capacity is allocated when needed and released when
not needed. This is called statistical multiplexing, in contrast to static
time division multiplexing. In static time division multiplexing,
time-slots are reserved for one user for the length of the connection
regardless of whether it is used or not, as with PCM lines and GSM
voice and circuit switched data.
GPRS upgrades GSM data services to be more compatible with
LANs, WANs and the Internet. It uses radio resources only when
there is data to be sent or received, and so is well adapted to the very
bursty nature of data applications. Furthermore, it provides fast
connectivity and high throughput.
While the current GSM system was originally designed for voice
sessions, the main objective of GPRS is to offer access to standard
data networks such as TCP/IP. These networks consider GPRS to be
normal sub-network.
The current GSM system operates in a circuit-switched end-to-end
transmission mode, in which circuits are reserved for the duration of a
connection, while GPRS uses packet-switched transmission mode.
GPRS offers a number of benefits to the operator and end user.
The operator benefits of GPRS are:

Optimal support for packet switched traffic. The operator can join
the Internet boom with true IP connectivity

The possibility to offer new, innovative services. New user


segments such as telemetry of electric meters will become
accessible to the operator

The ability to profit with idle capacity that would otherwise be


used only to cover peak-hour traffic. Many users can use one
time-slot simultaneously

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

1-9

The Benefits GPRS Provides

Introduction

Using GPRS as a radar screen to pinpoint where potential


EDGE or 3rd generation roll out could be started

It is economical to the operator as it supports multiple users on


the same channel(s)

Profitable to the operator (value added service, efficient use of


channels)

Packet based applications are given wide mobile support

Reuse of existing network infrastructure

The end user benefits are:

The possibility to offer new, innovative services. New market


segments such as telemetry of electric meters will become
accessible to the operator

The ability to profit with idle capacity that would otherwise be


used only to cover peak-hour traffic. Multiple users can use one
time-slot simultaneously

Due to the wide GSM coverage, GPRS will offer true global
mass market wireless access to the Internet and other
packet-based networks

Applications will be user-friendly with a seamless on-line


network connection independent of time and place. All existing
TCP/IP-based applications can be used with GPRS as if they
were connected to a LAN

GPRS offers very fast session set-up and the end user can stay
on-line for long periods paying only for the capacity used
(depending on the billing model)

GPRS makes using existing applications easier and enables new


applications

High bit rates in peak-hour, and uncompressed data rates of 171.2


kbps

The existing e-mail subscriber base in the Internet gives even the
very first GPRS user a large group of B-subscribers to
communicate with.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1-10

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose

This chapter describes the basic layout of the GPRS system


architecture in terms of the major entities involved.
After finishing this chapter the student should be able to:

Describe the basic layout of the GPRS network architecture.

Name the major entities and list their functions.

List the required changes for the related GSM network entities.

Summarize the functions of TCP/IP within a GPRS network.

Contents
GPRS Network Architecture

2-3

Mobile Station

2-5

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

2-7

Base Station Controller Frame (BCF-2000)

2-11

Speech Transcoder Frame (STF)

2-12

Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC)

2-13

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)

2-15

The GPRS Backbone System (GBS)

2-18

New Network Area

2-21

New Network Elements - Functional Entities

2-22

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-1

Overview

System Overview

Processes

2-28

Frame Relay

2-30

New Network Interfaces

2-33

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

2-35

GPRS Introduction to the Base Transceiver Station


(BTS)

2-37

GPRS Introduction to the BCF-2000

2-39

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

2-42

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) and GPRS

2-52

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

GPRS
Network Architecture
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

GSM System Entities

GPRS is an overlay on the existing GSM structure, which means that


an existing GSM network is used with added new GPRS network
entities.
The GSM system entities represent groupings of specific wireless
functionality.
A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) includes the following
system entities:

Mobile Station (MS)

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)


The BSS consists of the following:
-

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Base Station Controller (BSC)

Operation and Maintenance Centre (OMC)

Mobile - services Switching Centre (MSC)

Home Location Register (HLR)

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

Authentication Centre (AUC)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-3

GPRS Network Architecture

System Overview

Other Network Elements

Figure 2-1 GSM System Architecture

New GPRS Entities

The new GPRS network entities are:

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)

and additional functionality in the BSS.

GPRS will require modifications and enhancements to the existing


GSM network architecture to enable it to support both packet and
circuit switched data.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-4

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

Mobile
Station
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

The Mobile Station (MS) represents the terminal equipment used by


the wireless subscriber supported by the GSM wireless system.
The MS consists of two entities, each with its own identity:

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

Mobile Equipment (ME)

The SIM may be a removable module. A subscriber with an


appropriate SIM can access the system using various mobile
equipment. The equipment identity is not linked to a particular
subscriber. Validity checks made on the MS equipment are performed
independently of the authentication checks made on the MS subscriber
information.
Functions of a Mobile
Station

Types of Mobile Stations

The Mobile Station performs the following:

Radio transmission termination

Radio channel management

Speech encoding/decoding

Radio link error protection

Flow control of data

Rate adaptation of user data to the radio link

Mobility management

Performance measurements of radio link

Call Control

Mobile stations can come in different power classes, which define the
maximum RF power level that the unit can transmit. For GSM 900
there are five power classes, for GSM 1800 there are three power
classes. The mobile station output power is specified in the GSM
Specifications 05.05.
Power Classes
Class

Max RF Power (Watts)


GSM 900

GSM 1800

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-5

Mobile Station

System Overview

Class

Max RF Power (Watts)


GSM 900

GSM 1800

II

0.25

III

IV

0.8

Vehicular and portable units can be either class I or II, while


Handheld units can be class III, IV or V. Typical vehicular and
portable stations are of power class II or III while the typical
handheld is of power class IV.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-6

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

Base
Transceiver Station (BTS)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Lucent Base Station
Subsystem (BSS)

Function of BTS

The Base Station System consists of:

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Base Station Controller (BSC)


The BSC consists of:
-

Base Station Controller Frame (BCF)

Speech Transcoding Frame (STF)

Signaling data intended for the mobile station is inserted in the correct
signaling channel on the air interface. This signaling and traffic data is
protected against transmission errors, interleaved, and encrypted to
protect against unauthorized eavesdropping.
Signal and protocol processing covers the following areas:

Channel Coding

Encryption and Decryption

Channel coding

Interleaving

Encryption and Decryption

Burst Formation

Delay Correction

Modulation

Demodulation

Channel coding tasks include coding and decoding of voice data, data
channels, and signaling data. Since the data to be transmitted can
sometimes become partially corrupted by the fading effect, the data
must be appropriately protected. Additional check bits are generated
for this purpose, which make it possible to detect transmission errors
and to reconstruct the original data to a certain degree.
To prevent unauthorized eavesdropping of the signaling information
and user information (voice and data), this data can be encrypted.
Correct identification of the mobile station is a prerequisite for
transferring encryption parameters. The BTS possesses two different
encryption algorithms. Different parameters are used for each
connection. The encryption parameters are determined by the
Authentication Centre (AUC) and are transmitted via the
Mobile-services Switching Centre (MSC) to the BTS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-7

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Interleaving

Burst Formation

System Overview

The sub-blocks of a data block created by channel coding are


distributed over several TDMA frames (interleaving). Because of the
interleaving, only isolated sub-blocks are affected by interference
variables. This increases the overall interference resistivity of the
channels, since minor errors can be corrected with the aid of the
check bits inserted during channel coding. After they have been
received, the interleaved sub-blocks are recomposed into complete
data blocks, checked for errors, and corrected, if necessary.
The interleaved and encrypted data is packed into bursts. A burst is a
time segment of the radio frequency carrier that is the same length as
a time slot and therefore constitutes the physical content of a time
slot.
The burst types are listed below:

Normal Burst
Transmission of voice and signaling data.

Dummy Burst
Sent in unoccupied time slots on the BCCH carrier.

Access Burst
Request for a connection, location update, and responses to a
paging cell.

Synchronization Burst
Synchronizes the mobile station to the frame clock and the bit
clock of the BTS.

Frequency Correction Burst


Corrects the transmit and receive frequencies of the mobile
station.

Delay Correction

Because of the varying distances between mobile radio stations, the


radio signals may have different delay times. For this reason, controls
are necessary to equalize these delays. For an existing connection, the
group delay is constantly changing because of the movement of the
mobile station. For this reason, deviations from the correct time are
continuously measured at the BTS, and the correction parameters are
automatically inserted and transmitted to the mobile station

Modulation

The modulator has the task of converting the serial data stream into a
GMSK-modulated radio frequency signal

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-8

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Demodulation

Call Handling Functions

System Overview

In the receive direction, the incoming signal is filtered, demodulated,


and amplified. A signal proportional to the receive field strength is
generated in parallel to this signal recovery.
Call handling functions include all the functions that are required for
setting up, maintaining, and releasing connections. These functions are
controlled by the BSC. The BTS is the executing element in the GSM
system, in this case.
The following call handling functions are carried out at the BTS:

Radio Channel
Management

Detection of Loss of
Connection

Connection Control
Measurements

Radio channel management

Detection of loss of connection

Connection control measurements

Control and supervision of the STF

The BSC informs the BTS of all relevant parameters, such as channel
type, carrier frequency, time slot number, channel coding, and rate
adaption. The BSC determines what is to be sent over the signaling
channels. The BTS must send the messages associated to the various
channels at the right times in accordance with its channel
configuration. Only the correction parameters for the delay are
inserted automatically by the BTS itself.
The BTS is equipped with a counter that automatically detects the loss
of a radio connection. In the event that several SACCH messages in
sequence cannot be decoded, this situation is reported to the BSC. The
BSC sends the command to increase the BTS and mobile station
transmit power. If SACCH messages still cannot be decoded, the
connection is considered broken and the BTS deactivates the radio
channel and the BSC releases the connection.
The BTS conducts internally different measurements on each
voice/data channel for monitoring the transmission quality.
These include the following measurements:

Receive field strength measurement (taken over one SACCH


period)

Receive field strength measurement (taken over a subset of the


TDMA frames)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-9

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Control and Supervision of


the STF

Functions for
Transmission Quality
Improvement

System Overview

Signal quality measurement (bit error rate; taken over one


SACCH period)

Signal quality measurement (bit error rate; taken over one subset
of the TDMA frames with Discontinuous Transmission)
Interference levels are measured for all unused channels and the
measurements are forwarded to the BSC. The obtained values are
used to determine the channel allocation.

The BTS performs the synchronization between the STF-2000 and the
BTS and also controls the functions of the STF-2000. This operation
is performed by means of the appropriate control bits included in the
TRAU-Frames exchanged between the BTS and the STF-2000.
The following BTS functions improve the quality of transmission to
the mobile station:

Frequency Hopping

Antenna Diversity

Transmit Power Control

Frequency Hopping

Frequency hopping could equalize the relation of the fading effects to


the frequency. Fading effects are dependent on location and frequency.
Because the frequency is constantly changing, the fading effects are
evened out.

Antenna Diversity

The antenna diversity function serves to improve the reception quality.


It is enabled by installing two spatially separated reception antennas
for each cell, each of which is connected to its own transmission path
in the transmitter.

Transmit Power Control

BTS transmit power control is optional in the GSM system and can be
activated and deactivated by the OMC (operation and Maintenance
Centre). The aim of transmit power control is to use a low transmit
power that will enable problem-free high-quality transmission of
voice/data.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-10

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

Base
Station Controller Frame (BCF-2000)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Functions of the BCF-2000

The BCF-2000 is the central control module in the GSM network. It


is connected in the transmission paths between the BTS and the
STF-2000. A BCF-2000 can manage a number of BTSs through the
Abis-links. It is connected to the STF-2000 via an M-link.
The functions of the BCF-2000 are performed either autonomously or
under control of the OMC-2000 and are related to:

Call Handling Functions

Call handling

Operations and Maintenance

The Call Handling Functions are:

Management of the BTS radio terminals and the assigned radio


frequencies

Establishing and holding supervising calls for all subordinate


BTSs

Handling of signaling connections to the mobile stations (LAPD;


Link Access Procedure on the D-Channel) and RIL3 (Radio
Interface Layer-3) and to the MSC (CCS7; Common Channel
signaling No. 7) and BSSAP (Base Station System Application
Part)

Switching of speech data between the Abis-links and the M-links

RF power control and handover management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-11

System Overview

Speech
Transcoder Frame (STF)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Functions of the STF

Speech Transcoding

The functions of the STF are:

Speech transcoding

Data transmission between the A- and the M-interface

4 : 1 multiplexing

Through-switching of any channel

The STF-2000 supports the Full Rate (FR), Enhanced Full Rate (EFR)
and Half Rate (HR) coding algorithms. In the transmission direction
from the MSC to the BSC, the STF-2000 transcodes 64 kbps
A-interface speech channels into 16 kbps or 8 kbps M-interface
speech channels. In the transmission direction from the BSC to the
MSC, the STF-2000 transcodes 16 kbps or 8 kbps M-interface speech
channels into 64 kbps A-interface speech channels.

Data Transmission

For data signals, the STF-2000 reads the 9.6 kbps traffic data out of
the 64 kbps time slot of the A-interface and forms a 16 kbps
M-interface time slot. Transmission of data is possible only in Full
Rate connections.

4 : 1 Multiplexing

The STF-2000 combines four 16 kbps M-interface channels into one


64 kbps traffic channel. In total, the STF-2000 multiplexes four
A-interfaces into one M-interface.

Through-Switching of any
Channel

The STF-2000 switches any channels, e.g. the CCS7 signaling


channel, between the BSC and the MSC through transparently.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-12

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

Operations
and Maintenance Centre (OMC)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Functions of the OMC

The OMC-2000 manages the BSS and the MSC in a GSM network. It
provides operation and maintenance control capabilities from a central
(remote) location.
The functions of the OMC-2000 are:

Configuration Management to control the various BSS elements

Fault Management to detect, localize and correct system faults

Performance Management to control the measurements initiated


by the OMC in order to obtain statistical data (e.g. for planning
and analysis). Statistical data can be gathered by recording
information in connection with special events, and reading
special event counters. Performance Management gathers the
requested data and passes it on to the OMC at specified intervals

Software Loading used to load the software from the OMC (or
locally from floppy disk) onto the hard disk of the BCF, as well
as to the memory of the other network elements

To perform daily operational and maintenance routines, the


OMC-2000 provides the following functions:
Function

Configuration Management

Provided for BSS

Provided for MSC

Configuration
Management

Fault Management

Performance
Management

System
Administration

Switchover to
redundant ports

On-line access via


terminal-oriented
interface

The functions of the Configuration Management are:

Network configuration change control (e.g. defining new cells)

Centralized storage of BSS network configuration data

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-13

Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC)

Fault Management

Performance Management

System Administration

Switchover to Redundant
Ports

System Overview

Managing object states (e.g. restarting a piece of equipment that


has failed)

Software administration for BSS loadable units

The functions of the Fault Management are:

Alarms indicating abnormal conditions for the BSS

Alarm management functions (acknowledging and clearing


alarms)

Alarm correlation

Fault tracking records

Support for external alarms

The functions of the Performance Management are:

Gathering Performance Measurements

Storing Performance Measurements

Analyzing Performance Measurements

The functions of the System Administration are:

Workstation administration (adding and modifying workstation


information)

User administration (adding and modifying user accounts)

Loading error definition files

Maintaining the network clock

Switchover to redundant ports provides a means of fast recovery of


the possible link failure causes (e.g. a physical link failure between
the OMC-2000 and the connected BSSs, etc.). Switchover to
redundant ports enables the operator to quickly switch over from a
faulty X.25 connection to another X.25 connection.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-14

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

Network
Switching Subsystem (NSS)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Functions of the NSS

Mobile-services Switching Centre (MSC) performs the switching


functions for all mobile stations located in the geographic area
covered by its assigned BSSs. Functions performed include interfacing
with the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) as well as with
the other MSCs and other system entities, such as the HLR, in the
PLMN.
Functions of the MSC include:

Functions of the Home


Location Register (HLR)

Call handling that copes with mobile nature of subscribers

Management of required logical radio-link channel during calls

Management of MSC-BSS signaling protocol

Handling location registration and ensuring interworking between


Mobile Station and Visitor Location Register

Control of inter-BSS and inter-MSC handovers

Acting as a gateway MSC to interrogate the HLR

Exchange of signaling information with other system entities

Standard functions of a local exchange switch in the fixed


network (e.g. charging)

The Home Location Register (HLR) contains the identities of mobile


subscribers (IMSI), their service parameters, and their location
information.
The HLR contains:

Functions of the Visitor


Location Register (VLR)

Identity of mobile subscriber

ISDN directory number of MS

Subscription information on teleservices and bearer services

Service restrictions (if any)

Supplementary services

Location information for call routing

The Visitor Location Register (VLR) contains the subscriber


parameters and location information for all mobile subscribers
currently located in the geographical area (i.e. cells) controlled by the
MSC.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-15

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)

System Overview

The VLR contains:

Functions of the
Equipment Identity
Register (EIR)

Identity of mobile subscriber

Any temporary mobile subscriber identity

ISDN directory number of mobile

A directory number to route calls to a roaming station

Location area where the MS is registered

Copy of (part of) the subscriber data from the HLR

The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is accessed during the


equipment validation procedure when a MS accesses the system. It
contains the identity of the mobile station equipment (IMEI) which
may be valid, suspect, or known to be fraudulent.
The EIR contains:

Functions of the
Authentication Centre
(AUC)

White or Valid list. This is a list of valid MS equipment identities


List

Grey or Monitored list. of suspected mobiles under observation

Black or Prohibited list. List of mobiles for which any service is


barred

The functions of the Authentication Centre (AUC) contains:

Subscriber authentication data called Authentication Key (Ki)

To generate the security related parameters needed to authorize


service using Ki

To generate a unique pattern called the Cipher Key (Kc) needed


for the encryption of user speech and data.

Field descriptions:
Field

Description

IMSI

IMSI is the main reference key.

MSISDN

The basic MSISDN of the MS.

SGSN Number

The SS7 number of the SGSN


currently serving this MS.

SGSN Address

The IP address of the SGSN currently


serving this MS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-16

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)

System Overview

Field

Description

SMS Parameters

SMS-related parameters, e.g.,


operator-determined barring.

MS Purged for GPRS

Indicates that the MM and PDP


contexts of the MS are deleted from
the SGSN.

MNRG

Indicates that the MS is not reachable


through an SGSN, and that the MS is
marked as not reachable for GPRS at
the SGSN and possibly at the GGSN.

GGSN-list

The GSN number and optional IP


address pair related to the GGSN that
shall be contacted when activity from
the MS is detected and MNRG is set.
The GSN number shall be either the
number of the GGSN or the
protocol-converting GSN as described
in the subclauses MAP-based GGSN HLR Signaling and GTP and
MAP-based GGSN - HLR Signaling.

Each IMSI contains zero or more of the following PDP context


subscription records:
PDP Context Identifier

Index of the PDP context.

PDP Type

PDP type, e.g., X.25 or IP.

PDP Address

PDP address, e.g., an X.121 address.


This field shall be empty if dynamic
addressing is allowed.

Access Point Name

A label according to DNS naming


conventions describing the access point
to the external packet data network.

QoS Profile Subscribed

The quality of service profile


subscribed. QoS Profile Subscribed is
the default level if a particular QoS
profile is not requested.

VPLMN Address Allowed

Specifies whether the MS is allowed to


use the APN in the domain of the
HPLMN only, or additionally the APN
in the domain of the VPLMN.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-17

System Overview

The
GPRS Backbone System (GBS)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction

The GBS represents the packet switching network that provides GPRS
connectivity between the BSS and external packet data networks to
support GPRS terminals. The GBS comprises several different types
of network elements as well as the interconnecting transmission
hardware (e.g. routers, repeaters) and the transmission links between
them.
The ETSI standards introduce new functional network elements:

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

The SGSN provides subscriber management, mobility management, as


well as session management for any mobile GPRS user that has been
associated with this SGSN. In order to achieve this task, the SGSN
holds interfaces to the GSM subscriber databases: HLR, VLR, AUC
and EIR. The SGSNs also hold the interfaces to the BSSs, and
provides the authentication and encryption services for secure
transmission of user data.
The GGSN provides connectivity to external Packet Data Networks
(PDNs). The ETSI standards specify the Internet and X.25 networks
as external PDNs. The GGSN also provides address translation
services. Rate adaptation services between the GBS and external
networks may also be included in the GGSN. The Border Gateway
provides connectivity to another Operators GPRS network.
New interfaces will be required to connect the new entities to the
existing GSM network elements. These interfaces will be pre-fixed
with the character G and will support both traffic and signal
connections.
Unlike circuit switched services, packet services allow concurrent
usage of the same resources by multiple users. In order to support
GPRS in a GSM network, the BSS has to be upgraded to support
packet services and a GPRS Backbone System (GBS) has to be added

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-18

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

The GPRS Backbone System (GBS)

System Overview

to the basic GSM network to provide packet connection from GPRS


capable mobile stations to other packet users, both fixed and mobile.
Figure 2-2 Architecture Overview

The GPRS Backbone System (GBS) comprises the following:

A GPRS operator managed IP domain and Domain Name Server


(DNS) to map logical names for each element connected to the
GBS domain to IP addresses

Multiple Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) which provide


packet service management for GPRS subscribers

Multiple Gateway GPRS Support Nodes GGSNs which provide


subscribers with access to external packet data networks and
Public Land Mobile Networks PLMNs

A GBS Management Network Element Manager (NEM) called an


Operations and Maintenance Centre for the GBS or OMC-G

A Performance Gateway function that collects Measurement Data


from the GSNs and forwards to a Performance Monitoring Centre

A Charging Gateway function that collects Accounting Data from


the GSNs and forwards to a Billing Centre

The IP domain may be entirely operator provisioned or part of a


larger IP network operated as a Virtual Private Network domain. The
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-19

The GPRS Backbone System (GBS)

System Overview

Network supporting the IP domain is called the GPRS Backbone


Network (GBN).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-20

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

New
Network Area
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Routing Area

Location Area

GPRS introduces a new network area, the Routing Area.


A Routing Area (RA) can consist of one or more cells and is always
served by only one SGSN. However, one SGSN could serve more
than one Routing Area.
A Location Area (LA) can contain one or more Routing Areas, but
one Routing Area could not span more than one Location Area.
Figure 2-3 Location and Routing Areas

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-21

System Overview

New
Network Elements - Functional Entities
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The SGSN

For GPRS the GSM Base Station Subsystem (BSS) requires upgrading
to support packet capabilities. This is done by adding the functionality
of a Packet Control Unit which provides true packet access over the
GSM radio interface with no changes to the radio interface. New
logical radio packet channels provide packet access to the GPRS BSS
and the PCU handles these packet channels and forwards packets to
the SGSN.
The SGSN is a new network element that is the master of packet
access to the GPRS system. In a similar way to the MSC for GSM,
the SGSN provides service to Mobile Stations for packet transfer. The
SGSN is the master of packet transmission through the GPRS system.
The SGSN provides Admission Control, Packet Service Management
and GPRS Mobility Management.
Unlike the MSC, the SGSN additionally provides several access level
options in the form of multiple Quality of Service (QoS) options and
Session Management.
SGSN Connections

The SGSN contains the following connections:

Connection to the GSM BSS via the Gb - interface

Connection to the HLR via the Gr - interface

Connection to the EIR via the Gf- interface

Connection to the GSM MSC/VLR via the Gs - interface

Connection to the SMS - SC via the Gd- interface

Connection to other PLMNs via the Gp - interface

SGSN Functions

The SGSN carries out the following functions:

Network Access Control (Call Data Records (CDR) Collection,


Quality of Service (QoS) Administration, Authentication)

Packet Routing (GBS to other GSNs, GTP Tunnelling, Address


Translation, Address Resolution, IP Functions)

GPRS Mobility and Session Management (PDP Context, HLR


Updates)

Logical Link Management (sliding window, ciphering, traffic


support, RIL3 support)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-22

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

New Network Elements - Functional


Entities

The GGSN

System Overview

Compression: Data compression, SNDCP Layer

GSM Circuit Switched Interactions (Paging, etc.)

BSS Queue Management (Queuing of data/users)

Data Packet Counting (Billing)

Gb Resource Management (Flow Control of BVCs over Gb,


Frame Relay - PVC, NSVC for support of BVCs, Support of E1
Physical Layer)

The GGSN is a new network element that provides access from the
GBS to external packet data networks such as the Internet. The
gateway is primarily an IP router. The GGSN provides routing across
the GBS on GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) request from the SGSN
and out onto the external network. This entity is therefore responsible
for managing both routing of traffic from multiple SGSNs and access
to the external network it is connected to. The GGSN provides
dynamic IP addresses on request from a SGSN, if the MS has not
assigned a static IP address and manages routing of requests from
external Packet Data Networks (PDN) to both PDP active and
non-PDP active, GPRS attached MSs.
The GGSN and the SGSN functions may be combined in a single
physical unit or in different physical nodes. The connection between
the GGSN and the SGSN, i.e. the Gn interface, utilizes IP routing
functionality and as such, standard IP routers may be found on this
interface between the two GSNs (GPRS Support Nodes). When the
GGSN and the SGSN reside in different locations, the connection is
made via the Gp interface. The Gp interface has the same functionality
as the Gn interface with additional security such as firewall if it is
connected to another PLMN.
GGSN Connections

The GGSN contains the following connections:

Connection to the SGSN via the Gn - interface

Connection to other PDNs via the Gi - interface

Connection to other PLMNs via the Gp - interface

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-23

New Network Elements - Functional


Entities

System Overview

GGSN Functions

The GGSN carries out the following functions:

The Packet Control Unit

Access Control (Firewall between GBS and PDN / Message


screening)

Packet Routing and Transfer (GBS to other GSNs, GTP, Relay


from GBS to PDN, IP Routing over PDN, APN Addressing)

Data/Packet counting
The GGSN is the first point of interconnection from a PLMN to
a PDN.

Translation between IP and IMSI.

The Packet Control Unit (PCU) is a new functional entity of GPRS.


The GSM Phase 2+ GPRS Standards introduces the Packet Control
Unit (PCU) as the functional entity that handles all packet traffic
related tasks within a BSS or a cell.
It can be implemented in the Base Transceiver Station (BTS), then
called Integrated Packet Control Unit (iPCU), as well as in the Base
Station Controller (BSC), then it is called Remote Packet Control Unit
(rPCU) (According to the Lucent terminology).
Up to now, Lucent Technologies implements the PCU as a rPCU in
the Base Station Controller Frame (BCF-2000).
The Packet Control Unit (PCU) is the unit that adds the packet
functionality to the Base Station System (BSS). It controls the radio
interface which allows multiple users to access the same radio
resource

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-24

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

New Network Elements - Functional


Entities

System Overview

Additionally it also provides the Gb interface.


Figure 2-4 Possible Placement of PCU within the Lucent BSS

In the downlink direction, the Packet Control Unit (PCU) receives


data from the Gb interface unit (GBIU) in the form of Logical Link
Control (LLC) Protocol Data Units (PDUs). Its task is to segment
them into Radio Link Control blocks (RLC) and schedule the
transmission at the radio interface per radio time slot and per mobile
station.
In the uplink direction, the Packet Control Unit (PCU) receives data
in form of Radio Link Control blocks (RLC) from the Channel Codec
Unit (CCU). Its task is to reassemble the Radio Link Control blocks
(RLC) into complete Logical Link Control frames, which then are
transferred via the Gb interface to the Serving GPRS Support Node
(SGSN).
The Packet Control Unit (PCU) needs to do this for each mobile
context established at the radio interface.
To achieve higher data rates for packet transfers, the Packet Control
Unit (PCU) is able to assign multiple radio resources to a single user.
In the Lucent implementation, the Packet Control Unit (PCU) is a
logical, not a physical unit implemented in the Base Station
Subsystem (BSS).
Mapping of Functions to Logical Architecture
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-25

New Network Elements - Functional


Entities

Function

System Overview

MS

BSS

SGSN GGSN

HLR

Network Access Control:


Registration

Authentication and
Authorisation

Admission Control

X
X

Message Screening
Packet Terminal Adaptation

X
X

Charging Data Collection

Packet Routing & Transfer:


Relay

Routing

Address Translation and


Mapping

Encapsulation

Tunnelling
Compression

Ciphering

Mobility Management

Logical Link Establishment

Logical Link Maintenance

Logical Link Release

Logical Link Management

Radio Resource Management


Um Management

Cell Selection

Um-Tranx

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-26

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

New Network Elements - Functional


Entities

Function
Path Management

System Overview

MS

BSS

SGSN GGSN

HLR

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-27

System Overview

Processes
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The Gb Interface Unit
(GBIU)

The GBIU is a term that is used by Lucent Technologies to cover all


functions that are provided by the Gb interface. The Gb interface has
been introduced by the Standards to provide packet data transport
functionality between the BSS area and the GPRS backbone system.
The Gb interface is an open standard interface allowing GPRS
equipment from different vendors to co-operate.
It comprises Frame Relay (FR), Network Services (NS) and the Base
Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). In the downlink the
GBIU receives PDUs from the SGSN and forwards them to the
addressed PCU or the GPRS Signaling Entity (GSE), if it is a
signaling PDU. In the uplink the GBIU receives PDUs from the PCU
or the GSE and transfers them to the SGSN. The data link and
subnetwork layer of the Gb interface is based on Frame Relay. The Gb
interface allows load sharing through the usage of multiple links and
provides limited protection against link failures

The GPRS Signaling Entity


(GSE)

The GPRS Signaling Entity (GSE) is a Lucent Technologies term to


identify a functional entity that summons all signaling functionality
related to the BSS Gb protocol.
The signaling functionality of the BSS Gb protocol comprises the
control of the Gb interface, as well as the handling of paging of GPRS
attached mobiles.

The Channel Codec Unit


(CCU)

The Channel Codec Unit (CCU) is a unit located in the Base


Transceiver Station (BTS).
Channel coding tasks include coding and decoding of voice data, data
channels and signaling data.
In the downlink direction, the Channel Codec Unit (CCU) receives the
RLC block from the PCU. It generates a Frame Check Sequence for
each block and appends it to the RLC block before transmission over
the radio interface.
The Channel Codec Unit (CCU) applies fourfold rectangular
interleaving to the Radio Link Control blocks (RLC). They are
thereafter transferred to the Mobile Station over the radio interface.
In the uplink direction the Channel Codec Unit (CCU) receives the
Radio Link Control blocks (RLC) over the radio interface from the

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-28

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Processes

System Overview

Mobile Station. The Channel Codec Unit (CCU) is responsible for


de-interleaving and for checking the Frame Check Sequence in order
to detect erroneous Radio Link Control blocks (RLC). The Radio Link
Control blocks (RLC) are then transferred to the Packet Control Unit
(PCU) for further processing.
An additional task of the Channel Codec Unit (CCU) is the handling
of timing advance.
For a newly accessing mobile, the Channel Codec Unit (CCU) is
responsible to determine the initial timing advance. The determined
timing advance will be forwarded to the Packet Control Unit (PCU),
which conveys it to the mobile.
After the initial timing advance has been determined, the Channel
Codec Unit (CCU) handles the continuous timing advance procedure.

The Cell Control Function


(CCF)

The Cell Control Function (CCF) is a modification of an existing


function and a Lucent Technologies term. It is used to characterise all
GSM functionalities in the Base Station System (BSS) that are
necessary for providing circuit switched services related to one cell.
The Cell Control Function (CCF) carries out the following standard
GSM function:

Administration of sharing the radio resources for GPRS and


GSM associated with a cell.

The GSM Phase 2+ GPRS Standards require that it shall be possible


to support GPRS in a call even if there is no dedicated control
channel for GPRS traffic defined.
As a consequence the Cell Control Function (CCF) needs to:

support broadcast of GPRS System Information on the Broadcast


Control Channel (BCCH)

paging of GPRS mobiles using the Paging Channel (PCH)

recognition and processing of access burst of GPRS mobiles

as well as transfer of access grant messages for GPRS mobiles


on the Access Grant Channel (AGCH)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-29

System Overview

Frame
Relay
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Frame Relay

Frame Relay is a high-speed communications technology that is used


in lots of networks throughout the world to connect Local Area
Networks (LAN), System Network Architecture (SNA), Internet and
even voice application.
It is a way of sending information over a wide area network (WAN)
that divides the information into frames or packets. Each frame has an
address that is used by the network to determine the destination of the
frame. The frames travel through a series of switches within the frame
relay network and arrive at their destination.
Frame relay is a connection oriented packet service protocol that
multiplexes many logical data connections over a single physical
transmission link. It provides fast packet switching (more efficient
than X.25) and is optimized for high throughput and low end-to-end
delay.

Characteristics

No Error Correction by
Frame Relay

No Flow Control by Frame


Relay

Frame Relay is based on the following three convergent parameters:


1.

Increasing demand for high throughput

2.

Highly reliable physical network

3.

Intelligent end systems


A low protocol overhead is responsible to allow a high
throughput. The data link protocol is cut down, there are no
sequence numbers, only address field (Data Link Connection
Identifier, DLCI) and a cyclic redundancy check (CRC). There is
no network layer in Frame Relay.

There is no time consuming error correction in Frame Relay networks.


Only error detection is done by the CRC and corrupted frames are
discarded. The retransmission is done only by end systems.
There is no flow control in Frame Relay networks. Special bits
provide a simple congestion notification and the congestion control in
the network is done by discarding frames.
In case of a link failure there is no explicit rerouting mechanism in a
Frame Relay network.
Frame Relay Terms:

User to Network Interface (UNI)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-30

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Frame Relay

System Overview

Specifies signaling and management functions between a frame


relay network device and the end users device.

Frame Relay Structure

Virtual Circuit (VC)


The connection between two frame relay ports.

Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC)


A predefined Virtual Circuit (VC).

Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC)


A Virtual Circuit that is established dynamically (not used in
GPRS phase 1).

Committed Information Rate (CIR)


The average bandwidth defined for a Virtual Circuit.

Excess Information Rate (EIR)


Increment in excess of CIR (CIR + EIR <= Port speed)

The following figure shows the structure of the Frame Relay frame.
bits
# octets

Flag

Address

= 01111110
8

Flag Field

Address Field

Upper DLCI
Lower DLCI

1-1600

FECN BECN

C/R

EA

DE

EA

Information

FCS

Flag

= 01111110

The Flag fields are used to indicate the start/end of a frame. If there
are two successive frames, only one flag field is used to indicate the
end of one frame and the start of the next frame.
The following table lists the contents of the Frame Relay address
field.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-31

Frame Relay

System Overview

Field

Description

EA

The Address field Extension bit (EA) is used to indicate


the final octet of the address field.
If this bit is 1, this indicates that this is the final octet of
the address field.

C/R

The Command / Response bit (C/R) identifies a frame as


either a command or a response.
The C/R bit shall not be used and shall be set to 0 by the
sending entity. It shall not be checked by the receiving
entity.

DE

The Discard Eligibility bit (DE) is used in case of


congestion to indicate a specific frame that can be
discarded.
The BSC and the SGSN shall always set the DE bit to 0.

FECN

The Forward Explicit Congestion Notification bit (FECN)


is used to indicate that the frame has encountered
congestion. The FECN bit shall be set to 0 by the BSC
and the SGSN.

BECN

The Backward Explicit Congestion Notification bit


(BECN) is used to indicate the frames in the opposite
direction have encountered congestion. The BECN bit
shall be set to 0 by the BSC and the SGSN.

DLCI

The Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) is needed


for routing the frame between different nodes. The DLCI
identifies a path through the network.

Information Field

The maximum information field size for Frame Relay is 1600 octets.

FCS Field

The Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field consists of a 16 bit Cyclic


Redundancy Check (CRC) code. The CRC is used to detect bit errors
in the frame header and information fields. It does not perform error
correction.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-32

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

New
Network Interfaces
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

New Interfaces will be required to connect the new entities to the


existing GSM Network Elements. These Interfaces will be pre-fixed
with the character G and will support both traffic and signal
connections. The diagram below displays the new interfaces.

Interface Connectivity
Figure 2-5 New GPRS Interfaces

Legend:

Gb

Between SGSN and BSS

Gn

Between SGSN and GGSN or between two SGSNs

Gi

From GGSN to an external network

Gs

Between MSC/VLR and SGSN to allow co-ordination


of location information and paging

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-33

New Network Interfaces

System Overview

Gc, Gr

MAP interfaces between the HLR and GGSN/SGSN to


support authentication

Gf

Interface to EIR to support the check IMEI procedure

Gd

Interface from SMSC to the SGSN to allow SMS traffic


to be carried over the GPRS channels

Gp

Equivalent to the Gn, except that the connected GSNs


are in different networks

For further information on the GPRS interfaces see also chapter 3


Interfaces.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-34

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

Base
Station Subsystem (BSS)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

The introduction of the feature GPRS to the Base Station System


(BSS) is a smooth introduction (software update).
Preconditions for GPRS Introduction:

BSS GPRS Features

1.

All network elements are running at NR 9.2

2.

All cabling activities for Gb interface completed

3.

STF in place.

The first release for GPRS includes the following features:

New channel type supporting TCH/F or PDCH

Synchronization of Time Alignment and TDMA Frame Number


(FN) between CCU and PCU

Coding Scheme 1 and 2 (NR 10.x)

Dynamic switching between coding scheme one and coding


scheme two (NR 10.x)

Sharing radio resources between circuit switch and GPRS

Frequency hopping for PDCHs (NR 10.x)

Power control for uplink/downlink (NR 10.x)

BSS capacity supported:


-

Maximum of 200 simultaneously active PDCHs

Maximum of 750 Temporary Block Flows (TBFs): 500 in


uplink direction and 250 in downlink direction

Maximum of four PDCHs per downlink-TBF and maximum


of 2 PDCH per uplink-TBF

Performance measurements

Radio Link Control in acknowledged mode

Further releases for GPRS will include the following features:

Packet control channels

Circuit switched paging via Gb interface

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-35

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

System Overview

Fault management:
-

GPRS specific error messages with additional info (e.g.


detailed reason code)

Error correction procedure with automatic reconfiguration


after failure fixing.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-36

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

GPRS
Introduction to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

Abis Interface

The PCU Schedules

The CCU Reports to PCU

The implementation of the PCU within the Lucent Technologies


network elements will be a remote PCU (rPCU) within the BTS
family. Therefore also refer to Figure 25. GPRS will be implemented
in the BTS-Family through a software solution only. There is a
maximum of one GPRS Transceiver (TRX) per cell with a maximum
of eight GPRS time-slots.
Abis Interface:

Interface between CCU and Remote PCU

Uses the current existing 16 kbits/s subslot on Abis interface


(modified TRAU interface)

20 ms Frame Structure like TCH/F

Interface not defined by GSM (Proprietary Lucent Solution)

Time Alignment and FN Synchronization Function

CCU is Master for this Synchronization

Each Frame contains the frame number (FN) of the first block on
which the data has to be sent and received on the Um Interface

The PCU schedules:

Which MS receives next Downlink Block

Which MS sends next Uplink Block

Access or Normal Burst Reception

MAC layer

RLC layer

Flow control between the SGSN and the Base Station Subsystem
(in downlink direction only)

The CCU reports to PCU

Receive Level

Receive Quality

Bad frame indicator

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-37

GPRS Introduction to the Base Transceiver


Station (BTS)
The Um Interface

System Overview

The Um Interface

BTS knows only Channel PDCH

Supports the logical channels PACCH, PTCCH and PDTCH

BTS supports Frequency Hopping for GPRS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-38

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

System Overview

GPRS
Introduction to the BCF-2000
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

GPRS Virtual Machine

The GPRS functionality within the BCF is assigned to the Common


Workstation and a number of Cell Workstations.
One new type of Virtual Machine will be implemented. The new
Virtual Machine is called GPRS Virtual Machine (GVM). This leads
to no reduction of the number of Cell Workstations (CEWS) per BCF.
There will be one GVM instance per BCF. Adding a GVM to a BCF
requires no hardware changes, because the GVM always runs on the
Common Workstation (COWS). The GVM consists of the GB
Interface Unit (GBIU) and the GPRS Signalling Entity. In addition to
the GVM, there is one Packet Control Unit Virtual Machine running
on each Cell Workstation.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-39

GPRS Introduction to the BCF-2000

Distribution of
Functionality

GSE Functionality

System Overview

Figure 2-6 Distribution of functionality

GSE functionality:

Interface to OA&M

Supervision of configuration data distribution within the rPCU

Prepares and broadcasts paging messages, which are received


from the SGSN

Central fault management for rPCU

Synchronization of rPCU during start-up

rPCU common management of performance measurements

It receives all non-connection related messages, which are received


from the SGSN. The non-connection related parts of the GPRS
Mobility Management (GMM) and of the Network Management (NM)
functionality is also handled by the GSE.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-40

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Introduction to the BCF-2000

System Overview

The explicit tasks handled by the GSE are:

Distribution of configuration data to the PCUP

Distribution of configuration data to the GBIU

Routing of paging messages

Co-ordination of the recovery of the rPCU application

Filtering and forwarding of rPCU specific fault messages to Fault


Management (FM)

By analyzing the BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier and the


PDU-type, it is decided by the BSSGP layer whether a received
Protocol Data Unit (PDU) must be routed to the GSE or not. As a
consequence, the GSE receives PDUs which contain the signaling
BSSGP signaling information. It also receives all paging messages
from the Gb Interface Unit (GBIU). These paging messages are
analyzed by the PAGER process and they are forwarded to the Line
Transmission Equipment Virtual Machines (LTEVMs) via the User
Datagram Protocol (UDP) broadcast.
GBIU Functionality

GBIU functionality:

The GBIU supports the following three layers


-

Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol (BSSGP)

Network Service

Frame Relay

Configuration data provided from OA & M (via the GSE)

Load sharing within NS-layer

GBIU connectivity:

The data from the Gb interface is distributed over four internal


E1 links.

There is a maximum of 2 x 31 time-slots (64 kbps each)

Distribution over all available M-links is possible

There are nail-ups during recovery of Network Service Virtual


Connection (NSVC)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-41

System Overview

GPRS
Input for the OMC-2000 part
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
GPRS Support for BSS

The following pages describe the impact of GPRS on the OMC-2000.


At the OMC-2000 there will be three new objects for GPRS:

GBIU-Object (parent object)

NSVC-Object (child object of the GBIU-Object)

PCU-Object (child object of the BTS-Object).

Before a complete set of new General Packet Radio Service


(GPRS)-related objects (GBIU, PCU, and at least one NSVC) can be
created, the following conditions must be met:

The NECONN object associated with the BSS must have its
GPRS Supported parameter set to True.

The BSS must have its GPRS Supported parameter set to True.

The BTS must have its GPRS Supported parameter set to True.

At least one Transcoder (TRC) object with a TRC Type of GPRS


must be available before you can create an NSVC object.

Reset of GPRS Support

If the GPRS Supported parameter in the BSS is reset from True to


False to stop any support of GPRS traffic, any active GPRS-related
measurement groups are not deleted automatically. In addition, the
BSS continues to collect GPRS measurement data even though none
of the counters associated with those measurements are incremented.
To optimise your data collection activities, delete any GPRS
measurement groups before resetting the GPRS Supported parameter
on the BSS to False.
Important! Before you disable GPRS in the BSS, you must manually
change the GPRS Supported parameter in the BTSs to False.
When a BSS does not Support GPRS

There are two conditions under which GPRS capability cannot be


selected:

If the OMC-2000 is not configured to support GPRS operations,


the GPRS Supported parameter is greyed out, and inaccessible.

If the BSS Model Type is not BCF Release 3.0 or later, the
GPRS Supported parameter is greyed out, and inaccessible.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-42

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

System Overview

How to disable GPRS Support in a BSS

Before you can disable GPRS capability in a BSS (that is, before you
set its GPRS Supported parameter to False), you must do the
following:

GPRS Support for BTS

Under the BTS, delete any contained PCU object.

Make sure no RTs have CHNs configured with a channel type of


TCHFull and PDCH.

In the BTS, set the GPRS Supported parameter to False.

Manually delete all NSVC objects.

Under the BSS, ensure that there is no GBIU object.


Once the above conditions are met, you can set the BSS GPRS
Supported parameter to False.

The parent BSS must have its GPRS Supported parameter set to True
before you can create a BTS with GPRS capability.
How to disable GPRS Support in a BTS

To disable GPRS capability of a BTS, you must do the following:

GPRS Support for RT

Delete any contained PCU object.

Make sure no contained CHNs are configured with a Channel


Type of TCHFull and PDCH.

In the BTS, set the GPRS Supported parameter to false.

In order to support GPRS functionality, the BTS must be able to map


new logical channels on the RTs. To support GPRS communications, a
new channel type, the Traffic Channel Fullrate and Packet Data
Channel (TCHFull and PDCH), is added.
To determine which of the RTs within a BTS has GPRS channels
assigned, you can open the RT Browser or RT Detail View and look
at the GPRS Active column. The OMC-2000 sets the value of this
parameter to Y automatically as soon as a channel on a RT is
configured as a PDCH.
Before Configuration

When no channels are configured as GPRS channels, such as when


you are configuring the first one, all RTs will show False in the
GPRS Active column.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-43

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

System Overview

Display RT channel usage

The RT channel usage dialog displays information associated with


GPRS communications, that is a Channel Status that indicates busy
PDCH, only when GPRS capability exists for an RT.
GPRS Support for CHN

Before traffic can move across the network, you must first configure
the channels (CHNs) on the Radio Terminals (RTs). To support GPRS
capabilities, a new channel type TCHFull and PDCH is added.
The Channel object (CHN) is also known as a physical channel. It
represents one physical time-slot on the air interface on an RT. There
are up to eight different channels for every RT. Every channel created
must be configured, which includes assigning a channel type to
designate its function.
For GPRS additional channel types are defined:

Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) which belongs to the class


Packet Data Channel and will be used for Uplink and Downlink
direction.

Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) which belongs to


the class Packet Data Channel and will be used for Uplink and
Downlink direction.

Packet Timing Advance Control Channel (PTCCH) which


belongs to the class Packet Data Channel and will be used for
Uplink direction.

GPRS Channel Description

PDTCH - This corresponds to the resource allocated to a single


mobile station on one physical channel for user data
transmission. One PDTCH has an instantaneous bit rate of 0 to
22.8 kbit/s. When a channel is configured as a PDCH, it is a
shared resource and can be used either for circuit switched or

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-44

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

System Overview

packet switched operation. The BSS determines how it is used


based on the number of requests for each type service, and
according to resource availability. Creating a channel of this type
does not mean that it will be used for GPRS services, even if it
is available and required.

PACCH - Used to carry signaling information associated with a


PDTCH.

PTCCH - Used in the uplink to transmit random bursts to allow


for the estimation of the timing advance for one mobile station
on the packet transfer mode, and in the downlink to transmit
timing advance updates for one or several mobile stations. The
existing control channels handle all GPRS-specific information
and control operations.

The following information will help you to create a CHN object to


support GPRS capabilities:

Only one RT within a BTS can support GPRS at any given time.
It is on this RT that you can create a CHN with a Channel Type
TCHFull and PDCH to support GPRS.

Shared resources must have a Frequency Hopping Relationship


(frequency usage) value of 255, which means they are not
allowed to be part of a Frequency Hopping scheme.

All shared resources assigned within one BTS must be contained


in the same RT.

GPRS Support for a TRC

The allocation of the bearer channel by the Network Services Virtual


Connection (NSVC) object is done by reference to a TRC object,
which has been configured to carry GPRS data. This means that the
64 Kbit/s channel is passed transparently through the transcoder. To
do this and avoid confusion with existing CCSS7 signaling channels,
a new parameter called TRC Type GPRS is added to the TRC object.

Packet Control Unit (PCU)


Object

GPRS channel control, allocation, and operation is performed by the


Packet Control Unit (PCU). There is one functional PCU for each
BTS supporting GPRS. Since the PCU is a child object of the BTS,
you must delete it before you disable GPRS capabilities of the parent
BTS object.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-45

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

System Overview

Prerequisites

Before you can create a PCU object, the following must be true:

The BTS parameter, GPRS Supported, indicates if GPRS


functionality is supported by the BTS. It must be set to True
before an operator can create a PCU object.

A GBIU object must exist.

The BTC object within the BTS must exist.

No PCU object currently exists within the BTS.

Attributes of the PCU object

Attributes of the PCU object

Routing Area Colour Code (RACC) - This service affecting


parameter is used to determine if GPRS capability is supported
by a BTS. A mobile station to do a cell reselection also uses it.
Values can range from 0 through 7.

Routing Area Code (RAC) - The value of this service affecting


parameter is determined by each network using the structure,
which is specified in the GSM standards. Values can range from
1 through 253, and must match the value set at the SGSN.

BVCI - The BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier. The value of


this service-affecting attribute identifies the BSSGP Virtual
Connection used between the PCU and SGSN. Values can range
from 2 through 181, and must be unique within the BTS.

Max(imum) Number of PDCHs Allowed - This parameter


determines the maximum number of idle TCHFull and PDCH
within a BTS that the PCU can allocate for GPRS service at any
time. Once this number has been reached, no more channels can
be assigned for GPRS service even if more idle TCHFull and
PDCH channels are available. Values can range from 1 through
8. Default is 8.

Number of PDCHs Available - This attribute maintains a running


count of the number of radio channels available for GPRS. For a
channel to be counted it must be configured as TCHFull and
PDCH and Unlocked and Enabled.

Priority Access THR - This parameter, sometimes, referred to as


the packet access class indicator, indicates whether or not a
mobile station of a certain priority class is authorized to do a
random access request of a GPRS service.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-46

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

System Overview

Values can be the following:

Packet Access not allowed by the BTS.

Access allowed for Priority Class 1

Access allowed for Priority Class 1 and 2

Access allowed for Priority Class 1, 2 and 3

Access allowed for Priority Class 1 through 4 (default)

Max(imum) Time For Non-DRX Mode - This parameter indicates


the maximum time allowed for a mobile station to request
non-discontinuous (non-DRX) reception mode after packet
transfer mode.
Values can be any of the following:
-

No Non-DRX mode after packet transfer mode.

Maximum of 1 second Non-DRX mode after packet transfer


mode.

Maximum of 2 seconds.

Maximum of 4 seconds.

Maximum of 8 seconds.

Maximum of 16 seconds (default).

Maximum of 32 seconds.

Maximum of 64 seconds.

RLC Counter PAN_MAX - This counter is related to cell


reselection. Values can range from 4 through 32 increments of 4.

Power Control Counter N_Avg_I - This parameter defines the


interference signal strength filter constant for power control.
Values can range from 0 through 15.

Power Control Timer T_Avg_W - This parameter defines the


signal strength filter period for power control in packet idle
mode. Values can range from 0 through 25.

Power Control Timer T_Avg_T - This parameter defines the


signal strength filter period for power control in packet transfer
mode. Value can range from 0 through 25.

BTS Receive Signal Strength SSb - This parameter relates to


open loop power control. Values can range from 0 (less than
-110dBm) through 63 (greater than -48 dBm) in 1 dBm
increments. Default=63.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-47

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

Network Services Virtual


Connection (NSVC) Object

System Overview

The Network Services Virtual Connection (NSVC) object is a child of


the Gb Interface Unit (GBUI) object. This object is available only if
the OMC is GPRS enabled, and if its parent BSS object has its GPRS
Supported attribute set to True.
Prerequisites

Before you create an NSVC, do the following:

Locate a TRC that can be used as a Gb Service Provider for


creating an NSVC object.
Do this as follows:
1.

Obtain the list of available TRCs under a TCG of type STF.

2.

Check the browser to determine if a TRC object exists for


the BSS under which you want to create the NSVC.

3.

If a TRC exists, ensure that the TRC Type field is set to


GPRS.

4.

For any GPRS TRCs, ensure that TRC Assigned = FALSE.

Ensure that a GBIU object exists.

If these conditions are satisfied, then the TRC can be used as a Gb


Service Provider for creating an NSVC object. If a PCU is created
and activated, as long as at least one NSVC is unlocked and enabled,
GPRS operations can begin. No association needs to be made between
the PCU and the NSVC.
NSVC Attributes

NSVC Attributes

NSVC Id is the Network Services Virtual Connection (NSVC)


object identifier. Values can range from 0 through 30.

NS_VCI is the Network Services Virtual Connection Identifier. It


is one of the two Network Services mapping elements. Values
can range from 0 through 65535, and must be unique within the
BSS.

DLCI is the Data Link Connection Identifier for the frame relay.
It is one of the two Network Services mapping elements. Values
can range from 16 through 991, and must be unique within the
BSS.

Gb Service Provider displays the distinguished name of the TRC


in the BSS that provides the bearer channel for the NSVC.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-48

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

Gb Interface Unit (GBUI)


Object

System Overview

Each BSS is capable of supporting up to 31 NSVC objects for GPRS


data, where one bearer channel represents one 64 Kbit/s timeslot on
an M-link.
The allocation of the bearer channel is accomplished by referencing a
Transcoder (TRC) object that has been configured to carry GPRS
data. The channel is passed through the TRC transparently.
The Network Services (NS) layer sits above Frame Relay, and is
responsible for the correct routing of data between the SGSN and the
BSS. This is done by setting up Network Services Virtual Connections
(NSVCs). These NSVCs are identified by their NS_VCI. This value
uniquely identifies the NSVC within the SGSN.
The OMC-2000 uses point-to-point connections, so the Network
Services Virtual Connection Identifier (NS_VCI)-to-DLCI mapping
must be the same at the BSS and the Serving GPRS Service Node
(SGSN). The mapping of the NS_VCI-to-DLCI to bearer channel
relationship is contained in the NSVC objects. There is a limit of one
NSVC per bearer channel. Up to 31 NSVC objects are contained by
the GBIU object.
Once the data has been delivered to the BSS, the GBIU determines
the final destination of each data packet within the BSS. This data is
contained in the BSSGP layer. The transfer of BSSGP data is
accomplished with the setting up of a BSSGP Virtual Connection
(BVC). These BVCs exist between the BSSGP layers of the SGSN
and the final destination within the BSS. To uniquely identify the
destination within a BSS each BVC is given a BSSGP Virtual
Connection Identifier (BVCI), which must be unique within a BSS.
The BVCI is a parameter with the Packet Control Unit (PCU). It
identifies the BSSGP Virtual Connection used between the PCU and
SGSN.
Types Of Packets

There are two types of BSSGP packets:

Those that carry data traffic to/from the mobile stations.

Those that carry signaling information to be processed in the


BSS.

How Packets Are Routed

Data traffic is forwarded to the PCU responsible for the BTS where
the mobile is currently located. Signaling traffic is passed to the
GPRS Signaling Entity (GSE) for processing.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-49

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

System Overview

The GSE is a BSS entity, which is not visible on the OMC-2000. To


uniquely identify a PCU or GSE within an SGSN domain, a Network
Services Element Identifier (NSEI) is provided at the Network
Services layer. The NSEI uniquely identifies a BSS within an SGSN.
It is, therefore, the combination of the NSEI plus the BVCI, which
uniquely identifies the final destination of each BSSGP packet within
an SGSN domain.
Prerequisites

The following are prerequisites to create a GBIU object:

The GPRS Supported parameter in the parent BSS must be set to


True.

No GBIU object currently exists in the BSS. .

GBIU Attributes

GBIU Attributes:

NSEI - The Network Service Entity Identifier. The NSEI is a


service-affecting attribute that provides the network management
functionality required operating the Gb interface. The BSS and
the SGSN to determine the NSVC that provides service to a
BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier (BVCI) within the PCU use
the NSEI. Values can range from 0 through 65535, and must be
unique within the SGSN.

BSSGP Timer T1 - This timer is used for blocking and


unblocking procedures. Values can range from 1 second to 30
seconds.

BSSGP Timer T2 - This timer is used for the reset procedure.


Values can range from 1 second through 120 seconds.

BSSGP Timer C - This timer determines the minimum period of


time after which the BSS may send a flow control message to the
SGSN for a specific BSSGP Virtual Connection (BVC) or mobile
station. The valid range is 1 through 10 seconds, and must match
the value set at the SGSN. (Default=1)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-50

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Input for the OMC-2000 part

STF

System Overview

BSSGP Timer Th - This timer defines the period of time after


which the SGSN will change the flow control settings for a
particular mobile to the default values. For the BSS to prevent
default values from being assigned by the SGSN,
FLOW_CONTROL_MS messages must be sent before expiration
of the Th timer. This timer value must be greater than BSSGP
Timer C. Values can range from 5 seconds through 6000 seconds,
and must match the value set at the SGSN. (Default=32)

Network Services Timer Tns Test - This timer determines how


often the NSVC test procedure is performed. Values can range 1
second through 60 seconds. (Default=10)

Frame Relay Timer T391 - This is a link integrity verification


polling interval timer. The value of this timer must be less than
the value of the SGSN T392 timer. Values can range from 5
seconds through 30 seconds. (Default=10)

Frame Relay Counter N392 - This counter works with N393


counter to provide a way to detest service affecting conditions by
detecting N392 errors in the last N393 events. The value of this
counter must be less than or equal to the N393 counter. Values
can range from 1 through 10. (Default=3)

Frame Relay Counter N391 - This counter triggers a request for a


full status of all PVCs every N391 polling cycles. Values can
range from 1 through 255. (Default=6)

Frame Relay Counter N392 - This counter works with N393


counter to provide a way to detest service affecting conditions by
detecting N392 errors in the last N393 events. The value of this
counter must be less than or equal to the N393 counter. Values
can range from 1 through 10. (Default=3)

Frame Relay Counter N393 - This counter works with N392


counter to provide a way to detect service affecting conditions by
detecting N393 errors in the last N393 events. The value of this
counter must be greater than or equal to the N392 counter. Values
can range from 1 through 10. (Default=4)

Lucent is able to support transparent 64 kbit/s channels for the


purposes of providing an entry level physical Gb interface provisioned
using STF nailed up 64 kbit/s per timeslot on E1 links.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-51

System Overview

Network
Switching Subsystem (NSS) and GPRS
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Impact on the NSS
(Network Switching
Subsystem)

Due to the introduction of GPRS in the GSM network new interfaces


and network entities are introduced that have impact on the NSS.
The new network entities for GPRS are:

The SGSN

The GGSN

The new interfaces for the NSS are:

The Gs interface between de MSC/VLR and the SGSN

The Gc interface between the HLR and GGSN

The Gr interface between the HLR and SGSN

The Gf interface between the EIR and the SGSN

The Gd interface between the SMS-MSC and the SGSN

Due to these new entities, the interfaces and the fact that the GPRS is
an overlay network, for mobility management the procedures are

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-52

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) and


GPRS

System Overview

adjusted to route calls to that network. This requires modification of


signaling, protocols and databases.
Figure 2-7 GPRS Impact on NSS

NSS Entity Requirements

In order to support GPRS with the existing GSM Network, some


requirements are needed for the NSS entities. These requirements are
divided in Hardware and Software updates to the NSS entities.
Hardware requirements

The only hardware updates needed for the NSS entities are additional
signaling links to support the new GPRS interfaces. This possibly
means additional Protocol Handlers and Facility Interfaces.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-53

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) and


GPRS

System Overview

Software requirements

Software requirements need to be split between the entities:

Changes and Procedures


of MSC and VLR

For the MSC/VLR it is required that the changes support the


interworking over the Gs interface to the new packet network
node SGSN that allows a co-existence of GPRS and the existing
circuit switched network. Examples are combined mobility
management procedures and the support of paging for circuit
switched services via GPRS.

For the HLR it is required that the changes support GPRS


subscriber data, feature data and mobility management data.
Furthermore the changes should support the interworking with
the GGSN over the Gcinterface and SGSN over the Gr interface
to provide mobility management and subscriber data over the
interfaces.

For the EIR no specific changes are needed. Only the Gf


interface is defined to interwork with the SGSN. All procedures
are described in the existing specifications.

For the AUC no changes are needed due to its co-location with
the HLR. All authentication procedures apply for GPRS.

For the SMS-MSC it is required that the changes support the


possibility to send SMS messages to a mobile station via the
SGSN and GPRS service. The Gd interface is defined to support
this interworking.

Modifications also need to be made for the C interface between


the SMS-MSC and the HLR to route SMS calls to the GPRS
network.

The Gs interface has an identical structure to the A interface and the


BSC. The protocol stack uses the same lower levels.
Modifications are implemented in the BSSAP stack to where the
following procedures impact the communication between the mobile
station and the network:

Location Update with information received from the SGSN

Sending the Paging message via the SGSN

Receiving an IMSI Attach/Detach via the SGSN

Sending a GPRS Reset message after MSC or VLR recovery

Furthermore modifications are needed to the Alerting,


Identification and Information Procedures

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-54

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) and


GPRS

System Overview

Not only procedures need to be updated. Database information in the


MSC/VLR needs to be changed as well:

HLR/AUC/EIR Changes and


Procedures

In order to retrieve the location of the mobile station when a call


enters the PLMN via the MSC the number of the attached
(currently serving) SGSN is stored in the VLR.

The MSC is not in control of the detach when an MS is both


IMSI and GPRS attached. This means the implicit detach timer is
not activated in the MSC but in the SGSN which is in charge to
monitor the timer and to send the detach message to the MSC.

The Gr/Gc/Gf interface has an identical structure as a MAP interface.


The protocol stack uses the same lower levels, modifications are
implemented in the MAP stack to where a number of procedures
impact the communication between the mobile station and the
network. The AUC does not have its own interface but receives the
needed information relayed via the HLR.
For the Gr interface the following applies:

Authentication information received via the SGSN

Registration information received from the SGSN (GPRS


attached, detached)

Receiving a Routing Area Update message from a SGSN

For the Gc interface the following applies:

Send Routing information message received from a GGSN

For the Gf interface the following applies:

Check IMEI message received via the SGSN

If the database changes for the HLR, then incorporate more


information:

For instance, to route the calls to the appropriate SGSN the


SGSN number and address are stored

A list of GGSN parameter that this subscriber is associated with

What type of Packet Data Protocol this subscriber can use

A flag when the MS is not reachable for GPRS (MNRG)

The Quality of service profile for the subscriber

A flag to indicate that no PDP context or MM information is


stored in the SGSN (MS purged)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

2-55

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) and


GPRS
SMS-MSC Changes and
Procedures

System Overview

The Gd interface has an identical structure as a MAP interface. The


protocol stack uses the same lower levels, modifications are
implemented in the MAP stack to where a number procedures impact
the communication between the mobile station and the network.
For the Gd interface the following applies:

SMS message transfer via the SGSN

The C interface between the HLR and SMS-MSC has an updated


procedure that allows the network to send routing information to the
HLR that the SMS message is send via the GPRS network.
In the MSC the alert procedure needs to be updated.
GPRS Recovery

The existing recovery procedures need to be extended to include


messages being send to the appropriate GSNs.
In case of an HLR failure, an HLR reset will trigger a reset message
to be sent to each SGSN that is known by the HLR.
In case of an VLR failure, an VLR reset will trigger a reset message
to be sent to each associated SGSN.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-56

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Interfaces

Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose

This chapter describes the GSM and the new GPRS network
interfaces.
After finishing this chapter, the student should be able to:

Describe the GSM network interfaces.

Describe the GPRS network interfaces.

Contents
GSM System Interfaces

3-2

GPRS System Interfaces

3-4

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

3-1

Interfaces

GSM
System Interfaces
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction

For the connection of the different nodes in the GSM network,


different interfaces are defined in the GSM specifications. The
following interfaces appear in the figure:
Figure 3-1 GSM Interfaces

Um- or Air Interface

The Um interface is the interface between the Base Transceiver Station


(BTS) and a Mobile Station (MS). The Um interface is required for
supporting:

Universal use of any compatible mobile station in a GSM


network

A maximum spectral efficiency


On the Um-Interface there are the following types of logical
channels: Traffic channels, Broadcast channels, Common control
channels and Dedicated control channels.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GSM System Interfaces

Abis Interface

Interfaces

The Abis interface is the interface between the Base Station Controller
(BSC) and the BTS and is used to carry the Um interface formatted 13
kbps data (speech data and signaling information) between them. The
interface comprises traffic and control channels. Its physical
transmission is based on the PCM30 (Pulse Code Modulation)
transmission principles of the ITU-T (International Telecommunication
Union - sector Telecommunication) at a data rate of 2048 kbps. The
PCM30 frame consists of 32 channels, each carrying 64 kbps. The
bit-stream of 64 kbps represents the transmission of 8000 samples per
second, with each sample being coded into 8 bits.
Functions implemented at the Abis interface are:

A Interface

Voice - data traffic exchange

Signaling exchange between the BSC and the BTS

Transporting synchronization information from the BSC to the


BTS

The A interface is used to carry the 64 kbps speech data and signaling
information between the BSC and the MSC. Its physical transmission
is also based on the PCM30 principles of the ITU-T at a data rate of
2048 kbps.
Timeslot 0 of the PCM30 frame is used for synchronization purposes.
Timeslot 1 through 15 and 17 through 31 are used for exchanging the
64 kbps speech data. Timeslot 16 is used to transfer the SS No. 7
signaling between the BSC and the MSC.

Proprietary M Interface

In the GSM network implementation of Lucent Technologies, the BSC


includes the TRAU (Transcoder/Rate Adapter Unit). The TRAU
adapts the transmission bit rate of the A interface (64 kbps) to the Abis
interface (16 kbps). The interface between the physical BSC and the
TRAU is known as the M interface. Each of the timeslots 1 through
15 and 17 through 31 on the M interface contains four multiplexed A
interface channels. Timeslot 0 is used for synchronization purposes.
Timeslot 16 contains the signaling information which is transparently
mapped from timeslot 16 of the A interface.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

3-3

Interfaces

GPRS
System Interfaces
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Gb Interface

The Gb-interface carries the data and signaling information between


the BSC and the SGSN.

Gb Carriers

Depending on the country where the GPRS network is located, one of


the two following carriers can be used between the BSC and the
SGSN:

Interfaces Using
PCM30/PCM24

Gr, Gf, Gd and Gc


Interfaces

PCM24

PCM30

On the PCM24 or PCM30 interface each time slot may be used for
the signaling data connection. If the amount of messages that have to
be sent is too large for one 64 kbit/s connection, even more time slots
may be used to transfer these messages.
A lot of different interfaces are defined between the MSC and the
other network elements. These interfaces are:

Gr, between the SGSN and the HLR

Gf, between the SGSN and the EIR

Gd, between the SGSN and the SMS-GMSC or SMS-IWMSC

Gc, between the GGSN and the HLR.

All these interfaces carry the signaling information between the MSC
and the other network entities.

Physical Carrier

Interfaces Using
PCM30/PCM24

Depending on the country where the GPRS network is located, one of


the following two physical carriers can be used for the Gr, Gf, Gd and
Gc - interface:

PCM24

PCM30

On the PCM24 or PCM30 interface each time slot may be used for
the signaling data connection. If the amount of messages that have to
be sent is too large for one 64 kbit/s connection, even more time slots
may be used to transfer these messages.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3-4

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS System Interfaces

Interfaces

Interfaces Using
PCM30/PCM24

On the PCM24 or PCM30 interface each time slot may be used for
the signaling data connection. If the amount of messages that have to
be sent is too large for one 64 kbit/s connection, even more time slots
may be used to transfer these messages.

Gs Interface

The Gs-interface connects the VLR (located in the MSC) and the
SGSN. The procedures on the Gs-interface are used to coordinate the
location information of MSs that are IMSI attached to both GPRS and
non-GPRS services. The Gs-interface is also used to convey some
circuit switched related procedures via the SGSN.
The basis for the interworking between a VLR and an SGSN is the
existence of an association between those entities per MS. An
association consists of the SGSN storing the number of the VLR
serving the MS for circuit switched services and the VLR storing the
number of the SGSN serving the MS for packet switched services.
The association is only applicable to MSs in class A and class-B mode
of operation.

Physical Carrier

Interfaces Using
PCM30/PCM24

Abis Interface

Depending on the country where the GPRS network is located, one of


the following two physical carriers can be used for the Gs-interface:

PCM24

PCM30

On the PCM24 or PCM30 interface each time slot may be used for
the signaling data connection. If the amount of messages that have to
be sent is too large for one 64 kbit/s connection, even more time slots
may be used to transfer these messages.
When GPRS MAC and RLC layer functions are positioned remote to
the BTS the information between the channel code unit (CCU) and
the remote GPRS packet control unit (rPCU) is transferred in frames
with a fixed length of 320 bits. Within these frames both GPRS data
and the GPRS RLC/MAC associated control signals are transferred.
The Abis interface should be the same if the PCU is positioned at the
BSC site or at the SGSN. At the BSC, the PCU could be implemented
as an adjunct unit to the BSC. At the SGSN, the BSC should be
considered as transparent for 16 Kbit/s channels. In both cases, the
PCU is referred to as the remote PCU (rPCU).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

3-5

GPRS System Interfaces

Interfaces

The remote PCU (rPCU) is considered a part of the BSC, and the
signaling between the BSC and the PCU may be performed by using
BSC internal signals. The in-band signaling between the Channel
Codec Unit (CCU) and the PCU functions, using PCU frames is
required when the Abis interface is applied.
The Abis interface for supporting the rPCU is a proprietary Lucent
Technologies solution and it is only valid for coding schemes 1 and 2.
For coding schemes 3 and 4 there will be a new structure.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3-6

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

The TCP/IP Suite

Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose

This chapter describes the basic structure and the functions of the
TCP/IP suite within a GPRS network.
After finishing this chapter, the student should be able to:

Summarize the functions of TCP/IP within a GPRS network.

Contents
Architecture of the TCP/IP Suite

4-2

IP Addressing

4-5

Address Resolution

4-8

Internet Protocol (IP)

4-11

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

4-12

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

4-13

GTP

4-14

TCP/IP Example

4-15

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

4-1

The TCP/IP Suite

Architecture
of the TCP/IP Suite
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction

When two computers need to communicate with each other, it is


necessary to connect them via a physical connection to enable them to
pass messages back and forward. Either two computers reside in the
same network or the two computers reside in different networks.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a set of
protocols developed to allow computers (hosts) to communicate with
each other across a network.

Internet

TCP/IP Suite

The Internet is a world-wide collection of thousands of computer


networks that can communicate with each other. All of them speak the
same language, namely the TCP/IP protocol suite. Users of any of the
Internet networks can reach users on any of the other networks.
The most accurate name for the TCP/IP set of protocols is the
TCP/IP suite. TCP and IP are two of the protocols in this suite.
Because TCP and IP are the best known of the protocols, it has
become common to use the term TCP/IP to refer to the whole family.
Figure 4-1 TCP/IP Suite
TELNET

SMTP

FTP

TFTP

TCP

ICMP

Transport layer

UDP

IP

ARP

Network interface protocols

Physical networks

Application layer

RARP

Internet layer

Network interface

Physical layer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Architecture of the TCP/IP Suite

The TCP/IP Suite

Graphic Legend

The TCP/IP Layers

ARP

Address Resolution Protocol

FTP

File Transfer Protocol

ICMP

Internet Control Messaging Protocol

IP

Internet Protocol

RARP

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

TFTP

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

Like the OSI 7 layer reference model, TCP/IP is a layered set of


protocols. Although the layering of TCP/IP is not the same as the OSI
model, the layers correspond with each other.
The TCP/IP layering model can be divided in 5 layers:
1.

Physical layer

2.

Network interface

3.

Internet layer

4.

Transport layer

5.

Application layer

Physical layer

The physical layer deals with the physical network hardware just as
layer 1 in the OSI 7 layer model. This can be, for example, an
ethernet or a point-to-point wire.
Network interface

The network interface protocols deal with how to organize data into
frames and how a host transmits these frames over a network. These
protocols are similar to the layer 2 (data link) protocols in the OSI 7
layer model.
Internet layer

The Internet layer protocols specify the format of the packets which
are sent across the Internet as well as the mechanisms used to forward
packets from a computer through one or more routers to a final

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

4-3

Architecture of the TCP/IP Suite

The TCP/IP Suite

destination. The protocols in this layer are similar to the layer 3


protocols in the OSI 7 layer model.
Transport layer

The transport layer protocols in the TCP/IP suite ensure reliable


transfer of messages. These protocols are similar to the layer 4
protocols in the OSI 7 layer model.
Application layer

The application layer protocols specify how an application uses an


Internet. The application layer protocols correspond to layers 5, 6 and
7 in the OSI 7 layer model.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4-4

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

The TCP/IP Suite

IP
Addressing
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
IP Address

The following explanations all refer to IP Version 4.


Every host or router on an Internet has an IP address or Internet
address. All IP addresses consist of a unique 32 bit number. Each
packet sent across an Internet must contain the IP address of the
source and the IP address of the destination.
The 32 bit IP addresses are seldom represented in binary format but
they are represented in a dotted decimal format.
Example

The 32 bit binary IP address


10000100 00110000 00000110 00000000
has the dotted decimal notation of:
132.48.6.0
Prefix and Suffix

The 32 bit IP address is divided into two sections, a prefix and a


suffix. The IP address prefix is used to identify a particular network
within the Internet and the IP address suffix is used to identify a
particular host or router on that network.
IP Address Classes

The problem with using an IP address containing prefixes and suffixes


is the decision on how big to make each field. If the prefix field is
small, only a few networks will be able to connect to the Internet.
When the prefix field is increased, then the suffix field decreases, so
fewer hosts can connect to a particular network with a given prefix.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

4-5

IP Addressing

The TCP/IP Suite

Since an Internet includes various types of networks, the developers


of IP chose addressing schemes for both large and small networks.
Therefore the IP addressing scheme is divided into classes.
Figure 4-2 IP Addressing Scheme
32

24

Class A 0

16

Prefix

Class B 1 0

Suffix
Prefix

Class C 1 1 0

Suffix
Prefix

Class D 1 1 1 0

Suffix

Multicast address

Class E 1 1 1 1 0

Reserved for future use

IP addressing scheme classes:

Network and Host


Numbers

Classes A, B and C are called primary classes because they are


used for host addresses

Class D is used for multicasting, which allows packets to be


directed to multiple hosts

Class E is reserved for future use

The following table lists some network and host numbers for the tree
primary address classes.
Address
class
A

Bits in
prefix

Max. number
of networks

126

1
1

14

16,382

21

2 million

Bits in
suffix

Max. number
of hosts

24

16 million

16

65,534

254

Notes:

1.

Network and host fields containing only 0s or 1s are used for


different purposes.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4-6

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

IP Addressing

Router Addresses

The TCP/IP Suite

Routers are responsible for connecting various networks together. This


means that a router is connected to at least two networks (with
different prefixes). Therefore each router is assigned to two or more
IP addresses because a router with multiple network connections must
have an IP address assigned to each connection.
Figure 4-3 Router Address
router

IP network
48.0.0.0

198.48.16.96

48.108.17.26
198.48.16.36

IP network
198.48.16.0

215.0.116.36

Ethernet 215.0.116.0

Note: Not only routers have connections to more than one network. It
is also possible to connect a computer to more than one.
Control of IP Addresses

Each IP address prefix must be unique. This means that all networks
connected to an Internet must have their own unique network address.
Therefore all network addresses are assigned by the Internet Assigned
Number Authority (IANA) to ensure each IP address prefix is unique.
In case of a private Internet (Intranet), the choice of the IP addresses
can be made by its owners.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

4-7

The TCP/IP Suite

Address
Resolution
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Software and Hardware
Addresses

Address Resolution
Techniques

Although every host or router on an Internet has one (or more) IP


addresses, these cannot be used for sending packets because the layer
2 network interface hardware does not understand IP addresses. IP
addresses are virtual; software addresses, but if a packet must arrive at
a certain host, the hardware address of that particular host is needed.
A process must take place to translate an IP address into a hardware
address.
There are different techniques used for address resolution. Which
technique is used depends upon:

the type of hardware in the network

the number of networks a host may connect to or

the hardware addressing scheme that is used

Generally, there are three different address resolution techniques:

Table Look up

Table look up

Closed-form computation

Address Resolution Protocol

This technique in carrying out address resolution makes use of a


binding table which contains IP addresses with the corresponding
hardware addresses. Each host in the network has its own entry in the
binding table.
It is however necessary to have a separate binding table for each
physical network and as such all IP addresses will contain the same
prefix.
Table look up
IP address

hardware address

183.76.8.1

0A:74:F8:12:46:C9

183.76.8.2

0A:59:32:B8:7F:18

183.76.8.3

0A:C4:BA:87:24:9E

183.76.8.4

0A:77:81:D8:36:42

183.76.8.5

0A:28:FA:11:1F:99

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4-8

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Address Resolution

Closed-Form Computation

The TCP/IP Suite

IP address

hardware address

etc.

etc.

This technique of address resolution is used when dealing with


networks which allow configurable addresses. A mathematical
computation is used to derive the hardware address directly from the
IP address. The computation should be as simple as possible to reduce
any delay.
Example
A simple mathematical computation:
hardware address = IP address (suffix)
hardware address = 194.76.4.4 (suffix) -> hardware address = 4

Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP)

The protocol used to translate an IP address into a hardware address is


called the Address Resolution Protocol. This technique of address
resolution uses a message based approach to deriving a hardware
address. The host sends a message containing the protocol address to
a server(s) and in return, a message is sent containing the appropriate
hardware address.
There are two methods of message exchange resolution. Either a
network is made up of several servers which will carry out all the
resolution processes within the network, or each host on the network
will answer address resolution requests for its address.
Figure 4-4 Message Exchange Process
1
V

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

4-9

Address Resolution

The TCP/IP Suite

The process of an ARP message exchange:


1.

Host W begins to broadcast an ARP request message that


contains host Ys IP address

2.

All hosts receive the ARP request message

3.

Host Y sends an ARP response message containing its


corresponding address directly to host W. All other hosts will
discard the ARP request message.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4-10

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

The TCP/IP Suite

Internet
Protocol (IP)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
IP Service

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol by which information (data) is


sent from one host to another. This protocol defines a datagram in
which the data is transported. Routing is done by using an address
that is unique for each host or system. When data has to be sent, it
will be divided into datagrams which also include the source and
destination addresses. The network elements called routers will
examine the destination address and as far as it is in their scope, send
the datagram to another router. When a router (gateway) recognizes
the complete address, it will send the datagram to that corresponding
host.

Datagram & Packet

A datagram is a unit of data, which is what the protocols deal with. A


packet is a physical thing, appearing on, for example, an ethernet. In
most cases a packet simply contains a datagram, so there is very little
difference. However they can differ. This is invisible to IP, because
the packets are put back together into a single datagram at a receiving
host before being processed by TCP/IP.

Connectionless

IP provides higher layer protocols (like TCP) a connectionless


service, which means that no connections have to be established. As a
result, there is no specified path for the datagrams, so if a host sends
datagrams to another host, it is possible that the packets will follow
different paths and the order of these packets get lost.

IP Header Format

An IP datagram consists of a header part and a data part. The header


contains a fixed part of 20 bytes (5 32 bits) and an optional part of
a variable length. The data part contains a TCP or UPD header
followed by data.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

4-11

The TCP/IP Suite

Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Features

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides a highly reliable


transport service. Most Internet applications use the services of TCP
to transport data between hosts.
TCP offers seven major features:

Connection orientated

Complete reliability

Full duplex communication

Stream interface

Reliable connection set-up

Graceful connection shut-down

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4-12

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

The TCP/IP Suite

User
Datagram Protocol (UDP)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Connectionless Transport
Protocol

The TCP/IP suite also supports a connectionless transport protocol,


User Datagram Protocol (UDP). UDP provides a way for applications
to send a message without having to establish a connection. UDP
allows the movement of data with the minimum requirement of
network services.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

4-13

The TCP/IP Suite

GTP
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
GTP Introduction

The GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) is the protocol between GPRS


Support Nodes (GSNs) in the GPRS backbone network. It includes
both signaling and data transfer procedures. GTP is defined both for
the Gn-interface between GSNs within a PLMN, and the Gp-interface
between GSNs in different PLMNs.
In the signaling plane, GTP specifies a tunnel control and
management protocol which allows the SGSN to provide GPRS
network access for a MS. Signaling is used to create, modify and
delete tunnels.
In the transmission plane, GTP uses a tunnelling mechanism to
provide a service for carrying user data packets. The choice of path is
dependent on whether the user data to be tunnelled requires a reliable
connection or not.
The GTP protocol is implemented only by SGSNs and GGSNs. No
other system entities need to be aware of GTP. GPRS MSs are
connected to a SGSN without being aware of GTP.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4-14

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

The TCP/IP Suite

TCP/IP
Example
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

A packet containing data is sent over a TCP/IP network and arrives at


its receiving host.
The packet passes through 5 TCP/IP layers:

Layer 1 - This is the actual physical network hardware, for


example, an ethernet. The packet arrives at the receiving host
defined in its hardware address field.

Layer 2 - The network interface strips out the header containing


the hardware address, performs a check and strips out the footer
containing the check sequence. The payload is passed on to the
Internet layer.

Layer 3 - The Internet layer analyses the IP header containing:


source IP address, destination IP address, total length etc. The
header is stripped out and the payload is passed on to the
transport layer. The protocol of the transport layer (UDP or TCP)
is defined in the type fields of the IP header.

Layer 4 - The transport layer protocols identify the destination of


the data. TCP also performs some other tasks to ensure the
reliability of the connection. The header is stripped out and the
data is passed on to the application layer.

Layer 5 - The application layer presents the data to the user.

Figure 4-5 Message Flow

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

4-15

GPRS Signaling and


Transmission Protocols

Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose

This chapter discusses the signaling and transmission protocols for the
different GPRS interfaces, the GPRS network entities and the packet
data logical channels for GPRS.
After finishing this chapter, the student should be able to:

Identify the route a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) will travel across a
GPRS network.

State the functionality and relationship of the following GPRS


protocols:
-

GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP).

Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP).

Logical Link Control (LLC).

Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP).

Radio Link Control (RLC).

Medium Access Control (MAC).

Identify the new logical channels for GPRS.

Specify the mapping of GPRS logical channels onto physical


channels.

Contents
The GPRS Signaling Plane

5-3

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-1

Overview

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The GPRS Transmission Plane

5-7

Protocols on the Gn Interface

5-10

Protocols on the Gb Interface

5-12

Protocols on the Um Interface

5-19

GPRS MS Protocols

5-23

The GPRS Air Interface

5-24

GPRS Logical Channels

5-25

Mapping of Packet Data Logical Channels onto


Physical Channels

5-27

Quality of Service

5-32

GPRS MS

5-36

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The
GPRS Signaling Plane
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Functions

The signaling plane consists of protocols for control and support of


the transmission plane functions:

Controlling the GPRS network access connections, such as


attaching to and detaching from the GPRS network.

Controlling the attributes of an established network access


connection, such as activation of a Packet Data Protocol (PDP)
address. Controlling the routing path of an established network
connection in order to support user mobility.

Controlling the assignment of network resources to meet


changing user demands.

Providing supplementary services

Figure 5-1 MAP Signaling


BTS

MS

BSC

SGSN

GMM/SM

GMM/SM

LLC

LLC
Relay

RLC

RLC

BSSGP

BSSGP

MAC

MAC

Network
Service

Network
Service

Layer 1
(E1)

Layer 1
(E1)

Layer 1
(E1)

Relay

Layer 1
(GSM RF)

Layer 1
(GSM RF)

Um

MAP Signaling Plane

Layer 1
(E1)

Abis

Gb

The Mobile Application Part (MAP) is used to transfer


non-circuit-related signaling information on the following interfaces:

Gr-interface (SGSN HLR)

Gf-interface (SGSN EIR)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-3

The GPRS Signaling Plane

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

Gd-interface (SGSN SMS-GMSC or SMS-IWMSC)

Gc-interface (GGSN HLR).

The information to be transferred is used during, for example, location


updating, routing area updating, authentication and SMS message
transfer.
The following figure shows the MAP signaling plane.
MAP

MAP

TCAP

TCAP

SCCP

SCCP

MTP
Level 1-3

MTP
Level 1-3

Gr, Gf, Gd, Gc

(For the GPRS interfaces see also Figure 29)


The Message Transfer Part (MTP) is responsible for the reliable
transport of signaling information between the user parts.
Level 2 controls the functions of the link; it is responsible for reliable
message transfer.
The level 3 functions handle procedures such as message routing and
signaling network management.
The Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) defines a means of
transferring signaling data or management data without the need to
establish a circuit. SCCP is really an addition of MTP.
The Transaction Capability Application Part (TCAP) is used to
manage the dialog between two network entities.
The Mobile Application Part (MAP) protocol is used to transfer
non-circuit-related signaling information between the network entities,
i.e. between:
SGSN <-> HLR
SGSN <-> EIR
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-4

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

The GPRS Signaling Plane

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

SGSN <-> SMS-GMSC or SMS-IWMSC


GGSN <-> HLR
The information to be transferred is used during, for example,
Location Updating, authentication, handover of established calls and
transfer of charging information.
BSSAP Signaling
Figure 5-2 BSSAP Signaling
BSSAP+

BSSAP+

SCCP

SCCP

MTP
Level 1-3

MTP
Level 1-3

Gs

(For the GPRS interfaces see also Figure 29)


The Base Station System Application Part + (BSSAP+) is a subset of
BSSAP procedures specifically for GPRS and supports signaling
between the SGSN and MSC/VLR.
It supports the following procedures:

GTP Signaling Plane

IMSI attach and detach via SGSN.

Location area updating via SGSN.

Paging via GPRS.

Alerting procedure.

Identification procedure.

Information procedure.

The GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) supports signaling between the


GPRS Support Nodes (GSNs) on the Gn-interface.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-5

The GPRS Signaling Plane

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The following figure shows the GTP signaling plane.


GTP

GTP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L1

L1

Gn

The GTP signaling plane consists of the following protocols:

Internet Protocol (IP).


This protocol transfers user data and signaling messages between
GSNs.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP).


This protocol transfers signaling messages between GSNs.

GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP).


This protocol tunnels user data and signaling messages between
SGSNs and GGSNs, and between SGSNs in the GPRS backbone
network.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-6

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The
GPRS Transmission Plane
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The GPRS Transmission
Plane

Transmission Plane

The transmission plane consists of a layered protocol structure


providing user information transfer, along with associated information
transfer control procedures (for example: flow control, error detection,
error correction and error recovery).
The following figure shows the different transmission protocols that
are used between the MS, BSS, SGSN and GGSN in the GPRS
network.
MS

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

Application
IP/X.25

IP/X.25
Relay
SNDCP

GTP

GTP

LLC

UDP/
TCP

UDP/
TCP

BSSGP
Network
Service

BSSGP
Network
Service

IP

IP

L2

L2

L1bis

L1bis

L1

L1

SNDCP
LLC
Relay

RLC

RLC

MAC

MAC

GSM RF

GSM RF
Um

The GPRS Protocols

Gb

Gn

Gi

The transmission plane is made up of both GPRS specific protocols


and open protocols such as the Internet Protocol (IP).
The protocols are summarized below:

GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP)

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) & User Datagram Protocol


(UDP)

Internet Protocol (IP)

Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP)

Logical Link Control (LLC)

Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP)

Network Service (NS)

Radio Link Control / Medium Access Control (RLC/MAC)

GSM Radio Frequency (GSM RF)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-7

The GPRS Transmission Plane

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP)

This protocol tunnels user data and signaling between GPRS support
nodes in the GPRS backbone network.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) & User Datagram Protocol
(UDP)

TCP carries GTP Protocol Data Units (PDUs) in the GPRS backbone
network for protocols that need a reliable connection. UDP carries
GTP PDUs for protocols that do not need a reliable connection. Both
TCP and UDP can be found in the TCP/IP suite.
Internet Protocol (IP)

This is the GPRS backbone network protocol used for routing user
data and control signaling. The GPRS backbone network may initially
be based on the IP version 4 (IPv4) protocol. Ultimately, IP version 6
(IPv6) shall be supported.
Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP)

This transmission functionality maps the network level PDUs onto the
underlying GPRS specific network.
Logical Link Control (LLC)

This layer provides a logical link between MS and SGSN. LLC shall
be independent of the underlying radio interface protocols in order to
allow GPRS to be used on different radio systems.
Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP)

This layer conveys routing and Quality of Service (QoS) information


between BSS and SGSN. BSSGP does not perform error correction. It
also maps GPRS Mobility Management and Network Management on
one single frame.
Network Service (NS)

This layer transports BSSGP PDUs. NS is based on NS-control frames


onto Frame Relay.
Radio Link Control / Medium Access Control (RLC/MAC)

This layer contains two functions: The RLC function provides a radio
solution dependent reliable link. The MAC function controls the
access signaling procedures for the radio channel, and the mapping of
LLC frames onto the GSM physical channel. This layer is also
responsible for resource sharing (having up to 8 subscribers on a
single timeslot).
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-8

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

The GPRS Transmission Plane

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

GSM Radio Frequency (GSM RF)

This is the standard GSM RF interface.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-9

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

Protocols
on the Gn Interface
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
GPRS Tunnelling Protocol
(GTP)

The GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) is the protocol between GPRS


Support Nodes (GSNs) in the GPRS backbone network. It includes
both signaling and data transfer procedures. GTP is defined both for
the Gn interface between GSNs within a PLMN, and the Gp interface
between GSNs in different PLMNs. In the signaling plane, GTP
specifies a tunnel control and management protocol which allows the
SGSN to provide GPRS network access for a MS. Signaling is used
to create, modify and delete tunnels.
In the transmission plane, GTP uses a tunnelling mechanism to
provide a service for carrying user data packets. The choice of path is
dependent on whether the user data to be tunneled requires a reliable
connection or not. The GTP protocol is implemented only by SGSNs
and GGSNs. No other system entities need to be aware of GTP. GPRS
MSs are connected to a SGSN without being aware of GTP.

User Datagram Protocol


(UDP)

UDP carries GTP Protocol Data Units (PDUs) for protocols that do
not need a reliable connection (for example IP). UDP provides
protection against corrupted GTP PDUs. UDP can be found in the
TCP/IP suite.

Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP)

TCP carries GTP Protocol Data Units (PDUs) in the GPRS backbone
network for protocols that need a reliable connection. TCP can be
found in the TCP/IP suite.

Internet Protocol (IP)

This is the GPRS backbone network protocol used for routing user
data and control signaling. The GPRS backbone network may initially
be based on the IP version 4 (IPv4) protocol. Ultimately, IP version 6
(IPv6) shall be supported. IP can be found in the TCP/IP suite.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-10

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Protocols on the Gn Interface

GGSN Activity

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

A packet from an external data network arrives at the GGSN and will
be encapsulated with a GTP header, a UDP or a TCP header and an IP
header. If the resulting IP datagram is larger than the Maximum
Transfer Unit (MTU), fragmentation of the IP datagram will occur.
Figure 5-3 GGSN Activity

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-11

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

Protocols
on the Gb Interface
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Subnetwork Dependent
Convergence Protocol
(SNDCP)

Network layer protocols are intended to be capable of operating over


services derived from a wide variety of subnetworks and data links.
GPRS supports several network layer protocols providing protocol
transparency for the users of the service.
Introduction of new network layer protocols to be transferred over
GPRS shall be possible without any changes to GPRS. Therefore, all
functions related to transfer of Network layer Protocol Data Units
(N-PDUs) shall be carried out in a transparent way by the GPRS
network entities. This is one of the requirements for GPRS SNDCP.
Another requirement for the Subnetwork Dependent Convergence
Protocol (SNDCP) is to provide functions that help to improve
channel efficiency. This requirement is fulfilled by means of
compression techniques.
Another requirement for the Subnetwork Dependent Convergence
Protocol (SNDCP) is to provide functions that help to improve
channel efficiency. This requirement is fulfilled by means of
compression techniques.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-12

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Protocols on the Gb Interface

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

SNDCP Service Model


Figure 5-4 SNDCP Service Model
Network
layer
SNDCP

SNDCP

Header

Data

Control
Compression

Control
Decompression

Data
Compression

Data
Decompression

Segmentation

Re-assembly

SNDCP
Header

Segmented N-PDU

SN-DATA PDU /
SN-UNITDATA PDU

LLC
LLC
Header

SN-DATA PDU / SN-UNITDATA PDU

FCS

The figure above shows the transmission flow through the SNDCP
layer.
The order of functions is as follows:

Protocol control information compression.

User data compression.

Segmentation of compressed information into SN-DATA or


SN-UNITDATA PDUs.

The order of functions is vice versa in the reception flow:

Logical Link Control (LLC)

Re-assembly of SN-PDUs to N-PDUs.

User data decompression.

Protocol control information decompression.

The Logical Link Control (LLC) layer provides reliable transfer of


layer 3 data between the MS and the SGSN.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-13

Protocols on the Gb Interface

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

LLC is considered to be a sublayer of layer 2 in the ISO 7-layer


model.
LLC supports:

Functions

Multiple MSs at the Um interface

Multiple layer 3 entities within an MS.

LLC includes functions for:

The provision of one or more logical link connections


discriminated between by means of a DLCI

Sequence control, to maintain the sequential order of frames


across a logical link connection

Detection of transmission, format and operational errors on a


logical link connection

Recovery from detected transmission, format, and operational


errors

Notification of unrecoverable errors

Flow control

Ciphering.

LLC layer functions provide the means for information transfer via
peer-to-peer logical link connections between an MS and SGSN pair.
Acknowledged Operation

With this type of operation, layer 3 information is transmitted in order


in numbered Information (I) frames. The I frames are acknowledged
at the LLC layer. Error recovery and reordering procedures based on
retransmission of unacknowledged I frames are specified. Several I
frames may be unacknowledged at the same time. In the case of
errors that cannot be corrected by the LLC layer, a report to layer 3
shall be made.
Acknowledged operation requires that Asynchronous Balanced Mode
(ABM) operation has been initiated by an establishment procedure
using the Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode (SABM) command.
Acknowledged operation is allowed for all SAPIs that are not reserved
except SAPI 1, 2, 7, and 8.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-14

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Protocols on the Gb Interface

Unacknowledged
Operation

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

With this type of operation, layer 3 information is transmitted in


numbered Unconfirmed Information (UI) frames. The UI frames are
not acknowledged at the LLC layer. Neither error recovery nor
reordering mechanisms are defined, but transmission and format errors
are detected. Duplicate UI frames are discarded.
Two modes of unacknowledged operation are defined:

Protected mode in which the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field


protects the frame header and information field

Unprotected mode in which the FCS field protects the frame


header and only the first octets of the information field.

Unacknowledged operation is allowed for all SAPIs that are not


reserved.

Network Service

The Network Service performs the transport of NS SDUs between the


SGSN and BSC.
The services provided to the NS user shall be:

Network Service SDU transfer.


The Network Service entity shall provide network service
primitives allowing for transmission and reception of upper layer
protocol data units between the BSC and SGSN. The NS SDUs
are transferred in order by the Network Service, but under
exceptional circumstances order may not be maintained.

Network congestion indication.


Congestion recovery control actions may be performed by the
Sub-Network Service (Frame Relay). Congestion reporting
mechanisms available in the Sub-Network Service
implementation shall be used by the Network Service to report
congestion.

Status indication.
Status indication shall be used to inform the NS user of the NS
affecting events. For example change in the available
transmission capabilities.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-15

Protocols on the Gb Interface

Base Station System GPRS


Protocol (BSSGP)

BSSGP Functions

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The primary functions of the BSSGP include the following:

In the downlink, the provision by an SGSN to a BSS of radio


related information used by the RLC/MAC function.

In the uplink, the provision by a BSS to an SGSN of radio


related information derived from the RLC/MAC function.

The provision of functionality to enable two physically distinct


nodes, an SGSN and a BSS, to operate node management control
functions.

The primary function of the Base Station System GPRS Protocol


(BSSGP) is to provide the radio related information and routing
information that is required to transmit user data between a BSS and
an SGSN.

In the BSS, it acts as an interface between LLC frames and


RLC/MAC blocks

In the SGSN, it forms an interface between RLC/MAC derived


information and LLC frames.

A secondary function is to enable two physically distinct nodes, the


SGSN and BSS, to operate node management control functions.
Some functions for the BSSGP protocol are to:

Provide a connectionless link between the SGSN and the BSS

Transfer data unconfirmed between the SGSN and the BSS

Handle paging requests from the SGSN to the BSS

Support multiple layer 2 links between the SGSN and one BSS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-16

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Protocols on the Gb Interface

BSSGP Service Model

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

BSSGP maps LLC, GPRS mobility management (GMM) and network


management (NM) on one frame.
Service model in a BSS
Relay

RLC/MAC

GMM

Service model in an SGSN


NM

LLC

GMM

BSSGP

BSSGP

Network Service

Network Service

NM

Legend:

SGSN Activity

BSSGP

BSSGP provides functions controlling the transfer of


LLC frames passed between an SGSN and an MS
across the Gb interface.

Relay

Relay provides functions controlling the transfer of


LLC frames between the RLC/MAC layer and the
BSSGP layer.

GMM

GMM provides functions associated with GPRS


mobility management between an SGSN and a BSS.
GMM functions deal with paging, radio status and radio
access capabilities etc.

NM

Network management (NM) provides functions


associated with Gb-interface and BSS SGSN node
management. NM functions deal with flow control,
status and resets etc.

Data and signaling messages arrive at the SGSN via the Gn interface.
The IP datagrams are collected by the IP layer and are reassembled if
fragmentation has occurred either at the SGSN or at any IP router
along the Gn interface. Any additional processes are carried out at this
layer before the payload is passed up to either UDP or TCP.
At the UDP/TCP layer, more processes are carried out such as
determining the checksum value before this payload is passed up to
GTP. At the GTP layer, the GTP header is stripped off resulting in the
PDU being ready for onward transmission across the Gb interface

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-17

Protocols on the Gb Interface

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

towards the BSS. As such, the PDU can be said to have been tunneled
across the Gn interface. To travel across the Gb interface, the PDU
requires further modification. This is carried out by the Subnetwork
Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP), the Logical Link Protocol
(LLC) and the Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) before
being carried towards the BSS on the Gb interface via a Frame Relay
network.
Figure 5-5 SGSN Activity

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-18

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

Protocols
on the Um Interface
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
RLC/MAC Block Structure

The RLC/MAC block consists of a MAC header and an RLC data


block or RLC/MAC control block. The RLC/MAC control block is
the part of a RLC/MAC block carrying a control message between
RLC/MAC entities. It does not contain an RLC header.
Figure 5-6 RLC/MAC Blocks
RLC/MAC Block
MAC Header

RLC Header

RLC Data

spare

RLC Data Block


RLC/MAC Block
MAC Header

RLC/MAC Signaling information


RLC/MAC Control Block

Radio Link Control (RLC)


Layer

The main function of the RLC layer defines the procedures for
segmentation and reassemble of PDUs into RLC/MAC blocks.
In RLC acknowledged mode of operation, RLC provides a Backward
Error Correction (BEC) for reliable data transfer and enables the
selective retransmission of unsuccessfully delivered RLC/MAC
blocks.
The RLC function is responsible for the following:

RLC/MAC Blocks

RLC provides service primitives for the transfer of LLC PDUs


between the LLC layer in the SGSN and the MAC layer.

RLC performs segmentation and re-assembly of LLC PDUs into


RLC/MAC blocks.

RLC provides a Backward Error Correction (BEC) for reliable


data transfer and enables the selective retransmission of
unsuccessfully delivered RLC/MAC blocks (for acknowledged
mode).

The RLC/MAC block consists of a MAC header and an RLC data


block or RLC/MAC control block.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-19

Protocols on the Um Interface

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The RLC/MAC control block is the part of a RLC/MAC block


carrying a signaling message between RLC/MAC entities. It does not
contain an RLC header.
Medium Access Control
(MAC) Layer

The main function of the MAC layer defines the procedures that
enable multiple mobile stations to share a common transmission
medium on the air interface, which may consist of several physical
channels. The function may allow a mobile station to use several
physical channels in parallel, or in other words, use several timeslots
within the TDMA frame.
The MAC procedures support the provision of Temporary Block
Flows (TBFs) that allow the point-to-point transfer of signaling and
user data within a cell between the network and a MS.
Moreover, the MAC procedures include the procedures for reception
of PBCCH and PCCCH, which permits autonomous cell reselection
performed by the MS.
The GPRS MAC function is responsible for:

Providing efficient multiplexing of data and control signaling on


both uplink and downlink, the control of which resides on the
network side.

On the uplink and downlink, multiplexing is controlled by a


scheduling mechanism.

For mobile originated channel access:


-

Contention resolution between channel access attempts,


including collision detection and recovery.

For mobile terminated channel access:


-

Scheduling of access attempts, including queuing of packet


accesses.

The RLC data block is passed down to the MAC layer where a
MAC header is added. The MAC procedures support the
provision of Temporary Block Flows (TBFs) that allow the
point-to-point transfer of signaling and user data within a cell
between the network and a MS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-20

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Protocols on the Um Interface

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The structure of the MAC headers are dependent upon the


direction of the data transfer (uplink or downlink).
Figure 5-7 Air Interface

Physical RF Layer

Physical Link Layer

The physical RF layer performs the modulation of the physical


waveforms based on the sequence of bits received from the physical
link layer. The physical RF layer also demodulates received
waveforms into a sequence of bits which are transferred to the
physical link layer for interpretation. The GSM physical RF layer is
used as a basis for GPRS.
The purpose of the physical link layer is to convey information across
the GSM radio interface, including RLC/MAC information. The
physical link layer supports multiple MSs sharing a single physical
channel. The physical link layer provides communication between
MSs and the Network. The physical link layer control functions
provide the services necessary to maintain communications capability
over the physical radio channel between the network and MSs.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-21

Protocols on the Um Interface

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

Functions at the physical link layer include:

BSS Activity

Forward Error Correction (FEC) coding, allowing the detection


and correction of transmitted code words and the indication of
uncorrectable code words.

Rectangular interleaving of one Radio Block over four bursts in


consecutive TDMA frames.

Procedures for detecting physical link congestion.

Synchronization procedures, including determining and adjusting


the MS timing advance parameters.

Monitoring and evaluation procedures for radio link signal


quality.

Transmitter power control procedures.

Battery power conservation procedures, for example


Discontinuous Reception (DRX) procedures.

Data and signaling messages arrive at the BSS via the Gb interface.
The frames arriving at the Packet Control Unit (PCU) pass through
BSSGP where the information and signaling messages are separated
into LLC frames, GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) information
and Network Management (NM) information.
With regards to data and signaling messages destined for the GPRS
MS, the LLC frames pass through a relay entity (LLC relay) before
entering the RLC and the MAC layer respectively.
The RLC/MAC layer provides services for information transfer over
the physical layer.
Figure 5-8 BSS Activity

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-22

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

GPRS
MS Protocols
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
GPRS MS Activity

At the GPRS MS, the PDUs pass through the protocol stack in the
reverse order. The four consecutive air interface bursts are
re-assembled and passed to the RLC/MAC layer. Once all the RLC
data blocks for a particular LLC PDU have been received, the LLC
frame is re-assembled and passed up to the LLC layer. Here the
Frame Check Sequence (FCS) is calculated and any retransmissions
are activated if necessary, otherwise the payload area is passed up to
the SNDCP layer.
At the SNDCP layer, the PDUs are re-assembled and the information
and control fields are decompressed. Finally, the PDUs are passed up
to the IP/X.25 layer.
Figure 5-9 MS Activity

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-23

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The
GPRS Air Interface
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Packet Data Logical
Channels for GPRS

One or more packet data logical channels can be transmitted on a


physical channel. There are different types of packet data logical
channels. The type of packet data logical channel is determined by the
function of the information transmitted over it.
Figure 5-10 Logical channels for GPRS
uplink

PRACH

PCCCH
PPCH

downlink

PAGCH

signaling
channels

PNCH
PBCCH

downlink

PBCCH

uplink/downlink

packet
data
logical
channels

PDCCH

traffic
channels

uplink
downlink

uplink
PDTCH

PACCH
PTCCH/U
PTCCH/D

PDTCH/U

downlink

PDTCH/D

The following types of packet data logical channels are defined:

Packet Common Control Channels (PCCCH)

Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH)

Packet Dedicated Control Channels (PDCCH)

Packet Data Traffic Channels (PDTCH)

Note: The PDTCH carries packet data, and the other types control
information (signaling).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-24

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

GPRS
Logical Channels
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Packet Common Control
Channels (PCCCH)

PCCCH comprises packet data logical channels for common control


signaling used for packet data as described below:

Packet Random Access Channel (PRACH)


For uplink only PRACH is used by MS to initiate uplink transfer
for sending data or signaling information.

Packet Paging Channel (PPCH)


For downlink only PPCH is used to page an MS prior to
downlink packet transfer. PPCH uses paging groups in order to
allow usage of discontinuous reception. PPCH can be used for
paging of both circuit switched and packet data services. The
paging for circuit switched services on PPCH is applicable for
class A and B GPRS MSs.

Packet Access Grant Channel (PAGCH)


For downlink only PAGCH is used in the packet transfer
establishment phase to send resource assignment to an MS prior
to packet transfer. It is used to allocate one or several PDTCHs.

Packet Notification Channel (PNCH)


For downlink only PNCH is used to send a Point To Multipoint
(PNCH will be standardised in the future) - Multicast (PTM-M)
notification to a group of MSs prior to a PTM-M packet transfer.
A PTM-M new message indicator may optionally be sent on all
individual paging channels to inform MSs interested in PTM-M
when they need to listen to PNCH. The PNCH will be
standardized in the future.

Packet Broadcast Control


Channel (PBCCH)

PBCCH broadcasts packet data specific system information. If


PBCCH is not allocated, the packet data specific system information
is broadcast on the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). The PBCCH
is only found on the downlink.

Packet Dedicated Control


Channels (PDCCH)

Packet Dedicated Control Channels (PDCCH) is comprised of the


following:

Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-25

GPRS Logical Channels

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

PACCH transfers signaling information related to a given MS.


The signaling information includes for example,
acknowledgments and power control information. PACCH carries
also resource assignment and reassignment messages, comprising
the assignment of a capacity for PDTCH(s) and for further
occurrences of PACCH. The PACCH shares resources with
PDTCHs, that are currently assigned to one MS. Additionally, an
MS that is currently involved in packet transfer, can be paged for
circuit switched services on PACCH. The PACCH can be found
on both uplink and downlink.

Packet Data Traffic


Channels (PDTCH)

Packet Timing advance Control Channel, uplink (PTCCH/U)


PTCCH/U is used to transmit random access burst to allow
estimation of the timing advance for one MS in packet transfer
mode.

Packet Timing advance Control Channel, downlink (PTCCH/D)


PTCCH/D is used to transmit timing advance information updates
to several MSs. One PTCCH/D is paired with several
PTCCH/Us.

PDTCH is a channel allocated for data transfer. It is temporarily


dedicated to one MS or to a group of MSs in the Point To Multipoint
- Multicast (PTM-M) case. In multislot operation, one MS may use
multiple PDTCHs in parallel for individual packet transfer.
All packet data traffic channels are uni-directional:

uplink (PDTCH/U), for a mobile originated packet transfer.

downlink (PDTCH/D), for a mobile terminated packet transfer.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-26

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

Mapping of Packet Data Logical Channels onto Physical


Channels
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

A Packet Data Channel (PDCH) is a physical time-slot that has been


allocated for the use of GPRS. Different packet data logical channels
can occur on the same physical channel (i.e. PDCH). The sharing of
the physical channel is based on blocks of 4 consecutive bursts.
The PCCCH does not have to be allocated permanently in the cell.
Whenever the PCCCH is not allocated, the CCCH shall be used to
initiate a packet transfer. One given MS may use only a subset of the
PCCCH, the subset being mapped onto one physical channel (i.e.
PDCH).
Packet data logical channels are mapped dynamically onto a
52-multiframe.
If it exists, PCCCH is mapped on one or several physical channels
according to a 52-multiframe, In that case the PCCCH, PBCCH and
PDTCH share same physical channels (PDCHs).

Logical Channel
Combinations

The GPRS specific logical channel combinations are:


No.

Channel Combination

11.

PBCCH + PCCCH + PDTCH/F + PACCH/F + PTCCH/F

12.

PCCCH + PDTCH/F + PACCH/F + PTCCH/F

13.

PDTCH/F + PACCH/F + PTCCH/F (also named: PDCH)

Notes:

1.

where PCCCH = PPCH + PRACH + PAGCH + PNCH.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-27

Mapping of Packet Data Logical Channels


onto Physical Channels

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The mapping in time of the logical channels is defined by a


multiframe structure. The 52-multiframe structure for PDCH consists
of 52 TDMA frames, divided into 12 blocks (of 4 frames), 2 idle
frames and 2 frames used for the PTCCH.

52-Multiframe

Figure 5-11 52 Multiframe


52 TDMA frames
B0

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

B8

B9

B10

B11 X

X - Idle frame
T - Frame used for PTCCH
B0 - B11 - Radio blocks

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-28

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Mapping of Packet Data Logical Channels


onto Physical Channels
52Multiframe Example

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The following figure shows the graphical representation of logical


channel combination 13.
13.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

PDTCH

PDTCH

PDTCH
PTCCH
PDTCH

PDTCH

PDTCH
IDLE
PDTCH

PDTCH

PDTCH
PTCCH
PDTCH

PDTCH

PDTCH
IDLE

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-29

Mapping of Packet Data Logical Channels


onto Physical Channels
Uplink State Flag

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

The Uplink State Flag (USF) is used to allow multiplexing of multiple


MSs in uplink direction on a Packet Data Channel (PDCH). It is used
in dynamic and extended dynamic medium access modes. Three bits
at the beginning of each Radio Block that is sent on the downlink is
comprised by the USF. In that way it enables the coding of eight
different USF states which are used to multiplex the uplink traffic.
One USF value is assigned only to one MS per PDCH. On the
PCCCH, one USF value is used to indicate the PRACH. The other
USF values are used to reserve the uplink for different mobile
stations. On PDCHs which are not carrying PCCCH, the eight USF
values are used to reserve the uplink direction for different mobile
stations. One of the USF values has to be used to prevent any
collision on the uplink channel, if a mobile station without an USF is
using an uplink channel. The USF is either pointing to the next uplink
Radio Block or the sequence of four uplink Radio Blocks starting
with the next uplink Radio Block.

Temporary Block Flow

A Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is a physical connection that is used


by the two RR entities in the MS and the BSS to support the
unidirectional transfer of Logical Link Control (LLC) Packet Data
Units (PDUs) on packet data physical channels. It is the allocated
radio resource on one or more PDCHs and it comprises a number of
RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs. A Temporary
Block Flow is only temporary and also only maintained for the
duration of a specific data transfer.
The physical layer consists of two sub-layers:

Physical RF layer.

Physical link layer.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-30

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Mapping of Packet Data Logical Channels


onto Physical Channels
Temporary Flow Identity

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

For every Temporary Block Flow there is a Temporary Flow Identity


(TFI) assigned by the network. This assigned TFI is always unique
among all the other concurrent TBFs in each direction and is used
instead of the mobile station identity in the RLC/MAC layer. On the
opposite direction, the same TFI value may be used at the same time.
It is assigned in a resource assignment message that precedes the
transfer of LLC frames belonging to one TBF to or from the mobile
station. The same TFI is included in every RLC header of a
RLC/MAC data block belonging to a specific TBF and may be used
in the control messages (here other addressings can be used, e.g.
TLLI) associated to the LLC frame transfer in order to address the
peer RLC entities.

Operation Effects
Figure 5-12 Operation Effects

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-31

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

Quality
of Service
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Quality of Service (QoS)

Service Precedence
(Priority of Service)

For GPRS there are four different parameters for Quality of Service
(QoS)

Service precedence (priority)

Reliability

Delay

Throughput

This parameter is used for indicating the priority of maintaining the


service. Service precedence parameters specifies which packets have a
priority and which packets could be discarded.
Three different levels of service precedence are defined:

Reliability

High precedence (high priority)


This service commitments will be maintained prior to all other
precedence levels

Normal precedence (normal priority)


This service commitments will be maintained prior to all Low
priority users

Low precedence (low priority)


This service commitments will be maintained after all the other
service precedences have been completed.

The Reliability parameters indicate the different transmission


characteristics that are required by an application.
There are four different reliability parameters:

Probability of loss of Service Data Units (SDUs)

Duplication of SDUs

Mis-sequencing of SDUs

Corruption of SDUs

The table below shows the different Reliability classes with the
different reliability parameters and also give examples of application
characteristics.
Reliability classes

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-32

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Quality of Service

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

Reliability
class

Lost Duplicate
SDU SDU
prob. prob.
(a)

Out of
Sequence
SDU
prob.

Corrupt
SDU
prob.
(b)

Example of
application
characteristics

10-9

10-9

10-9

10-9

Error
sensitive, no
error
correction
capability,
limited error
tolerance
capability.

10-4

10-5

10-5

10-6

Error
sensitive,
limited error
correction
capability,
good error
tolerance
capability.

10-2

10-5

10-5

10-2

Not error
sensitive,
error
correction
capability
and/or very
good error
tolerance
capability.

In GPRS there is a protection against buffer overflow or protocol


malfunction. For each SDU GPRS uses a maximum holding time after
which the SDU is discarded. There are also different parameters for
the maximum holding time of a SDU depending on the protocols used
(e.g. TCP/IP)
The Corrupt SDU probability indicates the probability that a SDU
might be delivered with an undetected error.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-33

Quality of Service

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

Delay

In the GPRS network data is temporarily stored at network nodes


during transmission. Any delay that occurs is due to technical
transmission characteristics of the system and has to be minimised for
a particular delay class. The maximum delay values are defined for
the mean delay and the 95-percentile delay that might occur by the
transfer of data through a GPRS network. All delay parameters are
end-to-end transfer delays in the transmission of SDUs through a
GPRS network.
The transfer delays include the following parameters:

Radio channel access delay (uplink direction)

Radio channel scheduling delay (downlink direction)

Radio channel transit delay (uplink and/or downlink direction)

GPRS-network transit delay (multiple hops)

Delay values
Delay (maximum values)
SDU size: 128 octets
Delay
Class

Mean
Transfer
Delay
(sec)

95
percentile
Delay
(sec)

Mean
Transfer
Delay (sec)

95 percentile
Delay (sec)

1.
(Predictive)

< 0.5

< 1.5

<2

<7

2.
(Predictive)

<5

< 25

< 15

< 75

3.
(Predictive)

< 50

< 250

< 75

< 375

4. (Best
Effort)
Throughput

SDU size: 1024 octets

Unspecified

The throughput parameter indicates the user data throughput requested


by the user.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-34

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Quality of Service

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

It is defined by two negotiable parameters:

Maximum bit rate

Mean bit rate (includes, for example for bursty transmissions, the
periods in which no data is transmitted)
The maximum and mean bit rates can be negotiated to a value up
to the Information Transfer Rate value.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

5-35

GPRS Signaling and Transmission Protocols

GPRS
MS
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Mobile Station Equipment

The current market view on GPRS terminals is that Class B and C


MSs will be available in Q2 2000. This is the general view held by all
terminal manufacturers.
Three types of terminal class will be supported:

Class A Mobile Station (MS)


These will support simultaneous attach, activation, monitor,
invocation and traffic, i.e. asubscriber will be able to make and/or
receive calls on the two services (GSM and GPRS)
simultaneously, subject to Quality of Service) QoS subscribed to
by the end user.

Class B MS
These will support simultaneous attach, activation and monitor.
They will only support limited simultaneous invocation such that
GPRS virtual circuits will not be cleared down due to the
presence of circuit switched traffic. Under these circumstances,
the GPRS virtual connection is then busy or held. Simultaneous
traffic is not supported as in the Class A MS. Subscribers can
make calls on either service but not at the same time, but
selection of the appropriate service is automatic by the MS.

Class C MS
These will support only non-simultaneous attach, alternate use
only. If both services are supported then the subscriber can make
and / or receive calls only from the manually or default selected
service. Status of the service not selected is detached or not
reachable during the session.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-36

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose

This chapter discusses the GPRS Procedures


After finishing this chapter, the student should be able to:

Identify the states involved in Mobility Management.

State the different GPRS procedures.

Contents
Mobility Management

6-3

GPRS Attach Procedure

6-7

Detach Procedures

6-12

SGSN Initiated Detach Procedure

6-15

HLR Initiated Detach Procedure

6-17

Routing Area Update

6-19

Inter SGSN Routing Area Update Procedure

6-21

Combined Intra SGSN RA/LA Update Procedure

6-25

Combined Inter SGSN RA/LA Update Procedure

6-28

CS Paging Procedure

6-34

PS Paging Procedure

6-36

Authentication Procedure

6-38

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-1

Overview

GPRS Procedures

Identity Check Procedure

6-39

Network Requested PDP Context Activation


Procedure

6-40

MS Initiated PDP Context Deactivation Procedure

6-43

SGSN Initiated PDP Context Deactivation


Procedure

6-44

GGSN Initiated PDP Context Deactivation


Procedure

6-45

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

Mobility
Management
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
IDLE STATE

In GPRS IDLE State , the subscriber is not attached to the GPRS


mobility management. The MS and SGSN context hold no valid
location or routing information for the subscriber. No
subscriber-related mobility management procedures are performed.
The PLMN selection and the GPRS cell selection and re-selection
processes are performed by the MS.
In IDLE state, a PTP or PTM-G data transfer to and from the mobile
subscriber as well as the paging of the subscriber is not possible. The
GPRS MS is seen as not reachable in this case.
In order to establish mobility management contexts in the MS and the
SGSN, the MS shall perform the GPRS attach procedure.

STANDBY STATE

In GPRS STANDBY State, the subscriber is attached to GPRS


mobility management. The MS and the SGSN have established
mobility management contexts for the subscribers IMSI. Pages for
PTP data or signaling information transfers may be received.
PTP data reception and transmission are not possible in this state.
The MS performs GPRS routing Area (RA) update and GPRS cell
selection and re-selection locally. It executes mobility management
procedures to inform the SGSN when it has entered a new routing
area and does not inform the SGSN on a change of cell in the same
routing area. Therefore, the location information in the SGSN mobility
management context contains only the GPRS routing area information
for MSs in STANDBY state.
If the SGSN may have to send data or signaling information to a MS
in STANDBY state, the SGSN sends a paging request in the routing
area where the MS is located. After the MS responds to the paging,
the mobility management state is changed to READY in the MS and
also in the SGSN when the page response is received. Also, the
mobility management state in the MS is changed to READY when
data or signaling information is send from the MS and, accordingly,
the mobility management state in the SGSN is changed to READY
when data or signaling information is received from the MS.
The MS or the network may initiate the GPRS detach procedure to
move to the IDLE state. After expiry of the mobile reachable timer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-3

Mobility Management

GPRS Procedures

the SGSN may perform an implicit detach in order to return the


mobility management contexts.
READY STATE

In READY state, the SGSN mobility management context corresponds


to the STANDBY mobility management context extended by location
information for the subscriber on cell level. The MS performs
mobility management procedures to provide the network with the
actual selected cell. GPRS cell selection and re-selection is done
locally by the MS, or may optionally be controlled by the network.
An identifier of the cell, the Cell Global Identity including the routing
Area Code (RAC) and Location Area Code (LAC), is included in the
BSSGP header of the data packet from the MS.
The MS may send and receive PDP-PDUs in this state.
If a MS is in READY state, the network initiates no GPRS pages, but
any other pages for other services may be done via the SGSN. The
SGSN transfers downlink data to the BSS responsible for the
subscribers actual GPRS cell.
While in READY state, a MS may activate or deactivate PDP
contexts.
Regardless if a radio resource is allocated to the subscriber or not, the
mobility management context remains in the READY state even when
theres no data being communicated. The READY state is supervised
by a timer.

IDLE TO READY STATE

For the mobile to move from the idle to ready state, it must first
perform a GPRS Attach. Once attached, the mobile will be known to
the network i.e. the SGSN. The Mobility Management will be active
at the Mobile Station and the SGSN following the attach sequence.
When in the ready state, the PDP context is activated which
establishes a packet data session (and the packet data networks) with
the mobile. With a valid PDP context Protocol Data Units (PDU) may
be transferred. For every LLC-PDU received in the SGSN, a ready
timer is re-started . There are two timers, one in the MS which is
activated when a packet is sent and one in the SGSN when a packet is
received.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-4

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Mobility Management

GPRS Procedures

READY to STANDBY
STATE

For the mobile to move from the idle to ready state, it must first
perform a GPRS Attach. Once attached, the mobile will be known to
the network i.e. the SGSN. The Mobility Management will be active
at the Mobile Station and the SGSN following the attach sequence.

STANDBY to READY

The MS and SGSN will enter the Ready state when the PDUs have
been either transmitted or received.

STANDBY to IDLE

READY to IDLE

When this state is reached, a second timer is started. When the timer
expires, or a MAP message Cancel Location is received from the
HLR then a return to Idle state is performed and the MM and PDP
context are removed from the MS, SGSN and the GGSN.
This state can only be reached if either a GPRS detach or Cancel
Location message is received. When either of these occur, the MM
and PDP contexts are removed as the MS is no longer attached to the
GPRS network.
Figure 6-1 GPRS Attach/Detach States

GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) and Session Management (SM)


services, are enhancements operated directly over the GPRS defined
Logical Link Control (LLC) layer between the Mobile Station (MS)
and the SSGN.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-5

Mobility Management

READY State Timer

STANDBY State

GPRS Procedures

READY state timer:

Initiated when the MS or network sends a signaling or data


packets

MS does routing area update on crossing a cell boundary

Move to STANDBY state on READY timer expiry

Default timer value of 44 seconds

STANDBY state:

Initiated on expiry of READY timer

MS does routing area update on crossing a routing area boundary

MS has to be paged to deliver packets

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-6

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

GPRS
Attach Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

In GPRS, the attach is made to the SGSN. In this attach procedure,


the mobile station shall provide its identity and an indication of which
type of attach that is to be executed. The identity (provided by the
network) shall be the mobiles Packet-TIMSI (P-TIMSI) or IMSI. If
the mobile has a valid P-TIMSI, the P-TIMSI and the routing Area
Identity (RAI) with the P-TIMSI shall be provided. The IMSI shall
only be provided if the mobile does not have a valid P-TIMSI. Those
different attach types are GPRS attach and GPRS / IMSI attach.
After executing the GPRS attach, the mobile is in READY state and
MM contexts are established in the mobile and the SGSN. The mobile
or the SGSN may then activate PDP contexts.
The next figure illustrates the combined GPRS / IMSI Attach
procedure.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-7

GPRS Attach Procedure

GPRS Procedures

Message Flow

The combined GPRS/IMSI attach procedure is illustrated in the


following figure.
Gb

Um
MS

Gn

MS
1

BSS

New
SGSN

Old
SGSN

New
MSC/VLR

HLR
HLR

HLR
EIR

HLR

EIR

Old
MSC/VLR

Attach Request
Identification Request

Identification Response
Identity Request

Identity Response

Security Functions
Update Location

Cancel Location

Cancel Location Ack


Insert Subscriber Data

Insert Subscriber Data Ack


Update Location Ack

Location Update Request

Update Location
Cancel Location
Cancel Location Ack
Insert Subscriber Data
Insert Subscriber Data Ack
Update Location Ack
Location Update Accept
10

Attach Accept

11

Attach Complete

12

TMSI Reallocation Complete

Message Descriptions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-8

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Attach Procedure

GPRS Procedures

............................................................................................................................................................

The MS initiates the attach procedure by the transmission of an Attach


Request (attach type, IMSI or P-TMSI, old RAI, classmark) message
to the SGSN.
Attach type indicates which type of attach that is to be performed:

GPRS attach only

GPRS attach while already IMSI attached

Combined GPRS/IMSI attach.

............................................................................................................................................................

If the MS identifies itself with P-TMSI and the SGSN has changed
since detach, the new SGSN sends an Identification Request (P-TMSI,
old RAI) to the old SGSN to request the IMSI. The old SGSN
responds with Identification Response (IMSI, authentication triplets).
If the MS is not known in the old SGSN, the old SGSN responds
with an appropriate error cause.
............................................................................................................................................................

If the MS is unknown in both the old and new SGSN, the SGSN
sends an Identity Request (Identity Type = IMSI) to the MS. The MS
responds with Identity Response (IMSI).
............................................................................................................................................................

Security functions may be executed (authentication, IMEI check).


If no MM context for the MS exists anywhere in the network, then
authentication is mandatory. If P-TMSI allocation is going to be done,
and if ciphering is supported by the network, ciphering mode shall be
set.
............................................................................................................................................................

If the SGSN number has changed since the GPRS detach, or if it is


the very first attach, then the SGSN informs the HLR by sending an
Update Location (SGSN number, SGSN address, IMSI) to the HLR.
............................................................................................................................................................

The HLR sends Cancel Location (IMSI, cancellation type) to the old
SGSN with cancellation type set to update procedure.
The old SGSN acknowledges with Cancel Location Ack (IMSI). If
there are any ongoing procedures for that MS, the old SGSN shall

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-9

GPRS Attach Procedure

GPRS Procedures

wait until these procedures are finished before removing the MM and
PDP contexts.
............................................................................................................................................................

The HLR sends Cancel Location (IMSI, cancellation type) to the old
SGSN with cancellation type set to update procedure.
The old SGSN acknowledges with Cancel Location Ack (IMSI). If
there are any ongoing procedures for that MS, the old SGSN shall
wait until these procedures are finished before removing the MM and
PDP contexts.
............................................................................................................................................................

The HLR acknowledges the Update Location message by sending an


Update Location Ack to the SGSN after the cancelling of old MM
context and insertion of new MM context are finished.
............................................................................................................................................................

If attach type (in step 1) indicated GPRS attach while already IMSI
attached, or combined GPRS/IMSI attach, then the VLR shall be
updated if the Gs-interface is installed. The VLR number is derived
from the RA information.
The SGSN starts the location update procedure towards the new
MSC/VLR upon receipt of the first Insert Subscriber Data message
from the HLR (step 7). This operation marks the MS as
GPRS-attached in the VLR.

The SGSN sends a Location Update Request (new LAI, IMSI,


SGSN number, location update type) message to the VLR.
The location update type shall indicate:
-

IMSI attach (if attach type is a combined GPRS / IMSI


attach) or

Normal location update.


The VLR creates an association with the SGSN by storing SGSN
number.

If the LA update is inter-MSC, the new VLR sends Update


Location (IMSI, new VLR) to the HLR.

If the LA update is inter-MSC, the HLR sends a Cancel Location


(IMSI) to the old VLR.

The old VLR acknowledges with Cancel Location Ack (IMSI).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-10

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Attach Procedure

GPRS Procedures

If the LA update is inter-MSC, the HLR sends Insert Subscriber


Data (IMSI, GSM subscriber data) to the new VLR.

The VLR acknowledges with Insert Subscriber Data Ack (IMSI).

After finishing the inter-MSC location update procedure, the


HLR responds with Update Location Ack (IMSI) to the new
VLR.

The VLR responds with Location Update Accept (VLR TMSI) to


the SGSN.

............................................................................................................................................................

10

The SGSN selects radio priority SMS, and sends an Attach Accept
(P-TMSI, TMSI, P-TMSI signature, radio priority SMS) message to
the MS. P-TMSI is included if the SGSN allocates a new P-TMSI.
............................................................................................................................................................

11

If P-TMSI or TMSI was changed, the MS acknowledges the received


TMSI(s) by returning an Attach Complete message to the SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

12

If TMSI was changed, the SGSN confirms the TMSI re-allocation by


sending a TMSI Reallocation Complete message to the VLR.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-11

GPRS Procedures

Detach
Procedures
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

With the detach procedure, the MS informs the network that it


requires a GPRS and/or IMSI detach. The network then informs the
MS that it has been GPRS detached.
There are three different detach types:

IMSI detach

GPRS detach

Combined GPRS / IMSI detach (MS-initiated only).

There are two ways in which the MS is detached from GPRS:

Explicit detach: The detach request is explicitly from the network


or the MS.

Implicit detach: The network detaches the MS (without notifying


the MS) after a configuration dependent time after the mobile
reachable timer expired or after an irrecoverable radio error
causes disconnection of the logical link.

In the explicit detach case, the SGSN sends a Detach Request to the
MS or vice versa.
An IMSI detach could be done in two different ways by the MS,
depending if its GPRS-attached or not:

A Detach Request message from an GPRS-attached mobile is


send to the SGSN, indicating an IMSI detach. This is also
possible in combination with a GPRS detach.

If a mobile is not attached to GPRS, the IMSI detach is done as


already defined in GSM.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-12

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Detach Procedures

GPRS Procedures

Message Flow

The MS initiated detach procedure when initiated by the MS is


illustrated in the following figure.
Gb

Um
MS

MS
1

Gn

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

MSC/VLR

Detach Request
Delete PDP Context Request

Delete PDP Context Response

IMSI Detach Indication

GPRS Detach Indication

Detach Accept

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The MS detaches by sending Detach Request (detach type, switch off)


to the SGSN.
Detach type indicates which type of detach that is to be performed

GPRS detach

IMSI detach

Combined GPRS and IMSI detach.

Switch off indicates whether the detach is due to a switch off


situation or not.
............................................................................................................................................................

If GPRS detach, the active PDP contexts in the GGSNs regarding this
particular MS are deactivated by the SGSN sending Delete PDP
Context Request (TID) to the GGSNs. The GGSNs acknowledge with
Delete PDP Context Response (TID).
............................................................................................................................................................

If IMSI detach, the SGSN sends IMSI Detach Indication (IMSI) to the
VLR.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-13

Detach Procedures

GPRS Procedures

............................................................................................................................................................

If the MS wants to remain IMSI-attached and is doing a GPRS


detach, the SGSN sends a GPRS Detach Indication (IMSI) message to
the VLR.
The VLR removes the association with the SGSN and handles paging
and location update without going via the SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

If switch off indicates that the detach is not due to a switch off
situation, the SGSN sends a Detach Accept to the MS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-14

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

SGSN
Initiated Detach Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The SGSN initiated detach procedure when initiated by the SGSN is


illustrated in the following figure.
Gb

Um
MS

MS
1

Gn

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

MSC/VLR

Detach Request
Delete PDP Context Request

Delete PDP Context Response

GPRS Detach Indication

Detach Accept

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN informs the MS that it has been detached by sending


Detach Request (detach type) to the MS.
Detach type indicates if the MS is requested to make a new attach
and PDP context activation for the previously activated PDP contexts.
If so, the attach procedure shall be initiated when the detach
procedure is completed.
............................................................................................................................................................

The active PDP contexts in the GGSNs regarding this particular MS


are deactivated by the SGSN sending a Delete PDP Context Request
(TID) message to the GGSNs. The GGSNs acknowledge with a
Delete PDP Context Response (TID) message.
............................................................................................................................................................

If the MS was both IMSI- and GPRS-attached, the SGSN sends a


GPRS Detach Indication (IMSI) message to the VLR. The VLR
removes the association with the SGSN and handles paging and
location update without going via the SGSN.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-15

SGSN Initiated Detach Procedure

GPRS Procedures

............................................................................................................................................................

The MS sends a Detach Accept message to the SGSN any time after
step 1.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-16

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

HLR
Initiated Detach Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The HLR initiated detach procedure when initiated by the HLR is


illustrated in the following figure.
Gb

Um
MS

MS

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

MSC/VLR

HLR

Cancel location

1
2

HLR
HLR

Gn

Detach Request
Delete PDP Context Request

Delete PDP Context Response

GPRS Detach Indication

Detach Accept

Cancel Location Ack

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

If the HLR wants to request the immediate deletion of a subscribers


MM and PDP contexts from the SGSN, the HLR shall send a Cancel
Location (IMSI, cancellation type) message to the SGSN with
cancellation type set to subscription withdrawn.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN informs the MS that it has been detached by sending


Detach Request (detach type) to the MS.
Detach type shall indicate that the MS is not requested to make a
new attach and PDP context activation.
............................................................................................................................................................

The active PDP contexts in the GGSNs regarding this particular MS


are deactivated by the SGSN sending a Delete PDP Context Request
(TID) message to the GGSNs. The GGSNs acknowledge with a
Delete PDP Context Response (TID) message.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-17

HLR Initiated Detach Procedure

GPRS Procedures

............................................................................................................................................................

If the MS was both IMSI- and GPRS-attached, the SGSN sends a


GPRS Detach Indication (IMSI) message to the VLR. The VLR
removes the association with the SGSN and handles paging and
location update without going via the SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

The MS sends a Detach Accept message to the SGSN any time after
step 2.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN shall confirm the deletion of the MM and PDP contexts
with a Cancel Location Ack (IMSI) message.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-18

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

Routing
Area Update
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

The routing area update takes place:

when a GPRS attached MS detects that it has entered a new


routing area

when the periodic routing area update timer has expired

when a suspended MS is not resumed by the BSS.

There are two different routing area updates:

Intra SGSN Routing Area


Update Diagram

Intra SGSN Routing Area Update

Inter SGSN Routing Area Update

The intra SGSN routing area update procedure is illustrated in the


following figure.

Um

Gb

MS

MS

BSS

Routing Area Update Request

Security Functions

Routing Area Update Accept

Routing Area Update Complete

SGSN

Intra SGSN Routing Area


Update Procedure
............................................................................................................................................................

The MS sends a Routing Area Update Request (old RAI, old P-TMSI
signature, update type) to the SGSN.
Update type shall indicate routing area (RA) update or periodic RA
update.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-19

Routing Area Update

GPRS Procedures

The BSS shall add the CGI including the RAC and LAC of the cell
where the message was received before passing the message to the
SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

Security functions may be executed.


............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN validates the MSs presence in the new RA.


If due to regional subscription restrictions the MS is not allowed to be
attached in the RA, or if subscription checking fails, then the SGSN
rejects the routing area update with an appropriate cause. If all checks
are successful then the SGSN updates the MM context for the MS. A
new P-TMSI may be allocated.
A Routing Area Update Accept (P-TMSI, P-TMSI signature) is
returned to the MS.
............................................................................................................................................................

Routing Area Update


Procedure Failure

If P-TMSI was reallocated, the MS acknowledges the new P-TMSI by


returning a Routing Area Update Complete message to the SGSN.

If the routing area update procedure fails a maximum allowable


number of times, or if the SGSN returns a Routing Area Update
Reject (Cause) message, the MS shall enter IDLE state.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-20

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

Inter
SGSN Routing Area Update Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The inter SGSN routing area update procedure is illustrated in the
following figure.

Message Flow

Gb

Um
MS

MS

HLR
HLR

Gn

BSS

New
SGSN

Old
SGSN

GGSN

HLR

MSC/VLR

Routing Area Update Request

SGSN Context Request


2

SGSN Context Response


Security Functions

3
4

SGSN Context Ack

Forward Packets
Update PDP Context Request

Update PDP Context Response


Update Location

Cancel Location
8

Cancel Location Ack


Insert Subscriber Data

Insert Subscriber Data Ack


Update Location Ack

10
11

Routing Area Update Accept

12

Routing Area Update Complete

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The MS sends a Routing Area Update Request (old RAI, old P-TMSI
signature, update type) to the new SGSN.
Update type shall indicate RA update or periodic RA update.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-21

Inter SGSN Routing Area Update Procedure

GPRS Procedures

The BSS shall add the CGI including the RAC and LAC of the cell
where the message was received before passing the message to the
SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

The new SGSN sends SGSN Context Request (old RAI, TLLI, old
P-TMSI signature, new SGSN address) to the old SGSN to get the
MM and PDP contexts for the MS.
The old SGSN validates the old P-TMSI signature. If the old P-TMSI
signature was valid or if the new SGSN indicates that it has
authenticated the MS, the old SGSN stops assigning SNDCP N-PDU
numbers to downlink N-PDUs received, and responds with SGSN
Context Response (MM context, PDP contexts).
The old SGSN stores new SGSN address, to allow the old SGSN to
forward data packets to the new SGSN.
Each PDP Context includes:

SNDCP send N-PDU number for the next downlink N-PDU to be


sent in acknowledged mode to the MS

SNDCP receive N-PDU number for the next uplink N-PDU to be


received in acknowledged mode from the MS

GTP sequence number for the next downlink N-PDU to be sent


to the MS

GTP sequence number for the next uplink N-PDU to be tunnelled


to the GGSN.

The old SGSN starts a timer and stops the transmission of N-PDUs to
the MS.
............................................................................................................................................................

Security functions may be executed.


............................................................................................................................................................

The new SGSN sends an SGSN Context Acknowledge message to the


old SGSN. This informs the old SGSN that the new SGSN is ready to
receive data packets belonging to the activated PDP contexts.
The old SGSN marks in its context that the MSC/VLR association
and the information in the GGSNs and the HLR are invalid.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-22

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Inter SGSN Routing Area Update Procedure

GPRS Procedures

............................................................................................................................................................

The old SGSN duplicates the buffered N-PDUs and starts tunnelling
them to the new SGSN.
Additional N-PDUs received from the GGSN before the timer
described in step 2 expires are also duplicated and tunnelled to the
new SGSN. N-PDUs that were already sent to the MS in
acknowledged mode and that are not yet acknowledged by the MS are
tunnelled together with the SNDCP N-PDU number.
............................................................................................................................................................

The new SGSN sends Update PDP Context Request (new SGSN
address, TID, QoS negotiated) to the GGSNs concerned.
The GGSNs update their PDP context fields and return Update PDP
Context Response (TID).
............................................................................................................................................................

The new SGSN informs the HLR of the change of SGSN by sending
Update Location (SGSN number, SGSN address, IMSI) to the HLR.
............................................................................................................................................................

The HLR sends Cancel Location (IMSI, cancellation type) to the old
SGSN with cancellation type set to update procedure.
If the timer described in step 2 is not running, then the old SGSN
removes the MM and PDP contexts. This allows the old SGSN to
complete the forwarding of N-PDUs. It also ensures that the MM and
PDP contexts are kept in the old SGSN in case the MS initiates
another inter SGSN routing area update before completing the
ongoing routing area update to the new SGSN.
The old SGSN acknowledges with Cancel Location Ack (IMSI).
............................................................................................................................................................

The HLR sends Insert Subscriber Data (IMSI, GPRS subscription


data) to the new SGSN. The new SGSN validates the MSs presence
in the (new) RA.
If due to regional subscription restrictions the MS is not allowed to be
attached in the RA, the SGSN rejects the Routing Area Update
Request with an appropriate cause, and may return an Insert
Subscriber Data Ack (IMSI, SGSN area restricted) message to the
HLR.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-23

Inter SGSN Routing Area Update Procedure

GPRS Procedures

If all checks are successful then the SGSN constructs an MM context


for the MS and returns an Insert Subscriber Data Ack (IMSI) message
to the HLR.
............................................................................................................................................................

10

The HLR acknowledges the update location by sending Update


Location Ack (IMSI) to the new SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

11

The new SGSN validates the MSs presence in the new RA.
If due to roaming restrictions the MS is not allowed to be attached in
the SGSN, or if subscription checking fails, then the new SGSN
rejects the routing area update with an appropriate cause. If all checks
are successful then the new SGSN constructs MM and PDP contexts
for the MS. A logical link is established between the new SGSN and
the MS.
The new SGSN responds to the MS with Routing Area Update Accept
(P-TMSI, P-TMSI signature, receive N-PDU number). Receive
N-PDU number contains the acknowledgements for each
acknowledged mode NSAPI used by the MS, thereby confirming all
mobile-originated N-PDUs successfully transferred before the start of
the update procedure.
............................................................................................................................................................

12

The MS acknowledges the new P-TMSI by returning a Routing Area


Update Complete (receive N-PDU number) message to the SGSN.
Receive N-PDU number contains the acknowledgements for each
acknowledged-mode NSAPI used by the MS, thereby confirming all
mobile-terminated N-PDUs successfully transferred before the start of
the update procedure.
If receive N-PDU number confirms reception of N-PDUs that were
forwarded from the old SGSN, then these N-PDUs shall be discarded
by the new SGSN. LLC and SNDCP in the MS are reset.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-24

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

Combined
Intra SGSN RA/LA Update Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The combined intra SGSN RA/LA update procedure is illustrated in


the following figure.
Gb

Um

HLR
HLR

MS

MS

BSS

SGSN

Routing Area Update Request

Security Functions

New
MSC/VLR

HLR

Old
MSC/VLR

Location Update Request

Update Location

Cancel Location
Cancel Location Ack
Insert Subscriber Data
Insert Subscriber Data Ack
Update Location Ack
Location Update Accept

5
6

Routing Area Update Accept

Routing Area Update Complete


TMSI Reallocation Complete

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The MS sends a Routing Area Update Request (old RAI, old P-TMSI
signature, update type) to the SGSN.
Update type shall indicate:

Combined RA/LA update or

Combined RA/LA update with IMSI attach requested.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-25

Combined Intra SGSN RA/LA Update


Procedure

GPRS Procedures

The BSS shall add the CGI including the RAC and LAC of the cell
where the message was received before passing the message to the
SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

Security functions may be executed.


............................................................................................................................................................

If update type indicates combined RA/LA update with IMSI attach


requested or if the LA changed with the routing area update, then the
SGSN sends a Location Update Request (new LAI, IMSI, SGSN
number, location update type) to the VLR.
Location update type shall indicate IMSI attach if update type in
step 1 indicated combined RA/LA update with IMSI attach requested.
Otherwise, location update type shall indicate normal location
update.
The VLR number is translated from the RAI via a table in the SGSN.
The VLR creates or updates the association with the SGSN by storing
the SGSN number.
............................................................................................................................................................

If the subscriber data in the VLR is marked as not confirmed by the


HLR, then the new VLR informs the HLR.
The HLR cancels the data in the old VLR and inserts subscriber data
in the new VLR (this signaling is not modified from existing GSM
signaling and is included here for illustrative purposes):

The new VLR sends an Update Location (new VLR) to the HLR.

The HLR cancels the data in the old VLR by sending Cancel
Location (IMSI) to the old VLR.

The old VLR acknowledges with Cancel Location Ack (IMSI).

The HLR sends Insert Subscriber Data (IMSI, GSM subscriber


data) to the new VLR.

The new VLR acknowledges with Insert Subscriber Data Ack


(IMSI).

The HLR responds with Update Location Ack (IMSI) to the new
VLR.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-26

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Combined Intra SGSN RA/LA Update


Procedure

GPRS Procedures

............................................................................................................................................................

The new VLR allocates a new TMSI and responds with Location
Update Accept (TMSI) to the SGSN. TMSI is optional if the VLR has
not changed.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN validates the MSs presence in the new RA.


If due to regional subscription restrictions the MS is not allowed to be
attached in the RA, or if subscription checking fails, then the SGSN
rejects the routing area update with an appropriate cause. If all checks
are successful then the SGSN updates the MM context for the MS. A
new P-TMSI may be allocated.
The SGSN responds to the MS with Routing Area Update Accept
(P-TMSI, TMSI, P-TMSI signature).
............................................................................................................................................................

If a new P-TMSI or TMSI was received, then the MS confirms the


reallocation of the TMSIs by returning a Routing Area Update
Complete message to the SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a TMSI Reallocation Complete message to the VLR


if the TMSI is confirmed by the MS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-27

GPRS Procedures

Combined
Inter SGSN RA/LA Update Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The combined inter SGSN RA/LA update procedure is illustrated in
the following figure.

Message Flow

Gb

Um
MS

MS
1

Gn

BSS

New
SGSN

HLR
HLR

Old
SGSN

GGSN

New
MSC/VLR

HLR

Old
MSC/VLR

Routing Area Update Request


SGSN Context Request

2
3

SGSN Context Response


Security Functions

SGSN Context Ack

Forward Packets
Update PDP Context Request

Update PDP Context Response


Update Location

Cancel Location
8

Cancel Location Ack


Insert Subscriber Data

Insert Subscriber Data Ack

10

Update Location Ack

11

Location Update Request


Update Location

12

Cancel Location
Cancel Location Ack
Insert Subscriber Data
Insert Subscriber Data Ack
Update Location Ack
13

Location Update Accept

14

Routing Area Update Accept

15

Routing Area Update Complete

16

TMSI Reallocation Complete

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-28

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Combined Inter SGSN RA/LA Update


Procedure

GPRS Procedures

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The MS sends a Routing Area Update Request (old RAI, old P-TMSI
signature, update type) to the new SGSN.
Update type shall indicate:

Combined RA/LA update or

Combined RA/LA update with IMSI attach requested.

The BSS shall add the CGI including the RAC and LAC of the cell
where the message was received before passing the message to the
SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

The new SGSN sends SGSN Context Request (old RAI, TLLI, old
P-TMSI signature, new SGSN address) to the old SGSN to get the
MM and PDP contexts for the MS.
The old SGSN validates the old P-TMSI signature. If the old P-TMSI
signature was valid or if the new SGSN indicates that it has
authenticated the MS, the old SGSN stops assigning SNDCP N-PDU
numbers to downlink N-PDUs received, and responds with SGSN
Context Response (MM context, PDP contexts).
The old SGSN stores new SGSN address, to allow the old SGSN to
forward data packets to the new SGSN.
Each PDP Context includes:

SNDCP send N-PDU number for the next downlink N-PDU to be


sent in acknowledged mode to the MS

SNDCP receive N-PDU number for the next uplink N-PDU to be


received in acknowledged mode from the MS

GTP sequence number for the next downlink N-PDU to be sent


to the MS

GTP sequence number for the next uplink N-PDU to be tunnelled


to the GGSN.

The old SGSN starts a timer and stops the transmission of N-PDUs to
the MS.
............................................................................................................................................................

Security functions may be executed.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-29

Combined Inter SGSN RA/LA Update


Procedure

GPRS Procedures

............................................................................................................................................................

The new SGSN sends an SGSN Context Acknowledge message to the


old SGSN. This informs the old SGSN that the new SGSN is ready to
receive data packets belonging to the activated PDP contexts.
The old SGSN marks in its context that the MSC/VLR association
and the information in the GGSNs and the HLR are invalid.
............................................................................................................................................................

The old SGSN duplicates the buffered N-PDUs and starts tunnelling
them to the new SGSN.
Additional N-PDUs received from the GGSN before the timer
described in step 2 expires are also duplicated and tunnelled to the
new SGSN. N-PDUs that were already sent to the MS in
acknowledged mode and that are not yet acknowledged by the MS are
tunnelled together with the SNDCP N-PDU number.
............................................................................................................................................................

The new SGSN sends Update PDP Context Request (new SGSN
address, TID, QoS negotiated) to the GGSNs concerned.
The GGSNs update their PDP context fields and return Update PDP
Context Response (TID).
............................................................................................................................................................

The new SGSN informs the HLR of the change of SGSN by sending
Update Location (SGSN number, SGSN address, IMSI) to the HLR.
............................................................................................................................................................

The HLR sends Cancel Location (IMSI, cancellation type) to the old
SGSN with cancellation type set to update procedure.
If the timer described in step 2 is not running, then the old SGSN
removes the MM and PDP contexts. This allows the old SGSN to
complete the forwarding of N-PDUs. It also ensures that the MM and
PDP contexts are kept in the old SGSN in case the MS initiates
another inter SGSN routing area update before completing the
ongoing routing area update to the new SGSN.
The old SGSN acknowledges with Cancel Location Ack (IMSI).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-30

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Combined Inter SGSN RA/LA Update


Procedure

GPRS Procedures

............................................................................................................................................................

The HLR sends Insert Subscriber Data (IMSI, GPRS subscription


data) to the new SGSN. The new SGSN validates the MSs presence
in the (new) RA.
If due to regional subscription restrictions the MS is not allowed to be
attached in the RA, the SGSN rejects the Routing Area Update
Request with an appropriate cause, and may return an Insert
Subscriber Data Ack (IMSI, SGSN area restricted) message to the
HLR.
If all checks are successful then the SGSN constructs an MM context
for the MS and returns an Insert Subscriber Data Ack (IMSI) message
to the HLR.
............................................................................................................................................................

10

The HLR acknowledges the update location by sending Update


Location Ack (IMSI) to the new SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

11

If update type indicates combined RA/LA update with IMSI attach


requested or if the LA changed with the routing area update, then the
SGSN sends a Location Update Request (new LAI, IMSI, SGSN
number, location update type) to the VLR.
Location update type shall indicate IMSI attach if update type in
step 1 indicated combined RA/LA update with IMSI attach requested.
Otherwise, location update type shall indicate normal location
update.
The VLR number is translated from the RAI via a table in the SGSN.
The VLR creates or updates the association with the SGSN by storing
the SGSN number.
............................................................................................................................................................

12

If the subscriber data in the VLR is marked as not confirmed by the


HLR, then the new VLR informs the HLR.
The HLR cancels the data in the old VLR and inserts subscriber data
in the new VLR (this signaling is not modified from existing GSM
signaling and is included here for illustrative purposes):

The new VLR sends an Update Location (new VLR) to the HLR.

The HLR cancels the data in the old VLR by sending Cancel
Location (IMSI) to the old VLR.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-31

Combined Inter SGSN RA/LA Update


Procedure

GPRS Procedures

The old VLR acknowledges with Cancel Location Ack (IMSI).

The HLR sends Insert Subscriber Data (IMSI, GSM subscriber


data) to the new VLR.

The new VLR acknowledges with Insert Subscriber Data Ack


(IMSI).

The HLR responds with Update Location Ack (IMSI) to the new
VLR.

............................................................................................................................................................

13

The new VLR allocates a new TMSI and responds with Location
Update Accept (TMSI) to the SGSN. TMSI is optional if the VLR has
not changed.
............................................................................................................................................................

14

The new SGSN validates the MSs presence in the new RA.
If due to roaming restrictions the MS is not allowed to be attached in
the SGSN, or if subscription checking fails, then the SGSN rejects the
routing area update with an appropriate cause. If all checks are
successful then the new SGSN establishes MM and PDP contexts for
the MS.
A logical link is established between the new SGSN and the MS. The
new SGSN responds to the MS with Routing Area Update Accept
(P-TMSI, VLR TMSI, P-TMSI signature, receive N-PDU number).
Receive N-PDU number contains the acknowledgements for each
acknowledged-mode NSAPI used by the MS, thereby confirming all
mobile-originated N-PDUs successfully transferred before the start of
the update procedure.
............................................................................................................................................................

15

The MS confirms the reallocation of the TMSIs by returning a


Routing Area Update Complete (receive N-PDU number) message to
the SGSN.
Receive N-PDU number contains the acknowledgements for each
acknowledged-mode NSAPI used by the MS, thereby confirming all
mobile-terminated N-PDUs successfully transferred before the start of
the update procedure.
If receive N-PDU number confirms reception of N-PDUs that were
forwarded from the old SGSN, then these N-PDUs shall be discarded
by the new SGSN. LLC and SNDCP in the MS are reset.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-32

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Combined Inter SGSN RA/LA Update


Procedure

GPRS Procedures

............................................................................................................................................................

16

The SGSN sends a TMSI Reallocation Complete message to the VLR


if the TMSI is confirmed by the MS.

Rejected Routing Area


Update

In the case of a rejected routing area update operation, due to regional


subscription or roaming restrictions, the new SGSN shall not construct
a MM context. A reject shall be returned to the MS with an
appropriate cause. The MS shall not re-attempt a routing area update
to that RA. The RAI value shall be deleted when the MS is
powered-up.
If the SGSN is unable to update the PDP context in one or more
GGSNs, then the SGSN shall deactivate the corresponding PDP
contexts as described in subclause PDP Context Deactivation
Initiated by SGSN Procedure. This shall not cause the SGSN to reject
the routing area update.
If the routing area update procedure fails a maximum allowable
number of times, or if the SGSN returns a Routing Area Update
Reject (Cause) message, the MS shall enter IDLE state. If the timer
described in step 2 expires and no Cancel Location (IMSI) was
received from the HLR, then the old SGSN shall stop forwarding
N-PDUs to the new SGSN. If the Location Update Accept message
indicates a reject, then this should be indicated to the MS, and the MS
shall not access non-GPRS services until a successful location update
is performed.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-33

GPRS Procedures

CS
Paging Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The CS paging procedure is illustrated in the following figure.


Um

Gb

Gs

MS

MS

BSS

MSC/VLR

Page

1
Paging Request

2
3

Paging Request

SABM (Paging Response)

SGSN

SCCP Connection Request (Paging Response)

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN receives a Page (IMSI, TMSI, channel needed, priority,


location information) message from the MSC.
Channel needed indicates to the MS which type of CS channel is
needed to be requested in the response.
TMSI and channel needed are optional parameters. Priority is the
CS paging priority parameter. The SGSN maps priority to QoS.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a BSSGP Paging Request (IMSI, TLLI, TMSI, area,
channel needed, QoS) message to the BSS.
Area is derived from either the MSs MM context in the SGSN or,
if no such information is available, from the location information
received from the MSC/VLR. Area indicates a single cell for a
READY state MS or a routing area for a STANDBY state MS.
TMSI and channel needed are included if received from the MSC. If
channel needed was not received from the MSC, then a default
channel needed parameter indicating CS paging is included by the
SGSN.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-34

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

CS Paging Procedure

GPRS Procedures

QoS indicates the priority of this Paging Request relative to other


Paging Request messages buffered in the BSS.
............................................................................................................................................................

The BSS translates the incoming BSSGP Paging Request message into
one radio Paging Request message per cell.
If a dedicated radio resource is assigned to the MS in a cell, then the
BSS transmits one Paging Request (TMSI or IMSI, channel needed)
message on this radio resource, without stopping possibly ongoing
data transfer for the MS. Otherwise, the BSS pages the MS with one
Paging Request (TMSI or IMSI, channel needed) message on the
appropriate paging channel in each addressed cell.
............................................................................................................................................................

Upon receipt of a Paging Request message for a CS service the MS


may accept to respond to this request and shall then follow the CS
procedures for paging response (random access, immediate assignment
and paging response).
............................................................................................................................................................

When received at the BSS, the Paging Response message is sent to


the MSC which shall then stop the paging response timer.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-35

GPRS Procedures

PS
Paging Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The PS paging procedure is illustrated in the following figure.


Um

Gb

MS

MS

BSS

PDP PDU

1
2

SGSN

Paging Request

Packet Paging Request

Packet Channel Request

Packet Downlink Assignment

Packet Paging Response (Any LLC Frame)

Any LLC Frame

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN receives a downlink PDP PDU for an MS in STANDBY


state.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a BSSGP Paging Request (IMSI, P-TMSI, area,


channel needed, QoS, DRX parameters) message to the BSS serving
the MS.

IMSI is needed by the BSS in order to calculate the MS paging


group.

P-TMSI is the identifier by which the MS is paged.

Area indicates the routing area (RA) in which the MS is paged.

Channel needed indicates GPRS paging.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-36

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

PS Paging Procedure

GPRS Procedures

QoS is the negotiated QoS for the PDP context that initiates the
paging procedure, and indicates the priority of this Paging
Request relative to other Paging Request messages buffered in
the BSS.

DRX parameters indicates whether the MS uses discontinuous


reception or not. If the MS uses discontinuous reception, then
DRX parameters also indicate when the MS is in a non-sleep
mode able to receive paging requests.

............................................................................................................................................................

The BSS pages the MS with one Packet Paging Request (P-TMSI,
channel needed) message on the PPCH or PCH in each cell belonging
to the addressed RA.
............................................................................................................................................................

The MS responds by sending a Packet Channel Request message on


the PRACH or RACH.
............................................................................................................................................................

The network responds by sending a Packet Downlink Assignment


message on the PAGCH or AGCH.
............................................................................................................................................................

Upon receipt of a Packet Paging Request message, the MS shall


respond with either any single valid LLC frame (a Receive Ready or
Information frame) that implicitly is interpreted as a page response
message by the SGSN.
When responding, the MS changes MM state to READY.
............................................................................................................................................................

Upon reception of the LLC frame, the BSS adds the CGI including
the RAC and LAC of the cell and sends the LLC frame to the SGSN.
The SGSN shall then consider the LLC frame to be an implicit paging
response message and stop the paging response timer.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-37

GPRS Procedures

Authentication
Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The authentication procedure is illustrated in the following figure.


Gb

Um

Gr
HLR
HLR

MS

MS

BSS

SGSN

HLR

Send Authentication Info


1

Send Authentication Info Ack


Authentication and Ciphering Request

Authentication and Ciphering Response

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

If the SGSN does not have previously stored authentication triplets, a


Send Authentication Info (IMSI) message is sent to the HLR. The
HLR responds with a Send Authentication Info Ack (authentication
triplets) message.
Each authentication triplet includes RAND, SRES and Kc.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends an Authentication and Ciphering Request (RAND,


CKSN, ciphering algorithm) message to the MS. The MS responds
with an Authentication and Ciphering Response (SRES) message.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-38

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

Identity
Check Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The identity check procedure is illustrated in the following figure.


Gb

Um

HLR
EIR

MS

MS

BSS

SGSN

EIR

Identity Request
1

Identity Response
Check IMEI

Check IMEI Ack

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends Identity Request (identity type) to the MS. The MS
responds with Identity Response (mobile identity).
............................................................................................................................................................

If the SGSN decides to check the IMEI against the EIR, it sends
Check IMEI (IMEI) to EIR. The EIR responds with Check IMEI Ack
(IMEI).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-39

GPRS Procedures

Network
Requested PDP Context Activation Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The network requested PDP context activation procedure is illustrated


in the following figure.
Gr
Um
MS

MS

Gc
HLR
HLR

Gb

Gn

BSS

SGSN

HLR

GGSN
PDP PDU

1
Send Routing Info for GPRS
2

Send Routing Info for GPRS Ack


PDU Notification Request

PDU Notification Response

Request PDP Context Activation

Activate PDP Context Request

Security Functions
Create PDP Context Request

Network
Request

Create PDP Context Response

PDP Context
Activation
Procedure

Activate PDP Context Accept

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

When receiving a PDP PDU the GGSN determines if the network


requested PDP context activation procedure has to be initiated. The
GGSN may store following PDP PDUs received for the same PDP
address.
............................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN may send a Send Routing Information for GPRS (IMSI)
message to the HLR. If the HLR determines that the request can be
served, it returns a Send Routing Information for GPRS Ack (IMSI,
SGSN address) message to the GGSN.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-40

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Network Requested PDP Context Activation


Procedure

GPRS Procedures

............................................................................................................................................................

If the SGSN address is present, the GGSN shall send a PDU


Notification Request (IMSI, PDP type, PDP address) message to the
SGSN indicated by the HLR.
The SGSN returns a PDU Notification Response (cause) message to
the GGSN in order to acknowledge that it shall request the MS to
activate the PDP context indicated with PDP address.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a Request PDP Context Activation (PDP type, PDP
address) message to request the MS to activate the indicated PDP
context.
............................................................................................................................................................

The MS sends an Activate PDP Context Request (NSAPI, PDP type,


PDP address, APN, QoS requested, PDP configuration options)
message to the SGSN.
The MS shall use PDP address to indicate whether it requires the
use of a static PDP address or whether it requires the use of a
dynamic PDP address. The MS shall leave PDP address empty to
request a dynamic PDP address.
............................................................................................................................................................

Security functions may be executed.


............................................................................................................................................................

If a GGSN address can be derived, the SGSN creates a TID for the
requested PDP context by combining the IMSI stored in the MM
context with the NSAPI received from the MS. If the MS requests a
dynamic address, then the SGSN lets a GGSN allocate the dynamic
address.
The SGSN sends a Create PDP Context Request (PDP type, PDP
address, APN, QoS negotiated, TID, MSISDN, selection mode)
message to the affected GGSN.

APN shall be the APN network identifier of the APN selected.

PDP address shall be empty if a dynamic address is requested.


The GGSN may use APN to find an external network.

Selection mode indicates whether a subscribed APN was


selected, or whether a non-subscribed APN sent by MS or a
non-subscribed APN chosen by SGSN was selected.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-41

Network Requested PDP Context Activation


Procedure

GPRS Procedures

The GGSN creates a new entry in its PDP context table and generates
a charging ID. The new entry allows the GGSN to route PDP PDUs
between the SGSN and the external PDP network, and to start
charging.
The GGSN then returns a Create PDP Context Response (TID, PDP
address, QoS negotiated, charging ID) message to the SGSN. PDP
address is included if the GGSN allocated a PDP address.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN inserts the NSAPI along with the GGSN address in its
PDP context. If the MS has requested a dynamic address, the PDP
address received from the GGSN is inserted in the PDP context.
The SGSN returns an Activate PDP Context Accept (PDP type, PDP
address, QoS negotiated) message to the MS. The SGSN is now able
to route PDP PDUs between the GGSN and the MS, and to start
charging.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-42

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

MS
Initiated PDP Context Deactivation Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The MS initiated PDP context deactivation procedure is illustrated in


the following figure.
Um

Gb

Gn

MS

MS
1
2

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

Deactivate PDP Context Request


Security Functions

Delete PDP Context Request

Delete PDP Context Response

Deactivate PDP Context Accept

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The MS sends a Deactivate PDP Context Request message to the


SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

Security functions may be executed.


............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a Delete PDP Context Request (TID) message to the
GGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN removes the PDP context and returns a Delete PDP
Context Response (TID) message to the SGSN.
If the MS was using a dynamic PDP address, then the GGSN releases
this PDP address and makes it available for activation by other MSs.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN returns a Deactivate PDP Context Accept message to the


MS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-43

GPRS Procedures

SGSN
Initiated PDP Context Deactivation Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The SGSN initiated PDP context deactivation procedure is illustrated


in the following figure.
Um

Gb

Gn

MS

MS

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

Delete PDP Context Request


1

Delete PDP Context Response


Deactivate PDP Context Request

Deactivate PDP Context Accept

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a Delete PDP Context Request (TID) message to the
GGSN.
The GGSN removes the PDP context and returns a Delete PDP
Context Response (TID) message to the SGSN.
If the MS was using a dynamic PDP address, then the GGSN releases
this PDP address and makes it available for activation by other MSs.
The SGSN may not wait for the response from the GGSN before
sending the Deactivate PDP Context Request message.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a Deactivate PDP Context Request message to the


MS.
The MS removes the PDP context and returns a Deactivate PDP
Context Accept message to the SGSN.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6-44

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS Procedures

GGSN
Initiated PDP Context Deactivation Procedure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Message Flow

The GGSN initiated PDP context deactivation procedure is illustrated


in the following figure.
Um

Gb

Gn

MS

MS

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

Delete PDP Context Request

1
Deactivate PDP Context Request
2

Deactivate PDP Context Accept

Delete PDP Context Response

Message Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN sends a Delete PDP Context Request (TID) message to the
SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a Deactivate PDP Context Request message to the


MS.
The MS removes the PDP context and returns a Deactivate PDP
Context Accept message to the SGSN.
............................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN returns a Delete PDP Context Response (TID) message to


the GGSN.
If the MS was using a dynamic PDP address, then the GGSN releases
this PDP address and makes it available for activation by other MSs.
The SGSN may not wait for the response from the MS before sending
the Delete PDP Context Response message.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

6-45

Call Management

Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose

This chapter discusses the BSS Mobile Originated Packet Transfer and
the BSS Mobile Terminated Packet Transfer.
After finishing this chapter, the student should be able to:

Describe the BSS Mobile Originated Packet Transfer.

Describe the BSS Mobile Terminated Packet Transfer.

Contents
GPRS - BSS Mobile Originated Packet Transfer

7-2

GPRS - BSS Mobile Terminated Packet Transfer

7-4

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

7-1

Call Management

GPRS
- BSS Mobile Originated Packet Transfer
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Multiple Access

An MS initiates a packet transfer by making Packet Channel Request


on the PRACH or the RACH. The network responds on PAGCH or
AGCH respectively. It is possible to use a one or two phase packet
access method.
In the one phase access, the network responds to the channel request
for Packet Transfer with the immediate assignment reserving the
resources on PDCHs for uplink transfer of a number of Radio Blocks.
Opposite to the one phase access, the two phase access offers the
possibility to the mobile station to transfer information about its
capability to the network.
In the two phase access, the network responds to the channel request
with the immediate assignment which reserves the one uplink radio
block for transmitting the packet resource request message which
carries the complete description of the requested resources for the
uplink transfer. Thereafter, the network responds with the Packet
Resource assignment reserving resources for the uplink transfer.
If there is no response to the Packet Channel Request within a
predefined time period, the MS makes a retry after a random backoff
time.

Uplink Data Transfer

Efficient and flexible utilization of the available spectrum for a packet


data traffic (one or more PDCHs in a cell) can be obtained using a
multi-slot channel reservation scheme. Blocks from one MS can be
sent on different PDCHs simultaneously, thus reducing the packet
delay for transmission across the air interface. The bandwidth may be
varied by allocating one to eight time slots in each TDMA frame
depending on the number of available PDCHs multi-slot capabilities
of the MS and the current system load.
The master slave channel concept requires mechanisms for efficient
utilization of PDCH uplink(s). Therefore, the Uplink State Flag (USF)
is used on PDCHs. The 3 bit USF at the beginning of each Radio
Block that is sent on the downlink points to the next uplink Radio
Block. It enables the coding of 8 different USF states which are used
to multiplex the uplink traffic.
The channel reservation command includes the list of allocated
PDCHs and the corresponding USF state per channel. To an MS, the

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

7-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS - BSS Mobile Originated Packet


Transfer

Call Management

USF marks whether it can use the next uplink radio block on the
respective PDCH for transmission. An MS monitors the USF and
according to the USF value, identifies PDCHs that are assigned to it
and starts transmission. This allows efficient multiplexing of blocks
from a number of MSs on a single PDCH. Additionally, the channel
reservation command can be sent to the MS even before the total
number of requested PDCHs is free. Thus, the status flags not only
result in a highly dynamic reservation but also allow interruption of
transmission in favor of pending or high priority messages. On the
PCCH, one USF value is used to denote PRACH (USF=FREE). The
other USF values USF=R1/R2/.R7 are used to reserve the uplink
for different MSs. After the blocks have been transmitted in the
reserved time slots, an acknowledgment should follow from the BSS
and sent to the PACCH.
In the case of an acknowledgment, which includes a bitmap of
correctly or erroneous received blocks, a Packet Resource Assignment
for retransmission, timing advance and power control, only those
blocks listed as erroneous are retransmitted.
Figure 7-1 GPRS Mobile Originated Packet Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

7-3

Call Management

GPRS
- BSS Mobile Terminated Packet Transfer
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

A SGSN initiates a packet transfer to a mobile station that is in the


standby state by sending a Packet Paging Request on the PPCH or
PCH downlink. The MS responds to this paging request by initiating a
procedure for page response very similar to the packet access
procedure described earlier. The paging procedure is followed by the
Packet Resource assignment for downlink frame transfer containing
the list of PDCHs to be used.
Since an identifier, e.g. TFI, is included in each Radio Block, it is
possible to multiplex Radio Blocks destined for different MSs on the
same PDCH downlink. It is also possible to interrupt a data
transmission to one MS if a higher priority data or a pending control
message is to be sent to some other MS. If more than one PDCH is
available for the downlink traffic, and provided that the MS is capable
of monitoring multiple PDCHs, blocks belonging to the same frame
can be transferred on different PDCHs in parallel.
The network obtains acknowledgments for downlink transmission by
polling the MS. The MS sends the ACK/NACK message in the
reserved Radio Block which is allocated in the polling process. In the

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

7-4

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

GPRS - BSS Mobile Terminated Packet


Transfer

Call Management

case of a negative acknowledgment, only those blocks listed as


erroneous are retransmitted.
Figure 7-2 GPRS Mobile Terminated Packet Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

7-5

Radio Resource Management

Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose

This chapter discusses Radio Resource Management.


After finishing this chapter, the student should be able to:

Describe the Multislotting Operation Effects.

Specify the Channel Coding Schemes.

Contents
Multislotting Operation Effects

8-2

Channel Coding Schemes

8-4

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

8-1

Radio Resource Management

Multislotting
Operation Effects
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

GPRS is different from the original GSM specification in that it


allows a single MS to transmit data simultaneously on multiple time
slots.
The following is a comparison of two types of operation:

When there is only one Packet Data Channel (PDCH) available


in the cell, it is considered to be a single slot operation. The
master PDCH (MPDCH) supports both data traffic and random
access.

When there are up to eight PDCHs available in a cell, and the


MSs are able to operate on eight time slots simultaneously, eight
slot operation occurs. Channel 8 is used as the MPDCH and
supports both control signaling and data transmission. The other
channels are used as slave PDCHs (SPDCHs) and support only
data traffic.

To compare the efficiency of channel utilization, the overall input load


and throughput are divided by the number of slots used. The base
station is capable of capture, and both uplink and downlink errors are
included.
In the single slot operation as the load exceeds 4 kbit/s per slot the
throughput reaches the maximum value of 4 kbps. The delay becomes
unbounded at this point. In the eight slot operation when the input
load increases the maximum load increases 5 kbit/s per slot, 40 kbit/s
total. The delay explodes when the input load reaches 5 kbit/s per
slot. In single slot operation, the maximum throughput is lower
because the channel used by GPRS has to handle both traffic and
control information. With multiple slots, the additional channels only
have to carry traffic.
Blocking increases as the load goes up. For eight slot operation, the
blocking rate is very low (less than 0.1%). The blocking remains the
same even when the delay becomes intolerable. With single slot
operation, blocking becomes a serious problem. When the input load
is as low as 2.5 kbit/s per slot, the blocking is already more than 5%.
As the load increases, the blocking goes higher.
To summarise the comparison of single slot and eight slot operation,
throughput is defined in terms of the user data that is received
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

8-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Multislotting Operation Effects

Radio Resource Management

successfully. In single slot operation, part of the channel is used for


random access, so there is less user data transmitted per unit time and
the data needs to wait longer to be served. With the service rate lower
in the single slot case, the delay is longer, there is more blocking and
the maximum throughput is lower.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

8-3

Radio Resource Management

Channel
Coding Schemes
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

For GPRS, four different coding schemes have been defined: CS1
(high error detection) - CS4 (low error detection) for the packet data
traffic channels. For the MSs, all coding schemes are mandatory,
while for the network only coding scheme 1 is mandatory.
For all coding schemes, the first step of the coding procedure is to
add a Block Check Sequence (BCS) for any error detection. The
second step (for coding schemes 1 to 3) is to pre-code the Uplink
State Flag (except for coding scheme 1), add four tail bits and a half
rate convolutional coding for error correction that is punctured to give
the desired coding rate.
For coding scheme 4, which is designed for high throughput, there is
no coding for error correction.
All the details about the coding parameters for the coding schemes are
shown in this table.
CS-1

CS-2

CS-3

CS-4

Code rate

1/2

~2/3

~3/4

USF

Pre-coded
USF

12

Radio
Block excl.
USF and
BCS

181

268

312

428

BCS

40

16

16

16

Tail

Coded bits

456

588

676

456

Punctured
bits

132

220

Data rate
kbps

9.05

13.4

15.6

21.4

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

8-4

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Channel Coding Schemes

Radio Resource Management

This table shows the details for the codes, including:

The length of each field

The number of the coded bits (after adding tail bits and
convolutional coding)

The number of punctured bits

The data rate, including the RLC header and the RLC
information.

Facts for the coding schemes:

CS1, for instance, defines intensive error detection mechanism


and will be applied, if the radio conditions are bad.

The better the radio conditions get, the less error detection is
necessary and the higher the throughput can be chosen. This is
achieved by choosing a higher coding scheme and is done under
the control of the PCU.

The feature Switching Coding Scheme provides the automatic


switch between CS1 and CS2.

Increase of bandwidth for GPRS data transfers by using a coding


scheme with a lower protection scheme whenever the
transmission quality allows it.

Start always with CS1 !

For uplink/downlink the PCU is the master.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

8-5

Future Enhancements

Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose

This chapter describes the concept of Enhanced Data rates for GSM
Evolution (EDGE)
After finishing this chapter, the student should be able to:

State the principles of Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution


(EDGE)

Contents
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)

9-2

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

9-1

Future Enhancements

Enhanced
Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
EDGE

EDGE is a concept for Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution:

Higher spectral efficiency due to 8-PSK modulation (3 bits per


symbol) vs. GMSK for GPRS (1 bit per symbol)

Packet data service EGPRS reuses the GPRS architecture

EGPRS and GPRS mobiles can be multiplexed on the same time


slot

8 modulation and coding schemes proposed: MCS -1 . MCS 8

EGPRS Modulation and Coding Schemes


Coding Mod Code RLC
Scheme
Rate Payload
Bits
Octets

Max
Data
Rate
kbps

Blocks Family
Per
20ms

# IR
sub
blocks

MCS 1

0.53

176 (22)

8.8

MCS 2

0.66

224 (28)

11.2

MCS 3

0.85

296 (37)

14.8

MCS 4

352 (44)

17.6

MCS 5

8-

0.37

448 (56)

22.4

MCS 6

0.49

592 (74)

29.6

MCS 7

0.76

896
(112)

44.8

MCS 8

1184
(148)

59.2

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

9-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution


(EDGE)

Future Enhancements

EGPRS Combined LA and IR mode

The whole RLS block is convolutional encoded with a rate 1/3


code

Maximum three puncturing schemes to derive 3 sub-blocks: P1 P3 for re-transmitting any MCS can be selected based on the
current link quality.

First P1 is sent. If it cannot be decoded, P2 and P3 are


subsequently transmitted until the receiver can successfully
decode the RLC block via soft combining of all received
sub-blocks.

The code rate is dynamically adjusted according to the


experienced radio condition without using explicit measurements.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

9-3

Glossary

Interface between BSC and MSC


Abis

Interface between BSC and BTS


ACC

Advanced Communications Card


AGCH

Access Grant Channel


APN

Access Point Name


AUC

Authentication Center
AVL

Automatic Vehicle Location


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel


BCF-2000

Base-Station Controller Frame-2000


BSC

Base Station Controller


BSS

Base Station System


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

GLOSSARY
GL-1

BSSGP

Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol


BTS

Base Transceiver Station


BVC

BSSGP Virtual Connection


BVCI

BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

CCCH

Common Control Channel


CCU

Channel Codec Unit


CEWS

Cell Workstation
CS

Circuit Switched Traffic


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

DNS

Domain Name Server


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

EDGE

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution


EIR

Equipment Identity Register


ETSI

European Telecommunication Standards Institute


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

FN

Frame Number

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GLOSSARY
GL-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Gb

Interface between SGSN and BSC


GBS

GPRS Backbone System


Gd

Interface between SMS-GMSC/IWMSC and SGSN


Gd

Interface between SMS-GMSC/IWMSC and SGSN


GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node


Gi

Interface between GPRS and external data network


GMM

GPRS Mobility Management


GMSC

Gateway MSC (towards PSTN)


Gn

Interface between two GSNs within same PLMN


Gp

Interface between two GSNs in different PLMNs


GPRS

General Packet Radio Service


Gr

Interface between an SGSN and HLR


Gs

Interface between SGSN and MSC


GSE

GPRS Signaling Entity


GSM

Global System for Mobile Communications


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

GLOSSARY
GL-3

GSN

GPRS Support Node


GTP

GPRS Tunneling Protocol


GVM

GPRS Virtual Machine


GWS

GPRS Workstation
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

HLR

Home Location Register


HSCSD

High Speed Circuit switched Data


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

I/F

Interface
IMEI

International Mobile station Equipment Identity


IMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity


IMW

Integrated Maintenance Workstation


IP

Internet Protocol
ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network


IWMSC

Inter-Working MSC
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

LAC

Location Area Code


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GLOSSARY
GL-4

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

LAN

Local Area Network


LLC

Logical Link Control


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Interface between BSC and STF


MAC

Medium Access Layer


Mg

Interface between BSC and PGU


MS

Mobile Station
MSC

Mobile-services Switching Center


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

N-PDU

Network-Protocol Data Unit


NMC

Network Management Center


NSAPI

Network Layer Service Access Point Identifier


NSVC

Network Service Virtual Connection


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

OA

Interface between OMC and BSS


OA&M

Operations Administration & Maintenance


OMC-2000

Operations and Maintenance Center-2000


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

GLOSSARY
GL-5

OMC-G

Operation and Maintenance Centre for GBS


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

PACCH

Packet Associated Control Channel


PBCCH

Packet Broadcast Control Channel


PCCCH

Packet Common Control Channel


PCH

Paging Channel
PCM

Pulse Code Modulation


PCU

Packet Control Unit


PDCH

Packet Data Channel


PDN

Packet Data Network


PDP

Packet Data Protocols


PDU

Protocol Data Unit


PGU

PCU & Gb Interface Unit


PLMN

Public Land Mobile Network


PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network


PTM

Point-To-Multipoint
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GLOSSARY
GL-6

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

PTM-G

Point-To-Multipoint Group Call


PTP

Point-To-Point
PVC

Permanent Virtual Channel


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

QoS

Quality of Service
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

RACH

Random Access Channel


RF

Radio Frequency
RLC

Radio Link Control


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

SAPI

Service Access Point Identifier


SGSN

Service GPRS Support Node


SMS

Short Message Service


SMS-SC

SMS-Center
SNDCP

Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol


SRS

Sub-Rate Switch
SS

Supplementary Services
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

GLOSSARY
GL-7

STF

Speech Transcoder Frame


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol


TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol


TRC

Transcoder
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

UDP

User Datagram Protocol


Um

Interface between MS and BSS


UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

VLR

Visitor Location Register


VPLMN

Visited PLMN
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

X.25

Packet Switching Protocol

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GLOSSARY
GL-8

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Index

Base Station Controller


Frame, 2-11
Base Transceiver Station,
2-7

BSS Protocols, 5-19


........................................................
F

Frame Relay, 2-30


Future Enhancements, 9-1

Enhanced Data rates for


GSM Evolution
(EDGE), 9-2
........................................................
G

GGSN Protocols, 5-10


GPRS Benefits, 1-9
GPRS Development and
History, 1-6
GPRS Introduction to the
BCF, 2-39
GPRS introduction to the
BTS, 2-37
GPRS Logical Channels,
5-25
GPRS MS, 5-36
GPRS MS Protocols, 5-23
GPRS Network
Architecture, 2-3

Network Requested PDP


Context Activation
Procedure, 6-40

GPRS Procedures, 6-1


Authentication
Procedure, 6-38

PS Paging Procedure,
6-36

Combined Inter SGSN


RA/LA Update
Procedure, 6-28

Routing Area Update,


6-19

Combined Intra SGSN


RA/LA Update
Procedure, 6-25

SGSN Initiated Detach


Procedure, 6-15
SGSN Initiated PDP
Context Deactivation
Procedure, 6-44

CS Paging Procedure,
6-34
Detach Procedures, 6-12

GPRS Services, 1-8

GGSN Initiated PDP


Context Deactivation
Procedure, 6-45
GPRS Attach Procedure,
6-7
HLR Initiated Detach
Procedure, 6-17

GPRS Signaling and


Transmission Protocols,
5-1
GTP, 4-14
........................................................
I

Identity Check
Procedure, 6-39

Interfaces, 3-1
GPRS System
Interfaces, 3-4

Inter SGSN Routing


Area Update
Procedure, 6-21
Intra SGSN Routing
Area Update Diagram,
6-19
MS Initiated PDP
Context Deactivation
Procedure, 6-43

GSM System Interfaces,


3-2
Internet Protocol (IP), 4-11
IP addressing, 4-5
........................................................
L

Lucent Base Station


Subsystem, 2-7

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

INDEX
IN-1

........................................................
M

The GPRS Backbone


System (GBS), 2-18

Mapping of packet data


logical channels onto
physical channels, 5-27

The GPRS Signaling Plane,


5-3

Mobile Station, 2-5

The GPRS Transmission


Plane, 5-7

Mobility Management, 6-3


........................................................

The TCP/IP layers, 4-3


The TCP/IP Suite, 4-2

Network Switching
Subsystem, 2-15
Network Switching
Subsystem and GPRS,
2-52
New Network Area, 2-21
New Network Elements Functional Entities, 2-22

Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP), 4-12
........................................................
U

User Datagram Protocol


(UDP), 4-13
........................................................
W

What is GPRS, 1-2

New Network Interfaces,


2-33
........................................................
O

Operations and
Maintenance Centre, 2-13
........................................................
R

Radio Resource
Management, 8-1
Channel Coding
Schemes, 8-4
Radio Resource
Management

Multislotting Operation
Effects, 8-2
........................................................
S

SGSN Protocols, 5-12

Speech Transcoder Frame,


2-12
........................................................
T

The GPRS Air Interface,


5-24

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

INDEX
IN-2

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary


See notice on first page

WL9019-90-IG.en.UL
Issue f, January 2002