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P.A.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY POLLACHI CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY

UNIT I-Introduction Part A 1. Specify the four categories of security threats? 2. Explain active and passive attack with example? 3. Define integrity and non repudiation? 4. Differentiate symmetric and asymmetric encryption? 5. Define cryptanalysis? 6. Compare stream cipher with block cipher with example. 7. Define security mechanism. 8. Differentiate unconditionally secured and computationally secured. 9. Define steganography. 10. Why network need security? 11. Define Encryption. 12. Specify the components of encryption algorithm. 13. Define confidentiality and authentication Confidentiality. 14. Define cryptography. 15. Compare Substitution and Transposition techniques. 16. What are the two basic functions used in encryption algorithms? 17. Compare Substitution and Transposition techniques. 18. Define Diffusion & confusion. 19. How many keys are required for two people to communicate via a cipher? 20. Define cryptography. 21. Specify the basic task for defining a security service. 22. Define security mechanism.

Part B 1. List and describe categories of Security Services 2. List and describe categories of Security mechanisms 3. List the categories of active security attack and explain any one active security attack 4. List the categories of passive security attack and explain any one passive security attack 5. Distinguish between active and passive security attacks and name possible active and passive security attacks 6. List and describe security goals 7. Write short notes on symmetric encryption. 8. Write short notes on asymmetric encryption.

UNIT II- Symmetric Ciphers Part A 1. Define Product cipher. 2. Explain Avalanche effect. 3. Give the five modes of operation of Block cipher. 4. State advantages of counter mode. 5. Define Multiple Encryption. 6. Specify the design criteria of block cipher. 7. Define Reversible mapping. 8. Specify the basic task for defining a security service. 9. What is the difference between link and end to end encryption? 10. What is traffic Padding? What is its purpose? 11. List the evaluation criteria defined by NIST for AES? 12. What is Triple Encryption? How many keys are used in triple encryption? 13. Give the five modes of operation of Block cipher. 4. What is the difference between a block cipher and a stream cipher? 14. What are the two approaches to attacking a cipher? 15. What is the difference between an unconditionally secure cipher and a computationally secure cipher? 16. Briefly define the Caesar cipher. 17. Briefly define the monoalphabetic cipher? 18. Briefly define the playfair cipher. 19. What are the two problems with one-time pad?

20. What is a transposition cipher? 21. Why is it not practical to use an arbitrary reversible substitution cipher? 22. What is the difference between diffusion and confusion? 23. Which parameters and design choices determine the actual algorithm of a feistel cipher? 24. What is the purpose of the S-boxes in DES? 25. Explain the avalanche effect. 26. What is the difference between a mono alphabetic cipher and a poly alphabetic cipher? 28. List the types of cryptanalytic attacks. 29. What was the original set of criteria used by NIST to evaluate candidate AES cipher? 30. What is traffic Padding? What is its purpose? 31. What is the difference between the AES decryption algorithm and the equivalent inverse cipher? 32. What is power analysis? 33. What was the final set of criteria used by NIST to evaluate candidate AES ciphers? 34. How many bytes in State are affected by Shift Rows? 35. Define Shift Rows. 36. Define Sub Bytes. 37. How is the S-box constructed? 38. What is the purpose of the State array? 39. Define Mix Columns. 40. Define Add Round Key. 41. Define Key Expansion Algorithm. 42. What is the difference between Sub Bytes and Sub Word? 43. What is the difference between Shift Rows and Rot Word? 44. Why do some block cipher modes of operation only use encryption while others use both encryption and decryption? 45. What is triple encryption? 46. How many keys are used in triple encryption? 47. What is a meet-in-the-middle attack?

Part-B

1. Explain (a) Playfair cipher (b) Vernam cipher in detail. 2. Convert MEET ME using Hill cipher with the key matrix Convert the cipher text back to plaintext. 3. Explain simplified DES with example. 4. Write short notes on i) Steganography 5. Explain classical Encryption techniques in detail. 6. Write short notes on (a) Security services (b) Feistel cipher structure 7. Explain Data Encryption Standard (DES) in detail. 8. Briefly explain about DES design criteria? 9. Briefly describe about the Strength of DES? 10. Briefly explain Block Cipher modes of Operation 11. Briefly explain about AES design criteria? 12. Explain Triple DES with neat diagram 13. How AES is used for encryption/decryption? Discuss with example. 14. List the evaluation criteria defined by NIST for AES.

UNIT III- Asymmetric Ciphers Part A

1. Differentiate public key and conventional encryption? 2. What are the principle elements of a public key cryptosystem? 3. What are roles of public and private key? 4. Specify the applications of the public key cryptosystem? 5.What is the primitive root of a number? 6. What is a one way function? 7. What is a trapdoor one way function? 8. Describe in general terms an efficient procedure for picking a prime number? 9. Define Eulers theorem and its application? 10. Define Eulers totient function or phi function and their applications? 11. Describe in general terms an efficient procedure for picking a prime number? 12. Define Fermat Theorem? 13. List four general characteristics of schema for the distribution of the public key? 14. What are essential ingredient of the public key directory? 15. Find gcd (1970, 1066) using Euclids algorithm? 16. What is the primitive root of a number? 17. Determine the gcd (24140,16762) using Euclids algorithm. 18. Perform encryption and decryption using RSA Alg. for the following. P=7; q=11; e=17; M=8. 19. What is an elliptic curve? 20. What common mathematical constants are used in RC5? 21. What primitive operations are used in RC5? Part-B 1. Define Fermat theorem and explain its application. 2. Define Eulers theorem and explain its application. 3. Define Chinese remainder theorem and explain its application. 4. Explain RSA algorithm in detail with an example. 5. Briefly explain the idea behind Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem. 6. Briefly explain Rabin cryptosystem. 7. Briefly explain Elgamal cryptosystem. 8. Explain RC5 in detail. 9. Compare Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem, Rabin cryptosystem and Elgamal cryptosystem. 10. Explain Eulers theorem and its application in detail?

UNIT IV- Message Authentication and Integrity Part A

1. What is message authentication? 2. Define the classes of message authentication function. 3. What are the requirements for message authentication? 4. What you meant by hash function? 5. Differentiate MAC and Hash function? 6. Any three hash algorithm. 7. What are the requirements of the hash function? 8. What you meant by MAC? 9. Differentiate internal and external error control. 10. What is the meet in the middle attack? 11. What is the role of compression function in hash function? 12. What is the difference between weak and strong collision resistance 13. Compare MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD-160 algorithm. 14. Distinguish between direct and arbitrated digital signature? 15. What are the properties a digital signature should have? 16. What requirements should a digital signature scheme should satisfy? 17. What primitive operations are used in Blowfish? 18. What common mathematical constants are used in RC5? 19. What primitive operations are used in RC5? 20. List important design considerations for a stream cipher. 21. Why is it not desirable to reuse a stream cipher key? 22. What primitive operation is used in RC4? 23. For user workstation in a typical business environment, list potential locations for confidentiality attacks. 24. What is the difference between link and end-to-end encryption? 25. What types of information might be derived from a traffic analysis attack? 26. What is traffic padding and what is its purpose? 27. List ways in which secret keys can be distributed to two communicating parties. 28. What is the difference between a session key and a master key? 29. What is nonce? 30. What is key distribution center? 31. What is the difference between statistical randomness and unpredictability? 32. Define Kerberos. 33. What are the requirements involved in Kerberos? 34. Define Kerberos Realm.

35. What are the technical deficiencies involved in the Kerberos Version 4? 36. What are the services provided by PGP services 37. Explain the reasons for using PGP? 38. Why E-mail compatibility function in PGP needed? 39. Name any cryptographic keys used in PGP? 40. What are the elements include in the Public-Key Certifications? 41. What are the two types of Certificates? 42. Define PGP. 43. Define Public Key Management. 44. What are the applications involved in IP Security? 45. What are the IP Security Mechanisms? 46. Define Authentication Header. 47. Define Authentication Data. 48. Define Certification Authority. 49. What are the Applications required by the Kerberos Servers? 50. List the design goals of firewalls? 1. Explain Authentication Functions. 2. Briefly Explain HMAC algorithm. 3. Describe RIPEMD-160. 4. Explain Hash Functions. 5. Explain Digital Signature Standard. 6. Briefly explain about MD5 algorithm? 7. Briefly describe about the Secure Hash Algorithm? 8. Explain authentication protocol 9. Explain the classification of authentication function in detail 10. Describe MD5 algorithm in detail. Compare its performance with SHA-1. 11. Describe SHA-1 algorithm in detail. Compare its performance with MD5 and RIPEMD-160 and discuss its advantages. 12. Describe RIPEMD-160 algorithm in detail. Compare its performance with MD5 and SHA-1. 13. Describe HMAC algorithm in detail. 14. Write and explain the Digital Signature Algorithm. 15. Assume a client C wants to communicate with a server S using Kerberos protocol. How can it be achieved?