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Structure of Chromosomes

1. Introduction 2. Discovery of Chromosomes 3. Basic structure of Chromosomes 4. Significance of Chromosomes 5. The DNA Strand 6. Importance of DNA 7. Summary

Introduction
Chromosomes are the chromatin material inside the nucleus. Chromosomes are so called because they take up certain basic dye stains very readily. Chromos = colour and soma = body Chromosomes consist of Histone proteins and DNA (deoxy-ribonucleic acid).

DNA carry information for synthesis of various proteins required for physiological functions. These stretches of DNA are referred to as GENES Chromosomes are best observed at Metaphase stage.

Colchicine (0.3 ml of 1 % Colchicine)


It is used to stop cell cycle during Metaphase. It is used To check defects in lengths of arms To ensure attachments of spindle fibres for correct separation. Colchicine is used in chromosome Karyotype analysis.

Definition of Chromosome
Chromosomes are chromatin material thread like structure present inside the nucleus made of DNA and Histone proteins and are important in transfer of genetic material (genes) from one generation to the future generation. Also termed as Hereditary material.

Discovery of Chromosomes
E.Strasburger: Observed thread like structures during cell division. Balbiani: Described rod like structures in nucleus before cell division. W. Fleming: Described splitting of chromosome called stained material Chromatin Waldeyer: Coined the term Chromosomes Sutton & Boveri: Said chromosomes are physical structures and transmitters of hereditary traits

TELOMERE: A TELOMERE is a region of repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration. Its name is derived from the Greek words telos "end" and mers "part". The telomere regions deter the degradation of genes near the ends of chromosomes by allowing for the shortening of chromosome ends, which necessarily occurs during chromosome replication.

CENTROMERE: A Centromere is a region of DNA typically found near the middle of a chromosome where two identical sister chromatids come closest in contact. It is involved in cell division as the point of mitotic spindle attachment. The sister chromatids are attached all along their length, but they are closest at the centromere.

HISTONES: Histones are strongly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei, which package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes. They are the chief protein components of chromatin, act as spools around which DNA winds, and play a role in gene regulation.