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Chip Morphing

1.1. The Energy Performance Tradeoff Engineering is a study of tradeoffs. In computer engineering the tradeoff has traditionally been between performance, measured in instructions per second, and price. Because of fabrication technology, price is closely related to chip size and transistor count. With the emergence of embedded systems, a new tradeoff has become the focus of design. This new tradeoff is between performance and power or energy consumption. The computational requirements of early embedded systems were generally more modest, and so the performance-power tradeoff tended to be weighted towards power. "High performance" and "energy efficient" were generally opposing concepts. However, new classes of embedded applications are emerging which not only have significant energy constraints, but also require considerable computational resources. Devices such as space rovers, cell phones, automotive control systems, and portable consumer electronics all require or can benefit from high-performance processors. The future generations of such devices should continue this trend. Processors for these devices must be able to deliver high performance with low energy dissipation. Additionally, these devices evidence large fluctuations in their performance requirements. Often a device will have very low performance demands for the bulk of its operation, but will experience periodic or asynchronous "spikes" when high-performance is needed to meet a deadline or handle some interrupt event. These devices not only require a fundamental improvement in the performance power tradeoff, but also necessitate a processor which can dynamically adjust its performance and power characteristics to provide the tradeoff which best fits the system requirements at that time. 1.2. Fast, Powerful but Cheap, and Lots of Control These motivations point to three major objectives for a power conscious embedded processor. Such a processor must be capable of high performance, must consume low amounts of power, and must be able to adapt to changing performance and power requirements at runtime. The objective of this seminar is to define a micro-architecture which can exhibit low power consumption without sacrificing high performance. This will require a fundamental shift to the powerperformance curve presented by traditional microprocessors. Additionally, the processor design must be flexible and reconfigurable at run-time so that it may present a series of configurations corresponding to different tradeoffs between performance and power consumption. 1.3. MORPH

Laser Communications

Definition
Laser communications offer a viable alternative to RF communications for inter satellite links and other applications where high-performance links are a necessity. High data rate, small antenna size, narrow beam divergence, and a narrow field of view are characteristics of laser communications that offer a number of potential advantages for system design. Lasers have been considered for space communications since their realization in 1960. Specific advancements were needed in component performance and system engineering particularly for space qualified hardware. Advances in system architecture, data formatting and component technology over the past three decades have made laser communications in space not only viable but also an attractive approach into inter satellite link applications. Information transfer is driving the requirements to higher data rates, laser cross -link technology explosions, global development activity, increased hardware, and design maturity. Most important in space laser communications has been the development of a reliable, high power, single mode laser diode as a directly modulable laser source. This technology advance offers the space laser communication system designer the flexibility to design very lightweight, high bandwidth, low-cost communication payloads for satellites whose launch costs are a very strong function of launch weigh. This feature substantially reduces blockage of fields of view of most desirable areas on satellites. The smaller antennas with diameter typically less than 30 centimeters create less momentum disturbance to any sensitive satellite sensors. Fewer on board consumables are required over the long lifetime because there are fewer disturbances to the satellite compared with heavier and larger RF systems. The narrow beam divergence affords interference free and secure operation. Laser communication systems offer many advantages over radio frequency (RF) systems. Most of the differences between laser communication and RF arise from the very large difference in the wavelengths. RF wavelengths are thousands of times longer than those at optical frequencies are. This high ratio of wavelengths leads to some interesting differences in the two systems. First, the beam-width attainable with the laser

The invention of transistor enabled the first use of radiometry capsules, which used simple circuits for the internal study of the gastro-intestinal (GI) [1] tract. They couldn't be used as they could transmit only from a single channel and also due to the size of the components. They also suffered from poor reliability, low sensitivity and short lifetimes of the devices. This led to the application of single-channel telemetry capsules for the detection of disease and abnormalities in the GI tract where restricted area prevented the use of traditional endoscopy. 1.1 Superconductivity Superconductivity is the phenomenon in which a material losses all its electrical resistance and allowing electric current to flow without dissipation or loss of energy. The atoms in materials vibrate due to thermal energy contained in the materials: the higher the temperature, the more the atoms vibrate. An ordinary conductor's electrical resistance is caused by these atomic vibrations, which obstruct the movement of the electrons forming the current. If an ordinary conductor were to be cooled to a temperature of absolute zero, atomic vibrations would cease, electrons would flow without obstruction, and electrical resistance would fall to zero. A temperature of absolute zero cannot be achieved in practice, but some materials exhibit superconducting

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Ultra Conductors
1.1 Superconductivity Superconductivity is the phenomenon in which a material losses all its electrical resistance and allowing electric current to flow without dissipation or loss of energy. The atoms in materials vibrate due to thermal energy contained in the materials: the higher the temperature, the more the atoms vibrate. An ordinary conductor's electrical resistance is caused by these atomic vibrations, which obstruct the movement of the electrons forming the current. If an ordinary conductor were to be cooled to a temperature of absolute zero, atomic vibrations would cease, electrons would flow without obstruction, and electrical resistance would fall to zero. A temperature of absolute zero cannot be achieved in practice, but some materials exhibit superconducting characteristics at higher temperatures. In 1911, the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity in mercury at a temperature of approximately 4 K (-269o C). Many other superconducting metals and alloys were subsequently discovered but, until 1986, the highest temperature at which superconducting properties were achieved was around 23 K (-250o C) with the niobium-germanium alloy (Nb3Ge) In 1986 George Bednorz and Alex Muller discovered a metal oxide that exhibited superconductivity at the relatively high temperature of 30 K (-243o C). This led to the discovery of ceramic oxides that super conduct at even higher temperatures. In 1988, and oxide of thallium, calcium, barium and copper (Ti2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10) displayed superconductivity at 125 K (-148o C), and, in 1993 a family based on copper oxide and mercury attained superconductivity at 160 K (-113o C). These "hightemperature" superconductors are all the more noteworthy because ceramics are usually extremely good insulators. Like ceramics, most organic compounds are strong insulators; however, some organic materials known as organic synthetic metals do display both conductivity and superconductivity. In the early 1990's, one such compound was shown to super conduct at approximately 33 K (-240o C). Although this is well below the temperatures achieved for ceramic oxides, organic superconductors are considered to have great potential for the future. New superconducting materials are being discovered on a regular basis, and the search is on for room temperature superconductors, which, if discovered, are expected to revolutionize electronics. Room temperature superconductors (ultraconductors) are being developed for

Chip Morphing
1.1. The Energy Performance Tradeoff Engineering is a study of tradeoffs. In computer engineering the tradeoff has traditionally been between performance, measured in instructions per second, and price. Because of fabrication technology, price is closely related to chip size and transistor count. With the emergence of embedded systems, a new tradeoff has become the focus of design. This new tradeoff is between performance and power or energy consumption. The computational requirements of early embedded systems were generally more modest, and so the performance-power tradeoff tended to be weighted towards power. "High performance" and "energy efficient" were generally opposing concepts. However, new classes of embedded applications are emerging which not only have significant energy constraints, but also require considerable computational resources. Devices such as space rovers, cell phones, automotive control systems, and portable consumer electronics all require or can benefit from high-performance processors. The future generations of such devices should continue this trend. Processors for these devices must be able to deliver high performance with low energy dissipation. Additionally, these devices evidence large fluctuations in their performance requirements. Often a device will have very low performance demands for the bulk of its operation, but will experience periodic or asynchronous "spikes" when high-performance is needed to meet a deadline or handle some interrupt event. These devices not only require a fundamental improvement in the performance power tradeoff, but also necessitate a processor which can dynamically adjust its performance and power characteristics to provide the tradeoff which best fits the system requirements at that time. 1.2. Fast, Powerful but Cheap, and Lots of Control These motivations point to three major objectives for a power conscious embedded processor. Such a processor must be capable of high performance, must consume low amounts of power, and must be able to adapt to changing performance and power requirements at runtime. The objective of this seminar is to define a microarchitecture which can exhibit low power consumption without sacrificing high performance. This will require a fundamental shift to the power-performance curve presented by traditional microprocessors. Additionally, the processor design must be flexible and reconfigurable at run-

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