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ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS IN AFRICAN, CARIBBEAN & PACIFIC (ACP) STATES SOUTHERN AFRICA

Country Study: Swaziland

Final Report

Report prepared by:

Zilole M.K. Phiri

On behalf of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)

Project: 4-7-41-252-7/a

January 2008

Disclaimer This report has been commissioned by the CTA to enhance its monitoring of information needs in ACP countries. CTA does not guarantee the accuracy of data included in this report, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof. The views and opinions expressed in this report are those of the author alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of CTA. CTA reserves the right to select projects and recommendations that fall within its mandate.

(ACP-EU) Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) Agro Business Park 2 6708 PW Wageningen The Netherlands Website: www.cta.int E-mail: cta@cta.int

Table of Contents
Acronyms..........................................................................................................................................v Executive Summary........................................................................................................................ vii 1. 2. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 COUNTRY PROFILE KINGDOM OF SWAZILAND ............................................................ 3 2.1 Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Livestock ..........................................................4 2.1.1 Agriculture...................................................................................................................... 4 2.1.2. Fisheries ....................................................................................................................... 5 2.1.3 Forestry.......................................................................................................................... 6 2.1.4 Pastoralism/Livestock .................................................................................................... 6 2.2 Status of ICT and Recent Development in the Sector ................................................7 STATUS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT.................................................................................................................... 9 3.1 Institutional and Regulatory Policy Framework .........................................................9 3.2 Operational Aspects .........................................................................................10 3.2.1 Agricultural Information and Services .......................................................................... 10 3.2.2 Information Sources..................................................................................................... 10 3.2.3 Information Products and Services Provided by the Main Actors. .............................. 11 3.2.4 Information and Communication Management (ICM) Capacity .................................. 11 3.3 Interventions Supporting Information and Communication for Agriculture and Rural Development. .................................................................................................12 INSTITUTIONAL NEEDS ANALYSIS (MAIN BOTTLENECKS AND SHORTCOMINGS) ... 13 4.1 Information Needs ...........................................................................................13 4.2 Capacity Building Needs ...................................................................................15 4.2.1 ICM Management ........................................................................................................ 15 4.2.2 ICT Training ................................................................................................................. 16 4.2.3 Funding for Equipment and Information Resources .................................................... 17 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................... 20 5.1 Conclusions ...................................................................................................20 5.1.1 Information Needs........................................................................................................ 20 5.1.2 Capacity-building Needs.............................................................................................. 21 5.1.3 Potential Partners and Beneficiaries............................................................................ 22 5.2 Recommendations ...........................................................................................22 5.2.1 Information Needs........................................................................................................ 22 5.2.2 Capacity-building Needs.............................................................................................. 23 5.2.3 Potential Strategic Partner Institutions......................................................................... 24 PROPOSED CTA INTERVENTION STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN ............................... 25 6.1 Intervention Strategies ......................................................................................25

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ANNEXES...................................................................................................................................... 27 ANNEX 1. TERMS OF REFERENCE ........................................................................................... 28 ANNEX 2. COUNTRY PROFILE - SWAZILAND........................................................................... 35 2.1 General Agricultural Profile ................................................................................35 2.1.1 Size of Agricultural Population..................................................................................... 35 2.1.2 Farmed Land, Forests & Fishing Areas ....................................................................... 36 2.1.3 Agricultural Systems .................................................................................................... 37 2.1.4 Agriculture in the Economy.......................................................................................... 37 2.1.5 Main Agricultural Produce and Secondary Products ................................................... 38 2.1.6 Main Export Markets .................................................................................................... 41 2.1.7 Trade Agreements Relevant to Agriculture ................................................................. 42

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2.1.8 Sectoral Policy Related to Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry .................................. 42 2.1.9 Institutional, Regulatory and Policy Framework for Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) ............................................................................................................... 44 2.2. Social-Economic Profile ...................................................................................45 2.2.1 Total active population, demographic breakdown ....................................................... 45 2.2.2 Literacy Levels and Languages ................................................................................... 45 2.2.3 Access to Services....................................................................................................... 46 2.2.4. Rural-Urban Drift......................................................................................................... 48 2.3. Media and Telecommunications ........................................................................49 2.3.1 Newspapers, Periodicals and Broadcast Media .......................................................... 49 2.3.2 Telecommunication Services....................................................................................... 52 2.3.3 Computer and Internet Services .................................................................................. 53 ANNEX 3. PROFILE OF INSTITUTIONS...................................................................................... 54 3.1. List of Institutions involved in Agriculture .............................................................54 3.2. Select List of Key Institutions ............................................................................60 ANNEX 4. LIST OF INSTITUTIONS AND PERSONS INTERVIEWED ........................................ 77 ANNEX 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................... 80

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Acknowledgements The consultant would like to most sincerely thank those who donated their time and availed themselves for the interviews in order to make this report. Their participation provided very useful information. The cooperation rendered to the consultant by the persons in the key institutions listed in annex 4 was very generous given the busy schedule that they may have had. The consultant also recognised the valuable assistance of Marion Chibambo and Nkosinathi Dlamini in the preparation of the country profile and conducting interviews respectively.

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Acronyms
ACP ADB AGOA AIDS AU CMA COMESA CSO CTA DORA DSL EFTA ESKOM FAO FINCORP GDP GSP HIV ICM ICT IDE IFLA ISO ISP IT ITF ME MEPD MHSW MNRE MOAC MTEC MTN NAMBOARD NDS NEPAD NERCHA NGO NICI NMC NUPE OVC PTA African, Caribbean and Pacific African Development Bank African Growth and Opportunities Act Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome European Union Common Monetary Area Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Central Statistical Office Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation Dissemination of Reference Books in Agriculture Digital Subscriber Line European Union Free Trade Agreement Electricity Supply Commission (South Africa) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Swaziland Development Finance Corporation Gross Domestic Product General System of Preferences Human Immune Virus Information and Communication Management Information Communication Technology Institute of Distant Education International Federation of Library Associations International Standards organization Internet Service Providers Information Technology Individual Title Farm Ministry of Education Ministry of Economic Planning and Development Ministry of Health and Social Welfare Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy Ministry of Agriculture and Co-Operatives Ministry of Tourism Environment and Communication Mobile Telecommunication Network National Agriculture Marketing Board National Development Strategy New Partnership for Africa's Development National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS Non-Governmental Organizations National Information and Communication Infrastructure National Maize Corporation National Universal Primary Education Orphans and Vulnerable Children Preferential Trade Agreement
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QAS RDA RWSB SACU SACUDE SADC SBIS SCANUL SCECSAL SCOT SDI SE SEB SLUDE SNL SMI SNEP SPTC SUFA ToR SWSC UNESCO UNISWA WHO WTO

Question and Answer Service Rural Development Areas Rural Water Supply Board Southern African Customs Union Southern African Consortium of Universities for Development Environment Southern African Development Community Swaziland Broadcasting Information Services Standing Conference of African National and University Libraries

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Standing Conference of Eastern, Central and Southern African Librarians Swaziland College of Technology Selective Dissemination of Information Swaziland Environment Swaziland Electricity Board Southern African Sustainable Land Use and Natural Resources Management Swaziland Nation Land Swaziland Meat Industries Swaziland National Energy Policy Swaziland Postal & Telecommunications Corporation Strengthening UNISWA Faculty of Agriculture Terms of Reference Swaziland Water Sewerage Company United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization University of Swaziland World Health Organization World Trade Organization

Exchange rate on 27 July, 2007: 1 US$= 7.1 Emalangeni (E); 1 Euro= 9.7 Emalangeni (E). Unless otherwise stated figures are in Emalangeni (E).

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Executive Summary
Introduction In accordance to its objectives of improving access and strengthening the exchange and utilization of agricultural and rural development information in African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries, the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) supported the needs assessment study to identify the agricultural and rural development information needs, services and products in Swaziland. Objectives of the study The objectives of the study were to: provide an overview of the main agricultural services and actors existing; their strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for collaboration with CTA; identify agricultural and information capacity management building needs of key actors/strategic partners for CTAs products and services; identify potential strategic partners for CTA activities and services; develop baseline data on Information Communication Technology (ICT) /Information Communication Management (ICM) status to facilitate monitoring and upgrading activities. Methodology The study employed both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from stake holders/players in the agricultural and rural development sector. A desk review of print and electronic information sources obtained largely from the University of Swaziland libraries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MOAC) library were used to produce a country report. Personal interviews were conducted with persons in eleven selected institutions involved in agricultural and rural development. The list from which the eleven were selected was developed from Swaziland Telecommunication Directory 2007, the Directory of Development Organizations vol. 1. B/Africa, 7th ed., and the Swaziland small and Medium Scale Business directory 2006. Criteria used for selection of the institutions included their involvement in agricultural and rural development activities countrywide which was a mandatory criterion; involvement in one or more of the following : human resources development, natural resources and energy, financial services, information services; policy influence, farm organizations, marketing, media and telecommunication. Analysis of data Qualitative data was analysed to determine the trend in the particular area under scrutiny while quantitative data was analysed using frequency distributions and percentiles to provide trends in the sector. Expected results The study was expected to provide information about the availability and condition of infrastructure of information services and ICM/ICT, capacity-building deficiencies and

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needs and potential partners; baseline data on ICM/ICT status in the selected institutions. Findings The desk review of both print and electronic literature showed that Swaziland had a population of about 1.2 million with an annual growth rate of 2.9%; 70% of the population lived in the rural areas and over 50% of the population was female. Literacy rate was 82%. The country is predominantly agricultural with 69% of total surface area allocated to farming. The average share of agriculture in GDP was 9.3% over the past five years(1997/98/2002/03) with an annual average growth rate of -1.3% during the same period. Major crops included sugar cane, maize, cotton, wood pulp (forestry products), meat and citrus fruit. Export markets included South Africa, Europe, far Eastern countries and African region. Agriculture declined due to factors such as drought, soil erosion, human settlement on farm land and HIV and AIDS impact on productive population. The Ministry of Agriculture and Co-Operatives (MOAC) was responsible for policy and administration of the sector with the support of donor and private organizations. The National Agriculture Summit hosted by MOAC from 18-20 July 2007 was intended to reinvigorate efforts being made towards improvement of farming by addressing areas of drought, improvement of farming methods, market availability, partnerships, financing and consolidation of information in these areas. Communication infrastructure including roads, telecommunications and other services such as health, education were managed by the government and supported by private and donor organizations and covered countrywide. ICM / ICT exist. The media included 2 radio stations and 2 television stations. There are few journals, magazines and some publishing houses for monographic materials. Interviews conducted with the eleven selected institutions relating to infrastructure of information services, ICM/ICT, capacity building deficiencies and needs and potential partners showed that Swaziland does not have many agricultural research institutions resulting into little research information being produced. Some research is done at UNISWAFoA, research stations at Malkerns, Hlangano, Big Bend where some agricultural information is produced but not enough to mean the information needs of the institutions. This results in more dependence on regional, international research institutions and organizations such as University of Free State in South Africa, ICRISAT, FAO, and CTA. Some information needs identified as not being satisfied included Market intelligence information, financial market, credit and micro-credit, modern farming information such as farming methods, technology, crop varieties, farm problems, pest management; quality assurance, social statistical information, development information. Mass media such as radio, TV, newspapers as sources of information conduits of information dissemination was underutilised. ICM among the interviewed institutions was characterised by few specifically ICM planned departments. The majority were attached to offices meant for other uses. Only UNISWAFoA, SNLS, MOAC, CANGO, MNRE had established ICM departments, the others (FINCORP, SWAZICAN, RSSC, SBIS had filing cabinets located in offices meant for other purposes. SFDF and NAMBOARD had makeshift rooms as ICM departments.
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Information Communication technologies are available in all the eleven institutions interviewed but were characterised by inadequate or lack of trained ICT staff, hardware such as computers and software. Only UNISWAFoA, RSSC, FINCORP indicated that they had trained ICT staff while CANGO, SWAZICAN, SFDF and NAMBOARD outsourced ICT technical support. Others (MOAC, MNRE, SNLS, SBIS) were serviced by Swaziland government Computer services department outside their jurisdiction. Budgets for ICM, ICT, information resources and training were inadequate or nonexistent in most institutions interviewed. Only CANGO, SNLS, UNISWAFoA indicated as having budgets allocated for their ICM departments and information resources but that these were inadequate. As a result of lack or inadequate budgets a lot of needs identified by institutions were not satisfied. These included resources needs such as computers, servers, tape recorders, laptops, ICT staff recruitment, AGORA database, ICM consultant, books and journal in print or electronic format and training needs such as server administration, web design, deeds training, records management, database development /management, Internet usage, hardware configuration/installation, LAN administration, software application such as MS Excel, MS word. Conclusion There is a wide agricultural and rural development information gap in most of the agricultural institutions interviewed in Swaziland. This is because there are few research institutions producing research information. There are also few scientific publishing houses. Owing to this information gap some institutions are dependent on outside information sources such as from regional, international research institutions and organizations. Mass media such as radio, TV, newspapers are underutilised as sources of information and also as conduits for dissemination of information. ICM infrastructure is poor, managed by mostly untrained staff in either record management or librarianship and inadequately or not funded resulting in inadequate resources such as computers, print and non-print information resources. Although all institutions have ICT and Internet connectivity, there are few trained staff to support the services resulting in most of the institutions outsourcing technical support. In addition, resources such as computers and software are inadequate. Budgets to support information resources, ICM, ICT and training are not allocated or if allocated, they are inadequate to meet the needs of these institutions. Recommendations Institutions should conduct collaborative research with outside national, regional, international research institutions and organizations to increase research information and CTA should encourage this by funding the programmes. All institutions should allocate budgets for Information resources, ICM, ICT and training. CTA should encourage this by mounting workshops on project proposal writing for soliciting funding to complement institutional allocations. CTA should supply publications, computers and other resources and training needs identified by the institutions.

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CTA should provide radios to SNLS, MOAC, SFDF and Swaziland Broadcasting Information Services (SBIS) which use these as sources of information and conduits of information to their clientele. CTA should form partnership with all institutions interviewed to market its products and services using a variety of strategies such as workshops, training programmes; partnership with UNISWAFoA and MOAC which have special expertise in ICM and ICT in order to develop training packages in these areas. CTA should initiate the creation of an agricultural information database to enhance resource sharing among the agricultural institutions in the country.

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INTRODUCTION
1. The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 under the Lome Convention between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) countries and the European Union Member States. 2. CTAs objectives are to develop and provide services that improve access to agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACPs countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilise information in these areas. This is achieved through three principal activities; namely: through the provision of a range of information products and services and enhancing awareness of the relevant information resources; supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and services; and intensifying contacts and information exchange among ACP countries (Intra-ACP); and Developing capacity of ACP Countries to generate and manage agricultural information through the use of relevant Information and Communication Management (ICM) skills and systems.

3. The above activities are supported by Planning Corporate Services (PCS), which is mandated to coordinate and monitor ACP countries as they put in place the modalities to achieve the objectives. Since 2003, CTA has systematically conducted needs assessment studies across the ACP countries in order for her to provide relevant products, services and programmes to these countries. 4. It is worth noting that CTAs new strategic plan covering the period, 2007-2010 emphasises on improving CTAs efficiency and increasing the Centres outreach programmes by addressing the major bottleneck of access to agricultural and rural development information in ACP countries; and enhancing CTAs profile in order to capitalise on the Centres comparative advantage in the provision of agricultural and rural development information and services. Thus, CTAs strategy is to promote agriculture and rural development and strengthen its partnership networks through ICTs and ICM strategies in collaboration with intermediary public and private partners, such as: research centres, extension services, libraries, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), farmers organizations, regional organizations, and other relevant stakeholders. Besides than these organizations, CTA has included new partners; namely, editors, journalists, radio, TV and the print media under its new strategic plan in order to maximize its outreach programmes. 5. This study was undertaken on behalf of CTA as part of the on-going needs assessment studies, in order to identify the agricultural and rural development information needs, services and products of Swaziland.

Figure 1: Map of Swaziland

Source: ICT4Africa/Country Report Swaziland, at http://www.wikieducator.org/ICT4Africa/Country_Report_Swazialand, accessed 2007/06/08

2.

COUNTRY PROFILE KINGDOM OF SWAZILAND


6. Swaziland is a small landlocked country in Southern Africa located at 2830 south and 3130 easts. It borders Mozambique on the east and the rest of the country is bordered by South Africa. It has a total area of 17,364 km2. 7. The country is mountainous and hilly with altitude ranges of 60-182m, the highest peak being Entembe 182m and lowest being Usutu River 60m. The country can be divided into 4 distinct ecological zones High-Veld 1300m, Mid-Veld 700m, Lubombo 600m and Low-Veld 200m [Manyatsi, 2005]. 8. The climate is sub-humid temperate in High-Veld and semi-arid in Low Veld and 75% of the rainfall is between October and March, with an annual range of 6352285mm. Temperatures range from mean minimum of 10.2-16.2 to mean maximum of 21.6C 29C [CSO, 2000]. 9. The 1997 Swaziland population census put the population at 980,722. [CSO, 2000]. The population is estimated to have reached 1,266,400 in 2005 and annual growth rate is at 2.9% [Central Bank of Swaziland, 2006] Fifty-three per cent (53%) of the population is female while 47% is male. About 45% of the population is under 15 years. A large percentage of the population (70%) lives in rural areas and 30% in urban area. The prevalence of HIV/ AIDS has decreased life expectancy from 56 to 38 years [Ministry of Health, 2000]. 10. Swaziland has two official languages: English and siSwati. It has a high literacy rate which, in 2003, was estimated at 82% [See Annex 2, table 8] 11. The country is Unitary, Sovereign Democratic Kingdom which gained independence from British colonial rule on September 6, 1968. The King or Ingwenyama of Swaziland is hereditary Head of State and the supreme authority is vested in the King-in Parliament. It has democratic, participatory, Tinkhundlabased System of Government, with devolution of state power from central government to Tinkhundla areas; individual merit is the basis for election or appointment to public office [Constitution of Swaziland, 2005]. 12. The country is rich in natural resources such as: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, forests, hydro-power, quarry stones, talc, and small deposits of gold and diamonds. The economy is mostly agro-based with more than 80% of the population dependent on subsistence farming. Mining has declined in importance in recent years with only coal and quarry stone mining remaining active. Other industries include wood pulp, soft drink concentrates, textile and apparel. 13. The annual average Growth Domestic Product (GDP) is estimated to be at 2.7%. The annual GDP decreased to 1.8% in 2005 from 2.1% in 2004 and this was attributed to low foreign direct investment, low agricultural production due to prolonged drought and a weak manufacturing sector caused by closure of some companies. Generally the GDP contribution by sector indicates 16.1% Agriculture, 40.5% services and 43.4% industries [Central Bank Annual Report, 2006].

14. Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which she receives more than 90% of her imports (motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, hydro-electric power, petroleum products, chemicals, etc.) and to which she sends 60% of her exports (sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, citrus and canned fruits, and soft drink concentrates). Customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) and mine worker remittances from South Africa substantially supplement domestic earned income. The Government is trying to improve the climate for foreign investment and since the mid-1980s the manufacturing industry has been greatly diversified. 15. The Industrial sector which includes manufacturing (i.e. textiles and apparel) and mining industries is the highest contributor to the GDP (43.4%). With the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), an increase of 41% exports to the USA was realised in textiles and apparel in 2003. Mining of coal and quarry stones remains important. Other industries include sugar, wood pulp; soft drink concentrates production. Coal production declined from 488,314 tonnes in 2004 to 221,701 tonnes in 2005, representing revenue of Euros 9.22 million and Euros 5.11 million respectively. On the other hand, quarrying industry increased from 230,062 cubic metres to 566,771 cubic metres in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Swaziland imports most of her energy requirements, i.e. electricity and fuel. She imports 799 million KHz of electricity from South Africa; and produces minimal electricity, mostly from fossil fuel, hydro-electric for domestic consumption. 16. By 2003, Swaziland had 46,200 telephone main lines managed by the Swaziland Postal and Telecommunication Corporation (SPTC); 88,000 mobile cellular telephones, jointly owned by SPTC (51%), MTN (30%), and Swaziland Empowerment Ltd (SE) (19%). There are two television broadcasting stations: one run by the Government, the Swaziland Broadcasting Information Services (SBIS), and a private one, Channel Swazi; 2 radio stations (one run by Government, the SBIS) and another privately owned (Trans World Radio Station, an international Christian radio station); 1401 Internet hosts and 6 Internet Service Providers (ISPs); 23,000 television sets (2000), and 170,000 radios (1999) in the Country. [Swaziland: Economy. Accessed at: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/a0861381.html]. 17. By 2004, Swaziland had a total of 301 km of railway lines, a total of 3,107 Km highways; 1 Airport, with a paved runways of 3,047 m. [Swaziland Economy, op cit.]

2.1. Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Livestock


2.1.1 Agriculture 18. Agriculture is considered to be the backbone of the economy because it supplies the bulk of the raw materials used in manufacturing. It contributes well over 20 per cent, making it the second largest contributor, to all formal sector employment which in 2000 was about 92152 [Employment statistics, at http://www.gov.sz/home.asp?pid=2093, retrieved 2007/11/21]. These official employment figures exclude much larger numbers on Swazi National Land (SNL) where people are self employed as farmers or helping on the farm. The agriculture sector is dualistic with subsistence mainly practiced on (SNL) and
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commercial agriculture on Individual Title Farms (ITF). Subsistence crop agriculture occupies 12% and commercial agriculture 6% of the total surface area [Final Draft of the National Rural Resettlement Policy, June 2002, p.1]. In addition to providing food security, it fuels manufacturing and agro-processing industries as it provides raw materials. Crops grown include food crops such as maize, rice, sorghum, groundnuts, cassava, cowpeas, sweet-potatoes, beans, pumpkins, potatoes, yams; while cash crops include sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, citrus fruits, and pineapples. 19. Production of food crops is largely dependent on rainfall. With one rain season these crops are not grown all year round. Cash crops are grown all year round through irrigation. Intercropping is common for food crops. 20. Agricultural production has been declining over the years due to persistent drought, land reclamation for human resettlement, soil erosion, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which increases morbidity, thus reducing labour hours, and labour depletion due to subsequent deaths of the infected people. Other constraints are agricultural inputs, especially capital and marketing. As a result, the agriculture sectors contribution to GDP at constant prices declined from 10.6% in 1999 to 9.9% in 2000, reaching a record low of 8.7% in 2001 [NERCHA; Central Bank Annual Report, op. cit.]. However, due to Governments efforts to boost production, credit institutions (e.g. FINCORP, Tinkhundla Fund), were established and large-scale irrigation projects like the Maguga Dam hiked the sectors contribution to GDP to 16.1% in 2005. Other sectoral policies such as land policy, marketing policy and proposed Lower Usutu Irrigation Project are likely to improve agricultural production. 2.1.2. Fisheries 21. Swaziland has no natural lakes, swamps or flood plain areas of economic significance. There are man-mad reservoirs for purposes of irrigation, domestic water supply and hydro-electric generation such as Maguga Dam which have been stocked with fish, and some rivers such as Great Usutu, Mbuluzi, Komati, Mlumati and Ngwavuma Rivers which contain some fish. Fish production is merely for domestic consumption from these man-made reservoirs and the rivers. Production figures of 110 and 148 metric tons were reported in 1989 and 1995 respectively [Environment at a glance, 2004] and 80-90 tons in 1996-97 [FAO fishery country profile The Kingdom of Swaziland]. Swazilands consumption of fish is dependent on imports from Mozambique and South Africa. 22. MOAC Fisheries section has some hatcheries and nurseries and is providing assistance to fish farmers. It is encouraging fish farming by providing technical support in pond construction, stocking the ponds with fish fingerlings and training in management of the fish ponds as well as harvesting the fish. Future plans include the creation of awareness of the potential of fish farming as an incomegenerating venture and the benefits of integrating fish farming into household economic activities. A comprehensive survey of indigenous fish species to promote their development is underway [MOAC].

2.1.3 Forestry 23. Swazilands indigenous forests and woodlands cover 660,700 ha [MOAC, 2000]. Ministry of Economic Planning and Development (MEPD) [1999] quotes a figure of 624,032 ha or 36% of Swazilands total land area of which 463,500ha (74%) are indigenous forests and 160,532 (26%) are man-made forests. CSO [2000] put timber plantation forests at 163,455 ha by December 1998. Ownership of these were 13,773ha (8.4%) by individual or partnership, 145,456 ha (89%) by registered companies and 4,226 (2.6%) by other growers. The major companies include Sappi-Usuthu, Mondi Forests and Shiselweni Forestry. 24. According to 1999 forestry inventory, Swaziland is covered by 45 percent of forests and woodlands. The commercial forestry and related processing industry can make a very important contribution to the economy of Swaziland if it can fully exploit these natural resources. It contributed an average annual GDP of 1.2% between 1997/98 and 2002/2003 [MEPD, 2004]. Most of the products are geared for an export market. The forestry sector provides well over 8% of the total formal employment in the Country. 25. Sappi-Usuthu exports 15% of its output to South Africa and the rest (85%) to the USA, the Far East and the European Union States. Additional markets to Mainland China and Indonesia have been recently added to the traditional markets. Mondi Forest, a timber producing company, with 31,000 hectares of forest coverage and a total of 21,000 trees in 2002 has been performing well over the past 8 years. However, due to environmental degradation that has resulted into weak soils, the company pulled out of 11,000 hectares. A major development is the change from pine tree to gum trees growing. Though the total sales have been constant over the past 8 years, the volume of output increased from 245,000 to 264,000 metric tons for gum pulp and from 120,000 to 129,000 metric tons for timber in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Saw timber is sold domestically. 26. Man-made plantations are increasing due to better commercial farming methods. The primary challenges facing indigenous forests and woodlands are deforestation and soil degradation. With more and more land being converted for commercial agriculture, coupled with large livestock and human population pressure, the rational use of forests and woodlands is compromised. However, MOAC and Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy (MNRE) are making efforts in planting wattle for energy and environmental preservation. 2.1.4 Pastoralism/Livestock 27. By 2001 livestock population was estimated at 2,130,000 poultry, 572,500 cattle, 298,500 goats, 28,200 pigs and 13,900 sheep. Cattle and poultry populations show increases due to their higher commercial value. It is estimated that 77% of cattle is owned by SNL farmers. [MEPD review, 2004]. Livestock contribution to GDP is around 2 per cent. It is likely that this figure can be an understatement considering that much of the livestock production occurs on SNL where operations tend to be informal and possibly not adequately captured in official statistics

28. Livestock production in Swaziland has more significance for both social and economic reasons including use as draught power, transport, food and manure. Cattle is considered as a measure of wealth and a better investment alternative to banking as it can enable a family to meet most of the social obligations such as ceremonial, cultural, religious and customary requirements. The government encourages farmers to extend their focus beyond rearing cattle, and venture into, meat processing, with no compromise in hygiene standards. As a result various slaughterhouses which are not approved abattoirs markets have been established by farmers in the country. These include the Swaziland Meat Wholesalers, Manzini Meat Market, A&L Meat Markets, etc. These abattoirs export their meat to Mozambique and only the Swaziland Meat Industries (SMI), an approved abattoir, exports to South Africa. 29. Although Swaziland has 69.1% of its land area as grazing land (50% of which is for communal grazing and 19.1% for ranching) the livestock industry faces challenges of overgrazing and replacement of some grazing land for human settlement. To address some of the challenges the Government has developed policies such as livestock development policy, national land policy, national rural resettlement policy to meet some of the challenges.

2.2. Status of ICT and Recent Development in the Sector


30. Swazilands ICT infrastructure consists of a fixed network 100% digital countrywide and is supported by optical fibre network. This is owned by the countrys Swaziland Posts and Telecommunications Corporation (SPTC). Mobile Telecommunications Network (MTN) is jointly owned by SPTC (51%), MTN (30%), and Swaziland Empowerment Ltd. (19%). Internet services are provided by 6 major Internet Service Providers (ISP) and usage is estimated at 36,000. Between 1993-1998, telephone lines increased from 16300 to 25,100 .During the same period, telex connections decreased from 242 to 112 . The decrease in telex connections may be due to preference to telefax services. There is also in excess of 2765 SPAZA phone lines (open air metered land lines used as call phones) leased by SPTC to individuals for business purposes. The introduction of broad band to connect to the border with South Africa in the 1990s assisted in the expansion and ease of traffic congestion in communication. 31. Currently there are several ICT initiatives funded by various local and international organizations and agencies. Some of the initiatives include the following : education: the Republic of China-Taiwan funded Computer Project in collaboration with the Ministry of Education (ME) to supply IT equipment in high schools; Africa Development Bank (ADB) funded Prevocational IT Pilot Project to equip secondary schools with ICT equipment through the governments Computer Services Department; Japanese-funded Teacher Training Colleges ICT Curriculum Development Project. Other initiatives in the area of education include initiatives between ME, the private sector and individuals. These are Computer Education Trust (CET) which is providing ICT skills and learning resources to teachers and ICT equipment to schools; Renaissance Computers which is a private initiative targeting the public providing access to internet; and Future Kids/teachers ICT Literacy Initiatives for schools. The Ministry of Health

and Social Welfare (MHSW) with the support of the World Health organization (WHO) and the National Emergency response Council on HIV/AIDS (NERCHA) are networking all health facilities to enhance communication. Other private and NGOs initiatives include community-powered projects, teachers, Digital Villages, financial and relief.

3.

STATUS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

3.1 Institutional and Regulatory Policy Framework


32. The Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for policy formulation and administration in agriculture in the Kingdom of Swaziland. Recently, MOAC organized the National Agricultural Summit (NAS) from 18 -20 July 2007 during which some issues of concern to farmers and other stakeholders were discussed. These included farming methods, water management in view of drought afflicting the country, market problems (both local and international), financing, partnership formations. The forum also addressed the need for economic empowerment of the farmer and improvement in agricultures contribution to the countrys GDP. Improvement of information delivery systems will also have an impact in these efforts. 33. Information and communication for agriculture and rural development is vested in the Department of Agriculture and Extension of the ministry. The Department is responsible for dissemination of relevant skills and the knowledge and to ensure that rural farmers have access to extension services and agricultural technical information. The Department will benefit from ICT initiatives to support education by providing a potential reservoir for human resources with knowledge in ICT. These initiatives include China-Taiwan funded Computer Project in collaboration with ME to supply high schools with IT equipment; ADB funded Prevocational Project to equip secondary schools with ICT equipment through Governments Computer Services Department; Japanese-funded Teacher Training Colleges ICT Curriculum Development. Other initiatives between education, the private sector and individuals include : the computer Training Trust (CET) which is providing ICT skills to teachers and learning resources and ICT equipment to schools; Renaissance Computers which is a private initiative targeting the public through provision of access to internet, and Future Kids/teachers ICT Literacy initiative for schools. Other private and NGOs initiatives include communityempowered projects, teachers, Digital Villages, financial and relief. 34. The Department has a technical service wing that coordinates and supervises subject matter specialists whose role includes equipping extension staff with latest technological information and know how in their fields. The Extension wing is responsible for disseminating the information and skills to the farmers. 35. The strategic objective of the Department is therefore aimed at promoting food security, raising living standards of the Swazi nation and increasing productivity in crop, forestry and fisheries. 36. Bringing extension service to the farmer will make available skills and knowledge for crop, forestry, fisheries production. However, the role of other players such as NGOs, private individuals and donors in contributing skills and knowledge is not clearly defined and may weaken the process. The Ministry of Agriculture should

therefore include in its policies roles expected to be played by the private sector and NGOs.

3.2
3.2.1

Operational Aspects
Agricultural Information and Services

37. Swazilands information and communication in agriculture and rural development is characterized by three players, the producers, the intermediaries and the end users (consumers). 38. Swaziland does not have large agricultural research institutions or publishing houses of information resources. It relies for its agricultural and rural development information mainly from outside the country. These include national research institutions such as University of Orange Free State in South Africa, regional research institutions and bodies such as SADC, international research institutions such as ICRISAT; international organizations such as FAO and CTA. Locally available information generated by agricultural research stations such as Malkerns, Nhlangano, Big Bend and UNISWA Faculty of Agriculture is available but communication capacities to disseminate it are inadequate due largely to inadequate human and ICM capacities as well as infrastructure and organizational problems. 39. The intermediaries of agriculture and rural development information include the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, the University of Swaziland and other local institutions. These acquire, process, store, retrieve and disseminate information to the end users or consumers. MOAC and UNISWA Faculty of Agriculture (UNISWA FoA) have appreciable libraries with reasonable collections of agricultural and rural development information in both printed and electronic formats. In certain instances the intermediaries also use the information to develop skills and knowledge for trainers such as extension staff who in turn impart the acquired skills to the farmers in the case of MOAC or for study, teaching and research in the case of UNISWA FoA. Swaziland Broadcasting and Information Services (SBIS) have radio and TV programmes some of which are targeted to farmers and rural communities. 40. The users of information products and services include Swazi farmers, the public, local researchers, project managers, manufacturers, poor, marginalized and disadvantaged groups as well as institutions producing or processing the information. These use the agricultural and rural development information for improving their farming, business techniques or for sharpening skills. 3.2.2 Information Sources

41. Information sources available in the country include the Internet, libraries, and publications by national, regional and international research institutions and international organizations such as FAO, CTA ISO and agricultural development banks. Radio and TV programmes and newspapers are available but they are yet to be fully exploited. Although these information sources exist, most of them

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especially books, journals and other printed publications are either inadequate or outdated. Most of the institutions interviewed had no budget for information sources. With non-existent budgets for these, the prospects of improving their availability and currency are slim. 3.2.3 Information Products and Services Provided by the Main Actors.

42. Information products and services provided by the main actors include books, journals, research reports, videos, CD-ROMS, electronic databases, Internet, booklets, flyers, radio and TV programmes, newsprints, bibliographies. Most institutions interviewed produced and used flyers, pamphlets, booklets, for distribution to farmers and rural communities. This was common for organizations such as MOAC, Swaziland Farmers Development Foundation (SFDF), National Agriculture Marketing Board (NAMBOARD), Swaziland Finance Development Corporation (FINCORP) whose field officers deal directly with rural communities and farmers. MOAC, Swaziland Broadcasting and Information Services (SBIS), SFDF, Swaziland National Library Services (SNLS) indicated usage of radio, TV, newspapers. University of Swaziland Faculty of Agriculture (UNISWA FoA), MOAC, Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (RSSC), produce journals and research reports for their institutional audiences and very little for external dissemination. All institutions interviewed indicated internet as a source of information in their institutions. 3.2.4 Information and Communication Management (ICM) Capacity

43. Of the eleven institutions interviewed only UNISWA FoA, MOAC, SBIS,CANGO, SNLS, MNRE had specifically organized ICM departments such as a library (UNISWA FoA, MOAC, CANGO, SBIS, SNLS) and a registry (MNRE). SFDF had a book room, while NAMBOARD, RSSC, SWAZICAN, FINCORP had filing cabinets. UNISWA FoA and SNLS have trained staff in Librarianship to manage their ICM departments; MNRE had a trained staff in records management. The others (NAMBOARD, RSSC, SWAZICAN, FINCORP, MOAC, SFDF) used clerical staff with little or no formal training in either librarianship or records management while CANGO had staff trained in Journalism and not in librarianship or records management The absence of departments specifically for ICM and usage of untrained staff to run information services are common not only among the institutions interviewed but also in most of the organizations in the country. 44. ICT infrastructure exists in the eleven institutions interviewed.. All of them have computers and Internet connectivity. RSSC, FINCORP, UNISWA, SWAZICAN have their own departments with trained staff to manage ICT and provide technical support while MOAC, SNLS, MNRE, SBIS did not and depended on Government Computer Services department outside their jurisdiction. NAMBOARD, SFDF, CANGO also depended on outside technical support. The latter seven (MOAC, SNLS, MNRE, SBIS, NAMBOARD, SFDF, CANGO) institutions staff knowledge of ICT was inadequate or lacking. 45. The ICM capacity in these institutions poses a major challenge. The Ministry of Agriculture, for example, depends on the governments computer services for

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management of ICT and the Library is run by staff that has no formal training in Librarianship. The only institution that has an overall ICM capacity is the University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture. The lack of funding, ICT departments and trained staff in ICM seriously affects their management.

3.3

Interventions Supporting Information and Communication for Agriculture and Rural Development.
46. All the institutions interviewed use information for in-house operations or for dissemination to the target groups. Extension and project officers in MOAC, SFDF, FINCORP, and NAMBOARD use a variety of communication methods with their target groups. These include meetings, field days, demonstrations, and visits. Radio, TV and newspaper are also other avenues used for information dissemination. The wider availability of telephones and cell phones to a large number of people in the country has also contributed to the closing of the information and communication gap among people. Most urgent information can now be communicated to farmer in the remotest part of the country through telephone line or cell phone. 47. The Ministry of Agricultural Extension wing communicates with farmers through group meetings, method demonstration, field days, seminars and agricultural campaigns. These methods are common in most institutions involved in agricultural and rural development. This is done through field officers who, in some cases, repackage the information in small booklets and flyers or use radio programmes to reach the target groups. 48. The Swaziland government has put in place several interventions to facilitate communication through use of telephones, faxes and the Internet. These include: the increase in data communication lines in the 1990s to ease traffic congestion; the availability of telecommunication network country wide to facilitate access to telephones and the installation of satellites in almost all regions to boost networks. In addition the government has come up with a National Information and Communication Infrastructure (NICI) plan and policy to facilitate the availability of information communication technology. The policy encourages donors and the private sector to participate in the development of ICT infrastructure in the country. This will facilitate information delivery for agriculture and rural development. Government plans to decentralize ICT infrastructure to link regional and sub-regional government offices, Tinkhundla business centers and schools which ultimately will facilitate agricultural and rural development communication.

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4.

INSTITUTIONAL NEEDS ANALYSIS (MAIN BOTTLENECKS AND SHORTCOMINGS)


Information Needs
49. Swaziland does not have a large base of research institutions in agricultural and rural development. Some research is conducted at a few research stations run by the MOAC at Malkerns, Hlangano, and Big Bend and also at UNISWA Faculty of Agriculture.

4.1

The low level of research has meant little research information is available. Most of the information needs that are not being met which have been identified by the institutions interviewed have bordered on research information, namely: market data, identification of markets and application of technology to extension to mention a few. Below is a table showing information needs identified as not being satisfied in various institutions interviewed.

Table 1: Information needs identified as not being satisfied in some institutions


Information need not satisfied Current statistics on employment, commodity prices, cost of living, Government policies on gender issues Community development Civic Information Gender issues Farm problems Non-farm livelihoods Agricultural/development networks Post harvest technology Crop variety Packaging Waste utilization Patents Industrial profiles Integrated pest management Grading systems Identification of markets Credit and micro-credit Crop insurance systems Application of technology in extension Participative methodologies Conferences and meetings Development and funding programmes Quality assurance Market data Management of information within Organization Equipment sourcing and availability Market intelligence Institution not satisfied CANGO CANGO CANGO CANGO CANGO MOAC MOAC MOAC MOAC, NAMBOARD MOAC, NAMBOARD, SFDF, FINCORP MOAC MOAC MOAC MOAC MOAC, SFDF MOAC, NAMBOARD MOAC, NAMBOARD, FINCORP,SFDF MOAC, FINCORP, SFDF MOAC MOAC, SFDF MOAC NAMBOARD, SNLS, UNISWAFoA NAMBOARD, SBIS, SWAZICAN, UNISWAFoA NAMBOARD, SFDF, SWAZICAN MOAC, NAMBOARD, ,FINCORP, SFDF NAMBOARD, SBIS, SFDF, SNLS SBIS, SFDF, SNLS, UNISWAFoA NAMBOARD, SFDF, FINCORP, MOAC,

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Information need not satisfied Market research Editing reports/manuals

Institution not satisfied FINCORP MOAC, SFDF

50. Among the sources through which information needs are currently met by the institutions interviewed, regional research institutions and the library were ranked second after the Internet. This suggests an inadequacy of local research information sources. However, there are some local institutions that offer agricultural information services and inadequately supported library information sources, lack of trained staff to manage libraries and inadequate or lack of budgets. UNISWA FoA and MOAC have libraries with appreciable agricultural information although the services are mostly targeted to parent institutional needs. The available information could be better exploited for the benefit of other institutions through resources sharing which is lacking among the institutions interviewed. Resource sharing could also contribute to the availability and accessibility of agricultural information to majority of the people. Most of the institutions interviewed needed information in the areas of marketing, finance, modern farming, and quality assurance. This need is further corroborated by the National Agricultural Summit which was hosted by MOAC from 18-20 July 2007. The summits theme was New Agricultural Approach to Sustainable Development through Farmers Empowerment. Issues of concern to the farmers were farming methods, water management, markets, finance, and partnership as affecting the development of farming in the country. The need for information in these areas cannot be avoided. 51. Agricultural market intelligence information is needed by NAMBOARD, SFDF, FINCORP, and MOAC in order to help predict the products and services needed, pricing of commodities, identification of markets. This will in turn help the farmers to decide on what crops should be grown as per market demands, their economic worth and availability of the market for the produce. NAMBOARD, SFDF, FINCORP, and MOAC also need marketing information to properly advise their clients on the available markets for their produce so that the clients can decide what types of crops they should produce to target the available markets. Some institutions interviewed and some farmers at the agricultural summit complained that they found it difficult to find markets for some of their crops. Most farmers grew cabbages but found that the market was saturated with the product. On the other hand, NAMBOARD has encouraged farmers to grow baby marrows which have market outside the country but there is little interest in growing them. This is because baby marrows are mainly for export and they require a lot of care when growing , proper packaging when being prepared for export, and must meet quality assurance standards required for export market. On the other hand, crops like cabbage do not require most of these. Also little information seems available to the farmers regarding the profitability and market demand of the baby marrow. With adequate market intelligence information farmers would probably be able to diversify to the growing baby marrows. Lack or inadequate market intelligence information resulting from absence or little market research is a major shortcoming and bottleneck to availability of information in this area. Field officers cannot advise farmers appropriately without this information. 52. Financial market information is needed to identify sources of funds as well as information on credit and micro-credit, interest rates and investment

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opportunities. Credit institutions such as FINCORP, which also offer credit facilities to farmers, depend on the financial markets for their source of funds. FINCORP complained of lack of financial market information to enable it make an informed choice when deciding where to get credit facilities. A wider financial market will enable the farmers to choose from whom to borrow and also for credit institutions to chose from whom to borrow and create favorable credit portfolios for farmers. Finance market information is inadequate or lacking in the country and affects the ability of institutions to provide a variety of portfolios to meet their clients needs. 53. Modern farming requires up-to-date production information which includes: farming methods and technology, crop varieties, farm problems and pest management. Field officers need this information to properly advise the producers on the best crop production practices. With drought problems affecting farmers, information on crop varieties such as sorghum, cassava needs to be available while conservation farming methods that increase moisture retention must be available to the field officers, extension officers in MOAC, NAMBOARD, SFDF, and FINCORP to advise the farmer on proper farming methods in view of the current weather conditions. This information is, however, inadequate or lacking in the country. 54. Quality assurance information to ensure that products to be marketed conform to required standards is needed. This is especially relevant for export crops. The information includes grading systems, packaging, as well as government and international regulations governing commodity safety. Swaziland Fruit Canners Pty (SWAZICAN) and NAMBOARD are involved in exporting farm produce. The lack of quality assurance information places them at a disadvantage to enter some markets. Some farmers at the summit complained that some of their maize produce was returned because it had high moisture content. MOAC, SWAZICAN, NAMBOARD, FINCORP, advocated for training of their staff in quality assurance so that these could advise farmers on product quality requirements.

4.2
4.2.1

Capacity Building Needs


ICM Management

55. UNISWA FoA, SNLS, MOAC, SBIS CANGO have libraries with their own staff. Two of these (UNISWA FoA and SNLS) have trained professionals; the other three (MOAC, SBIS, CANGO) are run by untrained staff. MNRE has a registry run by a qualified records manager; FINCORP, SWAZICAN, RSSC, SBIS have filing cabinets run by untrained clerical staff. SFDF, NAMBOARD have collections of printed publications in rooms which are managed on a care taker basis by clerical staff. The ICM infrastructure development is also of concern. NAMBOARD was keen to develop an ICM department but lacked expertise on how to do it. NAMBOARD and SFDF without ICM departments sometimes have to resort to housing their resources in ad hoc rooms because they do not have proper buildings to house their information resources. Expertise on setting up of ICM departments and infrastructure such as a library is lacking.

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56. The organization knowledge of staff responsible for information sources such as books, journals, official correspondence is inadequate in MOAC, CANGO, FINCORP, SWAZICAN, SBIS, SFDF, NAMBOARD, and RSSC because of lack of training in librarianship or records management. This is a common scenario in most institutions. Commonly cited ICM training needs by these institutions included library skills, record management skills, electronic storage of records skills and storage software skills. 57. Budgets for ICM infrastructure are inadequate or non-existent. None of the institutions indicated availability of budget for ICM infrastructure development or improvement to existing ones in institutions such as CANGO, SBIS, SNLS, UNISWFoA, and MOAC. Some of the institutions interviewed said that their organizations did not have adequate funds for ICM infrastructure and did not consider these as a threat to the institutions operations. Because of budgets some institutions were not able to acquire resources to support their ICM requirements. Below are some of the resources that were identified as lacking to develop or improve ICM capacities.

Table 2: Resources needs identified as lacking in some institutions RESOURCES NEEDED Server Computers ICM consultancy Tape recorders Laptops ICT staff recruitment AGORA database Books/journals INSTITUTION CANGO, MOAC SNLS, MOAC, SBIS, SFDF NAMBOARD SBIS SFDF SFDF UNISWAFoA NAMBOARD, SFDF, MOAC, SNLS, UNISWAFoA TARGET GROUP/PURPOSE ICM Dept/Backup/storage ICM Dept/Library users/staff ICM development ICM Dept/News gathering Field staff/Data capturing ICT Development ICM Dept/Agriculture information ICM Dept/Agriculture Information

4.2.2

ICT Training

58. Only 3 of the 11 institutions interviewed (UNISWA FoA, RSSC and FINCORP) had departments specifically for ICT within their institutions; MOAC, MNRE, SNLS, SBIS were serviced by Government computer services department outside their jurisdiction; CANGO, SWAZICAN, SFDF, NAMBOARD outsourced their services. Although all the institutions have ICT hardware and software, the staff have operational knowledge but no technical skills to manage the hardware or software. In addition, no specific budgets are set aside for ICT development and staff training. There seems to be no refresher or retraining programmes to keep up with technological changes. Recruitment of ICT trained staff (SFDF) or training in ICT is a challenge.
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59. Most of the ICT training needs identified by the institutions interviewed included server administration, database development/management, LAN administration, Internet usage, hardware configuration and installation, software application such as Microsoft Excel, Word, and web design. SFDF needed to recruit or train ICT staff because it had no one, CANGO, MOAC needed training in server administration and database management. Below is a table of training needs identified by some institutions interviewed which include ICT training.

Table 3: Training needs identified by some institutions


TYPE OF TRAINING NEEDED Server administration Web design Deeds training Records management Database development/management LAN administration Internet usage Hardware configuration/installation ORGANIZATION CANGO, MOAC MOAC MNRE MNRE CANGO, MOAC, NAMBOARD CANGO, MOAC SFDF CANGO, SNLS TARGET GROUP ICM Dept ICT Dept ICM Dept ICM Dept ICM/ICT Dept ICM Dept ICM dept/Field staff ICM Dept, ICT Dept

Software application (MS Excel, MS Word)

SFDF

ICM Dept/Field staff

60. CTA can in this regard assist the institutions to participate in their training programmes. Only UNISWA indicated that it had attended CTA training programmes while MOAC had participated in some seminars. The remaining institutions interviewed indicated that they neither knew the existence of CTA nor its various programmes. This is perhaps due to a lack of publicity of CTA products and services to these institutions, among others. 4.2.3 Funding for Equipment and Information Resources ICT hardware and software 61. Some institutions interviewed indicated that they needed information capturing and storage systems and software such as laptops, recorders and servers. These included SFDF, MOAC, and CANGO. Others like NAMBOARD needed expertise for developing one-stop ICM departments such as a resource centre with print information sources, ICT, databases and the Internet and indicated that they had a building but lacked expertise to set up the ICM department. 62. The absence of budgets especially for ICT compromises procurement of new equipment or replacing the old ones. ICT technological changes are so fast that obsolescence of ICT equipment such as computer hardware, software becomes a nightmare.

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Information resources 63. The cornerstone of development is information. Agriculture and rural development initiatives cannot be successful without use of up to date information. Only UNISWAFoA, SNLS, CANGO indicated they were allocated budgets for information resources. SNLS and CANGO said the budgets were inadequate. Although MOAC was one of the institutions with established Libraries it did not have a budget for information resources and the collection consisted mostly of outdated books and journals. MOAC did not have internet connection within the library. SFDF had a book room with a few books and journals consisting mostly of unsolicited donations but had no budget for information resources. NAMBOARD, MNRE, FINCORP, SWAZICAN, RSSC, SBIS, SFDF, had no budgets for information resources. Lack of budgets for information resources is a challenge in these institutions. 64. Only UNISWA FoA and MOAC indicated that they received CTA products such as Spore, CTA publications, CD-ROMs, DORA, Question and Answer Service (QAS) which currently is being administered through University of Free state in South Africa because Swaziland has yet to establish an official QAS node in the country. The rest of the institutions interviewed did not know of CTA activities nor its products and services. 65. Among those who indicated that they did not know of CTAs activities nor its products and services (SNSL, SBIS, MNRE, MOAC, NAMBOARD, CANGO, SFDF, RSSC, SWAZICAN), SNLS, SFDF, NAMBOARD indicated their interest to receive CTAs products and services especially books and journals. They also indicated that CTAs SDI services would support these institutions awareness of what information sources are available and facilitate their selection and acquisition. The rest did not indicate interest in the products. 66. Although MOAC indicated awareness of CTAs products and services, there was little visible prominence of CTAs publications in the MOAC library. 67. MOAC, SFDF, SBIS, SNLS indicated usage of mass media such as radios, TV, newspapers in communicating to their target groups but not on a regular basis. These institutions do not supply radios and TV to communities. Availability of community based radios , TVs would enhance dissemination of information. There is for these institutions to assist communities to have access to mass media by supplying these to the communities. 68. The use of national daily newspapers, in informing the nation on agricultural issues has been inadequate or in certain cases lacking due largely to a lack of contribution on agricultural topics. However, the impact of drought on farming, hunger, and animal diseases has seen a number of articles in the daily newspapers addressing these areas. Articles on the need to conserve water, engaging in farming to produce food for self-sufficiency have increased recently. The Times of Swaziland daily newspaper has allocated a weekly column on agriculture called Business on Farming and encourages contributions from the public. The Observer Daily newspaper also accepts contributions on farming. Periodicals and magazines published in the country are few and have limited circulation and are institutional oriented. For instance the UNISWA Journal of
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Agriculture, UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology are too technical for rural less educated communities and have a circulation of 200 and 150 respectively; Swaziland Sugar Association Journal largely addresses trends in the sugar industry. Farming in Swaziland is informative on agriculture related topics with easy to understand language. Swaziland Today is perhaps one that has a country-wide circulation as it is free and includes a lot of agricultural issues using easy to understand language.

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5.
5.1

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Conclusions
69. The importance of agriculture to the Swazi economy can best be understood by the efforts that government has put to improve the sector in order to achieve food security, food sufficiency, employment, economic empowerment of her people through increased agricultural production and export. A number of regulatory policies relevant to agricultural sector were evolved to guide development in the sector. Included are the National Land Policy, Agricultural Land Policy, National Land and Environmental Policy, National Rural Resettlement Policy, Forestry Policy and Legislation in Swaziland Policy, Livestock Development Policy, Soil Conservation Policy, Rural Water Policy, Maize Marketing Policy for Swaziland and; Crop Production Policy which is under consideration. The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives is responsible for policy formulation and administration in the country. 70. Information and communication in the country in general has been facilitated by SPTC, MTN both of which have established national networks countrywide. Recently a National Information and Communication Infrastructure policy to guide ICT development in the country was established. Several initiatives by various local and international organizations and agencies have been put in place with the aim of improving information communication which is also crucial to the agriculture sector. These include provision of computers to education institutions such as high schools and colleges to equip students with ICT knowledge which will enhance information and communication capabilities of human resources. In turn, the ICT knowledge acquired by human resources will contribute to the countrys development including the agriculture sector.

71. Information and Communication for agriculture and rural development is under the auspices of the Department of Agriculture and Extension which is responsible for dissemination of relevant skills and knowledge and ensure that rural farmers have access to extension services and agricultural technical information. The sector and Department in particular face many challenges in meeting the information, capacity building needs of the sector. Inadequate information, lack of partnerships in the area of information service provision are some of these challenges. 5.1.1 Information Needs

72. There is a wide agricultural and rural development information gap in Swaziland owing to the fact that there are few agricultural research institutions as well as fewer publishing houses for scientific information. Current priority information needs identified by institutions interviewed included Agricultural market intelligence information needed by NAMBOARD, SFDF, FINCORP, MOAC to help predict the products and services needed, commodity prices, identification

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of markets for produce. Financial market information needed by FINCORP, MOAC, SFDF to facilitate identification of sources of funds, credit and microcredit. Modern farming information including farming methods and technology, crop varieties, farm problems, pest management is needed by field officers and extension officers in MOAC, NAMBOARD, SFDF, and FINCORP to advise farmers on proper farming methods. Quality assurance information including grading systems, packaging, government and international regulations governing commodity safety is needed by MOAC, SWAZICAN, FINCORP, and NAMBOARD to help farmers meet quality standards for their produce. 73. There is an apparent dependence on agricultural and rural development information from research institutions outside the country like the Republic of South Africa, regional and international research institutions such as SADC, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid tropics (ICRISAT). Local agricultural research stations at Malkerns, Big Bend, Hlangano, Piggs Peak; UNISWAFoA seem to produce little information to meet the needs of the agricultural community. 74. Inadequate or lack of budgets for information resources in most of the institutions interviewed compromised the acquisition of information resources. Only UNISWAFoA, SNLS, CANGO indicated they were allocated budget for information resources; SNLS and CANGO said the budgets were inadequate. NAMBOARD, MNRE, FINCORP, SWAZICAN, RSSC, SBIS, MOAC, SFDF had no budget allocation. The need for budget allocation for acquisition of information resources in these institutions is a challenge. 75. Available agricultural and rural development information is not optimally used due to few resource sharing ventures among some agricultural institutions. A few that exist are limited to interlending activities such as between MOAC and UNISWAFoA. Most of the institutions do not know what types of information resources are available in other institutions. 76. Use of mass media such as TV, radio, newspapers as sources of agriculture information is little exploited. Only MOAC, SFDF, SBIS, SNLS indicated use of mass media as sources of information as well as conduits for information dissemination. 5.1.2 Capacity-building Needs

77. ICM infrastructure in the institutions interviewed was characterized by libraries, registries and filing cabinets. Only UNISWAFoA, SNLS, MOAC, SBIS, CANGO had libraries, and MNRE a registry specifically developed for ICM while the others had filing cabinets (FINCORP, SWAZICAN, RSSC, NAMBOARD for files attached to an office not specifically developed for ICM; SFDF had a make shift book room as a library. ICM infrastructure was not well developed in most of the institution and therefore needed to be developed or improved. NAMBOARD indicated the need for an information resource centre. 78. There was lack of training in some staff running ICM. Only UNISWAFoA, SNLS, MNRE indicated that they had trained staff for ICM in Librarianship and records management and the rest indicated use of clerical staff without formal training in either records management or librarianship. Training needs identified by some institutions included server administration (CANGO, MOAC), web design
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(MOAC), deeds training (MNRE), records management (MNRE), database development/management (CANGO, MOAC, NAMBOARD), LAN administration (CANGO, MOAC), Internet usage (SFDF), computer hardware configuration/installation (CANGO, SNLS) and software application such as MS Excel, MS word (SFDF). 79. Resources are some of the bottlenecks that affect the management of ICM in the institutions interviewed. For instance, the Ministry of Agriculture library at the ministrys headquarters has no computer facility connected to the internet yet the library is used by students, researchers and staff. The collection is unfortunately outdated. MOAC, SNLS, SFDF need internet accessibility for its clientele but have not enough computers. Some of resource needs identified by some institutions included servers for backup and storage (CANGO, MOAC), Computers for library users and staff (SNLS, MOAC, SBIS, SFDF), ICM consultant for ICM development (NAMBOARD), tape recorder for news gathering (SBIS), laptops for data capturing (SFDF), ICT staff (SFDF), AGORA database for agriculture information (UNISWAFoA), books, journal for agriculture information (NAMBOARD, SFDF, MOAC, SNLS, UNISWAFoA). 80. Budgets for ICM infrastructure improvement or development, resources acquisition, training are either inadequate or not available in most of the institutions interviewed. Only CANGO, SNLS, UNISWAFoA indicated allocation of budgets specifically for ICM. This scenario compromises the management of ICM. 5.1.3 Potential Partners and Beneficiaries

81. UNISWFoA, SNLS, MOAC, FINCORP, SFDF, CANGO, SWAZICAN, NAMBOARD, RSSC, MNRE, and SBIS are potential partners of CTA. This survey has interviewed the institutions which have expressed Interest in CTAs products and services and are willing to collaborate with CTA in various areas including ICM development and training. 82. MOAC, FINCORP, SFDF, CANGO, SWAZICAN, NAMBOARD have field officers that interact with farmers, rural communities, the disadvantaged and marginalized. Collaborative efforts through partnerships to map out strategies of addressing needs of the target groups can improve operations 83. MOAC and UNISWA FoA have trained human resources and CTA can collaborate with these to provide training packages in ICM and ICT.

5.2

Recommendations

5.2.1 Information Needs 84. Local agricultural institutions in Swaziland should develop collaborative research programmes with regional and international research institutions to increase research information base. This will in turn increase the availability of information to users. We recommend that CTA should encourage these programmes by considering funding of collaborative research projects. It should also make available publications resulting from these researches to the institutions.

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85. Institutions should plan to allocate budgets for procurement of information resources from their own resources to address their information needs. Additional efforts to seek funding for information resources to complement those within the institution should also be made and can be strengthened by internal attempts made to address the information needs. Expertise from CTA can be solicited to provide advice on ways of soliciting funding. We recommend that CTA provide the expertise on how to solicit funds such as providing training on how to write bankable project proposals by institutions.

86. Information resources sharing as a way of optimizing usage of available information among the agriculture institutions hardly exits in the country. This should be encouraged. An agricultural information database should be established to document available information resources and all agriculture institutions interviewed should be encouraged to participate. The eleven institutions should make available bibliographical information to be included in the database. MOAC or UNISWAFoA should coordinate the creation of the database. We recommend that CTA should sell this initiative to the institutions interviewed and provide hardware, software and expertise to start the initiative. 87. In view of the urgent need for publications , computers, internet accessibility expressed by the institutions, we recommend that as a matter of urgency and to make its visibility, CTA should make available its publications to the eleven institutions interviewed, provide computers to MOAC, SNLS, SFDF for their clientele to access internet. Internet connectivity already exists in MOAC, SNLS, SFDF. 88. Mass communication such as radio, TV, newspapers has not been adequately used as source of information and conduit of dissemination by most institutions interviewed. We recommend that institution should be encouraged to use these as sources of information as well as conduits of information dissemination to the target groups. CTA should provide radios to community groups for mass communication through MOAC, SNLS, SFDF. 5.2.2 Capacity-building Needs 89. ICM infrastructures in agricultural institutions should be improved through budget allocation within the institution. We recommend that each institution should allocate budgets and solicit additional funding to supplement these. 90. We recommend that CTA in partnership with local institutions such as MOAC and UNISWAFoA should arrange training programmes to meet the training needs identified by the institutions. In order to provide future training needs, CTA should also train trainers to act as backup. 91. Resources are a major factor to ICM and ICT development. We recommend that CTA in collaboration with other donor agencies should provide financial support to meet the resource needs identified by the institutions which included servers, computers, ICM consultant, tape recorders, laptops, ICT staff, AGORA database, books and journals

23

5.2.3 Potential Strategic Partner Institutions 92. We recommend that CTA should form strategic partnership with UNISWFoA, SNLS, MOAC, FINCORP, SFDF, CANGO, SWAZICAN, NAMBOARD, RSSC, MNRE, and SBIS in marketing CTAs programmes and products and services in Swaziland. 93. We recommend that CTA should form collaborative ventures with MOAC, FINCORP, SFDF, CANGO, SWAZICAN, NAMBOARD who have field officers that interact with farmers, rural communities, the disadvantaged and marginalized to map out strategies of addressing needs of the target groups to improve operations 94. We recommend that CTA should form partnership with MOAC and UNISWA FoA to provide training packages in ICM and ICT.

24

6.

PROPOSED CTA INTERVENTION STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN


Intervention Strategies
95. AS a priority, CTA should market its products and services. This was a glaring observation by the majority of the institutions interviewed who, apart from UNISWAFoA and MOAC, indicated ignorance of CTA products and services. This can be done through the use of strategic partner institutions identified in 5.1.3 above. The form it can take is stakeholders meeting, using strategic potential partners as a base. 96. CTA in partnership with UNISWAFoA and MOAC should facilitate training programmes in ICM and ICT identified in 5.2.2. above and they should be conducted in individual countries to allow large participation. This should be in two phases: phase one to train staff, phase two to train trainers as future backup. 97. CTA should encourage agriculture institutions to allocate budgets for development of ICT and ICM capacity. It should also provide training on how to solicit additional funding through writing of project proposals which can be sold to local, international organizations, donors and other agencies. This should be done when a project proposal has been identified by stakeholders. NAMBOARD needs expertise to develop an information centre. CTA could provide an expert consultant to facilitate this process. 98. CTA should endeavor to support the information base of stakeholders by providing information resources and some technological hardware which can be placed at strategic institutions which can be used by the majority of the people. As a matter of urgency, CTA should make itself visible by supplying its publications to the eleven institutions interviewed and to provide computers to MOAC, SNLS, and SFDF for Internet use by their clientele. 99. In order to pool the available information resources for the common good of all the institutions interviewed should be encouraged through a workshop to embark on resource sharing and create an agriculture information database. This could later embrace other institutions not interviewed. CTA should arrange for a workshop on agriculture information resources sharing and initiate the creation of an Agriculture Information database for Swaziland. 100. CTA can enhance information flow to the Swazi farmers, disadvantaged, marginalized and vulnerable groups by encouraging the use of mass media communication such as radios, TV and local newspapers. CTA should provide radio sets to MOAC, SFDF, SNLS, SBIS for use by community groups. A public campaign should be embarked to popularize their use in agricultural information dissemination. 101. As a way of acknowledging awareness of the National Agricultural Summit organized by MOAC from 17-20 July, 2007 and also as a marketing strategy for

6.1

25

its products and services, CTA should contact the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives in Swaziland with a view to offering its support in improving the availability of agricultural information by making some of its publications available as soon as the study is concluded.

Table 4: Proposed interventions required in some institutions


PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS 1. TRAINING Training type For which Institution 1. Records management MNRE 2. Web design 3. Software application (MS excel, MS Word) 4. Internet usage 5. Server/LAN administration 6. Hardware configuration/installation 7. Database development/management 8. Deeds training 9. Workshop on Resource sharing/ sensitization of CTA products & services 10. Workshop on Project proposal writing for funding 2. RESOURCES TYPES For which Institution All 11 institutions SNLS, MOAC, SFDF, SBIS NAMBOARD CANGO, MOAC SFDF UNISWAFoA SBIS SFDF MOAC, SNLS, SBIS, SFDF Target group ICM Depts By whom CTA Time frame From 1st half of 2008 and onwards 1st half of 2008 2008 2008-2009 2008 2008-9 2008-9 2008-9 2008 MOAC SFDF SFDF CANGO, MOAC CANGO, SNLS CANGO, MOAC, NAMBOARD MNRE All 11 institutions All 11 institutions

Target group ICM Dept. ICT Dept ICM staff, Field staff ICM Dept/Field staff ICM Dept/ICT Dept ICM Dept ICM Dept

By whom CTA CTA CTA CTA CTA CTA CTA

Time frame 1week in 2008-9 1 week in 2008-9 1 week in 2008-9 1 week in 2008-9 2 weeks in 2008-9 2 weeks in 2008-9 2 weeks in 2008-9 1 week in 2008-9 week in 1st half of 2008 1 week in 2008-9

ICM Dept ICM Dept/ICT Dept ICM/ICT Dept Heads in all 11 institutions

CTA CTA

CTA

1. CTA publications

2. Computers 3. Consultant 4. Server 5. Laptops 7. AGORA database 8. Tape recorders 9. ICT staff recruitment 10. Radios

ICM Depts ICM Dept ICM Dept Field staff ICM Dept ICM Dept ICT Dept Rural Community groups ICM/ICT Depts.

CTA CTA CTA CTA CTA CTA SFDF CTA

BUDGETS 1. Allocation by institutions

All 11 institutions

All 11 Institutions

From 2008

26

ANNEXES

27

ANNEX 1. TERMS OF REFERENCE


1. Introduction The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 under the Lome Convention between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) Group of States and the European Union Member States. Since 2000, it has operated within the framework of the ACP-EC Cotonou Agreement. CTAs tasks are to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilize information in this area. CTAs programmes are organized around three principal activities: providing an increasing range and quantity of information products and services and enhancing awareness of relevant information sources; supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensifying contacts and information exchange (particularly intra-ACP); and developing ACP capacity to generate and manage agricultural information and to formulate information and communication management (ICM) strategies, including those relevant to science and technology. These activities take account of methodological developments in cross-cutting issues (gender, youth, information & communication technologies ICTs, and social capital), findings from impact assessments and evaluations of ongoing programmes as well as priority information themes for ACP agriculture. CTAs activities are currently distributed among three operational programme areas/departments: Information Products and Services; Communication Channels and Services; Information and Communication Management Skills and Systems.

These operational departments are supported by Planning Corporate Services (P&CS) which is charged with the methodological underpinning of their work and monitoring the ACP environment in order to identify emerging issues and trends and make proposals for their translation into programmes and activities. This current exercise, therefore, falls within the mandate of P & CS. 2. Background Since 2003, CTA has been systematically conducting needs assessment studies across the Pacific, Caribbean and Africa regions the regions it has been mandated to serve. These studies have been in direct response to calls for CTA, in various evaluations of its products, services and programmes, to be more strategic in its choice regarding the setting of its own agenda and reacting to demand. In putting together its Strategic Plan and Framework for Action 2001 2005, CTA took a pragmatic view and opted to develop a strategy combining the benefits of both approaches, whereby the need to address the expressed demands of its stakeholders and the potential long-term advantages of developing programmes that address future needs were combined.

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The Centres new strategic plan covering the 2007 2010 period places emphasis on: improving CTAs efficiency and increasing the Centres outreach by addressing the major bottleneck of difficult or insufficient access to information in ACP countries; (ii) honing CTAs profile and further defining the niche where the Centre has a comparative advantage. Consequently, reaching more beneficiaries and further strengthening CTAs partnership networks is key as well as the thrust to make ICTs and ICM strategies more widely available. 3. Main Issues CTA works primarily through intermediary public and private partners (research centres, extension services, libraries, NGOs, farmers organizations, regional organizations and networks, ) to promote agriculture and rural development. Under the new strategic plan, the organizations targeted will be extended to include print media, editors, radio, TV and journalist networks in order to further maximize outreach. Through these partnerships, CTA hopes to increase the number of ACP organizations capable of accessing and combining modern and conventional ICTs, generating and managing information and developing their own ICM strategies. The identification of appropriate partners is therefore of primordial importance, whilst bearing in mind issues such as geographical coverage, decentralization, regionalization, thematic orientation and transparent and objective criteria and procedures for partner selection. 4. Overall Objective Collaboration strategies with ACP agricultural organizations and relevance of CTAs support to African ACP countries improved. 5. Scope of the study The study will focus on: Providing an overview of main agricultural services and actors existing in the country (information supply side) in terms of their strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for collaboration with CTA; Identifying agricultural information and ICM capacity building needs of key actors/key strategic partners for CTA products and services; Identifying potential strategic partners for CTA activities and services (paying special attention to e.g. print media, editors, radio, TV and journalist networks); To develop some baseline data on the status of ICM and ICTs in the country to facilitate subsequent monitoring and updating activities.

The study should assist CTA to improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at potential partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organizations) to have a more informed picture of their needs and aid in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action. The study should also highlight where there are specific needs for CTAs products and services thereby enabling improvement in the delivery of the same.

29

6. Expected results The expected results of the study are as follows: Status of infrastructure, information services and ICM capacity of institutions involved in agriculture and rural development described and analysed; Information and capacity building needs in the area of ICM identified for key institutions and potential CTA partners involved in agriculture and rural development; Baseline data on the status of ICM and ICT in agriculture and rural development compiled for monitoring purposes and improved outreach.

The study should therefore also provide updated country profiles on the status of agricultural information services, the status of ICM/T in the country, which will allow CTA to make informed decisions re type and mode of intervention as well as partner selection. This will be summarized in one (1) main report per country not exceeding 30 pages excluding annexes (cf. section 8 below). 7. Methodology The consultant will use a combination of qualitative and quantitative rapid appraisal method including: The desk review of available literature and information sources including the findings of programme evaluations; The conduct of face-to-face interviews with relevant stakeholders/concerned parties; The limited use of questionnaires. The rapid appraisal approach will allow a general overview of the key issues and company/organizational profiles on a per country basis and may give rise to more indepth studies as and when needed in the future. 8. Reporting The country reports will not exceed 30 pages (excluding annexes) and is broken down as follows: Main report Acknowledgements List of Acronyms Executive summary 1. Introduction 2. Country profile 2.1. Brief description of agriculture and recent developments in the sector: 2.1.1. Agriculture 2.1.2. Fisheries 2.1.3. Forestry 2.1.4. Pasture/Livestock (where applicable)

30

Brief description of the status of ICT infrastructure and recent developments in the sector 3. Status of information and communication for agriculture and rural development 3.1. Institutional, regulatory and policy framework Status of national and/or other sectoral policies on information and communication for agriculture and rural development; definition of main strategic focus and principal characteristics; opportunities and threats posed by the political, institutional and regulatory environment 3.2. Operational aspects 3.2.1. Description of agricultural information and services (main actors in the area of information and communication for agriculture and rural development) 3.2.2. Information products and services provided 3.2.3. Information and communication management capacity 3.3. Interventions supporting information and communication for agriculture and rural development Examine the main intervention undertaken, planned or foreseen by the State, donor agencies, private sector (e.g. telecommunications sector) to respond to identified needs paying particular attention to the priorities and means mobilized. Lessons learnt should also be addressed in this section. 3.4. Needs analysis (Main bottlenecks and shortcomings) 3.4.1 Information Needs 3.4.2 Capacity building needs (IC policies & strategies, sensitization, networking, skills, training, media, ICT, equipment) 4. Conclusions and recommendations 4.1. Conclusions 4.1.1. Information Needs 4.1.2. Capacity Building Needs 4.1.3. Potential Strategic Partners 4.2. Recommendations 4.2.1. Capacity Building Needs 4.2.2. Information Needs 4.2.3. Potential Strategic Partner Institutions 5. Proposed CTA Intervention strategy and Action Plan From the above analysis, establish a link between the needs which are not currently met or for which complementary actions are needed and CTAs supply (products and services). This should lead to an overall and coherent strategy for CTA and an action plan in priorities are identified and an implementation schedule defined. Annexes 1. Terms of reference 2. Country profile 2.1 General agricultural profile (from available documentation) 2.1.1 Size of agricultural population (male/female/youth) 2.1.2 Farmed land, forests, fishing areas 2.1.3. Agricultural systems 2.1.4 Agriculture in the economy (percentage GDP) 2.1.5 Main agricultural produce and secondary products 2.1.6 Main export markets 2.1.7 Trade agreements that include agriculture
31

2.2.

4 5 6

2.1.8 Sectoral policy related to agriculture, fisheries and forests 2.2 Socio-economic profile (from available documentation) 2.1.1 Total active population, demographic breakdown 2.1.2 Literacy level and languages 2.1.3 Access to services (health, schools, electricity) 2.1.4 Rural urban drift 2.2 Media and telecommunications (update/check) 2.2.1 Newspapers, periodicals, magazines, radio stations, television channels. 2.2.2 Telecommunication services (fixed, mobile, etc.) 2.2.3 Computers and Internet access Profile of institutions 3.1 List of all main institutions involved in agriculture and rural development activities, including private sector and civil society organizations, with name, contact details, type and role of institution. 3.2 Select list of key institutions involved in agriculture and rural development, with extensive data and information on the institution, the problems faced and why it is considered a key actor. List of institutions/persons interviewed (to include full contact details) Bibliography Timing The draft final report is to be submitted within three months after contract signature by CTA; the final report is due two weeks after receipt of comments from CTA.

Expertise needed The national consultant should have a university degree or equivalent by experience. In addition, he/she should have at least 10 years experience in field of agriculture, rural development or social/economic sciences. He/she must have indepth knowledge of the agricultural sector in his/her country and be able to identify key players and institutions/organizations active in this area. Some knowledge of information sciences would be an added advantage. The ability to communicate and write clearly in English is essential, while knowledge of at least one of the local languages for communication/interview purposes is an added advantage. In addition to the skills above, the overall coordinator is expected to be fluent in English, have some knowledge of the 9 countries forming the object of this study, and have demonstrated experience in coordinating studies with several consultants and in producing synthesis reports. The overall coordination of the exercise will be carried out by Ms Christine Webster, Deputy Head, Planning and Corporate Services CTA.

Implementation schedule (CTA) Preparation/Finalization of ToR; Identification/short-listing of (potential) consultants; Call for offers: July October 2006; Selection of consultants & contractual arrangements: October November 2006
32

Briefing: January 2007 Start date of contract: 11 December 2006 Contract implementation period: 11 December 2006 31 July 2007 End date of contract: 31 July 2007

Key documents to be made available to consultants Documents include: Cotonou Framework Agreement Executive Summaries of previous evaluation reports including ITAD, OPM etc. CTAs Strategic Plan (2007-2010) Annual Reports Examples of reports of previous needs assessment studies Documents on products & services provided by CTA

10

Definition of roles and responsibilities Overall Coordinator Respect the timeframe regarding submission of reports and deadlines Help identify/vet country consultants Attend pre-briefing and briefing meetings Review the terms of reference Finalize questionnaires1 and methodological approach after due consultation with CTA Team Finalize the briefing notes and guidelines2 for local consultants to ensure accurate and consistent application of the agreed methodology in data collection Answer queries (technical & otherwise) of local consultants During the studies, monitor and provide technical assistance/information to the local consultants Review preliminary country reports and findings and send comments back to local consultants Send edited draft final country reports to CTA for feedback Coordinate and ensure consistency of country reports. Prepare the overall report taking into account the findings and recommendations of all the country reports (table of contents to be agreed).

Local Consultants Respect the timeframe regarding submission of reports and deadlines Attend briefing meeting Familiarize themselves with background documents received from CTA; including the Terms of Reference

The documents used in previous needs assessment studies are available and will need some slight modifications.

33

Undertake desk study and prepare country profile, list of institutions involved in agriculture as well as preliminary list of select institutions. Conduct interviews and gather information in the country specified in the contract Draft preliminary country reports and send to Overall Coordinator for initial comments Based on comments received from Overall Coordinator, revise country reports and send draft final report to CTA within the specified timeframe Finalize country reports based on comments and observations received from CTA and send final report back to CTA

Role of CTA Draw up initial Terms of Reference and prepare relevant background documents Appoint the Overall Coordinator and the AACP Local Consultants Prepare and attend briefing meeting of consultants Invite the Overall Coordinator and Local Consultants for Briefing Meeting Provide input to the Overall Coordinator with regard to fine-turning terms of reference, questionnaires, interview guide and reporting guidelines for the consultants Provide relevant background documents to the Local Consultants & Overall Coordinator Elaborate budget and discuss contractual obligations with the Team of consultants & Overall Coordinator Liaise with Overall Coordinator throughout the study Pay invoices for services rendered in a timely manner on condition that all payment conditions are fulfilled. Overall responsibility for the supervision and implementation of the studies Bear the agreed costs of expenditure in respect of the study (economy class return tickets, hotel accommodation and subsistence allowances during briefing meeting, or during agreed and specified field visits) Provide feedback and comments on draft country reports to the Local Consultants Give feedback to the Overall Coordinator on the Overview Report.

34

ANNEX 2. COUNTRY PROFILE - SWAZILAND


2.1. General Agricultural Profile

2.1.1 Size of Agricultural Population According to the Swaziland Census of Agriculture 2002-2003 Phase 1, there were 685,447 residents living on a total of 95,128 homesteads on both the Swazi Nation Land (SNL) and as squatters on Individual Title Farms (ITF). However, the survey does not indicate the population size for the residents on ITF. Each homestead has land for cultivation of food crops. The regional distribution of the population in order of size is as follows: Middleveld 271,908; Highveld 191,868; Lowveld 176,518; and the Lubombo Plateau, 45,153. The age distribution indicates that 15% of the population is under 5 years of age; 30% is between 5-14 years; and 51% of the population is between 15 years and above (Table 5). Table 5. Number of Homestead Residents by Age Group, Land Tenure, Region and Country as a whole RESIDENTS BY AGE GROUP
Males under 5 years 66,301 10 10 10 4,993 10 18,139 9 16,171 9 1,968 10 26,036 10 24,739 10 1,297 Females under 5 years 64,173 9 9 9 4,469 9 17,106 9 15,416 9 1,690 9 25,417 9 24,305 9 1,112 Males 514 years 105,031 15 15 15 7,580 15 29,819 16 26,769 16 3,050 15 $41,213 15 39,372 15 1,841 Females 5-14 years 101,485 15 15 15 7,247 15 28,531 15 25,626 15 2,905 15 40,243 15 38,392 15 1,851 Males 15 years & above 159,272 23 23 23 11,943 24 44,762 23 40,042 23 4,720 24 63,683 23 60,532 23 3,151 Females 15 years & above 189,185 28 28 28 13,675 27 53,511 28 48,106 28 5,405 27 75,316 28 71,716 28 3,600 Total

Swaziland Total Percentage (%) SNL Percentage (%) ITF (Squatters) Percentage (%) Highveld Percentage (%) SNL Percentage (%) ITF (Squatters) Percentage (%) Middleveld Percentage (%) SNL Percentage (%) ITF

685,447 100 635,540 100 49,907 100 191,868 100 172,130 100 19,738 100 271,908 100 259,056 100 12,852

35

Percentage (%) Lowveld Percentage (%) SNL Percentage (%) ITF (Squatters) Percentage (%) Lubombo Plateau Percentage (%) SNL Percentage (%) ITF (Squatters) Percentage (%)

Males under 5 years 10 17,902 10 16,312 10 1,590 10 4,224 9 4,086 9 138 8

Females under 5 years 9 17,387 10 15,861 10 1,526 10 4,263 9 4,122 10 141 8

Males 514 years 14 27,208 15 24,777 15 2,431 16 6,791 15 6,533 15 258 14

Females 5-14 years 14 26,059 15 23,744 15 2,315 15 6,652 15 6,476 15 176 10

Males 15 years & above 25 40,316 23 36,865 23 3,451 22 10,511 23 9,890 23 621 34

Females 15 years & above 28 47,646 27 43,457 27 4,189 27 12,712 28 12,231 28 481 27

Total

100 176,518 100 161,016 100 15,502 100 45,153 100 43,338 100 1,815 100

Source: Census of Agriculture 2002/2003- Phase 1 2.1.2 Farmed Land, Forests & Fishing Areas

The 1994 land use figures suggest that a large proportion of the land is used for grazing followed by crop production and forests. Fisheries areas are not indicated perhaps because Swaziland does not have any significant natural lakes, swamps or flood plains. However, there are rivers and man-made reservoirs built for purposes of irrigation, domestic water supply, hydro-electric generation (FAO, 2004). The pressure on land resources has forced the Government to design land-related national policy documents to regulate usage. These include: the National Land Policy 2001 (draft) and the National Rural Resettlement Policy 2002 (final draft). The National Land Policy draft has identified 6 broad issues around which policy formulations have been developed. These include: human rights, cultural, land tenure, land use and land management, land market and land administration. The policy framework for the National Rural Resettlement Policy covers: sustainable land management and resettlement strategies; community participation and involvement; allocation of land rights and users on SNL; land dispute resolution; uncertainties about jurisdiction and allocation of land by chiefs; compensation and treatment of people affected by resettlement; institutional and legal frameworks.

36

Table 6. Land Use 1994 (in Hectares)


Land Use Category 1. Crops land of which Crops Fallow 2. Grazing land 3. Commercial forests of which Pines Others Total land Entire country 219,463 178,205 41,258 1,295,744 86,758 78,828 17,859 1,532,321 SNL 145,789 119,606 963,523 1,277,399 ITF 73,674 58,599 332,221 86,758 78,828 17,859 254,922

Source: CSO Annual Statistical Bulletin, 2000. 2.1.3 Agricultural Systems

It is dualistic with subsistence farming, which is practiced mainly on SNL, and commercial agriculture on ITF land. Of the total land surface area, subsistence farming occupies 12% and commercial agriculture occupies 6% [Final Draft of the National Rural Resettlement Policy, June 2002, p.1]. Intercropping is common for food crop production. 2.1.4. Agriculture in the Economy Agriculture sector is the fourth largest contributor to the GDP in the country after manufacturing, government services, wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants in that order. Between 1997 and 2003 the Sector contributed an average of 9.3% of the total GDP (Table 7). Table 7. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Sector 1997/98-2002/03 at Factor Cost in 1985 prices in Emalangeni (E) million
SECTOR 1997/98 1998/99 1999/2000 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 Av. share of GDP 9.3% 2.2% 5.9% 1.1% 1.2% 1.1% 34.8% 6.1% 11.1% Av. Annual Growth rate -1.3% 11.1% 3.0% -4.7% 1.6% 10.1% 1.1% 7.7% 4.8%

1. Agriculture Crop production on SNL Crop production on ITF Other Forestry 2. Mining 3. Manufacturing 4. Construction 5. Wholesale, retail, hotels & Restaurants 6. Transport & Communication 7. Banking, Insurance, Real Estates, etc.

133.5 36.2 82.0 15.3 17.8 17.9 491.8 64.0 133.7

137.1 40.2 80.2 16.7 16.8 22.8 500.3 72.8 144.6

148.1 41.4 87.4 19.2 17.1 19.6 506.7 81.1 156.0

141.0 29.5 91.2 20.2 17.4 15.1 513.4 88.9 163.8

128.4 28.7 86.6 13.1 17.9 12.1 518.9 102.4 172.1

128.2 22.3 92.8 13.1 18.2 13.4 527.8 105.6 183.1

76.9 100.7

75.3 101.5

80.4 105.0

86.5 110.5

88.5 110.9

88.8 122.1

5.7% 7.5%

3.4% 3.8%

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SECTOR

1997/98

1998/99

1999/2000

2000/01

2001/02

2002/03

Av. share of GDP 2.5%

Av. Annual Growth rate 2.7%

8. Owneroccupied dwellings 9. Government services 10. Other TOTAL GDP at Factor Cost Annual GDP growth rate Indirect Taxes less subsidies Total GDP at Market Prices GDP per Capita (E)

33.6

35.2

35.8

37.2

39.1

40.2

218.5 66.0 1354.5 4.0% 269.1 1623.6

223.5 68.8 1391398.6 8.6 3.33% 277.0 1675.6

228.4

237.4

242.5

243.8 74.2 1545.4 2.7% 305.7 1851.1

15.9% 4.8% 100% n.a n.a

1.8% 1.5% 2.0% -2.0 2.0%

1449.8 3.7% 283.3 1733.1

1480.2 2.1% 289.8 1770.0

1504.7 1.7% 295.6 1800.3

1737

1743

1752

1738

1718

1717

-0.3%

Source: Ministry of Economic Planning & Development. Economic Review & Outlook, 2002/03-2006/07 2.1.5. Main Agricultural Produce and Secondary Products In addition to providing food security, agriculture provides raw materials for manufacturing and agro-processing industries. The main agricultural produce include cash crops such as: sugar-cane which is grown on a large-scale and is the major foreign exchange earner, cotton, tobacco, citrus fruits, and pineapples (Table 8) Table 8. Agricultural produce (000 metric Tonnes [Mt]; unless otherwise indicated)
1. Maize 2. Sugar (Tonnes) Export volume Export value in (E million) 3. Citrus fruits (Oranges, Grapefruit, Pineapples, etc.) Export Canned fruit export Export value (E million) 4. Cotton Value to growers (E million) 5. Wood pulp (Tonnes) Export volume (Tonnes) Export value (E million) 6. Meat Export volume Export value (E million) 2000/01 72.0 528,241 275,727 644.8 101.0 46.4 13.2 159.2 2.5 154,158 133,852 443.7 3,047 479 3,722 2001/02 69.7 583,014 296,800 689.0 89,854 35,695 25.0 194.5 3,959 12.9 183,949 186,104 515.7 5,383 742 15,400 2002/03 62.5 628,191 265,291 762.2 74,418 28,158 26.6 209.1 1,221 4.8 186,649 197,681 676.8 9,023 780 29,914 2003/04 71.09 597,593 298,185 758.4 70,954.6 32,347 27.7 197.9 3,209 9.9 167,734 156,340 424.6 4,116 223 7,612 2004/05 74.5 652,689 320,431 557.0 67,032.2 32,606 22.4 191.2 3,168 6.6 180,590 182,852 446.4 7,464 27.8 786.4

Source: Central Bank of Swaziland Annual Report, 2006.

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Other crops produced mainly for food include: maize, rice, sorghum, groundnuts, cassava, cowpeas, sweet-potatoes, beans, pumpkins, potatoes, and yams. Production of food crops is largely dependent on rainfall, therefore, with one rain season (October to march), these crops are not grown all year round. On the other hand, cash crops are grown all year round through irrigation. Secondary products processed from agricultural raw materials include: molasses from sugar milling; cotton lint and cotton seeds from cotton ginning; canned meat, offal from meat processing; yogurt, butter, fat (cream), emasi (sour milk), and other milk products from dairy industry; and various canned fruits and juices from fruits. Agricultural production has been declining over the years due to persistent drought, land reclamation for human resettlement, soil erosion, and the impact of HIV/AIDS pandemic. The latter has increased morbidity rates thereby reducing labour hours, and labour depletion due to the subsequent deaths of the infected people. Other constraints are agricultural inputs, especially capital and marketing; as a result, the agriculture sectors contribution to GDP at constant prices declined from 10.6% in 1999 to 9.9% in 2000, reaching a record low of 8.7% in 2001 [NERCHA; Central Bank Annual Report, 2006]. However, due to Governments efforts to boost production, credit institutions (e.g. FINCORP and Tinkhundla Fund), were established and large-scale irrigation projects like the Maguga Dam increased the sectors contribution to GDP to 16.1% in 2005. Other sectoral policies such as land policy, marketing policy and proposed Lower Usutu Irrigation Project are likely to improve agricultural production. Fisheries Swaziland has no natural lakes, swamps or flood plains of economic significance. However, there are man-made reservoirs for purposes of irrigation, domestic water supply and hydro-electric generation such as the Maguga Dam which has been stocked with fish. Some rivers such as the Great Usutu, Mbuluzi, Komati, Mlumati and Ngwavuma Rivers also contain some fish. Given the present scenario, fish production is merely for domestic consumption from these man-made reservoirs and seasonally from the rivers. Production figures of 110 and 148 metric tons were reported in 1989 and 1995 respectively [Environment at a Glance, 2004] and 80-90 tons in 1996-97 [FAO fishery country profile The Kingdom of Swaziland]. Swazilands consumption of fish is therefore mostly dependent on imports from Mozambique and South Africa. The MOAC, Fisheries Section, which has some hatcheries and nurseries is providing assistance to fish farmers and encouraging them by providing technical support in pond construction, stocking the ponds with fish fingerings; and training in fish pond management and fish harvesting. Future plans include the creation of awareness of the potential of fish farming as an income-generating venture and the benefits of integrating fish farming into the household economic activities. A comprehensive survey of indigenous fish species to promote their development is underway [Swaziland National Trust Commissions Biodiversity Fishes Checklist]. Updating of the 1938 Fresh Water Fish Act and Regulation; and development of a Fisheries Policy is also underway [MOAC. Fisheries Section, at: http://www.gov.sz/home.asp?pid=1796, accessed on 2007/05/28].

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Forestry Swazilands indigenous forests and woodlands cover 660,700ha [MOAC Forestry Section, 2000]. MEPD [1999] quotes a figure of 624,032 ha or 36% of Swazilands total land area of which 463,500ha (74%) are indigenous forests and 160,532 (26%) are manmade forests. CSO [2000] put timber plantation forests at 163,455 ha by December 1998. Ownership of these timber forests was as follows: 13,773ha (8.4%) by individual or partnership; 145,456 ha (89%) by registered companies; and 4,226(2.6%) by other growers. The major companies include: Sappi-Usuthu, Mondi Forests and Shiselweni Forestry. The average annual contribution to GDP by commercial forestry and related processing industries was 1.2% between 1997/98 and 2002/2003 [MEPD, 2004]. Most of the forestry products are geared towards an export market. The forestry sector provides well over 8% of the total formal employment in the Country. Sappi-Usuthu Company exports 15% of its output to South Africa and the rest (85%) to the USA, the Far East and the European Union. Additional markets to mainland China and Indonesia have been recently added to the traditional markets. Mondi Forest, a timber producing company, covering 31,000 hectares of land with a total of 21,000 trees in 2002, was doing very well in the past 8 years. However, due to environmental degradation that has resulted into weak soils, the company pulled out of 11,000 hectares. A major development is the change from pine tree to gum tree growing. Though the total sales have been constant over the past 8 years, the volume of output increased from 245,000 to 264,000 metric tons for gum pulp and from 120,000 to 129,000 metric tons for timber in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Saw timber is sold domestically. Man-made plantations are increasing due to better commercial farming methods. The primary challenges of the indigenous forests and woodlands is deforestation and soil degradation and more land being converted to commercial agriculture, coupled with large livestock and human population pressure. Thus the rational use of forests and woodlands is being compromised. However MOAC and MNRE are making efforts in planting wattle for energy and environmental preservation. Livestock production By 2001, livestock population was estimated at 2,130,000 poultry; 572,500 cattle; 298,500 goats; 28,200 pigs; and 13,900 sheep. Cattle and poultry populations have increased over the years due to their higher commercial value. It is estimated that 77% of cattle is owned by SNL farmers. [MEPD, 2004]. Livestock contribution to GDP is around 2 per cent. It is likely that this figure can be understatement considering that much of livestock production occurs on SNL where operations tend to be informal and possibly not adequately captured in official statistics. Livestock production in Swaziland has more significance for both social and economic reasons including use as draught power, transport, food and manure. Cattle is considered as a measure of wealth and a better investment alternative to banking as it can enable a family to meet most of the social obligations such as ceremonial, cultural, religious and customary requirements. The Government encourages farmers to extend their focus beyond cattle rearing and to venture into meat processing, with no compromise in hygiene standards. As a result, various slaughterhouses (which are not approved abattoirs markets) have been established by farmers in the country; these
40

include: Swaziland Meat Wholesalers, Manzini Meat Market, A&L Meat Markets, etc. These abattoirs export their meat mostly to Mozambique which unlike South Africa does not have strict abattoir regulations and requirements. The only approved abattoir, the Swaziland Meat Industries (SMI), exports meat to South Africa. Although the poultry industry has also been adversely affected by diseases, production has increased over the years. Although 69.1% of Swazilands land area is grazing land (50% of which is for communal grazing and 19.1% for ranching), the livestock industry faces challenges of overgrazing and replacement of some grazing land for human settlement. To address some of the challenges the Government has developed policies such as the Livestock Development Policy, the National Land Policy, and the National Rural Resettlement Policy. The following Table shows livestock population between 1995 and 2001. Table 9. National Livestock Population 1995-2001 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Cattle 640,200 588,800 512,000 623,400 599,100 588,300 572,500 Goats 427,000 374,300 337,600 354,100 362,300 297,700 298,500 Sheep 23,500 21,400 18,500 22,800 19,700 15,800 13,000 Poultry 962,800 1,000,900 951,300 n.a. 1,360,400 1,700,600 2,130,000 Pigs 29,500 34,900 32,300 n.a. 37,400 36,800 28,200 Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, 2001 2.1.6 Main Export Markets

Swazilands main export markets include African countries, the European Union And the Far East, especially for forestry products. (Table 10) Table 10. Exports from Swaziland by Country and Values for the first 13 Export Markets from 1998 to 2000 (in E000). Ranked by the latest year Country 1998 1999 2000 South Africa 6,462,632.0 4,067,946.9 3,711,716.8 Mozambique 592,941.3 208,700.2 387,244.6 Zimbabwe 9,5825.9 85, 242.5 233,150.9 United Kingdom 234,096.3 382,755.8 230,118.7 United Republic of 86,097.8 59,533.2 189,293.1 Tanzania Mauritius 36,621.9 24,932.3 89,367..2 Iran 0 0 78,000.0 Reunion 4,586.1 4,252.3 71,813.6 Malawi 21,016.4 34,622,5 68,730.2 Italy 10,153.0 26,541.0 57,912.6 Uganda 19,815.9 20,660.9 57,099.1 USA 277,819.2 195,044.4 55,224.7 Zambia 37,916.3 9,378.5 54,672.2 Source: CSO. Annual Statistical Report, 2000.

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2.1.7 Trade Agreements Relevant to Agriculture Swaziland is party to a number of trade agreements that have an impact on agriculture; these include the following (see Table below). Table 11. Trade Agreements Relevant to Agriculture
NAME OF AGREEMENT 1. African Growth and Opportunities Act (AGOA) 2. 3. The Common Monetary Area (CMA) The Cotonou Agreement. Membership: The four SACU Members (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland), ACP Countries and the EU (Formerly the Lome Convention) The European Union Free Trade Agreement (EFTA). 4. New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) BENEFIT Enables Swaziland exports to the USA duty-free

The national currency, the Emalangeni (E) is at par with the South African Rand (ZAR). Provides for export commodities originating from ACP Member States to EU Countries free of customs and other duties

5.

The Preferential Trade Agreement/ Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (PTA/COMESA). Southern African Development Community (SADC). Membership: Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia & Zimbabwe The Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU). Member States: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, and South Africa SACU/MERCUSOR Preferential Trade Agreement (Negotiations for a change from PTA to FTA in progress) World Trade Organization (WTO)

Provides for reduced tariffs on goods imported into SACU Member States; and more market access for SACU exports. Initiative by African States to bridge the NorthSouth gap between African States and the developed countries in the world economy through improvement of the infrastructure, market access and capital in-flows in order to eradicate poverty. Provided for preferential trade agreements among member states; has now culminated into COMESA FTA, and Customs Union among Member States. Regional Cooperation in order to promote economic growth and human development among member states

6.

7.

8.

9.

10. General System of Preference (GSP)

Free movement of goods among the member states; enabling each to receive its due share of the customs pool generated by commodities imported from non-member states. In terms of market access, MERCUSOR will grant duty-free access for several food products from SACU Member States, including carrots, turnips, horse meat and other animals. Administration of global trade rules. Agricultural reforms: Discussions on Sugar subsidies will impact on Swaziland as an exporter of Sugar Reduced customs levies on goods imported from Developing Countries into the Developed countries.

Source: Central Bank Annual Report, 2006; and Swaziland Business Yearbook, 2005 2.1.8 Sectoral Policy Related to Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry Swaziland has developed a number of sectoral policies based on the National Land Policy framework and in consistency with the National Development Strategy and other

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national-level policies, such as the Environmental Policy and the Physical Planning Policy. The following policies are relevant to agriculture: National Land Policy, (2001 Draft), which addresses issues of land tenure, land use and management, land markets, land administration, human rights and culture in relation to gender equity and protection of property rights including land ownership, development projects; and population pressures on land. Agriculture Land Use Policy. A draft policy was prepared in 1994, but has not been submitted to Cabinet. A new draft, capturing many of the 1994 recommendations draft is being prepared National Land and Environmental Policy, which addresses the problem of unsustainable use of natural resources National Rural Resettlement Policy (Final draft, June 2002), which addresses problems of rural land use in terms of both agriculture and resettlement. The policy provides a strategic framework for sustainable rural land management and resettlement. Forestry Policy and Legislation in Swaziland Policy (June 2000 draft), which provides awareness to the importance of biodiversity, and conservation of indigenous forests and woodlands. Livestock Development Policy (1995), which provides for detailed policies, principles and strategies to improve livestock production, with emphasis on technical solutions for commercialization of livestock development, the application of effective measures for livestock production and health; and the improvement of range management practices. Soil Conservation Policy, which is being addressed within the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification Rural Water Policy entitled Development of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation was prepared in 1994. A Draft Water Act arising from this policy is currently before Cabinet. The Act proposes the establishment of a National Water Authority to administer the Countrys water resource in an integrated way. Maize Marketing Policy for Swaziland (2003), which addresses problems of maize importation monopoly of the National Maize Corporation (NMC). The policy document recommends the restructuring of the agricultural regulatory framework, the phasing out of the levy on maize and maize products imports, the elimination of the single channel importation of maize grain, and the commercialization of NMC in line with governments privatization strategy. Further, the National Agricultural Marketing Board (NAMBOARD), a statutory regulatory organization for maize imports and other agricultural products should be restructured to accommodate the changed role of NMC. Crop Production Policy, non-existent, but under consideration.

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2.1.9

Institutional, Regulatory and Policy Framework for Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)

Swazilands ICT infrastructure consists of fixed network 100% digital country-wide, which is supported by optical fibre network. This fixed network is owned by the Countrys parastatal body, the Swaziland Posts and Telecommunications Corporation (SPTC), while, mobile telecommunication network is owned by the Mobile Telecommunications Network (MTN), which is jointly owned by SPTC (51%), MTN (30%), and the Swaziland Empowerment Ltd. (19%). Internet service is provided by 6 major Internet Service Providers (ISP); and usage is estimated at 36,000. [NICI, 2006; Internet World Stats]. Statistics indicate that from 1993 to 1998, telephone lines increased from 16300 to 25,100. On the other hand, telex connections decreased from 242 to112 during the same period. The decrease in telex connections could be due to preference to telefax services [MEPD, 1999]. There are also well over 2765 SPAZA phone lines (Open air metered land lines used as call phones) leased by SPTC to individuals for business purposes. Introduction of broad band connection to the border with South Africa in the 1990s facilitated expansion and eased traffic congestion in telecommunication. Currently there are several ICT initiatives offered by educational institutions and others, which are funded by various local, and International Organizations and Agencies [NICI, op cit.]. The University of Swaziland (UNISWA) and the Swaziland College of Technology (SCOT) offer computer programmes. Initiatives to support education include: the Republic of China-Taiwan funded Computer Project in collaboration with the Ministry of Education (ME) which is supplying high schools with IT equipment; African Development Bank (ADB)-funded Prevocational Project, a pilot IT Project that is equipping secondary schools with ICT equipment through the Governments Computer Services Department; Teacher Training Colleges ICT Curriculum Development, a Japanese-funded Project. Other initiatives between education, the private sector and individuals include: the Computer Education Trust (CET), which is providing ICT skills to teachers, and learning resources and ICT equipment to schools; Renaissance Computers which is a private initiative targeting the public providing access to the Internet; and Future Kids/Teachers ICT Literacy Initiative for schools. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MHSW), with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS (NERCHA) is networking all health facilities to enhance communication. The Government intends to decentralize ICT infrastructure to link regional/subregional Government offices. In subsequent phases, Government has earmarked the development of intranet services, ICT Master Plan, ICT Security, Tinkhundla, Business Centres, and Schools Development Strategies. It also intends to create a Drug Management Database for disbursement of drugs to HIV/AIDS patients in the health system nation-wide. Other private and NGOs initiatives include: community-empowered projects, Teachers, Digital Villages, financial and relief.

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2.2. Social-Economic Profile


2.2.1 Total active population, demographic breakdown

Swazilands population growth has been affected due to high mortality rate as a result of HIV/AIDS pandemic which has reduced life expectancy from 56 years to 38 years. The population growth rate is expected to decline from 2.9% in the 1990s to an estimated 2.1% by 2015 (Budget Speech, 2007). It is also reported that there is a 47% HIV/AIDS prevalence in the economically active population of ages 20-39 (Swaziland Business Yearbook, 2005). There are however, some positive signs of lower prevalence level recorded in 2006. According to the 2006 sero-prevalence surveillance survey results released in December 2006, the prevalence levels decreased from 42.6%, as reported earlier to 39.2% in 2006. The population structure is also reported to have shifted with that of under 15 years reducing by 4%, and that of 15-39 years reducing by 1% (Swaziland Business Yearbook, op cit). Table 8 shows the demographics by sex, age group and locality. Table 12.Demographics Description of indicator Total population Growth rate Ratio men/Women City population Rural population *Age distribution of population 0-14 years 15-59 years 60+ years Literacy Life expectancy Measurement 1,266,400 2.9% 47/53% 30% 70% 47% 48% 5% 82% 38 years- Reduced due to HIV/AIDS

Source: 1. Central Bank of Swaziland Annual Report, April-March 2006 2. * Swaziland General Country Data at: http://www.populstat.info/Africa/swazilag.htm. accessed 2007/06/07

2.2.2. Literacy Levels and Languages Swaziland has two official languages which are English language and siSwati language. Almost all the indigenous population speak siSwati, which is also a medium of instruction in lower primary schools. A simple definition of literacy as adopted by UNESCO is the ability for a person to be able to read and write and understand a simple statement on his or her everyday life [UIS, 2003(1)]. Literacy levels in Swaziland are high, compared to other countries in the sub-region. Based on UNESCOs definition of literacy, it is estimated that over 80% of the population in Swaziland is literate. This seems to have been achieved through the Universal Education for All Policy for grades one up to grade seven; and the Adult Literacy Programmes offered by Sebenta (Ministry of Education Annual Report, 2004) (see also 2.2.3 below).

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Table 13.Literacy Levels Population

Population

Education Literacy level

Growth rate Primary to transition rate Adults aged 15+ (UNESCO 2004)

1,058,000 1,169,241 (2004; CIA) * [1,66400 ( Central Bank, 2006)] 0.8% secondary 76.2% All Male Female All Male Female All Female All Female 80.9% 82.0% 80.0% 91.2% 90.4% 92.1% 115,000 57% 21,000 46%

Adults aged 15-24 UNESCO 2004) Illiterate numbers Number of illiterates 15+ Numbers of illiterates 15-24

Source: Aitchison & Rule Report, 2005; * Central Bank of Swaziland Annual Report, 2006 (1) See http://www.uis.unesco.org/

2.2.3. Access to Services Access to basic services such as education, health, water, electricity is provided, albeit at different levels, quality and quantities. Education The Government has put in motion a programme of Universal Education for All up to 7th grade. There is also an Adult Literacy Programme and the National Universal Primary Education (NUPE) for children who are over six years old which is the age for primary education beginners. Both programmes are administered by Sebenta, under the Ministry of Education (ME Report, 2004). Primary education is reasonably affordable. Education for orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) is partly funded by the Government. Swaziland has one University, UNISWA, and enrolment is very competitive due to inadequate space. In order to offset this, the Institute of Distance Education (IDE), largely financed by publicly-solicited donations was established as an additional University Education Facility. There are also tertiary colleges to cater for those who may not be able to get admission to the university. Government provides bursaries for local students admitted to the university as well as the IDE and other tertiary educational institutions, such as teacher training colleges, colleges of technology, etc. Health Health facilities are provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MHSW). The health delivery system comprises: rural health motivators who deal with the grassroots in their homesteads at community level; Clinics Outreach Sites, which are supervised monthly by Public Health Unit staff; clinics with maternity wings; health centres, which are essentially mini-hospitals with in-patient bed capacity of at least 32 patients; regional and referral hospitals. Government health services are provided almost free-of-charge; however this compromises the quality of service. There is also a shortage of clinics, and only one referral hospital, the Mbabane Government Hospital in the Capital City. Private

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health services are available; however, due to their high medical fees, these are beyond reach by the majority of the people. The Government has developed strategies for improvement of its health delivery system. These include: the structural organization at national, regional and health facility levels. The strategies are intended to improve management, coordination, planning, monitoring and evaluation of health services [NDS, 1997]. Water The Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) supplies over 83% of urban water needs, with the remainder being met by private connections. The Rural Water Supply Board (RWSB) is charged with the responsibility to develop, supply and manage rural water supply. It is also responsible for the design, construction and maintenance of rural water schemes. Other Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also participate in rural water supply schemes, which are more often financed by the rural communities. Due to drought, water has become a scarce resource. Energy Swazilands energy sources come from coal, petroleum products, hydro-electric power, fuel wood, and biomass waste. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy (MNRE) is responsible for developing energy policies and regulations for energy use in the Country. The Ministrys goal is to have electricity available to all citizens of Swaziland by 2020 through its Rural Electrification Programme (MNRE Annual Report, 2004). The Swaziland National Energy Policy (SNEP) was put in place in 2003 with a vision of ensuring sustainable supply and use of energy for all the citizens of the Country. Swaziland Electricity Board (SEB) is a parastatal organization responsible for most of the energy supply in the cities, towns and the rural areas. SEB has installed energy generation capacity of 40.5 MW hydro and 9.5 MW diesel from 1999 to 2003 (MNRE Annual Report 2004, op cit). It also purchases energy from South Africa (ESKOM). The total energy generated and purchased was 852.6 GHz in 1999 and 991.2 GHz in 2003. The energy supply and demand in 2000 is indicated in the Table below. Table 14. Swaziland Energy Supply and Demand in 2000 Energy supply Percentage (%) Biogases Wood fuel Petroleum products Coal Electricity Total Demand Industry Household Transport Agriculture others Total

21.1 31.9 24.5 14.1 7.3 99.9

40.6 20.8 15.1 16.2 7.3 100

Source: http://www.gov.sz/home.asp?pid=1106 (accessed 09/06/2007)

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Financial Services Banks and other lending institutions also exist in the country. For loan purposes, the commercial institutions such as, First National Bank, Standard Bank, and Ned bank of Swaziland require collateral from their customers. For the majority of the people, these are not normally affordable or available. The Government has therefore established several facilities to enable poor people to access finance. These include: FINCORP, Tinkhundla Fund which are accessible to ordinary citizens without any collateral. In addition, micro-lending institutions offer loan facilities to individuals upon production of a personal identification document (such as National IDs) or evidence of ones ability to pay (such as payslips for the employed). 2.2.4. Rural-Urban Drift The 1997 population census indicates urban-rural population ratios of 23.1% and 76.9% (Table 15). Estimated figures of urban-rural drift are reported to be 3-5%; and it is expected that by the year 2030, about 70 % of Swazilands population will be living in towns and peri-urban areas (Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Communication (MTEC report, 1997). The probable cause of this situation is attributed to lack of improved sustainable productive activities to improve the populations incomes and lives in the rural areas. It is suggested that by improving and maintaining productive activities on the SNL and ITF the rural-urban migration could be prevented. Government policy, such as the Rural Resettlement Policy and the National Land Policy are intended to address this problem. Other NGOs such as Gone Rural encourage people to use agricultural raw materials to make baskets, table mats, etc. for income generation through sales on the local markets and for export. Such programmes need to be encouraged, because rural-urban drift is mostly due to economic reasons; people migrate in search of better life in town. Table 15. 1997 Population by Residential Status and Sex. Total Country, Administrative and Ecological Region, Rural and Urban Areas (Those present in the Country at that time). Regional Male Female Total Hhohho 120,665 134,780 255,445 Manzini 133,920 147,052 280,972 Shiselweni 91,282 107,696 198,978 Lubombo 94,287 100,036 194,323 Rural/Urban Rural 333898 381,392 715,290 Urban 106,256 108,172 214,428 SWAZILAND 440,154 489,564 929,718 Source: Extracted from CSO Annual Statistical Bulletin, 2000.

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2.3. Media and Telecommunications


2.3.1. Newspapers, Periodicals and Broadcast Media Newspapers Swaziland has two daily newspapers, one government and the other private. These are the Swazi Observer and the Times of Swaziland respectively. In addition, the Times of Swaziland publishes a weekly publication titled, the Sunday Times of Swaziland. All the papers claim to inform and educate the public. Information related to agriculture topics are common features in both papers. The Times of Swaziland has a dedicated weekly column called Business Farming discussing various issues in agriculture. In addition, contributions other than in the weekly column are featured from time to time. The Observer also publishes articles on agriculture although it does not have a dedicated column for agriculture. Recently there has been an increase in the publication of issues related to agriculture and the environment especially in the wake of the drought which has affected food production, water supply and the environment. Periodicals Agricultural-related periodicals seem to be more in the academic institutions domain, at the University of Swaziland, and another at the Royal Swazi Sugar Corporation. The MOAC has an irregular Journal on Farming. The circulation of these periodicals is limited to institutional clients; rural communities rarely have access to them due largely to limited production. For instance the two journal titles published by the University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture, the UNISWA Journal of Agriculture (UJA) has a print run of 200 copies; while the UNISWA Research Journal of Science & Technology has a print run of 150 copies only (See Table 16). Magazines The Swazi Today is a Government magazine that features some agriculture-related topics. This publication is easily accessible to rural communities as it is freely-distributed to rural centres by the MOAC Library. Radio and TV stations Swaziland has two radio and two TV stations, one each is for Government and private namely: The Swaziland Broadcasting & Information Service (SBIS), a Government Radio Station, and the Trans-World Radio Station, a private Christian Radio Station. TV stations include the Swaziland Television Station for Government, and a privately owned, Channel Swazi (Channel S) Television Station. Both Government Radio and TV stations, allocate airtime for agricultural topics. The SBIS allocates more time to agricultural topics than the TV Station, which is an advantage because more people even in the remote rural areas have access to a radio set or listen to radios owned by their neighbours in the community. SBIS covers well-over 95% of the population (MEDP, 1997). On the other hand, the private radio station broadcasts Christian programmes, while Channel S is mostly for commercials and entertainment.

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Table 16. Newspapers, Periodicals and Broadcast Media Type of Media and Ownership Circulation (Circ.), broadcast hours(bhs), contact details frequency (fre), delivery (del), Internet availability (ia), topical focus in agriculture(tfa), published/printed (pp) information Newspapers: Private 1.Times of Swaziland Contact: P.O. Box 156, Mbabane H100, Swaziland Tel: +268 404-2211/2 Fax: +268 404-2438 Email: editon@times.co.sz Private 2. Sunday Times Contact: P.O. Box 156, Mbabane H100, Swaziland Tel: +268 404-3216 Fax: +268 404-2438 Email: sundayeditor@times.co.sz Circ.22, 000, fre: daily; del Country-wide; ia: at: http://www.times.co.sz/ tfa: weekly column: business on farming & others; pp: locally.

fre: weekly; del- country-wide, ia: at: http://www.sundaytimes.co.sz pp: locally

Govt 3. Swazi Observer Contact: P.O. Box A385, Swazi Plaza, Mbabane, H100, Swaziland Tel: +268 404 4437 Fax: +268 404-6463 Email: swaziobserver@swazi.net Periodicals: 1. Swaziland Business Private Yearbook Contact: P.O. Box 592, Mbabane, H100, Swaziland Private 2. Farming in Swaziland Contact: ChristinaForsyth Thompson P.O. Box 592, Mbabane, Swaziland Tel: +268 404-3400 Fax: +268 404-3400 Email: cft@realnet.co.sz

Circ: 15,000; fre: daily; del.: Country-wide; ia: http://www.observer.org.sz; tfa: Yes, dependent on contribution availability; pp: locally.

Fre: annual ia: http://www.swazibusiness.com sbyb/; tfa :yes

Fre: irregular; tfa; yes; pp; locally.

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Type of Media contact details

and Ownership

3. UNISWA Journal of Institutional Agriculture (UJA) Contact: Editor-In-Chief, Office of the Dean Faculty of Agriculture University of Swaziland P.O. Luyengo, Swaziland Tel: +268 527-4021 Fax: +268 527-4021 Dean@agric.uniswa.sz 4. UNISWA Research Institutional Journal of Science & Technology Contact: University Research Centre P/B Luyengo, Swaziland Tel: +268 527-4021 Fax: +268 527-4021 Email: Research@uniswa.sz 5. Swaziland Sugar Institutional Association Journal Contact: P.O. Box 445 Mbabane Swaziland Tel.: +268 404-2646 Fax: +268 404-5005 Email: info@ssa.co.sz Magazines/Newsletters 1. Swaziland Today Government Contact: P.O. Box 170, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-3521 Fax: +268 404-5379/4044161 Email: hrpd@realnet.co.sz

Circulation (Circ.), broadcast hours(bhs), frequency (fre), delivery (del), Internet availability (ia), topical focus in agriculture(tfa), published/printed (pp) information Circ: 200; Fre: annual; del; local & Internationally; ia: http:/ajol.info/journal.index.php?=jid=26&ab=uniswarjjast; tfa: yes; pp: locally.

Circ: 150; fre: annual; del: locally and internationally; ia: http://www.uniswa.sz/research/ and at: http://www.inasp.org.uk/ajol/ pp: locally.

ia: http://www.ssa.co.sz

Tfa; yes; del: http://www.gov.co.sz/ ; pp: locally

Country-wide;

ia:

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Type of Media contact details

and Ownership

Circulation (Circ.), broadcast hours(bhs), frequency (fre), delivery (del), Internet availability (ia), topical focus in agriculture(tfa), published/printed (pp) information bhs: 18; del: Country-wide; tfa: yes (170,000 radios (1999)

Radio stations Government 1. Swaziland Broadcasting & Information Services (SBIS) Radio Station Contact: P.O. Box 338, Mbabane, H100, Swaziland Tel.: +268 404-2761/5 Fax: +268 404-2774 2. Trans-World Radio Private Station Contact: P.O. Box 64 Manzini, Swaziland Television stations

24 bhs

1.Swaziland Television Govt/parastatal bhs: 18; del: Country-wide; (23,000 TV sets (2000)) Broadcasting Corporation (STBC) Contact: P.O. Box A146, Swazi Plz, Mbabane, Swaziland Tel.: +268 404-3036 Fax: +268 404-2093

2. Channel Swazi Private Contact: P.O. Box 3721, Mbabane, Swaziland Tel.: +268 404 5028

Bhs: 18

Source: 1. Swaziland: Economy at: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/a0861381.html (Accessed on 05/06/2007); 2. MEPD Development Plan 1999/00-2001/02, 1999

2.3.2

Telecommunication Services

There are two telecommunications monopolies, the Swaziland Posts and Telecommunication Corporation (SPTC) which is a Government parastatal corporation with a monopoly in fixed telecommunication network; and the Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN), which is a private monopoly company specialising in mobile communications; with 51% shares by SPTC, 30% by MTN, 19% by the Swaziland Empowerment (SE). The coverage of both organizations is Country-wide; the installation of satellite in almost every Region has boosted the network.

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Table 17. Telecommunication Services Name of Type Ownership Number of Coverage Company (Fixed/mobile subscribers/lines of network SPTC Fixed Government *47612 lines Country/Parastatal wide

Cost per minute

MTN

Mobile

**Joint venture: SPTC (51%), MTN (30%); SE (19%)

*Varies : local/international destination /E1.14/E21.05 respectively ***213,000 ***79% ***Varies: countrywide local/International destinations/ E3.00/E3.00+SPTC charges

Source: *SPTC 2004/2005 Annual Report, at http://www.swazi.net/report05.pdf (Accessed 2007/12/02); **MEPD. Development plan 1999/00-2001/02; ***MTN Group, at http://www.mtn.com/mtn.group.web/investor/profile/swaziland.asp, (Accessed 2007/12/02

2.3.3

Computer and Internet Services

Table 18 below indicates permeation of computers and Internet services in the country. The Government has produced a National Information and Communication Infrastructure (NICI) Policy and Plans to guide the development of this very important sector. In addition, there are several initiatives that have been initiated by Government in partnership with individuals and NGOs (see 2.1.9). Table 18. Computers and Internet Basic Indicators Indicators Population Number of computers per 1,000 people Names of Internets Service Providers 1. Africa online : http://www.africaonline.co.sz/ 2. Lisango Internet service provider : http://www.lisango.net 3. Real Image Internet ; http://swazi.com/ 4. Real Image Internet : http://www.realnet.co.sz/ 5. UNISWA : http://www.uniswa.sz 6. UUNET Internet Africa Swaziland Number of Internet subscribers per 1000 people Cost of 10 hrs dial-up Internet per month by Company* The cost of DSL/month by company**

1,266,400 3.3 6

1.2 US$14 US$36

Source: 1. Swazi and Websites at http://kbraunweb.com/swazilinks/catlist.asp/cid=8 (Accessed on 07/06/2007). 2. Kingdom of Swaziland. National information & Communication Infrastructure (NICI) Policy and Plans, [2006], *UUNET Swaziland; **SPTC telecentre inquiries

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ANNEX 3. PROFILE OF INSTITUTIONS


3.1. List of Institutions involved in Agriculture
Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Churches Agricultural Projects(CAP) * CHU PS-P Contact Person Address:P.O.Box 380, Manzini Tel: +268 505-3865 Fax: +268 505-3865 Email: chief20@realnet.co.sz Web site: Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Co-ordinating Assembly of Non-Governmental Organizations NGO OT (CANGO) Contact Person: Bongiwe Zwane, Information Officer Address: P.O.Box A67 Swazi Plaza, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-6586 Fax: +268-404-5532 Email: cango@realnet.co.sz or cango@africaonline.co.sz Web site: http://www.cango.org.sz Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Cotton Board (Swaziland) (CBS) STA RG Contact Person: Mr. Jele, Chief Executive Officer Address: P.O.Box 230, Manzini Tel: +268 505-2775 Fax: +268 505-2775 Email: Web site: Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization (Swaziland) (FAO) OT OT Contact Person Mrs. Kanyisile Mabuza Address: c/o Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, P.O.Box 162 Mbabane Tel: +268 404-3299 Fax: +268 404-4700 Email: Web site: http://www.fao.org Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Gone Rural (GR) NGO PS-M Contact Person: Philippa Thorne Address: P.O.Box 446, Malkerns Tel: +268 550-4936 Fax: +268 528-3078 Email: juli@gonerural.co.sz Web site: http://www.goneruralswazi.com Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Green Cross Swaziland(GCS) NGO PS-P, RU Contact Person Mr. T. Kunene Address: P.O.Box 978, Matsapha Tel: +268 505-4423 Fax: +268 505-4423 Email: greencross@realnet.co.sz Web site: http://www.greencrossinternational.net

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Name and contacts Name and contacts Organization: Imbita Swaziland Womens Finance Trust(ISWFT) Contact Person: Sibongile Mthembu, Director Address: P.O.Box 1027, Manzini Tel: 268 505-6854 Fax: 268 505-5507 Email: imbita@realnet.co.sz Web site: Name and contacts Organization: Lowveld Farmer Training Centre (LVFTC) Contact Person Manqoba Shongwe, Principal Address: P.O. Box 44, Matata Tel:+268 364-6119 Fax:+268 364-6225 Email: Web site:

Type Type AS-W

Role Role FS

Type GOV

Role TR

Name and contacts Type Organization: Malkerns Production Research Centre (MPRC)* NGO Contact Person: Address: P.O.Box 4, Malkerns Tel: +268 528-3017 Fax: Email:malkernsresearch@iafrica.sz Web site: Name and contacts Type Organization: Malkerns Womens Institute (MWI) AS-W Contact Person Ms. N. Khosi Address: P.O.Box 46, Malkerns Tel: +268 528-3136 Fax: Email: Web site: Name and contacts Type Organization: Micro-Projects Programme Office(MPPO) PRT Contact Person: Ncane Dlamini, Coordinator Address: P.O. Box 2120, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-7341 or +268 404-7340 Fax:+268404-0516 Email: micropro@realnet.co.sz Web site: Name and contacts Type Organization: Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives(MOAC) GOV Contact Person: Mr. Christopher T. Nkhwanyana, Under Secretary, Development and Administration EX Address: P.O.Box 162, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-2731 Fax: +268 404-4700 RD Email: moac-hg@realnet.co.sz Web site: http://www.gov.sz Name and contacts Type Organization: Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy (MNRE) GOV Contact Person: Mrs Lucy Dlamini, Principal Secretary Address: P.O.Box 57, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-6244 Fax: +268 404-2436 Email: mnre@realnet.co.sz Web site: http://gov.sz

Role OT

Role OT

Role OT

Role PP, IN RUR

Role PP

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Name and contacts Type Role Organization: National Agricultural Marketing Board (NAMB) GOV TM Contact Person: Obed Hlongwane, Chief Executive Officer) Address:P.O.Box 4261, Manzini Tel: +268 505-2646/8 Fax: +268 505-4072 Email: fikile@namboard.co.sz Web site: Name and contacts Type Role Organization: National Maize Corporation (Swaziland) (NMC) GOV TM Contact Person: Sifiso Nyoni, Chief Executive Officer Address: P.O.Box 1775, Matsapha Tel: +268 518-7432 Fax: +268 518-4461 Email: info@nmc.co.sz Web site: Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Nhlangano Experimental Farm (NEF) GOV RD Contact Person K. Zikalala Address: P.O. Box 14, Nhlangano Tel: +268 207-8312 Fax: Email: Web site: Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Nhlangano Farmer Training Centre (NFTC) GOV RD Contact Person Jabulani Mnisi Address:P.O. Box 219, Nhlangano Tel: +268 207-8327 Fax: Email: Web site: Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Observer News (ON) PRT IN Contact Person: Musa Ndlangamandla, Chief editor Address: P.O. Box a385, Swazi plaza, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-4437 Fax: +268 404-5503 Email: swaziobserver@swazi.net Web site: www.observer.org.sz Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (RSSC) PRV PS-M Contact Person : Patricia Hilly,Corporate Affairs Manager PS-E PS-P Address: P.O.Box 1 Simunye Tel: +268 313-4000 Fax: +268 383-8956 Email: info@rssc.co.sz Web site: www.rssc.co.sz Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) REG OT Contact Person: Mbuso C Dlamini, Permanent Secretary Economic Planning Office Address: P.O.Box 602 , Mbabane Tel: +268 4043765 Fax: +268 4042157 Email:psmepd@iafrica.sz Web site: http://www.sadc.int

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Name and contacts Organization: Standard Bank of Swaziland (STB) Contact Person: S. Z. Dlamini, Marketing Manager Address: P.O.Box A294,Swazi Plaza, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-6587 Fax: +268 404-5899 Email: dlamini2@stanic.com Web site: http://www.stanic.com Name and contacts Organization: Swazi Bank (SB) Contact Person: Phindile Dlamini, Credit Manager Address: P.O.Box 336 Mbabane Tel: +268 404-2551 Fax: +268 404-1214 Email: swazibank@swazibank.co.sz Web site: www.swazibank.co.sz Name and contacts Organization: Swaziland Fruit Canners PTY (SWAZICAN) Contact Person: Ian Verco, Manager Address :P.O.Box 77, Malkerns Tel: +268 528-3001/2 Fax: Web site:

Type BKN

Role FS

Type BNK

Role FS

Type PRV PS-E

Role PS-M TM

Email:Iverco@swazican.co.sz

Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Swaziland Broadcasting and Information Services (SBIS) GOV IN Contact Person: Stan Motsa, Director Address: P.O. Box 338, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-2761 Fax: +268 404-6953 Email:sbisnews@africaonline.co.sz Web site: Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Swaziland Dairy Board(SDB) GOV STA Contact Person: Dr T.M. Dlamini, Chief Executive Officer Address: P.O. Box 2975 Manzini Tel: +268 505-8262 Fax: +268 505-8260 Email: tmdlamini@yahoo.com Web site: Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Swaziland Development Finance Corporation (FINCORP) BNK FS Contact Person: Vincent Mhlanga, Managing Director Address: P.O. Box 6099 Mbabane Tel: +268-404-9272 Fax: +268-404-9273 Email: fdfc@fincorp.co.sz Web site: Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Swaziland Environment Authority (SEA) GOV STA Contact Person: Jameson Vilakati, Director Address: P.O. Box 2652 Mbabane Tel: +268 404-6420 Fax: +268 4046438 Email: sea@realnet.co.sz Web site:

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Name and contacts Organization: Swaziland Farmers Development Foundation(SFDA) Contact Person: Mr Timothy Dlamini, Foundation Manager Address: P.O. Box 549, Mbabane Tel: +268 505-4114 Fax: +268 604-1719 Email: stocksi@realnet.co.sz,.or seabiodiv@realnet.co.sz Web site: www.environment.gov.sz Name and contacts Organization: Swaziland Water and Agricultural Development Enterprise (SWADE) Contact Person: Mr Doctor Lukhele, Chief Executive Officer Address: P.O. Box 5836 Mbabane Tel: +268 404-7950 Fax: +268 404-7954 Email: swade@swade.co.sz Web site: http://www.swade.co.sz Name and contacts Organization: Swaziland National Library Services (SNLS) Contact Person: Mrs D.J. Kunene, Director Address: P.O. Box 1461, ,Mbabane Tel: +268-404-2633 Fax: +268-404-3863 Email: snls@snls.gov.sz Web site: www.gov.sz Name and contacts Organization: Swaziland Royal Insurance Corporation (SRIC) Contact Person: Carol Muir, Marketing Manager Address: P.O. Box 917, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-3231 Fax: +268 404-6415 Email: sric@sric.sz Web site: http://www.sric.sz Name and contacts Organization: Tibiyo Taka Ngwane (TTN) Contact Person Mr. N. Mamba Address: P.O. Box 181 Kwaluseni, Manzini Tel: +268 518-4307/8 Fax: +268 518-7981 Email: info@tibiyo.com Web site:http:www.tibiyo.com Name and contacts Organization: Tikhundla Empowerment Fund (TEF)* Contact Person Address: P.O. Box A33, Swazi Plaza, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-1327 Fax: +268 404-4058 Email: Web site: http://www.gov.sz Name and contacts Organization: Times of Swaziland (TS) Contact Person: Paul Loffler,Managing Director Address: Box 156, Mbabane Tel: +268-404-2211/2 Fax: +268-404-2438 Email: editor@times.co.sz Web site: www.times.co.sz

Type NGO

Role RG RU

Type PRT

Role RU

Type GOV

Role IN

Type PRT

Role OT

Type Role GOV PS-P RU

Type GOV

Role FS

Type PRV

Role IN

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Name and contacts Type Role Organization: Umtapo wa Bomake Womens Resource Centres (UBWRC)* AS-W IN Contact Person Address: P.O.Box 3573 Manzini Tel: Fax: Email: wrcumtapo@africaonline.co.sz Web site: Name and contacts Type Role Organization: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) OT OT Contact Person: Jabu Matsebula, Information Officer Address: P.O. Box 261, Mbabane Tel: +268 404-2301 Fax: +268 404-5341 Email:registry.sz@undp.org Web site: http://www.undp.org.sz

Name and contacts Organization: University of Swaziland (FoA) Contact Person:Prof B.M Dlamini, Dean Address:P.O Luyengo,M205 Tel: +268 527-7021 Fax: +268-527-7021 Email: agriculture@uniswa.sz Web site: http://www.uniswa.sz Name and contacts Organization: Yonge Nawe Environmental Action Group (Swaziland) (YNEAG) Contact Person: Miss B.T Magama, Director Address: P.O. Box 2061 Mbabane Tel: 268 404-7701 Fax: 268 404-1394 Email :information@yongenawe.org.sz Web site: http://www.yongenawe.com *Institutions have since disbanded The following abbreviations are used:
Type AS-F AS-W AS-Y BK CCI CHU EDU GOV NGO PRV REG STA STE OTH Farmers association (includes cooperatives) Womens association Youth association Bank or credit institution Chamber of commerce and industry Church-based group Educational institution Government department/ministry Non-governmental organisation Private enterprise, company Regional organisation, project or network Statutory body State enterprise Other Role EX IN FS PP PS-E PS-M PS-P PS-S RD RG TR TM RU OT

Type EDU EX,

Role TR, IN RD

Type Role NGO OT

Extension outreach Information services Financial services Policy and planning Private sector Exporter (fresh, frozen and dried produce Private sector Manufacturer (e.g. tannery, bottler, refiner, roaster) Private sector producer (e.g. commercial farm, fishing company) Private sector Supplier (e.g. Chemicals, equipment, seeds) Research and development Regulation (compliance, standards) Training (at secondary, tertiary and vocational level) Trade and marketing (include market development) Rural development Other

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3.2. Select List of Key Institutions


1. Name of institution: Coordinating Assembly of Non-Governmental Organizations (CANGO) Objective / mission statement: To be a common NGO voice and resource for serving the people of Swaziland and representing the concerns of the poor, disadvantaged and marginalized. Endeavours to be tolerant of diverse views and principled mandates, to be transparent and accountable to CANGO stakeholders, including communities in promoting social justice for all. Field of specialization: Civil society capacity building HIV/AIDS Coordination project Osisa economic Literature project AusAid Community dialogue project BMSF NGO Training Institute Number of staff professional, clerical, 11 : 6 professionals, 5 others :Skills technical, etc; permanent / temporary): include: Programme management, Finance and administration, Economist, Gender specialist Branches, other sites: None Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro Not stated equivalent) Source of funding, incl. main donors / Donor partners; Membership subscriptions; sponsors Management projects Program / projects undertaken: None Target audience (plus number, actual or The poor, disadvantaged and marginalised estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA Spore None Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training,: Extent of collaboration / interaction with - University of South Africa training other institution (name, nature) programmes - Government ministries National Economic development 7 Planning development issues; Health HIV/AIDS, health issues; Home affairs - UN agencies financial support & logistics - Countries : Botswana, Lesotho Training National / sectoral policies impacting ICT use / information and communication within the institution: Import duty on ICT equipment will affect its development Restriction of free access to information will affect its availability

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1. Name of institution: Coordinating Assembly of Non-Governmental Organizations (CANGO) How information needs are currently met, - In-house library and from where and by whom: - Government ministries - Internet - National research institutions - Regional research institutions - Meetings with local communities: women, youth, aged, disadvantaged - Video presentations Main information needs not satisfied - Statistical information especially (including types and format of information): government statistics on employment, prices and cost of living, education, health - Information on policies when these are not finalized - Civic information - CD-ROMs, videos on community development Main problems faced in terms of - Lack of trained staff for ICM information and communication - Lack of training manuals for ICM management: - Inadequate funding for ICM development Why institution selected as a key: CANGO is an umbrella organization of several NGOs that aims at promoting social justice, food security; and influences policy formulation, legislation, national development strategies and monitoring. It is the voice of the poor, marginalized, disadvantaged; promotes rural development through informing these groups and providing strategies for community based projects including agriculture

2. Name of institution: Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives (MOAC) Objective / mission statement: To ensure household food security and increased sustainable agricultural productivity through diversification and enhancement of commercial agricultural activities, formation of appropriate technologies and efficient extension services while ensuring stakeholder participation and sustainable development and management of natural resources in Swaziland.

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2. Name of institution: Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives (MOAC) Field of specialization: - Agricultural research - Agricultural extension - Home economics - Cooperatives development - Fisheries, Forestry - Land use planning and development Number of staff professional, clerical, Not stated technical, etc; permanent / temporary): Branches, other sites: Manzini, Piggs Peak, Nhlangano, Siteki, Mankayane, Hlatikulu Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro Not stated equivalent) Source of funding, incl. main donors / Government sponsors Program / projects undertaken: Not stated Target audience (plus number, actual or Farmers, general public estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA Spore Spore magazine, CTA publications, DORA, Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, SDI consultants, publications, training. Extent of collaboration / interaction with University of Swaziland, FAO other institution (name, nature) National / sectoral policies impacting ICT Have strategic plan in draft form use / information and communication within the institution: How information needs are currently met, CTA booklets/bulletins, University of and from where and by whom: Swaziland, regional research institutions especially from the Republic of South Africa, International research institutions e.g. ICRISAT, local commodity associations, input suppliers, University of Free State (RSA), FAO, Internet. Main information needs not satisfied Farm problems, non-farm livelihoods, (including types and format of information): available agricultural/development networks, post harvest technology, crop variety, packaging, waste utilization, patents, industrial profiles, integrated pest management, grading systems, credit & micro credit, market data, identification of markets, commodity profiles, crop insurance systems, application of technology in extension, editing of manuals and reports, participative methodologies.

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2. Name of institution: Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives (MOAC) Main problems faced in terms of - Lack of proper training in ICT: web information and communication design, spread sheets management: - Lack of a budget for computers, laptops - Lack of budget to expand library infrastructure. - Lack of autonomy in keeping own data banks Why institution selected as a key: The ministry is responsible for policy formulation and administration of all legislation related to agriculture; organization and management of cooperative societies, development and implementation of agricultural plans and policies especially rural development and subsistence farming; provision of administration, planning, finance and publicity services in the ministry; provides executive direction of agriculture in the country.

3. Name of institution: Ministry of Natural Resources & Energy, Land Control Board (MNRE) Objective / mission statement: MNREs mission is to ensure the optimal development, use and management of the countrys natural resources (water, minerals, energy, and land) in a sustainable manner with minimal damage to the environment. Furthermore, it provides efficient services on surveying, mapping and evaluation of the resources for the social and economic development of the Kingdom of Swaziland. The Land Control Board provides secretarial services to the Land Control and land-related boards Field of specialization: Surveying, mapping, evaluation speculation control Number of staff professional, clerical, 6 technical, etc; permanent / temporary): Branches, other sites: None Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro Not stated equivalent) Source of funding, incl. main donors / Government and donors sponsors Program / projects undertaken: none Land

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3. Name of institution: Ministry of Natural Resources & Energy, Land Control Board (MNRE) Target audience (plus number, actual or The public estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA Spore None Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training,: Extent of collaboration / interaction with - Evaluation department land valuation other institution (name, nature) - Surveyor general office Subdivision diagrams - Deeds Office deeds records - Ministry of Agriculture agriculture related issues - University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Land Use and Mechanization for advice and technical support National / sectoral policies impacting ICT Not stated use / information and communication within the institution: How information needs are currently met, - Registry and from where and by whom: - Computerized records in the Surveyor generals Office, Deeds Office, Evaluation department Main information needs not satisfied None- Deals with records of land (including types and format of information): transactions. Main problems faced in terms of -Deeds training needed for staff to manage information and communication registry management: -Records management training for other staff needed Why institution selected as a key: The ministry is responsible for land resources acquisition and allocation, farm dwellers act, rural water supply, energy, power generation and management, water resources development, land surveys, land consolidation, geological surveys and mines. The Land Control Board provides secretarial services to the Land Control and land related Boards. It also approves applications for agricultural land allocation which is indispensable to the development of the sector.

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4. Name of institution: National Agricultural Marketing Board (NAMBOARD) Objective / mission statement: A national agricultural enterprise, which has a mandate to provide an enabling environment for the development of farmers in Swaziland. NAMBOARD espouses quality and sustainable production, processing, marketing, and distribution of local agricultural produce to meet national, regional and international market demand. Field of specialization: Agriculture, marketing, finance, extension services Number of staff professional, clerical, Not stated technical, etc; permanent / temporary): Branches, other sites: None Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro E15,000,000.00 [Euros 1,546,392] equivalent) Source of funding, incl. main donors / Levies at borders sponsors Marketing and trading Program / projects undertaken: None Target audience (plus number, actual or - Farmers estimated) - Marketers - Public - Manufacturers - Processors Extent of interaction with CTA Spore None Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training Extent of collaboration / interaction with Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, other institution (name, nature) University of Swaziland National / sectoral policies impacting ICT None, but has a strategic plan (2006-2009) use / information and communication which does not include an information within the institution: policy or plan. How information needs are currently met, Internet and from where and by whom: Main information needs not satisfied - Conferences and meetings (including types and format of information): - Development and funding programs - Quality assurance (grading systems) - Post-harvest technologies - market data - Identification of markets Main problems faced in terms of Corporate information systems not information and communication integrated and not fully functional management:

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4. Name of institution: National Agricultural Marketing Board (NAMBOARD) Why institution selected as a key: NAMBOARD is responsible for promoting marketing of agricultural produce and support to small farmer in the country, provision of advice, training, extension services to farmers, setting up projects beneficial to the farmers, controlling importation of certain agricultural products into the country. 5. Name of institution: Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (RSSC) Objective / mission statement: RSSC will be leading, world class, profitable, low cost producer and marketer of sugar, ethanol and related products for the benefit of all stakeholders. This will be achieved through: - Highly competent & motivated people - A sustainable and environmentally conscious manner. - Innovation & growth - High standards of corporate governance Field of specialization: - Agriculture: sugarcane - Manufacturing: sugar (95%) and ethanol (5%) Number of staff professional, clerical, 2 500 permanent + 1 000 outsourced; 70 technical, etc; permanent / temporary): senior management staff with tertiary qualification at universities and technical colleges. Branches, other sites: Mhlume Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro Not stated equivalent) Source of funding, incl. main donors / -Sugar sales and other associated sponsors products e.g. ethanol Program / projects undertaken: Consolidation of Baan Verp accounting system Target audience (plus number, actual or (a) Sugar: Regional markets e.g. SADC estimated) (13%), Europe (33%), USA (4%), and Southern African Customs Union (50%) (b) Ethanol: RSA, Nigeria, Europe, Far East (Sri Lanka) Extent of interaction with CTA Spore None Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, :

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5. Name of institution: Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (RSSC) Extent of collaboration / interaction with University of Swaziland, Ministry of other institution (name, nature) Agriculture, South African Sugar Association, Financial institutions, International Standards Organization (ISO), Ethanol forums. National / sectorial policies impacting ICT Have ICT strategic plan use / information and communication within the institution: How information needs are currently met, Internet, internal systems, South African and from where and by whom: agricultural research institutions, universities, ISO, ethanol forums, South African sugar industry, staff affiliations to professional bodies. Main information needs not satisfied None (including types and format of information): Main problems faced in terms of None information and communication management: Why institution selected as a key: This is a leading sugar producer and exporter in Swaziland. It operates as an integrated sugar producer. It is made up of sugar estates at Mhlume and Simunye. It is operating a 20,000 hectare irrigated sugarcane estate, two sugar mills, a refinery and a distillery. It supports small sugarcane growers. It produces ethanol. 6. Name of institution: Swaziland Broadcasting & Information Services(SBIS) Objective / mission statement: To disseminate news and information aimed at educating, informing and entertaining the Swazi nation effectively and impartially for the purposes of development and social welfare through radio broadcasts and publications. Field of specialization: Dissemination of news and information Number of staff professional, clerical, 130 full time [number under each category technical, etc; permanent / temporary): not indicated] but includes: Administration; technical, clerical; support staff which include cleaners and security. Branches, other sites: None Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro E12m [Euro 1.3m] equivalent) Source of funding, incl. main donors / Government sponsors: Projects funds

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6. Name of institution: Swaziland Broadcasting & Information Services(SBIS) Program / projects undertaken: - Participation in the production of countrys National Information & Communication Infrastructure Policy and Plans Completed - Digitization project current - Broadcasting and guidelines & media policy - current Target audience (plus number, actual or Public estimated): Extent of interaction with CTA Spore None Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, : Extent of collaboration / interaction with - Government ministriesvarious other institution (name, nature) aspects - Non-governmental organizations various issues - National Association of Development Programme Producers (NADPP) various issues - Southern African Broadcasting Association (SABA) Broadcasting - Schools various issues National / sectoral policies impacting ICT Not stated use / information and communication within the institution: How information needs are currently met, - Radio programmes and from where and by whom: - Newspapers - TV programmes - Internet Main information needs not satisfied - Management of information within the (including types and format of information): organization - Equipment sourcing/ availability e.g. news gathering equipment - Development and funding programmes Main problems faced in terms of - Inadequate technical capacity to information and communication manage audio visual library management: - Inadequate trained staff for programme production, news production - Lack of trained IT personnel : web design, programming - Limited computers for Internet connectivity - Inadequate computers for information acquisition and processing

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6. Name of institution: Swaziland Broadcasting & Information Services(SBIS) Why institution selected as a key: - This is an information service provider country and international wide offering radio and television broadcasting services, newspapers, magazines, and other printed publications - It is responsible for government information services, accreditation of foreign news reporters and correspondents operating in Swaziland

7. Name of institution: Swaziland Development Finance Corporation (FINCORP) Objective / mission statement: To sustainably provide increased access to financial services for Swazi entrepreneurs. Statement of purpose: To economically empower Swazi entrepreneur through the provision of accessible and sustainable financial services. Field of specialization: Number of staff professional, clerical, 50 staff. Various categories technical, etc; permanent / temporary): Branches, other sites: None Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro Not stated equivalent) Source of funding, incl. Main donors / Shareholder capital, loans, fundraising sponsors focused internationally, partnership collaborators. Program / projects undertaken: Not stated Target audience (plus number, actual or Entrepreneurs, rural poor, youth, women estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA Spore None Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training, Extent of collaboration / interaction with Banks, secure strategic alliances, other institution (name, nature) Swaziland Meat Industry, National Agricultural Marketing Board, Internal collaborators / partnerships National / sectoral policies impacting ICT ICT policy incorporated in the overall plan use / information and communication for 2007 to 2012 within the institution: How information needs are currently met, Banking institutions, credit markets, and from where and by whom: meetings with beneficiaries, financial market reports, Internet. Main information needs not satisfied Market intelligence, market data, (including types and format of information): commodity profiles, credit & micro-credit, market research Main problems faced in terms of Upgrading hardware and software information and communication including staff retraining to deliver better management: results

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7. Name of institution: Swaziland Development Finance Corporation (FINCORP) Why institution selected as a key: The cooperation offers credit to Swazi entrepreneurs with the objectives of job creation, support of rural owned business, support women owned business and youth.

8. Name of institution: Swaziland Farmer Development Foundation (SFDF) Objective / mission statement: To promote cooperation between private bodies, individuals and government; improve agriculture in the country; implement group farming projects and provide expertise to member organizations. Field of specialization: Community development, animal production, horticulture, integrated pest management, drought mitigation and rehabilitation, vetiver grass systems, soil and water conservation, small earth dams Number of staff professional, clerical, 15:- 1 director, 3 project managers technical, etc; permanent / temporary): (graduates), 1 finance manager, 2 Trainees in agriculture, 8 others. Branches, other sites: None Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro E2-4m [ Euro .2-.3m] equivalent) Source of funding, incl. Main donors / - Government sponsors - Donor funding - Capital communities contribution (5%) Program / projects undertaken: None Target audience (plus number, actual or - Farmers estimated) - Public in the rural areas Extent of interaction with CTA Spore None Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training,: Extent of collaboration / interaction with - FAO projects other institution (name, nature) - NAMBOARD Marketing - CANGO Information exchange - Ministry of agriculture Information exchange & technical advice National / sectoral policies impacting ICT Not indicated use / information and communication within the institution:

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8. Name of institution: Swaziland Farmer Development Foundation (SFDF) How information needs are currently met, - CD-ROMs and from where and by whom: - Library - Ministry of Agriculture - NAMBOARD - Newspapers - Radio, TV programmes - National trade fares - Internet - University of Swaziland, Faculty of agriculture Main information needs not satisfied Crop varieties, integrated pest (including types and format of information): management, equipment sourcing/ availability, market data, Identification of markets, application of communication technologies in extension service ( data capturing software), quality assurance, credit and micro-credit, computers Main problems faced in terms of - Management of information within the information and communication organization management: - Lack of trained skills in information management: records management. - Inadequate funding to develop an information resource centre - Inadequate funding to increase internet accessibility to all staff Why institution selected as a key: This NGO aims at promoting cooperation between private bodies, individual and government, improving agriculture in the country, implementing group farming projects and proving expertise to member organizations.

9. Name of institution: Swaziland Fruit Canners (Pty) Ltd (SWAZICAN) Objective / mission statement: To be a leading supplier of canned fruit, juice and jams with markets around the world. Swazican is part of the Rhodes Food Group companies and central to the groups philosophy is the need to be the best in all that it does with particular focus on product quality, customer service and flexibility in meeting the clients needs. Field of specialization: - Canning juice and processing of fruit - Producer of pineapples and citrus fruit Number of staff( professional, clerical, 400 permanent, 1300 seasonal technical, etc; permanent / temporary): (temporary); size of each category not stated but skills include: technical, engineering, food processing, agricultural.

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9. Name of institution: Swaziland Fruit Canners (Pty) Ltd (SWAZICAN) Branches, other sites: Malkerns pineapple farm; Shiselweni Citrus farm Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro E200m [Euros 20.6m] equivalent) Source of funding, incl. main donors / - Institutional funds sponsors - Central treasury of the group - Local banks loans Program / projects undertaken: None Target audience (plus number, actual or - Markets: European, U.K, North estimated) America, Far Eastern, Southern African Region and Swaziland - Farmers growing pineapples and citrus fruit Extent of interaction with CTA Spore None Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training,: Extent of collaboration / interaction with Rhodes Food Group Companies Head other institution (name, nature) Office for: Information exchange, joint projects, finance National / sectorial policies impacting ICT Not stated use / information and communication within the institution: How information needs are currently met, Internet; agribusiness consultants; and from where and by whom: colleagues; staff at work; company records Main information needs not satisfied Not stated (including types and format of information): Main problems faced in terms of - Outsourcing of ICM technical support is information and communication sometimes not timely and delays management: operations

Why institution selected as a key:

SWAZICAN is a major producer of pineapple and citrus fruit as well as processor of fruit. It is a cannery of various fruits, an exporter and a major foreign exchange earner in Swaziland. It provides technical support and finances fruit and pineapple growers. It is one of the largest employers in agro based industries.

10. Name of institution: Swaziland National Library Services (SNLS) Objective / mission statement: Provision of quality materials and services which fulfil educational, informational, cultural and recreational needs of the entire society/nation in an atmosphere that is welcoming, respectful and businesslike.

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Field of specialization:

Information service specializing in collection of materials in Swaziland (SWAZIANA), United Nations, special collections, general collection Number of staff professional, clerical, Professionals (21), paraprofessionals (25), technical, etc; permanent / temporary): other (98) Branches, other sites: 13 Branches plus 2 main libraries Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro E3,000,000 [Euros 0.31m] equivalent) Source of funding, incl. main donors / Government, Donations sponsors Program / projects undertaken: None Target audience (plus number, actual or General public, researchers, and students estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA Spore None Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, consultants, publications, training. Extent of collaboration / interaction with - Ohio State University, Library of other institution (name, nature): Congress, University libraries in Malaysia, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Malawi : Interlibrary loan services Swaziland Library Association : Conferences, workshops, annual general meetings SCECSAL, SCANUL, IFLA, UNESCO : Conferences National / sectoral policies impacting ICT None use / information and communication within the institution: How information needs are currently met, Ministry of Agriculture booklets/flyers, and from where and by whom: University of Swaziland: Faculty of Agriculture, newspapers, Internet, radio/TV programmes, colleagues, books, journals. Main information needs not satisfied - Equipment sourcing /availability,(including types and format of information): - Development and funding programmes, - Conferences, workshops, meetings - Application of communication technologies in information provision (Internet, multimedia) - Management of information within the organization. Main problems faced in terms of Financial due to zero growth; low salaries information and communication resulting in staff turnover; lack of proper management: training in ICT skills; inadequate computers, hardware and software, staff training

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Why institution selected as a key:

This is a countrywide network of libraries crucial to the provision and dissemination of information to fulfil educational, cultural and recreational needs of the entire country. It is a strategic partner in information resource sharing.

11. Name of institution: University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture (UNISWA FoA) Objective / mission statement: It seeks to pursue excellence in teaching, research, outreach and enterprise development in the disciplines of agriculture and home economics in order to serve the needs of the Kingdom of Swaziland and beyond. Field of specialization: Agricultural Economics Management, Animal Production and Health, Crop Production, Land Use and Mechanization, Agricultural Extension and education, Horticulture, and Home Economics, Number of staff professional, clerical, 101: 7 Professors, 28 PhDs, 9 Masters, 2 technical, etc; permanent / temporary): Technologists, 18 Technicians, 37 Others. Branches, other sites: None Annual budget: (in local currency with Euro Not stated equivalent) Source of funding, incl. main donors / Government, Donors, UNISWA sponsors Foundation Program / projects undertaken: - Upgrading of Internet link to Faculty of Agriculture (Luyengo) from 128 Kbps to 192 Kbps - University local area network extension to new offices - Upgrading of university Internet link from 320 Kbps to 576 kbps - Increasing computer hardware for student use and expansion of the ICT infrastructure for increased computers through soliciting of funds - Creation of the Faculty of Agriculture Library computer laboratory - Staff training and recruitment in ICT in the faculty Target audience (plus number, actual or Students, general public and farmers estimated)

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11. Name of institution: University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture (UNISWA FoA) Extent of interaction with CTA Spore - Publications: Spore, CTA publications, Magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars, DORA, CD-ROMs, Question and consultants, publications, training. Answer Service (not fully operational but running) - Participation in other programmes: CTA training programmes, Seminar support programmes Extent of collaboration / interaction with other institution (name, nature) CTA publications, workshops, meetings, training - Ongoing BANGOR/UNISWA agriculture link Agro-Forestry - 1992 - UNISWA/OHIO link agricultural education, laboratory & computers, staff exchange 1993 - SUFA linkage between Christian Agricultural college in Drontein in the Netherlands and faculty of Agriculture Improving practical component of teaching, short term training of academic and technical staff 19951997 - SACUDE SLUSE programme between universities of Botswana, Natal, Swaziland and Durban-WesTVille on the one hand and three universities in Denmark purchase of computers, digital projectors, digital cameras, books, staff exchange, joint field courses and joint research by staff 2002-2005 National / sectoral policies impacting ICT None at the moment use / information and communication within the institution:

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11. Name of institution: University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture (UNISWA FoA) How information needs are currently met, - Library resources: journals, and from where and by whom: monographs, electronic resources : CD-ROMs, videos, audio cassettes, databases - Internet - Conferences and workshops - Individual staff subscriptions to journals, affiliations to professional associations - Individual staff collaborative ventures with other institutions and individuals - Local, regional, International Institutions e.g. universities, FAO, CTA, UNISA research centre, Government ministries etc. Main information needs not satisfied The Facultys limited financial base cannot (including types and format of information): cope with the acquisition of information resources of all types without external assistance. Main problems faced in terms of - Technological changes are a major information and communication challenge and hence retraining of staff management: to cope with the challenge is vital - ICT centralization does cause some delays in technical support - Inadequate funding hampers replacement of resources of all types including staff, equipment, software and procuring new technologies and hardware Why institution selected as a key: The Faculty is a producer of human resources to fuel the engine of agriculture and rural development and home economics to meet the needs of Swaziland and the region. It provides countrywide agricultural information services, consultancy, and extension services

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ANNEX 4. LIST OF INSTITUTIONS AND PERSONS INTERVIEWED


Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Bongiwe Zwane Information Officer Coordinating Assembly of Non-Governmental Organizations P.O. Box A67, Swazi Plaza, Mbabane. Swaziland (268)404 4721 Cango@africaonline.co.sz Donald Hlophe Agricultural Information Officer Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives P.O. Box 162, Mbabane. Swaziland (268)404 2731 hlophedon@gov.sz Albert Lukhele Secretary-Lands Speculation Control Board Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy P.O. Box 57, Mbabane. Swaziland +268 404 6244 mnre@realnet.co.sz Obed N. Hlongwane Chief Executive Officer National Agricultural Marketing Board P.O. Box 4261, Manzini. M200 Swaziland (268)505-5314 namboard@realnet.co.sz Professor Barnabas M. Dlamini Dean University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture P.O. Luyengo. Swaziland (+268) 527-4021 bmdlamin@agric.uniswa.sz Dr. M.M. Sithole Faculty Tutor University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture P.O. Luyengo. Swaziland (+268) 527-4021 msithole@agric.uniswa.sz

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Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email

Dr. Absalom Manyatsi Senior Lecturer and Head, Land Use & Mechanization Department University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture P.O. Luyengo. Swaziland (268) 527-4021 manyatsi@agric.uniswa.sz Timothy Dlamini Acting Director Swaziland Farmer Development Foundation P.O. Box 6128, Manzini. Swaziland (+268) 505- 4114 sfdf@swazinet.net Ian Vercoe Managing Director Swaziland Fruit Canners (PTY) Ltd. P.O. Box 77, Malkerns. Swaziland (+268) 528-3001 ivercoe@swazican.co.sz Dikeledi J. Kunene Director Swaziland National Library Services P.O. Box 1461, Mbabane. Swaziland (+268) 404-2633 snissz@snls.gov.sz Nomsa V. Mkhwanazi Senior Librarian Swaziland National Library Services P.O. Box 1461, Mbabane. Swaziland (+268) 404-2633

Angel Mthupha Librarian Swaziland National Library Services P.O. Box 1461, Mbabane. Swaziland (+268) 404-2633

Queeneth D. Fakudze Librarian Swaziland National Library Services P.O. Box 1461, Mbabane. Swaziland (+268) 404-2633

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Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email Name Designation Organization Address Telephone Email

John du Plessis Managing Director Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation P.O. Box 1, Simunye. Swaziland (+268) 313-4230 (Cell. (+268) 602-4243 jduplessis@rssc.co.sz Mandla D. Motsa Director Swaziland Broadcasting and Information Services P.O. Box 338, Mbabane. Swaziland (268) 404-2762 motsa@gov.sz Dumisani J. Msibi Deputy Managing Director Swaziland Development Finance Corporation P.O. Box 6099, Mbabane. H100, Swaziland (+268) 4049272 dmsibi@fincorp.co.sz

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