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Microsoft Flag this message (22) Fwd: CONCENTRIX --- Enterprise support engineer---QUESTIONS PRASAD Saturday, May 28, 2011 10:56 AM COLL From: (11)
This sender is DomainKeys verified "Rajesh Shankaran" <raajeshshankaran@gmail.com> Add sender to Contacts To: sunkumar1985@yahoo.com

*QUESTION & ANSWERS: *

1. *Types of OS * Desktop OS & Server OS *Desktop OS: *

Win98 WinME Winxp Vista Win 07

*Server OS *Windows NT Win 2000 Win 2003 Win 2008

2*. Server OS* *Server OS* Windows NT Win 2000 Win 2003 Win 2008 Linux Redhat

3.

*Diff B/w Domain & Workgroup*

Computers on a network can be part of a workgroup or a domain. The main difference between workgroups and domains is how resources on the network are managed. Computers on home networks are usually part of a workgroup, and computers on workplace networks are usually part of a domain. *In a workgroup**:* Work group is a Microsoft terminology for peer to peer windows computer network members of different work groups on the same local area. Network can only directly access recourses in work group.

- All computers are peers; no computer has control over another computer. - Each computer has a set of user accounts. To use any computer in the workgroup, you must have an account on that computer. - There are typically no more than ten to twenty computers. - All computers must be on the same local network or subnet. *In a domain:* - One or more computers are servers. Network administrators use servers to control the security and permissions for all computers on the domain. This makes it easy to make changes because the changes are automatically made to all computers. - If you have a user account on the domain, you can log on to any computer on the domain without needing an account on that computer. - There can be hundreds or thousands of computers. - The computers can be on different local networks. 4*. I I S? What are the versions of IIS*

*Internet Information Services* (*IIS*) formerly called *Internet Information Server* is a web server<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_server>appli cation and set of feature extension modules created by Microsoft <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft> for use with Microsoft Windows <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Windows>. It is the most used web server after Apache HTTP Server<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apache_HTTP_Serv er>:

As of January 2011[update]<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Internet_Information_Services&action=edit>, it served 21.00% of all websites on the Internet and 16.22% of the one million busiest websites on the Internet. [1]<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Informatio n_Services#cite_note-0>IIS 7.5 supports HTTP <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP>, HTTPS<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTPS>, FTP <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_Transfer_Protocol >, FTPS<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FTPS>, SMTP <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simple_Mail_Transfer_P rotocol> and NNTP<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_News_Trans fer_Protocol>. It is an integral part of Windows Server<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Server>f amily of products, as well as certain editions of Windows XP <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_XP>, Windows Vista<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Vista>and Windows 7 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_7>. Versions - IIS 1.0, Windows NT 3.51 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_NT_3.51>availa ble as a free add-on - IIS 2.0, Windows NT 4.0 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_NT_4.0> - IIS 3.0, Windows NT 4.0 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_NT_4.0>Service Pack 2 [11]<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Inform ation_Services#cite_note-10> - IIS 4.0, Windows NT 4.0 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_NT_4.0>Option

Pack - IIS 5.0, Windows 2000 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_2000> - IIS 5.1, Windows XP Professional<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_XP _Professional>and Windows XP Media Center Edition<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_XP_Medi a_Center_Edition>(requires retail CD) - IIS 6.0, Windows Server 2003<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Server_200 3>and Windows XP Professional x64 Edition<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_XP_Prof essional_x64_Edition> - IIS 7.0, Windows Server 2008<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Server_200 8>and Windows Vista <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Vista> (Home Premium, Business, Enterprise and Ultimate editions) - IIS 7.5, Windows Server 2008 R2<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Server_2008_ R2>and Windows 7 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_7> (Home Premium, Professional, Enterprise and Ultimate editions)

5*.

Networking*

In information technology, networking is the construction, design, and use of a network<http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefi nition/0,,sid7_gci212644,00.html>, including the physical (cabling, hub<http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefiniti on/0,,sid7_gci212294,00.html>, bridge<http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/sDefinit ion/0,,sid14_gci211705,00.html>,

switch<http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/sDefiniti on/0,,sid103_gci213079,00.html>, router<http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefin ition/0,,sid7_gci212924,00.html>, and so forth), the selection and use of telecommunication protocol<http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDef inition/0,,sid7_gci212839,00.html>and computer software for using and managing the network, and the establishment of operation policies and procedures related to the network. Network Software is a set of primitives that define the protocol between two machines. The network software resolves an ambiguity among different types of network making it possible for all the machines in the network to connect and communicate with one another and share information. Network software is used to efficiently share information among computers. It encloses the information to be sent in a package that contains a header and a trailer. The header and trailer contain information for the receiving computer, such as the address of that computer and how the information package is coded. Information is transferred between computers as either electrical signals in electric wires, as light signals in fiber-optic <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber> cables, or as electromagnetic waves <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiat ion> through space. * *

6*.

Classes of IP-Public/Private*

*Class*** *1st Octet Decimal Range*** *1st Octet High Order Bits*** *Network/Host ID (N=Network, H=Host)*** *Default Subnet Mask*** *Number of Networks*** *Hosts per Network (Usable Addresses)*** A 1 126* 0 N.H.H.H 255.0.0.0 126 (27 2) 16,777,214 (224 2) B 128 191 10 N.N.H.H 255.255.0.0 16,382 (214 2) 65,534 (216 2) C

192 223 110 N.N.N.H 255.255.255.0 2,097,150 (221 2) 254 (28 2) D 224 239 1110 Reserved for Multicasting E 240 254 1111 Experimental; used for research *Note:* Class A addresses 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 cannot be used and is reserved for loopback and diagnostic functions. Private IP Addresses *Class*** *Private Networks*** *Subnet Mask*** *Address Range*** A 10.0.0.0

255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 B 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.0.0 255.240.0.0 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 C 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

7*.

Diff B/w Switch & Hub*

Hubs and switches are different types of network equipment that connect devices. They differ in the way that they pass on the network traffic that they receive. *HUB: *The term hub is sometimes used to refer to any piece of network equipment that connects PCs together, but it actually refers to a multi-port repeater. This type of device simply passes on (repeats) all the information it receives, so that all devices connected to its ports receive that information. Hubs repeat everything they receive and can be used to extend the network. However, this can result in a lot of unnecessary traffic being sent to all

devices on the network. Hubs pass on traffic to the network regardless of the intended destination; the PCs to which the packets are sent use the address information in each packet to work out which packets are meant for them. In a small network repeating is not a problem but for a larger, more heavily used network, another piece of networking equipment (such as a switch) may be required to help reduce the amount of unnecessary traffic being generated. *Switches* control the flow of network traffic based on the address information in each packet. A switch learns which devices are connected to its ports (by monitoring the packets it receives), and then forwards on packets to the appropriate port only. This allows simultaneous communication across the switch, improving bandwidth.This switching operation reduces the amount of unnecessary traffic that would have occurred if the same information had been sent from every port (as with a hub). Switches and hubs are often used in the same network; the hubs extend the network by providing more ports, and the switches divide the network into smaller, less congested sections. 8*. How to disable Virus affected one among 500 computers* *To disable or enable a computer account* - Using the Windows interface<http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/cc784109%28WS.10%29.aspx#BKMK_winui> - Using a command line<http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/cc784109%28WS.10%29.aspx#BKMK_cmd>

Using the Windows interface 1. Open Active Directory Users and Computers. 2. In the console tree, click *Computers*. *Where?* - Active Directory Users and Computers/*domain node*/Computers Or, click the folder that contains the computer that you want to enable or disable. 1. In the details pane, right-click the desired computer, and then do one of the following: - To disable, click *Disable Account*. - To enable, click *Enable Account*. *Notes* - To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Account Operators group, Domain Admins group, or the Enterprise Admins group in Active Directory, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority. As a security best practice, consider using Run as to perform this procedure. For more information, see Default local groups<http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/cc785098%28WS.10%29.aspx>, Default groups<http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/cc756898%28WS.10%29.aspx>, and Using Run as<http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/cc780931%28WS.10%29.aspx> . - To open Active Directory Users and Computers, click *Start*, click *Control Panel*, double-click *Administrative Tools*, and then double-click *Active

Directory Users and Computers*. - When you disable a computer account, the computer cannot authenticate to the domain until it has been enabled. Using a command line 1. Open Command Prompt. 2. Type: *dsmod computer**ComputerDN**-disabled* {*yes*| *no*} *Value *** *Description *** *ComputerDN* Specifies the distinguished names of the computer object that you want to disable or enable. {*yes*|*no*} Specifies whether the computer is disabled for log on (*yes*) or not (*no*). *Notes* - To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Account Operators group, Domain Admins group, or the Enterprise Admins group in Active Directory, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority. As a security best practice, consider using Run as to perform this procedure. For more information, see Default local groups<http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/cc785098%28WS.10%29.aspx>, Default groups<http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/cc756898%28WS.10%29.aspx>, and Using Run as<http://technet.microsoft.com/en-

us/library/cc780931%28WS.10%29.aspx> . - To open a command prompt, click *Start*, point to *All programs*, point to *Accessories*, and then click *Command prompt*. - When you disable a computer account, the computer cannot authenticate to the domain until it has been enabled. - To view the complete syntax for this command, at a command prompt, type: *dsmod computer /?* 9. *OSI Layers* The OSI Model is used to describe networks and network application. Sever Layers of OSI Model Layer 7Application Layer6Presentation Layer 5Session Layer4Transport Layer3Network Layer2Data Link Layer1Physical 10. *Which layer transfers the data pack from host application* 11. *How will you remove virus from computer and the customer doesnt have internet access* - the Antivirus can Remove the Virus - if no internet Connection , the Antivirus cannot Update

itself - So it is old version What customer have - So Get the Update manually from the (antivirus Web sites) - Update the Patches and Run the Antivirus Scan 12. *How will you change the rules of particular domain in a server* - By using gpedit (Group Policy Editor) http://serverfault.com/questions/19611/disablepassword-complexity-rule-in-active-directory

13. *How does a web server work?* As is the case with any client-server comunication, in this case also the client (i.e., the Web Browser) and the server (i.e., HTTP/Web Server) should be able to communicate with each other in a defined way. This pre-defined set of rules which form the basis of the communication are normally termed as a protocol and in this case the underlying protocol will be HTTP. Irrespective of how the client or the server has been implemented, there will always be a way to form a valid HTTP Request for the client to work and similarly the server needs to be capable of understanding the HTTP Requests sent to it and form valid HTTP Responses to all the arrived HTTP Requests. Both the client and the server machines should also be equipped with the capability of establishing the connection to each other (in this case it'll be a TCP reliable connection) to be able to transfer the HTTP Requests (client -> server) and HTTP Responses (server

->client). * * 14. *How to make 2 routers connected to a network with single DHCP* Connected the Computer to the Second Router and Disable the DHCP in the Second Router Connect the Both to gather , so the Dirst Router Act like a DHCP Server and the Second one Act Like A Switch .

15.

*OSI Model Layers and its functions*

*Layers: * Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical

16. *What protocol is used in Application Layer, Session Layer, Transport Layer and what port nos* Application Layer BGP DHCP DNS FTP HTTP IMAP IRC LDAP MGCP NNTP NTP POP RIP RPC RTP SIP

SMTP SNMP SOCKS SSH Telnet TLS/SSL XMPP Session Layer * ADSP, AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol * ASP, AppleTalk Session Protocol * H.245, Call Control Protocol for Multimedia Communication * ISO-SP, OSI Session Layer Protocol (X.225, ISO 8327) * iSNS, Internet Storage Name Service * L2F, Layer 2 Forwarding Protocol * L2TP, Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol * NetBIOS, Network Basic Input Output System * PAP, Password Authentication Protocol * PPTP, Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol * RPC, Remote Procedure Call Protocol * RTCP, Real-time Transport Control Protocol * SMPP, Short Message Peer-to-Peer * SCP, Session Control Protocol * SOCKS, the SOCKS internet protocol, see Internet socket * ZIP, Zone Information Protocol * SDP, Sockets Direct Protocol Transport Layer TCP UDP DCCP SCTP RSVP ECN *Port Numbers: *a *port number* is part of the addressing information used to identify the senders and receivers of messages. Port numbers are most commonly used with TCP/IP<http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/basictcpip

/g/bldef_tcpip.htm>connections. Home network routers and computer software work with ports and sometimes allow you to configure port number settings. These port numbers allow different applications on the same computer to share network resources simultaneously. * * 17. *How many reserved ports are there*

http://www.ingate.com/files/422/fwmanualen/xa10285.html

18. *I have 500 computers. prefer and why?*

Which OS will you

Windows Server OS Like 2003 Or 2008

19. *Flavours of Server? * Proxy Servers Mail Servers Web Servers Applications Servers FTP Servers Telnet Server

20.

*Editions of Windows 2003 Server*

Windows Small Business Server Web Edition Standard Edition Enterprise Edition Datacenter Edition Windows Compute Cluster Server Windows Storage Server

21.

*How to remove virus from server*

Run the Antivirus (Using Server Edition Anitvirus) Server Edition offers the most powerful protection to fight virus infections on your server or servers. It works both as primary protection of a file server itself, and, via its optional plug-ins, as protection for various server subsystems, such as electronic mail or firewall/proxy. The plugins are available for these servers: - MS Exchange Server 2000/2003/2007 - MS Sharepoint Server (including Office Sharepoint Server 2007) - SMTP Server 22. *What makes the switch an intelligent device*

MAc Address Table First Time It Will Communicate like Hub Each time When it Communicate , It Will create MAC Table For Example

23. *When can you call a OS as Server OS* 1) unlimited user connections 2) use of large amounts of memory 3) can act as web server, database server, email server and other server-like roles 4) optimized for network, instead of local application execution 5) extended management 6) extended fault tolerance to avoid downtimes 7) can hold a domain 8) expensive

24.

*What is HTTP? Port No of HTTP*

*Hypertext Transfer Protocol* (*HTTP*) is a networking protocol<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications _protocol>for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. [1]<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_ Protocol#cite_note-ietf2616-0>HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web>.

Port Number - 80 80 For Incoming 80 for Out going so - 8080 is address

25.

*Flavours of SP 2003*

Windows Small Business Server Web Edition Standard Edition Enterprise Edition Datacenter Edition Windows Compute Cluster Server Windows Storage Server

26. *500 Computers in Server Domain and how will clean up 300 virus infected computers without internet connectivity* Stop all File Sharing Between 300 Computers First Update the Antivirus In the Anti virus Server Second Disconnect the 300 Computer From the Domain

Clean the Virus using the Antivirus (Client Version Of the Antivirus)

27.

*How does DNS work*

DNS - Domain Name Server It Will Convert the IP (16.58.X.X) to Name Like ( www.google.com) and Viseversa Domain name Servers (DNS) are an important but invisible part of the internet, and form one of the largest databases on it. Each machine on an internet is assigned a unique address, called an IP address, which is 32 bit number and is expressed as 4 octets. The method user to represent these IP addresses is known as "dotted decimal Notation". A typical address looks like this: 199.249.150.4 It is very difficult to keep in mind the IP addresses of all the websites we visit daily, because it's not easy to remember strings of numbers. However, we do remember words. This is where Domain Names<http://www.domainmonster.com/>come into the picture. If you want to connect to a particular site, you need to know its IP address but do need to know its URL. The DNS gets the mappings of the IP addresses and the corresponding names. 28. *Where are the websites & files gets stored in?* The entire website stored in the Temp Forlder Forms Cookies

29. *Which tool is used to monitor the bandwidth of n/w?* WireShark FreeWare *Wire shark* is a free and opensource<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_and_open_so urce_software> packet analyzer <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Packet_analyzer>. It is used for network <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_network> troubleshooting, analysis, software and communications protocol<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications _protocol>development, and education.

30.

*How to reduce network traffic on a n/w*

By using Load Bancing Concept. *Load balancing* is a computer networking<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_net work>methodology to distribute workload across multiple computers or a computer cluster <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_cluster>, network links, central processing units, disk drives, or other resources, to achieve optimal resource utilization, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload.

31. *Will firewall be enabled by default in windows 2003 Server?*

To protect your computer with Windows Firewall, you must turn on (enable) Windows Firewall and start the Windows Firewall/Internet Connection Sharing service. If the Windows Firewall/Internet Connection Sharing service is not running and you attempt to start Windows Firewall, in the graphical user interface, a dialog box will be displayed to ask if you want to start the service; if you are using the command prompt, a warning will appear to inform you that the service has not been started.

32*. What are the well known port numbers and what are their port ranges?* The port numbers are divided into three ranges: the Well Known Ports, the Registered Ports, and the Dynamic and/or Private Ports.

*Well known ports *are assigned by the IANA and on most systems can only be used by system (or root) processes or by programs executed by privileged users. Ports are used in the TCP[RFC793] to name the ends of logical connections which carry long term conversations. For the purpose of providing services to unknown callers, a service contact port is defined. This list specifies the port used by the server process as its contact port. The contact port is sometimes called the "well-known port".

33.

*What is domain server?*

A domain name server (also called DNS) is the Internet's equivalent to a phone book. A domain name server maintains a directory of domain names and their matching IP addresses. This information allows other computers to know where to go to find your website. Without a domain name server and the information it provides, computers wouldn't know where to find your website or any other website. The information from all the domain name servers across the Internet is gathered into a Central Registry. ** * * 34. *What is Work Group*

It is Microsoft's terminology for a peer-to-peer Windows computer network. Microsoft <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft> operating systems<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_syste m>in the same workgroup may allow each other access to their files <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_file>, printers<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_print er>, or Internet connection <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internetworking>. Members of different workgroups on the same local area network<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_area_netw ork>and TCP/IP <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TCP/IP> network can only directly access resources in workgroups to which they are joined.

35*.

What are Types of W2K3 servers*

Nothing But Windows 2003 Servers. They are, *Copy backup, Daily backup, Differential backup, Incremental backup & Normal backup* * * 36*. What is a server used for*

The term *server* is used quite broadly in information technology<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_ technology>. Servers provide essential services across a network, either to private users inside a large organization or to public users via the Internet<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet>.

- a computer program running as a service, to serve the needs or requests of other programs (referred to in this context as "clients<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Client_ %28computing%29>") which may or may not be running on the same computer. - a physical computer dedicated to running one or more such services, to serve the needs of programs running on other computers on the same network. - a software/hardware system (i.e. a software service running on a dedicated computer) such as a database server<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_server> , file server <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_server>, mail server<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mail_server>, or print server <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Print_server>.

37.

*What are the restrictions in work group*

No Security , That's the Reason we are using Domain Controllers (Active Directory (ADS))

38*.

Diff b/w WEP &Wsk*

WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy UnEncryptTranmission WPA-PSK - Wifi Protected Access - Fully Encrypt Transmission

39*. Steps to be followed to connect to wireless n/w in a laptop* First Step - Scan for the Wireless Network Windows 7 - Right hand Side bottom , Click on the Wireless Icon it Will show the Network Name , Highlight the Network Name , Click on Connect , It Will Ask for Network Key , Enter the Wireless Password & Connect.

40. *Can software be installed in a virus infected system and that's a standalone computer with no internet connection.* Yes

41. *What is the procedure to connect a group of 5 computers to a wireless printer?*

First Scan & Connect the Wireless Printer Then Connect All the Computer in a Same Network Same Network,For Example : 192.168.1.2 - Comp1 192.168.1.3 - Comp2 192.168.1.4 - Comp3 192.168.1.5 - Comp4 192.168.1.6 - Comp5 192.168.1.7 - W/l Printer Then Setup the Printer in all the Computers by Adding a New Printer Adding A printer in Windows XP Start -> Control Panal ->PRinters& Other Hardware -> Run a Add a Printer Wizard http://www.uwplatt.edu/oit/howto/addnetprinterwin.html

42*. How will you delete the virus and stop the replication in and stop the replication in a LAN Connection of computers* Disable The Autoexe And Disconnect from a Network Find out what type of Virus Affected the Computer For More info - Check the System Logs

43. *What will you do if the mcafee installation stucks on a brand new computer?* Uninstall & Reinstall it Back We cannot Uninstall the Antivirus Simply Like Other Software .. We have to use Macfee Uninstallation tool from the Macfee website Addtional Information

--------------------Virus Should have 3 Main Functions * Search Function - Search for New Media (Like Floppy , CD , Other Computers) * Copy Function - It Will replicate the Exact Copy of itself * Hide Functions - It Should Hide from the Antivirus 44. *LLT (Low Latency Transport):* A communication mechanism of the VCS engine that provides kernel-to-kernel communications and monitors network communications. *Low latency* allows humanunnoticeable delays between an input being processed and the corresponding output providing real time characteristics. This can be especially important for internet connections utilizing services such as online gaming and VOIP; VOIP<http://dictionary.babylon.com/low%20latency/>is not as important as a minor delay between input from each side of the conversation is generally blamed on non-technical issues. 45. *File server *is a computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for shared disk access<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_disk_acce ss>, i.e. shared storage of computer files (such as documents, sound files, photographs, movies, images, databases, etc.) that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network.

46. *Proxy Server *is a server<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Server_ %28computing%29>that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Client_

%28computing%29> seeking resources from other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource, available from a different server. The proxy server evaluates the request according to its filtering rules.

47. *Network Architecture:* The design of a communications system, which includes the backbones, routers, switches, wireless access points, access methods and protocols used. It is a specification of design principles (including data formats and procedures) for creating a network configuration of data processors**

48. *ADS (Active Directory Services): *It is a directory service created by Microsoft. It uses a number of standardized protocols to provide a variety of network services. *Features:* Central location for network administration and security Information security and single sign-on for user access to networked recourses.

Active Directory stores all information and settings for a development in a central database. Active Directory allows administrators to assign policies, deploy and update software.

A directory service is the software system that stores, organizes and provides access to information in a directory.

49. *Group Policy *is a feature of the Microsoft Windows NT<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_NT>family of operating systems <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_system>. Group Policy is a set of rules which control the working environment of user accounts and computer accounts. Group Policy provides the centralized management and configuration of operating systems, applications and users' settings in an *Active Directory* <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_Directory> environment. In other words, Group Policy in part controls what users can and cannot do on a computer system. Group Policy can help you do the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. * * * * 50. *MAT (Memory Allocation Table) *Reserving memory for specific purposes. Configure user's desktops Configure local security on computers Install applications Run start-up/shut-down or logon/logoff scripts Configure Internet Explorer settings Redirect special folders

Operating systems and applications generally reserve fixed amounts of memory at startup and allocate more when the processing requires it. If there is not enough free memory to load the core kernel of an application, it cannot be launched. Although a virtual memory function will simulate an almost unlimited amount of memory, there is always a certain amount of "real" memory that is needed.** * * 51. *FAT (File Allocation Table) *is a computer file system<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_system>arch itecture now widely used on many computer systems and most memory cards, such as those used with digital cameras. FAT file systems are commonly found on floppy disks <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floppy_disk>, flash memory<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flash_memory>car ds, digital cameras <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_camera>, and many other portable devices because of their relative simplicity. It is supported by virtually all existing operating systems<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_syste m>for personal computers <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_computer>.** * * 51. *IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) *is the entity that oversees global IP address <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_address> allocation, autonomous system <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_system_

%28Internet%29>number allocation, root zone <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNS_root_zone> management in the Domain Name System <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_Name_System> (DNS), media types <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_media_type>, and other Internet Protocol <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Protocol>related symbols and numbers. IANA is operated by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Corpor ation_for_Assigned_Names_and_Numbers>, also known as ICANN.** * * 52.* SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) *is a Transport Layer<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_Layer> protocol <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications_protoco l>, serving in a similar role to the popular protocols Transmission Control Protocol<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_C ontrol_Protocol>(TCP) and User Datagram Protocol <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_Datagram_Protocol >(UDP). It provides some of the same service features of both: it is message-oriented like UDP and ensures reliable, insequence transport of messages with congestion control<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congestion_cont rol>like TCP. **

* * 53.* TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) *is one of the core protocols<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication s_protocol>of the Internet Protocol Suite <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Protocol_Suit e>. TCP is one of the two original components of the suite, complementing the Internet Protocol <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Protocol> (IP), and therefore the entire suite is commonly referred to as *TCP/IP*. TCP provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. TCP is the protocol that major Internet applications such as the World Wide Web<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web>, email <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Email>, remote administration<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remote_a dministration>and file transfer <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_transfer> rely on. * * 54. *UDP (User Datagram Protocol) *is one of the core members of the Internet Protocol Suite <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Protocol_Suit e>, the set of network protocols used for the Internet<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet>. With UDP, computer applications can send messages, in this case referred to as *datagrams* <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datagram>*. *UDP uses a simple

transmission model without implicit handshaking<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Handshaking >dialogues for providing reliability, ordering, or data integrity. Thus, UDP provides an unreliable service and datagrams may arrive out of order, appear duplicated, or go missing without notice. * * 55. *DCCP (**Datagram Congestion Control Protocol) *is an experimental message-oriented Transport Layer<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_layer> protocol <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protocol_ %28computing%29>. DCCP implements reliable connection setup, teardown, Explicit Congestion Notification <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explicit_Congestion_No tification>(ECN), congestion control <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congestion_control>, and feature negotiation. DCCP is useful for applications with timing constraints on the delivery of data that may become useless to the receiver if reliable in-order delivery combined with network congestion avoidance<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_conge stion_avoidance>is used. It allows for flow-based semantics like in Transmission Control Protocol<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_C ontrol_Protocol>(TCP), but does not provide reliable in-order delivery. ** * * *Regards Priya

HR Recruiter M & Y Placements *

*Prepare well. * *All the best* * * *Regards* gilbert *HR Recruiter* *M & Y Placements*
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