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A SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT On TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT In Fresenius Kabi Oncology Ltd, Baddi

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of the degree of PGPM +MBA
SHRI RAM INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, New Delhi

Submitted To: Mr. Atul Skalani Manager-HR (FKOL)

Submitted By:Anand Sagar Sharma 20091103 (SRIM)

DECLARATION

I the undersign hereby declare that the project report entitled Training & development written and submitted by me to SRIM, New Delhi in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of PGPM/MBA under the guidance of Mr. Atul Saklani is my original work and the conclusion drawn there in are based on the material collected by myself. I hereby also declare this study has not been permitted by me to publish anywhere.

Place: New Delhi Date: 2nd July, 2010

Anand Sagar Sharma

TO WHOM SO EVER IT MAY CONCERN

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I take the opportunity to express our gratitude to all the concerned people who have directly or indirectly contributed towards completion of this project. I extend my sincere gratefulness towards Fresenius Kabi Oncology Ltd, Baddi for providing the opportunity and resources to work on this project. I am extremely thankful to Mr. Atul Saklani my mentor in FOKL for his guidance and invaluable advice during the projects. Also to Mr. Manmaat Yadav whose insight encouraged me to go beyond the scope of the project and this broadened me learning on this project. I also want to show my gratitude to Mr. Shekhar whose insight helped me to complete this project.

Anand Sagar Sharma

PREFACE

The global economy of today has endangered the survival of every organization and in particular those who want to have a competitive edge over the others. The competitive edge may be a distant dream in the absence of Superior Quality Products which otherwise is the function of well-trained employees. Today resources are scarce and have to be used carefully. Trainers of all kinds are required to justify their position and account for their activities. Training activities, which are ill-directed and inadequately focused, do not serve the purpose of the trainers. Hence the trainees or the organization identification of training needs becomes the top priority of every progressive organization. Identification of training needs, if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. It will lead to multi-skilling, fitting people to take extra responsibilities, increasing all round competence and preparing people to take on higher level responsibility in future.

CONTENTS
TOPIC CHAPTER 1: (i) Introduction (ii) Scope and Objectives (iii) Executive Summary CHAPTER 2: (i) Introduction to Fresenius Kabi Oncology Ltd (ii) About the project (iii) Training and Development (iv) Importance of Training (v) Objectives of Training CHAPTER 3: (i) Learning and Training (ii) Training inputs (iii) Best time to impart training (iv) Methods of training (v) Training Design (vi) Training method used in FOKL CHAPTER 4: (i) Methodology of the project (ii) Data interpretation and analysis (iii) Findings (iv) Questionnaire CHAPTER 5: (i) Limitations (ii) Suggestions CHAPTER 6: (i) Bibliography 7 8 9-10 11-15 16 16-17 18-19 20-26 27-28 28 29-32 33-42 42-45 46-57 58-60 61-70 71 72-76 77 78 79

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION
Employee training tries to improve skills, or add to the existing level of knowledge so that employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibilities. However individual growth is not and ends in itself. Organizational growth need to be measured along with individual growth. Training refers to the teaching/learning activities done for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills, abilities & attitude needed by that organization to acquire and apply the same. Broadly speaking training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. In todays scenario, change is the order of the day and the only way to deal with it is to learn and grow. Employees have become central to success or failure of an organization. So it high time the organization realize that train and retain is the mantra of new millennium.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers in depth the various training practices, modules, formats being followed by the company Fresenius Kabi Oncology Ltd (FOKL) and is limited to its employees. The different training programmes facilitated in FOKL is through its faculties, outside agencies or professional groups. It also judges the enhancement of the knowledge & skills of employees and feedback on its effectiveness.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study of training policies in FOKL are: 1. To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of workforce. 2. To examine the impact of training on the workers. 3. To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training. 4. To measure the differential change in output due to training 5. To compare the cost effectiveness in implanting training programmes.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet this requirement, training is not important. When this not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. It is being increasing common for individual to change careers several times during their working lives. The probability of any young person learning a job today and having those skills go basically unchanged during the forty or so years if his career is extremely unlikely, may be even impossible. In a rapid changing society, employee training is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force. The entire project talks about the training and development in theoretical as well as new concepts, which are in trend now. Here we have discussed 1) What would be the input of training if we ever go for and how can it be good to any organization in reaping the benefits from the money invested in terms like (ROI) i.e. return on investment? 2) What are the ways we can identify the training need of any employee? 3) How to know what kind of training he can go for? 4) Training being imparted & its integrating with organizational culture. 5) The best and latest available training method, the benefits we can derive out of it. 6) How the evaluation should be done and how effective is the training all together?

Some of the companies practicing training in unique manner a lesson for other to follow as to how to train and retain the best resource in the world to reap the best out of it. Development is integral part of training if somebody is trained properly and efficiently the developments of that individual and the company for whom he is working. Here we discussed about development of employee, how to identify the needs, and after developing how to develop executive skill to sharpen their knowledge. Learning should be the continuous process and one should not hesitate to learn any stage. Learning and developing is fast and easy at FOKL.

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CHAPTER-2

Introduction to Fresenius Kabi Oncology Ltd

Fresenius Kabi Oncology Limited (FOKL) was formerly known as Dabur Pharma Ltd. March 18, 2003 was the foundation of Dabur Pharma Ltd. and in January 09, 2009 was the evolution of Fresenius Kabi Oncology Limited

It is one of the leading companies for cancer research and anti-cancer products. It leverages the global outreach through integration with Fresenius Kabi, Germany. FOKL is benchmarking in the oncology excellence with the world class production, state-of-theart manufacturing, employees training and research & development facilities. 11

Fresenius Kabi Oncology Limited has world class expertise for the development and manufacturing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), intermediates and oral & injectable finished dosage forms. The Company's finished dosage forms are manufactured at most modern manufacturing units in Baddi (India), while the APIs are manufactured at Kalyani (India). The trusted regulatory authorities like TGA, EDQM & USFDA have endorsed its commitment to Quality by Design. Over the years, Company has strived hard to strategically position itself as a global player in the field of oncology formulations & provide high quality products at a highly competitive-prices.

Vision
"To become the World Leader in oncology generics"

Mission
"Caring for Life"

Values
1. Concern for Life 2. Nurturing Talent 3. Innovation 4. Quality 5. Integrity 6. Ownership 7. Teamwork

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Chairmans Vision

I am delighted to introduce Fresenius Kabi Oncology Limited as our new company name. This newly named organization is now a part of the 14.2 billion Fresenius Group, headquartered in Germany. Fresenius Kabi is the leader in infusion therapy and clinical nutrition in Europe and in most important countries of Latin America and Asia Pacific. We are happy to inform you that now you can expect "Total Cancer Care" for the patients from the Fresenius Kabi Group through its market presence in cytotoxics, enteral and parenteral nutrition, transfusion technology and infusions. We assure more in our deliverables for critically and chronically ill-patients. We owe our success to our esteemed healthcare professionals, stakeholders & numerous employees who have committed themselves to the cause of a better life for people.

Dr. Satish Kulkarni (M.D & CEO)

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PRODUCTS
Fresenius Kabi Oncology Limited specialises in the field of oncology products supported by integrated manufacturing, regulatory, sales, marketing and distribution set up. The Company has world class expertise for development and manufacturing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), intermediates and dosage forms. From the development of process technology to filing of DMFs, we have full range of capabilities that would suffice various needs of our patients. All our activities are carried out in-house supported by stringent analytical and testing capabilities.

Our broad range of products span over injectables (liquid, dry, lyophilized), tablets and capsules. Our novel drug delivery system is dedicated to develop some high end products for substantially reducing the side effects and allergic reactions of the presently available formulations.

Fresenius Kabi Oncology Limited made its foray into the field of oncology with the launch of Intaxel (Paclitaxel), which is a revolutionary drug for various types of cancer management. It was the first time when Paclitaxel was made available in India and ours was only the second company to do so in the world. Since then Fresenius Kabi Oncology Limited has been the front runner in launching many generics in Oncology.

2007 witnessed the launch of another breakthrough product-Nanoxel which is a novel Nanoparticle based formulation of Paclitaxel. Nanoxel is the first in the next generation of chemotherapy drug delivery systems which sets us apart as safer & superior oncology 14

drugs developer. This nanoscale drug delivery system is India's first indigenously developed nanotechnology based chemotherapy agent. Nanoxel is considered as a much safer and more convenient form of the conventional drug. Other products offered by Fresenius Kabi Oncology Limited include a range of generic products: a) Taxane Analogues b) Alkylating Agents c) Anti-Metabolites d) Cytostatic Antibiotics e) Cytostatic hormone therapies

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ABOUT THE PROJECT


The duration of my project was of two months, during these two months I did many things regarding my project. I was the part of Human Resource Department.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


It is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or Behavioral change takes place in structured format.

TRADITIONAL & MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT


Traditional Approach Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.

Modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.

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TRAINING-DEFINED
It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior Its not what you want in life, but its knowing how to reach it Its not where you want to go, but its knowing how to get there Its not how high you want to rise, but its knowing how to take off It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome Its not what you dream of doing, but its having the knowledge to do it It's not a set of goals, but its more like a vision Its not the goal you set, but its what you need to achieve it Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.

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Importance of Training and Development


Optimum Utilization of Human Resources It helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. Development of Human Resources It helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. Development of skills of employees It helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees Productivity Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal 18

Team spirit It helps in inculcating sense of team work and inter-team collaborations. Organization Culture It helps to develop & improve organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. Organization Climate It helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. Quality It helps in improving upon the quality of work and the work-life. Healthy work-environment It helps in creating the healthy working environment by building good employee relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational. Health and Safety It helps in improving the health and safety of the organization. Morale Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. Image Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. Profitability It leads to improved profitability & positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Organizational Development- Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes & other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES


The principal objective of training and development is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, four other objectives: 1. Individual Objectives help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization. 2. Organizational Objectives assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness. 3. Functional Objectives maintain the departments contribution at a level suitable to the organizations needs. 4. Societal Objectives ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.

Importance of Training Objectives


Training objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think it as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program.

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Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives. 1. Trainer 2. Trainee 3. Designer 4. Evaluator

Trainer It is beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress
of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives & particular segments of training.

Trainee The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing
the anxiety of the trainee. Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration by creating an image of the training program in trainees mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals are much higher than the situation in which no goal is set.

Designer The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the
designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then hell buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation.

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Evaluator It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.

Training and Human Resource Management


The HR functioning is changing with time, so the relationship between the training function and other management activity are also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources & money. Now-a-days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM.

Role of HRD Professionals in Training


This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is: 1. Active involvement in employee education 2. Rewards for improvement in performance 3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training. 22

MODELS OF TRAINING 1. System Model Training


The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The steps involved are as follows:

1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job.

employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc.
2. Design step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning

steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.


3. Develop phase requires listing the activities that will assist the participants to

learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the objectives. 23

4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead

to the failure of whole training program.


5. Evaluating each phase to make sure it achieves its aim & making necessary

amendments to any of the previous stage in order to improve failure practices.

2. Instructional System Development Model (ISD) Model


Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:

1. ANALYSIS phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis and target audience analysis. 24

2. PLANNING phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program & strategies to impart knowledge. 3. DEVELOPMENT phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration etc i.e. course material for the trainee. 4. EXECUTION phase focuses on arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking etc. 5. EVALUATION phase make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. It consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

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TRAIN AND RETAIN TO STOP THE DRAIN


In todays competitive world, where margins are constantly under pressure, training budgets are the first to axed. So it becomes imperative that the training model that is evolved should be less capital intensive and not dependent upon profit margins and profitability. Although training needs are identified much before training programmed actually commence but still some crucial points are left some un-addressed. For example very little is done to know the opinion of the employee about training need identified for him as to what he feels about the same .99% cases employee is nominated by higher authorities instead of the chance being given to volunteer program under the notion that boss is always right and he knows the best off. Taking this in context there are many organizations where some employee who are earmarked are regularly nominated to attend training program. He is stressed out, why dont pack him up for a training program approach.

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CHAPTER-3 LEARNING AND TRAINING


Irrespective of the type or method of training, a trainer has to keep in mind some of the principles of learning or motivation, which would enhance internationalization of what is taught.

Motivation
A trainee needs to have a desire to learn and benefit from the programme. If the is not interested, or is de-motivated, the learning outcome is going to be insignificant and the company will have spent its money badly. On the other hand, being too intense about learning and outcome may result in setting over ambitious goals for the individual.

Reinforcement
Following on the concept of motivation is that of reinforcement. For learning to take place and be internalized to the desired extent, a trainee is rewarded or given some encouragement. This reinforcement, or the acknowledgement that what has been acquired is desirable, can be either an extrinsic or intrinsic reward-external praise or some tangible reward, or the individuals feeling of a sense of progress. Current stress is on positive support and helpful behavior, even when mistakes are made.

Feedback
During the training process, it is useful for the trainee to be told how he is progressing. Feedback therefore provides a basis for correcting oneself. Secondly, feedback helps to 27

sustain the trainees interest in the task, or in each learning that is taking place, by bringing greater involvement with the learning process. If feedback is to be meaningful, it should follow a learning segment as quickly as possible.

Repetition
Repetition etches a pattern into our memory, e.g., when one studies for an examination, it is necessary to repeatedly to over ideas so that they can be recalled later.

Relevance
Relevance relates to the meaningful fuse of material, which aids learning, e.g., trainers usually explain in the overall purpose of a job to trainees before assigning them a particular task.

TRAINING INPUTS
There are three basic types of inputs; (i) Skills (ii) Attitude (iii) Knowledge. The primary purpose of training is to establishing a sound relationship is at its best when the workers attitude to the job is right, when the workers knowledge of the job is adequate, and he has developed the necessary skills. Training activities in an industrial organization are aimed at making desired modifications in skills, attitudes and knowledge of employee so that they perform their jobs most efficiently and effectively.

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BEST TIME TO IMPART TRAINING TO EMPLOYEE

1. NEW RECRUITS TO THE COMPANY


These have a requirement for induction into the company as a whole in terms of its business activities and personnel policies and provisions, the terms, conditions and benefits appropriate to the particular employee, and the career and advancement opportunities available.

2. TRANSFEREES WITHIN THE COMPANY


These are people who are moved from one job to another, either within the same work area, i.e. the same department or function, or to dissimilar work under a different management. Under this heading we are excluding promotions, which take people into entirely new levels of responsibility.

3. PROMOTIONS
Although similar to the transferee in that there is a new job to be learned in new surroundings, he is dissimilar in that the promotion has brought him to a new level of supervisory or management responsibility. The change is usually too important and

difficult to make successfully to permit one to assume that the promotes will pick it up as he goes along and attention has to be paid to training in the tasks and the responsibilities and personal skills necessary for effective performance.

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4. NEW PLANT OR EQUIPMENT


Even the most experienced operator has everything to learn when a computer and electronic controls replace the previous manual and electro-mechanical system on the process plant on which he works. There is no less a training requirement for the supervisors and process management, as well as for technical service production control and others.

5. NEW PROCEDURES
Mainly for those who work in offices in commercial and administrative functions but also for those who we workplace is on the shop floor or on process plant on any occasion on which there is a modification to existing paperwork or procedure for, say the withdrawal of materials from stores, the control of customer credit the approval of expense claims, there needs to be instruction on the change in the way of working in many instances, a note bringing the attention of all concerned the change is assume to be sufficient, but there are cases, such as when total new systems incorporating it up dates are installed, when more thorough training is needed.

6. NEW STANDARDS, RULES AND PRACTICES


Changes in any one these are likely to be conveyed by printed note or by word of mouth by the manager to his subordinates, and this can be the most satisfaction way of dealing with the change from the point of view of getting those affected to understand their new responsibility. However not all changes under this heading can be left to this sort of handling. Even the simplest looking instruction may be regarded as undesirable or impracticable by whoever has to perform it he may not understand the purpose behind the change and lose confidence in a management which he now believes to be messing

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about, or he may understand the purpose and have a better alternative to offer if it is not too late.

7. NEW RELATIONSHIP AND AUTHORITIES


These can arise, as a result of management decisions, in a number of ways. In examples, the recognition of the accounts department can result in a realization of responsibilities between the section leaders of credit control, invoicing and customer records, although there is no movement of staff between the sections (i.e. no transfers). Although the change in work content for each clerk and supervisor is defined clearly for each person in the new procedures, there is nevertheless a need for each person to know where he stands in the new set up, which is responsible for what, and where to direct problems and enquiries as they arise in the future.

8. MAINTENANCE OF STANDARDS
We are here concerned with maintenance of standards through training, for it must be remembered that supervision and inspection and qualify control are continuously responsible for standards and exercise their own authorities to this end. Although it is generally agreed that some retraining from time to time, taking varied forms even for the on group of employees, does act as both a reminder and a stimulus, there is not much agreement on the next frequency and form that such retraining should take, of there is as yet little scientific knowledge on this subject which is of much use in industrial situations.

9. THE MAINTENANCE OF ADAPTABILITY


Again, whilst there is little scientific study of the loss of ability to learn new skills in those cases where people spend a long time without change, and without the need to 31

learn, there is increasing evidence in current experience to suggest that this is the case in industrial employment. Add, of course, there is the inference arising from the laboratory experiments of psychologists.

10. THE MAINTENANCE OF MANAGEMENT SKILLS & STANDARDS


Skills in supervising, employee appraisal, communications, leadership etc are important in all companies. Some of these skills are seen to be critical to major developments in company organization, culture, employee empowerment and so on. Initial training in these skills is not uncommon in the largest companies on appointment into management and supervision. But continuous training and performance monitoring is rare, despite the common knowledge that standards are as varied as human nature.

11. RETIREMENT AND REDUNDANCY


Employees of any position in the company who are heading towards retirement will benefit from learning about health, social life, and work opportunities money management etc. Internal or external courses are best attended a year or two before retirement date, in a few companies a member of Personnel will act as a counselor as required.

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METHODS OF TRAINING
There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and Behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.

LECTURES
It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. Some of the main features of lecture method are:

Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity

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Demonstration Training Method


This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. In order to be more effective, demonstration method should be should be accompanied by the discussion or lecture method. Demonstrates the task by describing how to do, while doing

Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what you will be showing them

Explains why it should be carried out in that way

The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of involvement of the trainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee is involved. After completing the demonstration the trainer provide feedback, both positive and or negative, give the trainee the opportunity to do the task and describe what he is doing and why.

Discussion Training Method


This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported, elaborated, explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the trainees. The interaction and the communication between these two make it much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. If the 34

Discussion method is used with proper sequence i.e. lectures, followed by discussion and questioning, can achieve higher level knowledge objectives, such as problem solving and principle learning. Understanding is conveyed in the form of verbal and non-verbal feedback that enables the trainer to determine whether the material is understood. If yes, then definitely it would help out the trainees to implement it at their workplaces and if not, the trainer may need to spend more time on that particular area by presenting the information again in a different manner. .

Computer-Based Training (CBT)


With the world-wide expansion of companies and changing technologies, the demands for knowledge and skilled employees have increased more than ever, which in turn, is putting pressure on HR department to provide training at lower costs. Many organizations are now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training to accomplish those goals. According to a recent survey, about 75% of the organizations are providing training to employees through Intranet or Internet. Internet is not the method of training, but has become the technique of delivering training. The growth of electronic technology has created alternative training delivery systems. CBT does not require face-to-face interaction with a human trainer. Some of the benefits of Computer-Based Training are:

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The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are :


o o o

INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) VIRTUAL REALITY

Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees and are best used for skill development. Various methods are:
o o o o o

BEHAVIOR-MODELING GAMES AND SIMULATIONS BUSINESS GAMES CASE STUDIES EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS 36

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHODS COACHING


Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants. A coach is the best training plan for the CEOs because It is one-to-one interaction It can be done at the convenience of CEO It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat IT helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executives convenience by the coach. 1. Understand the participants job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation 2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved 3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule 4. At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback 5. Repeat step 4 until performance improves.

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Mentoring
Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee. The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentees, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types. Some key points on Mentoring

Mentoring focus on attitude development Conducted for management-level employees Mentoring is done by someone inside the company It is one-to-one interaction

It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement

Job Rotation
For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executives outlook on the process of the organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. 38

Some of the major benefits of job rotation are:

It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries

Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required It determines the areas where improvement is required Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position

OFF THE JOB TRAINING


There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:

SENSITIVITY TRAINING TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES SIMULATION EXERCISES

Training Need Analysis (TNA)


An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance.

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Why training need analysis?


Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action. Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization performance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group.

Organizational Level
Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats. After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against

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costs. For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level

Individual Level
Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are: Appraisal and performance review Peer appraisal Competency assessments Subordinate appraisal Client feedback Customer feedback Self-assessment or self-appraisal

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Operational Level
Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done.

Training-Design

The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.

The trainer Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical,
interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers

The trainees A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their
profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design.

Training climate A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings,


positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable 42

nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.

Trainees learning style the learning style, age, experience, educational


background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program

Training strategies Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer
translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included.

Training topics After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be
delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Sequence the contents Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:


From simple to complex Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance From known to unknown From specific to general Dependent relationship

Training tactics Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program
becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors: Trainees background Time allocated Style preference of trainer Level of competence of trainer 43

Availability of facilities and resources, etc

Support facilities It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various
requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.

Constraints The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:
Time Accommodation, facilities and their availability Furnishings and equipments Budget Design of the training, etc

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TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS ADOPTED BY FOKL

The training methods which are generally used in are classified into two i.e.

1) On the job: On-the-job training places the employees in an actual work situation
and makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing. For jobs, that either are difficult to simulate or can be learn quickly by watching and doing on-thejob training makes sense. One of the drawbacks to on-the-job training can be low productivity while the employees develop their skills. Another drawback can be the errors made by the trainees while they learn. However, when the damage the trainees can do is minimal, where training facilities and personnel are limited or costly, and where it is desirable for the workers to learn the job under normal working conditions, the benefits of on-the-job training frequently offset its drawbacks.

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(ii) Job Instruction Training: JIT consists of four basic steps:


(a) Preparing trainees by telling them about the job & overcoming their uncertainties (b) Presenting the instruction, giving essential information in a clear manner; (c) Having the trainees try out the job to demonstrate their understanding; and (d) Placing the workers into the job, on their own, with a designated resource person to call upon should they need assistance.

2) Off the job: It covers a number of techniques classroom lectures, films,


demonstrations, case studies and other simulation exercises, and programmed instruction. The facilities needed for each of these techniques vary from a small make shift classroom to an elaborate development center with large lecture halls, supplemented by small conference rooms with sophisticated audiovisual equipment, two-way mirrors, and all the frills.

(i) Classroom lectures/conferences: The lecture or conference approach is well


adapted to conveying specific information rules, procedures, or methods. The use of audiovisuals or demonstrations can often make a formal classroom presentation more interesting while increasing retention and offering a vehicle for more interesting while increasing retention and offering a vehicle for clarifying more difficult points. The lectures liabilities include possible lack of feedback and the lack of active involvement by the trainees. 47

(ii) Simulation exercises: Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an
artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a simulation. Simulation activities include case exercises, experimental exercises, complex computer modeling, and vestibule training.

(iii)Vestibule training: In vestibule training, employees learn their jobs on the


equipment they will be using, but the learning is conducted away from the actual work floor. In the 1980s many large retail chains train cashiers on their new computer cash registers which are much more complex because they control inventory and perform other functions in addition to ringing up orders in specially created vestibule labs that simulated the actual checkout-counter environment.

ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS

There are five steps towards the assessment and analysis of training and development. Collection of information through interviewing and discussing with key personnel both inside and outside the organization or specific departments; observing the work place, working conditions, processes and outcomes; examining records, other written information and annual employee appraisal. Compare performances of each department and each employee against objectives, targets and standards set for them and keeping in mind future work requirements in the organization.

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Identify cause of problems faced by the organization to enable the management to train the employees in handling the problems as well as solving the problem in a satisfactory manner.

Segregate identified problems into problems requiring staff development action such as training and into problems requiring other management actions, so that these problems are accurately addressed. Prioritize training actions in accordance to where the training need is more urgent.

Role of Organization in Training and Development


An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it is the first contact for both. The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants: To hire new people training as a means of training new recruits To Expand When the company wants to increase its headcount To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date To enhance the performance of employees Organizations name to be a part of training unit.

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Trainee Role of Trainee in Transfer of Training


The trainee is a major stakeholder in a training program. The whole training program is developed for the trainees only. Each candidate plays an important role in the transfer of training because one participants attitude regarding the training influence the other participants and also each participant can assist by advancing the learning process to realize the training objectives. Participants willingness to invest in the program is directly proportional to the benefits of the learning that the trainee could expect. Each participant forms their own perception towards training. Some perceptions remain the same during the program, while some faded depending upon the assessment of a program by the

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participant Some personal factors that affect the trainees learning are: Family Situation Personal Problems Relation between the training program and personal objective Level of self esteem Benefits expected from training Comfort level with the trainer Learning style of trainee KSA of trainee Previous training experiences Desire for professional growth and development Some environmental factors that affect the trainees learning are: Relationship with colleagues and subordinates Training team Trainer team Training objective Content of training Training design i.e. methods, techniques, and strategies Environment in the program Composition of training group Infrastructure i.e. eating facilities, tea/coffee breaks

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Importance of Trainer, Role of Trainer


The effective transfer of training depends a lot on the trainer because it is the trainer only who can remove the mental block of trainee, motivate the trainee to learn, delete the negative perception of the trainee regarding the training. Besides all that, a lot depends on personality of trainer also. The major competencies & skills that are required to be present in a trainer are: Presentation Skills Business Skills i.e. budgeting, time management, negotiation, etc. Content Development i.e. material production, graphics, layouts, etc Self development i.e. interpersonal skills, good listening skills, flexible, accepting the share of accountability, etc Training Design Evaluating the training program Training need analysis Worksheet design Exercises design

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Facilitation Of Training
Facilitation of Transfer of Training through Focus on Trainee Focus on Organization Intervention

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Focus on Trainee Training is successful not only with good training design and training objectives but also with the readiness and willingness of the trainees. For the training to be successful, three things are required, 1. Motivation 2. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) 3. Expectations towards Training

Expected Performance is directly proportional to the multiplication of motivation, required KSAs, and expectations towards training i.e.

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Facilitation of Training Through Organization Intervention Failure of training is not always because of lack of KSAs but sometimes it is because of the organizational forces also. These forces also hold back the transfer of training, and learning. Therefore, it is important to keep in check those forces. For the successful transfer of training, it is necessary to have supervisor support, trainer support, peer support, reward system, climate and culture.

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NEW ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGIES IN TRAINING 1) Interactive computer video technology: The use of computers and videotapes in the field of training is now well established. Some leading institution like MANAGE, Hyderabad is using this technology in training programme. 2) Broadcast television / cable television: Televisions system in which programme is sent out by radio wave and are seen on television. Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) is very well using this technology its educational and training programme. 3) Computer aided instruction: An educational concept which places the student in a conversational mode with a computer which has programmed study plan. The programmed course selects the next topic or phase of study according to previous responses from the student allowing each student to progress at pace directly to his or her learning capability. 4) Interactive video /interactive compute: The phrase interactive video refers to a video programme with which user (trainee) can interact. Interactivity takes place between user and the system, some thing for IC also, the system composed of four basic components (1) monitor or video display unit (2) video tape or video disc (3) computer 56

(4) disc drive, the computer controls the video or video disc. Disc drive loads a programme into the computer. 5) Tele-conferencing: A two way audio and one way video system. It is used nowadays by many institutions for education and training purpose.

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CHAPTER - 4
TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS Cutting edge of competition today demands every organization, to measure its activities in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, excellence (triple E). To achieve this triple C a lot of investment is made by the organization but the sword of sure short success hangs on the head of the HRD manager, this is because he has to handle the most complex resource i.e. human resource. The next toughest thins is to maintain is the ROI (return on investment) of training and development. It is not only the ROI but the performance management, retention level, motivation, morale, creativity, innovation conflicts, loyalty and commitment etc. of the manpower which are not easy to handle. Keeping all these factors in mind the focus of vision falls on training and development. The training effectiveness is obviously in terms of enhanced skill and knowledge to achieve the present goals, through the increased learnt behavior. In the process of training effectiveness is the most important /vital area, where by the individual and organizational goals are integrated to bring about the desired performance levels. How to reduce the gap?

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METHODOLOGY OF THE PROJECT

Training skill & communication

Job performance

Trainer Trainee

Learning ability

Interview Preparation of the summary expressed Recommendation of fall back site Questionnaire design

RESEARCH DESIGN Descriptive Design.

Sample Size: To understand the training and development scenario at FKOL and what the trainee really feels about the training they have undergone and further what kind of training they look

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for. Do they really look for any kind of training or not? To study the above aspect we covered almost about 40 people from almost all the department at of the company.

TOOLS USED FOR DATA COLLECTION

Primary data collected through questionnaires and informal interviews. Secondary data collected through magazines, journals, websites, and other corporate publication

PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION.

Communication, asking questions and receiving a response in person Visiting the various organizations, libraries, internet and also preparation of the questionnaire with the help of the project guide.

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS


Q1.Your Organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Do you agree with this statement? Response Agree Disagree Partly Agree Cant Say Total No. Of Respondents 13 1 4 7 25 52 4 16 28 100 Percentage

Interpretation:The above graph indicates that Organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy.

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Q 2. How many training programmes will you attend in a year? Response Less than 10 10 20 20 40 More than 40 Total No. of respondents 14 2 6 3 25 Percentage 56 8 24 12 100

INTERPRETATION:The above chart indicates that less training programmes are held in the organization.

Q 3. To whom the training is given more in your organization? 62

Response Senior staff Junior staff New staff Based on requirement Total

No. of respondents 3 5 6 13 25

Percentage 12 20 24 52 100

INTERPRETATION:Training is provided on the basis of requirement.

Q 4. What are all the important barriers to Training and Development in your organization? 63

Response Time Money Lack of interest by staff Non-availability of skilled trainer Total

No. of respondents 5 4 6 10 25

Percentage 20 16 24 40 100

INTERPRETATION:The above graph indicates that the important barriers to Training and Development in the organization is Non-availability of skilled trainers.

Q 5. Enough practice is given for us during training session? Do you agree with this statement? 64

Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Somewhat agree Disagree Total

No. of respondents 14 2 6 3 25

Percentage 56 8 24 12 100

INTERPRETATION:This graph indicates that enough practice is given for employees during training sessions.

Q6. The training sessions conducted in your organization is useful. Do you agree with this statement?

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Respondents Strongly agree Agree Somewhat Disagree Total

No. of respondents 15 5 5 0 25

Percentage 60 20 20 0 100

INTERPRETATION:The above graph indicates that the training sessions conducted in the organization is useful.

Q7. Employees are given appraisal in order to motivate them to attend the training. Do u agree with this statement?

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Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Somewhat Disagree Total

No. of respondents 14 6 3 2 25

Percentage 56 24 12 8 100

INTERPRETATION:The above graph shows that Employees are given appraisal in order to motivate them to attend the training.

Q8. What are the skills that the trainer should possess to make the training effective? Respondents No. of respondents Percentage 67

Technical skills People skills or Soft skills Generalist makes better Personnel managers than Specialist Fond of talking to people Total

8 6 6 5 25

32 24 24 20 100

INTERPRETATION:The above graph indicates that the trainer should possess technical skills to make the training effective

Q9. What are the general complaints about the training session? Respondents No. of respondents Percentage

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Take away precious time of 4 employees Too many gaps between the 10 sessions Training sessions are unplanned 6 Boring and not useful Total 5 25

25 40 15 20 100

INTERPRETATION:The above graph indicates that there are two many gaps between the training sessions.

Q10. Reason for shortage of skilled man power at workplace are : Respondents No. of respondents Percentage 69

Lack of planning Lack of support from senior staff Lack of proper guidance and training at workplace Lack of quality education at primary and secondary level Total

5 10 8 2 25

20 40 32 8 100

INTERPRETATION:The above graph indicates that reason for shortage of skilled man power at workplace are lack of support from senior staff.

FINDINGS
1. The firm follows an effective training process. 70

2. Training is given to those employees who need it. 3. But the barrier for the training process in the organization is the non-availability of skilled trainers. 4. There are gaps between the training session organized by the company thats why trainee lost touch with that. 5. As workload is much on employees therefore less attention is given to training sessions by employees. 6. The organization also appoints trainer from outside or from different firms to ensure better training to its employees.

QUESTIONAIRE

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1) FKOL considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Do you agree with this? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Disagree 2) How many training programmes will you attend in a year? a) Less than 10 b) 10-20 c) 20-40 d) More than 40 3) To whom the training is given more in your organization? a) Senior staff b) Junior staff c) New staff d) Based on requirement 4) What are all the important barriers to Training and Development in your organization? a) Time b) Money c) Lack of interest by the staff d) Non-availability of skilled trainer 5) What mode of training method is normally used in your organization ? a) Job rotation b) External training c) Conference/discussion d) Programmed instruction

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6) Enough practice is given for us during training session? Do you agree with this? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Disagree 7) The training sessions conducted in your organization is useful. Do you agree with this? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Disagree 8) Employees are given appraisal in order to motivate them for attending training. a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Somewhat agree d) Disagree 9) How long will it take to implement the trained process? a) Less than 1 month b) 1-2 months c) 2-4 months d) More than 4 months

10) What type of training is being imparted for new recruitments in your organization ? a) Technical training 73

b) Management training c) Presentation skill d) Personality training 11) How well the workplace of the training is physically organized ? a) Excellent b) Good c) Average d) Bad 12) What Training and Development do you need to make your career aspirations to come true? a) Leadership training b) External Degree Study c) Formal meeting procedures d) Other (Please Specify) 13) What are the conditions that have to be improved during the training sessions? a) Re-design the job b) Remove interference c) Re-organize the work place d) Upgrade the information of the material given during training 14) What are the skills that the trainer should possess to make the training effective? a) Should possess only Technical skills b) Soft skills are more important than Technical skills c) Better Personnel managers that specialist d) Fond of talking to people 15) Reason for shortage of skilled man power at workplace are: a) Lack of planning 74

b) Lack of support from senior staff c) Lack of proper guidance and training at workplace d) Lack of quality education at primary and secondary level 16) To perform other jobs in your organization, what training or would you require? a) Safety awareness b) Negotiation skills c) Machine operations d) Occupational health 17) What are the general complaints about the training session? a) Take away precious time of employees b) Too many gaps between the sessions c) Training sessions are unplanned d) Boring and not useful 18) The time duration given for the training period is? a) Sufficient b) To be extended c) To be shortened d) Manageable 19) Comment on the degree to which training objective are met during training sessions: a) All the objectives are met b) Some objectives are met c) Met according to the need d) None of the objectives are met 20) Have you ever come across any problem during the training session conducted in your organization?

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a) Yes b) No c) Cant say d) If yes than what was it

CHAPTER-5

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LIMITATIONS
Every scientific study has certain limitations and the present study is no more exception. These are: 1. The terminology used in the subject is highly technical in nature and creates a lot of ambiguity. 2. All the secondary data are required were not available. 3. Respondents were found hesitant in revealing opinion about supervisors and management.

CONCLUSIONS/ SUGGESTIONS
Under noted few suggestions cum conclusion can be taken as for implementation to reap furthers benefits. Making training and development process and entirely in house activity to reduce cost. The maximum emphasis is given to job instruction methods where the trainee are made to understand their job thoroughly and the role they are going to play in performing their job. Lecture as well as the presentation is the major part of imparting the education and training them. The training objective are in keeping with needs and abilities of the trainee which proves to be the major reason for success of the training as whole. 77

The trainee fill the feedback form and from time to time test are conducted to know the gauge the effectiveness of training to employee to check their memory if they retain anything or not.

We think that time management is one of the thing on which FKOL team must emphasis so that there employee can be more productive as it was found during the visit to the corporate office people they lack in managing themselves.

Stress management training is more important for employee as it was observed that people are all the time in tension like situation as to how to do what to do when to do, no time and things like that which kept them tensed all time.

Last but not least behavioral training is more important as while doing the study it was found that people are less cooperative and outgoing to help out.

CHAPTER-6
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BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS:
David A. Decenzo /Stephen P. Robins - Personal and Human Resource Management A. Monappa - Personal Management Allan Pepper - A Handbook on Training and Development

WEBSITES:
www.fresenius-kabi-oncology.com www.wikipedia.org www.naukrihub/training and development.com

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