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BTS

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Copyright of this manual belongs to LG Electronics. This manual may be reproduced, distributed or in any form without the express written permission of LG Electronics.

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The information contained in this manual reflects the information available at the point of publication date as precisely and completely as possible. The results of using the information not mentioned in this manual or the risk of misunderstanding this document remain with the user. The information in this manual is subject to change due to function enhancement, change of design, etc. If you want the modified manual or have any question on this manual, please contact: Address : Tel : If you have any complaint about the product or related question, please contact: Address : Phone : http://www.lge.com

2002 LG Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved

SMD-011-SSA220

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Subsystem Description

PREFACE
Document description
This document describes functions, features, structure, specifications, etc of STAREXIS BTS, which is the BSC on the CDMA network.

Target audience
This document is written for system operators and skilled technical manpower who is eager to get familiar with this system.

Summary
The contents of this document are as follows: Chapter 1. BTS Overview This chapter deals with the following to provide general information on BTS.
LG CDMA network Configuration BTS features, specifications, system configuration, interface, and reliability

Chapter 2. BTS Configuration This chapter covers the following to give the reader insight to the BTS configuration:
BSC H/W configuration BSC S/W configuration

Chapter 3. BTS Functions This chapter describes the following major functions that BTS provides:
Call processing, location registration processing, hand-off, power control, and paging control GPS receiving function, diversity, and high-speed packet data service Supplementary functions

Chapter 4. BTS Operation and Maintenance This chapter deals with the following concerning BTS operation and maintenance functions:

System initialization function Configuration management, user interface function, statistics function,

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NMS interface function, and Remote Control Status management, fault management, test and diagnosis function, and security function Inventory function and overload control function

Marks
The marks below art used in this document. Though the information provided along with the mark may not relate to the contents of this document, a user should keep this in mind in order to use the system safely and correctly.

Reference Note

It provides additional information for related contents Not following this Note may damage the system

Warning Not following this Caution may cause critical system failure and damage the operator physically

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Subsystem Description

Contents Chapter 1. BTS Overview....................................................... 6


1. Introduction..................................................................................................................... 6 2. Configuration of Mobile Communication Network ................................................................ 7
2.1 Circuit Core Network(CCN)........................................................................................................ 7 2.2 Radio Access Network(RAN).................................................................................................... 9 2.3 Packet Core Network(PCN)........................................................................................................ 10

3. Features......................................................................................................................... 11 4. Specifications.................................................................................................................. 13 5. System Configuration....................................................................................................... 17

Chapter 2. BTS Configuration............................................. 18


1. Overview......................................................................................................................... 18 2. H/W Configuration........................................................................................................... 19
2.1 DBPB (Digital Bank Processor Block)...................................................................................... 19 2.2 BANB (BTS ATM Network Block)........................................................................................... 21 2.3 RCCB (Radio & Channel Control Block).................................................................................. 23 2.4 BSPB (Base Station Signaling Processor Block)......................................................................... 25 2.5 CFEB (Compact Front End Block)........................................................................................... 28 2.6 LPAB (Linear Power Amplifier Block)...................................................................................... 31 2.7 BTGB (BTS Timing Generation Block)...................................................................................... 32 2.8 RISB (RF & IF Supervisor Block)............................................................................................... 34 2.9 BSTB (Base Station Test Block)............................................................................................... 36 2.10 BOTB (BeacOn Transmitter Block)........................................................................................... 38

3. Software Configuration.................................................................................................... 41
3.1 Software Design Concept............................................................................................................ 41 3.2 S/W Architecture......................................................................................................................... 42 3.3 Major functional configuration.................................................................................................... 43

Chapter 3. BTS Functions.................................................... 48


1. Call Processing.................................................................................................................. 48
1.1 Voice Call Processing................................................................................................................. 48 1.2 Data Call Processing ................................................................................................................. 49 1.3 Call Admission Control............................................................................................................ 50 1.4 Channel Processing ..................................................................................................................... 53

2. Location Registration Processing ......................................................................................... 56


2.1 Location Registration by MS.................................................................................................... 56 2.2 Location Registration by MSC.................................................................................................... 57

3. Hand-off......................................................................................................................... 58

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3.1 Types of hand-off......................................................................................................................... 58 3.2 Voice Call Hand-off..................................................................................................................... 60 3.3 Data Call Hand-off..................................................................................................................... 62

4. Power Control.................................................................................................................. 63
4.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................. 63 4.2 IS-95A/B based Power Control.................................................................................................... 65 4.3 IS-2000 based Fast Power Control............................................................................................... 67 4.4 Performance of Power Control.................................................................................................... 68

5. Paging Control .............................................................................................................. 69


5.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................. 69 5.2 Quick Paging.............................................................................................................................. 69

6. GPS Receiving Function.................................................................................................... 70 7. Diversity......................................................................................................................... 71


7.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................. 71 7.2 Type of Diversity......................................................................................................................... 72

8. High Speed Packet Data Service......................................................................................... 72


8.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................. 72 8.2 Channel Assignment Control.................................................................................................... 73

9. Supplementary Function.................................................................................................... 73
9.1 QOF (Quasi-Orthogonal Function)........................................................................................... 74 9.2 Flexible Paging......................................................................................................................... 74 9.3 PACA (Priority Access & Channel Assignment)......................................................................... 74 9.4 Tiered Service.............................................................................................................................. 76 9.5 NDSS (Network Directed System Selection).............................................................................. 77

Chapter 4. Operation and Maintenance of BTS................. 79


1. Operation Function........................................................................................................... 79
1.1 System Initialization Function.................................................................................................... 79 1.2 Configuration Management........................................................................................................ 80 1.3 Man-machine interface Function............................................................................................... 81 1.4 Statistics Function..................................................................................................................... 82 1.5 Interface with NMS ................................................................................................................. 83 1.6 Remote Control......................................................................................................................... 83

2. Maintenance Function....................................................................................................... 84
2.1 Status Management..................................................................................................................... 84 2.2 Fault Management..................................................................................................................... 84 2.3 Test and Diagnosis Function........................................................................................................ 86 2.4 Security Function..................................................................................................................... 88 2.5 Inventory Function..................................................................................................................... 89 2.6 Overload Control Function........................................................................................................ 89

Abbreviations........................................................................... 91

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Chapter 1. BTS Overview


1. Introduction
Located between MS(Mobile Station) and BSC(Base Station Controller) in a personal communication system, STAREX-IS that uses CDMA digital mobile communication technology, BTS controls calls for the MS and performs system operation and maintenance. More specifically, it induces the MS to recognize BTS for the first time, provides the necessary information, allocates traffic channels for the call request made by the MS, and opens a call path. In addition, it provides new functions such as high-speed data service, multimedia service, new hand-off, etc which are defined in the IS-2000 standard. STAREX-IS BTS, CDMA2000 system developed by LGE, is based on ATM; therefore, it is most suitable for the network structure defined in IOS v4.0 and IS-2000 standard. Since BTS is based on ATM, it makes evolution easy when migrating to 3X and has the network structure that can provide high-speed data service that advances fast technologically. Interface between BSC and BTS can be made by OC-3 of STM-1 rate, as well as the existing E1/T1 method; therefore, BTS can process various control signals and traffic signals sent and received between BTS and BSC fast and in more stable manner, providing the more reliable services. STAREX-IS Standard BTS is installed outdoors and depending on the features of the installation area, it can select from 1FA/3Sector to 8FA/3Sector.

2. Configuration of Mobile Communication Network


With the addition of PCN(Packet Core Network), the CDMA2000 mobile communication network is divided into three parts to support RAN(Radio Access Network), CCN(Circuit Core Network) and Packet Data Service.
Fig. 0-1 CDMA2000 Mobile Communication Network Configuration Diagram

1.2- 1(1):

RAN
VMS VMS /FMS /FMS

AuC AuC

CCN

BTS BTS
#0 #0

HLR HLR

SMSC SMSC

SCE SCE

BSC BSC
MS MS BTS BTS
#47 #47

(#0) (#0)

SCP SCP

MSC/VLR(SSP) MSC/VLR(SSP)
IWF IWF

IP IP

SMS SMS

BTS BTS
#0 #0

BSC BSC
MS MS BTS BTS
#47 #47

(#11) (#11)

PDSN PDSN

Intra IP

G/W G/W Router Router

PSTN /PLMN /ISDN

PCN

AAA AAA

HA HA

Internet

2.1 Circuit Core Network(CCN)


CCN(Circuit Core Network) is used to provide the existing voice service and to interface with existing networks such as PSTN, PLMN, ISDN, etc. In addition, it is configured with network elements to provide the supplementary services as well as network services for mobile subscribers.
Mobile Switching System(MSC)

As a center of the mobile communication network, MSC(Mobile Switching Center) provides interface between a mobile communication network and a fixed network such as PSTN, ISDN, etc and between a mobile communication network and other carriers networks such as PLMN, internet network, and PSPDN. In addition, in order to provide a switching function, MSC exchange data HLR(Home Location Register) and VLR(Visitor Location Register). It interfaces with BSC to send and receive signals and voice data with the MS(Mobile Station).

Visitor Location Register(VLR)

VLR(Visitor Location Register) temporally stores and manages all the information on MS existing in the areas it manages. And when mobile subscribers set up a call, VLR sends the information on the corresponding subscriber to MSC at the MSCs request. HLR-related data are maintained identically with the HLR at all times.
Home Location Register(HLR)

HLR(Home Location Register) is a DB system that stores and manages subscriber parameters and location information on the MS registered in its areas. HLR manages important data such as MS accessing ability, basic service, supplementary service, etc and routes terminating subscribers. Furthermore, in case of intelligent network service, HLR provides the wireless intelligent network for next-generation by providing subscriber-related data to WIN network element.
Authentication Center(AuC)

AuC(Authentication Center) is a system that processes the subscriber authentication and interfaces with the mobile communication network via MSC and HLR.
Operation and Maintenance Center(OMC)

OMC(Operation and Maintenance Center) performs operation and maintenance on all the elements that configure the mobile communication network. It interfaces with MSC by TCP/IP and TMN Q .
Customer Care and Billing System(CSBS)

CCBS(Customer Care and Billing System) collects charging, calculates a charge, and manages subscribers.
Service Control Point(SCP)

SCP(Service Control Point) provides WIN(Wireless Intelligent Network) service and provides data requested by SSP(MSC) through the management of the WIN service subscribers.
Service Switching Point(SSP)

SSP(Service Switching Point) provides the service data requested by subscribers to SCP by recognizing intelligent service calls and performs routing according to SCP notification.

Short Message Service Center(SMSC)

As a system that processes the short message service, SMSC(Short Message Service Center) interfaces with the mobile communication network via MSC and HLR.
Service Management System(SMS)

SMS(Service Management System) performs OA&M in relation to SCP operation, DB management in SCP, and SCP external interface.
Service Creation Environment(SCE)

As a tool that is used to develop the intelligent service, SCE(Service Creation Environment) is used when the developer or operator implements the service logic.
Intelligent Peripheral(IP)

IP(Intelligent Peripheral) provides additional intelligent services to the intelligent service users/subscribers by using voice and character.
Voice Mailing System(VMS)

VMS(Voice Mailing System), a system that processes the voice mailing service, it interfaces with MSC by PRI and NO.7.

2.2 Radio Access Network(RAN)


RAN(Radio Access Network) is configured with network elements to provide signals and communication on radio, which is a mobile network service feature, and provides a path to PCN(Packet Core Network).
Base Station Controller(BSC)

By interfacing with several BTSs, BSC(Base Station Controller) performs the following functions: inter-cell hand-off processing, call control, BTS operation and maintenance function, etc. BSC and MSC interfaces with each other by No.7 link.
Base Station Transceiver System(BTS)

The area to which the BTS power reaches is called cell. By radio communication with the MS in the BTS cell, it provides the mobile communication service to subscribers.

For this, BTS sends and receives wireless signals by encoding and decoding wireless channels. In addition, in order to provide calls with better quality at a reasonable price, it provides the following functions: the adjustment of transceiving signal strength, upward link quality measurement, link quality measurement, space diversity, wireless resources management and self-maintenance.
Packet Control Function(PCF)

As a newly-added element to the CDMA 2000, PCF provides signals and packet data to PCN on radio.

2.3 Packet Core Network(PCN)


As a network element that provides a packet service by interfacing with the PSPDN and the Internet network, PCN(Packet Core Network) follows IETF institutions regulations that the existing Internet network uses for inter-network interface standards Internet.
Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN or FA)

PDSN(Packet Data Serving Node) or FA(Foreign Agent) provides the packet modem function to interface with the Internet network and provides switching and packet chargingrelated data for the packet data.
Authentication, Authorization, Accounting (AAA)

AAA provides network accessing authentication, authorization, and accounting functions for packet calls.
Home Agent(HA)

As a network element that provides Mobile IP to packet subscribers, HA(Home Agent) is added to secure the mobility of the packet subscribers that each FA(Foreign Agent) has.
Gateway Router

Gateway Router provides a Gateway function between each carriers mobile communication packet network and the external packet and Internet network. It is required to construct the general LAN network. When providing F/W(Fire Wall) that provides a security function, it provides a Gateway function as a single path.

3. Features
UP-to-date and Various Function Support

STAREX-IS BTS provides the following functions along with basic a call processing function: High-speed Data Service and Multimedia Service STAREX-IS BTS supports the line communication(i.e., fax and modem communication) as well as packet data communication(i.e., the Internet communication) and can provide both services at the same time. STAREX-IS BTS can support up to 144Kbps high-speed data service and multimedia services including video data. Tired Service Function STAREX-IS BTS provides Tired Service which provides the differentiated services such as imposing a different rate or providing special data service to special subscribers in the User Zone. OTD(Orthogonal Transmission Diversity) Function STAREX-IS BTS supports the OTD function that sends transmission signals to the MS simultaneously by diversifying them into two signals with orthogonal characteristics. The use of OTD can improve the data quality that the MS receives. NDSS(Network Directed System Selection) Function STAREX-IS BTS supports the NDSS function that changes the subscribers location registration to the corresponding network when the IS-95 A/B network subscriber registered his or her location on the CDMA2000 network and vice versa. Quick Paging Function STAREX-IS BTS supports a Quick Paging function that reduces the power consumption by activating the paging receiving function of the MS only when the paging data are changed QOF Function STAREX-IS BTS supports QOF, the multiple codes with new semi-orthogonal characteristics by multiplying 256chip Walsh by masking function(QOF sign, Walsh rot) for transmission speed control and receiving diversity, forward channel addition and allocation, etc.

Large Capacity Subscriber Accommodation

STARX-IS Standard BTS can accommodate up to 768 channels(voice channel) in one rack by using a highly-integrated channel card. When installing another expansion rack, it can accommodate twice as much as the basic rack capacity. In addition, it can use channels by selecting the Omni method and sectors with the identical channel resources and by fooling them between FA and Sector within one shelf . As shown above, STARAX-IS BTS can allocate channels in various ways and makes the efficient operation possible with limited resources.
ATM Network Provision

STAREX-IS BTS uses ATM network as the communication path of subscriber voice and data traffic signal and inter-processor control signal. CDMA2000 system can process vast capacity subscriber traffic signals through the ATM network and support various types of multimedia services by QoS(Quality of Service) support. In addition, with the structure suitable for the high-speed data transmission, the 3G 3X MC and 1X EV-DO Dual Mode as well as 4G BSS ALL IP network can be also applied to it.
System Modularization Structure

All the H/W in STAREX-IS BTS is modularized; therefore, the system can be easily expanded or reduced without changing the already-installed system structure by inserting or removing the corresponding modules. In addition, S/W that is run in BTS processors is modularized as well. For this reason, when the S/W function is modified or complemented, it can minimize the service suspension while minimizing the system modification range by simply modifying the corresponding modules.
Convenient System Operation

The operator can control STAREX-IS BSC, BTS in the station/office through BSM easily. BSM displays each device status inserted in the system in graphics so that the operator can check the system status and take an appropriate action. In addition, BSM interfaces with external systems through Ethernet and Dialup-Modem for debugging and maintenance management functions. Other BTSs provide the following functions for convenient and operation of the system: statistics, configuration, status, fault diagnosis, and test function.

4. Specifications
Capacity

The following shows STAREX-IS BTS capacity:


Division Max. Carriers (without TD) Max. Carriers (With TD) Max. Trunk Number of CE per Channel Card Number of Channel Card Type of Amplifier Number of LPA RF Power at Front End Ant Port Cooling E1channel counts between BSC and BTS 8K EVRC/QCELP Based 13K QCELP Based 64K 153.6K 6FA/3Sector 48 E1/T1 64CE/CC 6EA/shelf(Max. 384CE), 12EA/Rack LPA(60 Watts/Module), HPA(30 Watts/Module) 6EA/Shelf(360 Watts) 16 Watts/FA FAN Maximum 156 voice calls/E1, 121 voice calls /T1 Maximum 126 voice calls /E1, 97 voice calls /T1 Maximum 13 data calls/E1, 10 data calls/T1 Maximum 6 data calls/E1, 4 data calls/T1 Specifications 8FA/3Sector, 6FA/6Sector

Transceiver Specifications

The following shows the STAREX-IS BTS transceiver specifications: Receiver Specification
Parameter Operation Band Diversity Frequency Transition RF Interface Noise Figure Sensitivity Dynamic Range 824 ~ 949 MHz Dual Diversity on Rx Straight Transition of license Block Operation 50 Nominal Impedance 5dB (Max) FER is 1.0% or less with 95% Confidence FER is 1.0% or less with 95% Confidence -117dBm per RF Input Port Not less than65dBm /1.23 MHz in AWGN and Eb/No of 10 dB 1dB Conducted Spurious Emissions Less than 80dBm in 30KHz RBW, RX Band. Less than 60dBm in 30KHz RBW, TX Band. Less than 47dBm in 30KHz RBW, Description Comments

All Other Frequencies

Transmitter Specification
Parameter Operation Band Diversity Frequency Transition Frequency Tolerance Pilot Time Tolerance Pilot Channel to Code Channel Time Tolerance Pilot Channel to Code Channel Phase Tolerance Waveform Quality Total Power Code Domain Power 869 ~ 894 MHz Option of Diversity on TX Straight Transition of License Block Operation Within 5 x 10-8 of the FA ( 0.05ppm) 10 s The time error between the Pilot Channel and all code channels comprising the Forward CDMA is within 50ns The phase differences between the Pilot Channel and all code channels sharing the same Forward CDMA should not exceed 0.05 radians is greater than 0.912 (excess power < 0.4dB) within +2dB and -4dB of nominal power 27dB or more below the total power in each inactive channel -45dBc 750kHz @30kHz RBW -60dBc 1.98MHz@30kHz RBW (Pout33dBm) When operating with the Fundamental Channel Test Mode 1 Description comments

Conducted Spurious Emission

Power

The following shows the information in relation to STAREX-IS BTS power:


Division Current Input Voltage(AC) Current Input Frequency System Input Voltage(DC) Output Voltage(Current Consumed) Efficiency 50/60Hz +24 ~ 27V(DC) DC 300A (4FA/3Sector based) More than 85% Specification Single-phase 220V, 3-pjase 380V 20%

Equipment

The table below shows the rack size(WidthDepthHeight) and weight where the STAREXIS BTS is mounted. Rack height includes the bottom area of the rack.

Division Rack Size Rack Weight

Specification 750mm(W)700mm(D)1,886mm(H) Approximately 220 Kg(Based on 1 Rack)

Environments

The table below describes the following: 1) temperature, humidity, height(altitude), and vibration conditions in which the STAREX-IS BTS can operate normally and (2) noise, dust, and the strength of the electromagnetic interference generated when STAREX-IS BTS operates. Regarding temperature and humidity, Operation Temperature is a optimal temperature condition that is needed for STAREX-IS BTS to operate normally and Operation Condition is not the optimal condition, but the condition that the STAREX-IS BTS can normally operate. Among the items below, Earthquake/Vibration and EMI(Electro-Magnetic Interference) satisfied test conditions suggested by FCC, UL, Telcordia, internationally approved institutions.
Division Operation Temperature Storage Temperature Humidity Height(Altitude) Earthquake/Vibration Noise Dust EMI 0 ~ 50 -40 ~ 70 5 ~ 95% (Moisture in the air should not exceed 0.024Kg) -60 ~ 4000 m Standards satisfied In 1.2m distance, noise of less than 65dBA level occurred 0 ~ 20 ug/m3 Standards satisfied GR-63-CORE GR-1089-CORE GR-63-CORE GR-63-CORE Range Applicable Standards GR-63-CORE

Inter-system Interface

STAREX-IS BTS interfaces with MS, and BSC as follows:


Division BTS BSC BTS MS Digital Interface E1/T1 Air Interface Signal Interface ATM(AAL2/AAL5) Interface Protocol LGE Proprietary IS-2000

Minimum Capacity Standard for BTS BTS is designed to meet the minimum capacity standards of other BTSs requested by IS97D such as frequency accuracy(0.05ppm), receiving sensitivity(-117dBm), wave quality(0.912), etc.

Interface between BTS and BSC Interface between BSC and BTS uses LGE Proprietary standard. BSC and BTS send 8K or 13K voice data and packet data, line data, and various control signals by E1/T1 link. Signal interface uses ATM(AAL2/AAL5). Interface between BTS and MS BTS and MS meet the IS-2000 standards which are radio standards for CDMA2000. The channels defined in IS-2000 are divided into Logical Channel on the Signaling Control side and Physical Channel on CAI. The transmission speed differs depending on channels and in case of a traffic channel, it can transmit the user data at maximum144Kbps.
Reliability

The main part of STAREX-IS BTS H/W is duplicated for the system reliability and is modularized for easy operation and maintenance. With the logical and physical function distribution structure, S/W is suitable for the distribution-type system and is Fault-Tolerant structure. It guarantees the maximum transparency. The system reliability can be represented through MTBF(Mean Time Between Failure) and the availability can be represented through MTTR. STAREX-IS BTS FR and MTBF are as follows:
MTBF More than 30 years MTTR Less than 4 hours

5. System Configuration
STAREX-IS BSC is composed of the following racks in general: ISBR (IS Standard Base station Rack)
Fig. 0-2 STAREX-IS BTS Basic Configuration Diagram (8FA/3Sector)

One ISBR00, as a basic rack of STAREX-IS BTS, can accommodate up 4FA/3Sector. On the upper part of the rack, FR block and LPA block are mounted and below them, channel processing block, BTS control block, and blocks for other supplementary blocks are mounted. ISBR01, as an additional rack of STAREX-IS BTS, is installed to increase the BTS service capacity. On this rack, only RF block, channel processing block, and digital processing block are mounted additionally as a result of the increase of the rack capacity. Blocks mounted on STAREX-IS BTS racks are as follows:

Rack Name ISBR00 ISBR01 LPAB, DBPB, RCCB

Block Mounted CFEB, LPAB, DBPB, RCCB, BSPB, BANB, BSTB, RISB, BOTB, BTGB

Chapter 2. BTS Configuration


1. Overview
For the improvement of the system service stability and reliability, in STAREX-IS BTS, control system has a distributed control structure, operation system has a serial processing structure, and the subscriber data have real-time DBMS. In order to maintain the system performance even in the worst reference load requested, the main devices (control system, ATM, data processing system, etc) are duplicated in Active/Standby mode. In addition, H/W is modularized by the function so that the subscribers can be easily increased and the functions are easily added or changed without affecting the service even during the system operation. In light of the functions, STAREX-IS BTS H/W is configured with the following blocks:
Fig. 0-3 STAREX-IS BTS Configuration Diagram

2. H/W Configuration
2.1 DBPB (Digital Bank Processor Block)
2.1.1 Functions
As a block that processes CDMA channels in BTS, DBPB (Digital Bank Processor Block) performs digital and analogue signaling process for each channels call processing as well as for interface with RF block.
Major Functions

CDMA Digital Baseband processing (Overhead channel + Traffic channel) Forward link Base-band Digital Combining, and backward link parity check and generation Digital shelf Timing, reference frequency distribution, and RF device control
Capacity

Based on voice services, it supports 64 CH/DBPA (based on 8K) 2 CSM5000 chips by QualComm are inserted in one DBPA
Interface

DBPA interfaces with RCCA through ATM Cell and exchanges actual traffic with RCCB BUDA RCCA. RCCA interfaces with DBPA and BSPB UCPA through ATM Cell and interfaces with BANB at STM-1. DBPA also interfaces with LPAB, BUDA and PACA in serial, controlling each device.

Fig. 0-4 Interface between DBPB and Other Blocks

2.1.2 Configuration
The DBPB is configured as follows:
Fig. 0-5 DBPB Mounting Diagram

The function of each board of DBPB is as follows:


Board Name DBPA Quantity 6 boards /shelf Functions -Assignment of overhead channel and traffic channel -Acceptable if the quantity is 6 boards per 2FA/3Sector

RCCA

2 boards /shelf

- Base-band digital combining (Forward link) - Parity check and generation (Backward link) - Distribution of timing and reference frequency of digital shelf - RF Device Control

2.2 BANB (BTS ATM Network Block)


2.2.1 Functions
BANB (BTS ATM Network Block) performs the ATM Network function to switch all traffics occurred in BSS and Control ATM Cells.
Major functions

ATM Cell Routing function within BTS Provides the transmission line of ATM Packet between BTS and BSC (E1/T1) Provides Packet Routing function with BTS Peripherals Provides Remote Control function for PSTN Network
Capacity

Provides 16 E1/T1 for each LICA board (max. 48 E1/T1 available with 3 boards mounted)

Interface

Each cell node of BCRA of BANB is the STM-1 grade, which is assigned to RCCA, LICA and UCPA. It also interfaces with BPPA via HDLC bus. LICA interfaces with BCRA via STM-1, and it also interfaces with ALPA of BSC via E1/T1. BPPA interfaces with each board of BANB via HDLC bus, and it also interfaces with each peripheral within BTS via RS-422.
Fig. 0-6 Interface between BANB and other blocks

2.2.2 Configuration
The BANB is configured as follows:
Fig. 0-7 BANB Mounting Diagram

The function of each board of BANB is as follows:


Board Name BCRA LICA BPPA RCMD APPD Quantity 2 1 1 1 1 Functions -ATM Cell Routing in BTS - Duplication of Active/Standby (Warm Standby) -Provides E1/T1 Trunk Interface between BTS and BSC -Max. 3 boards mountable with load sharing -Performs the function of Packet Routing for supplementary equipment such as LPA, BADA, DRAN, RISA, Beacon within BTS -Daughter board attached to Back board -Provides Remote Control function for PSTN network -Daughter board attached to LICA -AAL2AAL5 Convertible

2.3 RCCB (Radio & Channel Control Block)


2.3.1 Functions
RCCB (Radio & Channel Control Block) converts Baseband signal and RF signal Up/Down to transmit them to the related block, and it also measures and calibrates RF power.
Major functions

Converts digital signal transmitted from Channel Card to analog signal and converts the signal to IF and RF signal upward to be transmitted to LPA Converts the signal inputted from LNA to the lower frequency and converts the signal to digital signal through A/D converter Measures the final transmission RF power for each FA and sector of BTS and report the result to upper level.

Capacity

Provides 1 Tx IF Out Port for each BUDA 1EA Provides 2 Rx IF Input Ports for each BUDA 1EA Max. 2FA/3Sector acceptable for each PACA 1EA
Interface

BUDA of RCCB transmits digital data to DBPA of DBPB through back plane, and it also performs Serial Bus Communication with RCCA using Address, Control and Data Signal. PACA measures the strength of transmission signal measured at Front End and transmits Control Signal to the higher level of RCCA.
Fig. 0-8 Interface between RCCB and other blocks

2.3.2 Configuration
The RCCB is configured as follows:

Fig. 0-9 RCCB Mounting Diagram

The function of each board of RCCB is as follows:


Board Name BUDA Quantity 6 Functions -Same quantity as DBPA, pairing with DBPA -Up converting of baseband signal -Down converting of RF signal -RF signal output adjustable with Gain Control PACA 1 -1 board mountable with 2FA/3Sector accepted for each board -Measures RF transmission power for each FA and Sector -Performs supplementary transmission power control

2.4 BSPB (Base Station Signaling Processor Block)

2.4.1 Functions
BSPB(Base Station Signaling Processor Block) is the Control Section of BTS to perform the functions of BTS such as initialization, call processing, wired/wireless resource allocation/de-allocation and wire/wireless link management.
Major functions

General control and status management of BTS General collection of H/W Alarm of BTS Provides the timing required for BTS Provides H/W Remote Control for Peripheral Devices of BTS
Capacity

UCPA Core Processor : MPC750(722MIPS, 400MHz), L2 Cache supported UCPA I/O Processor : MPC8260(280MIPS, 200MHz),, 16M Local Memory acceptable
Interface

BSPB provides various interfaces such as ATM, Fast Ethernet, HDLC, UART, etc. in order to control each board of BTS. By these procedures, BSPB transmits and receives Control and Alarm Signal.

Fig. 0-10

Interface between BSPB and other blocks

2.4.2 Configuration
The BSPB is configured as follows:
Fig. 0-11 BSPB Mounting Diagram

The function of each board of BSPB is as follows:


Board Name Quantity Functions

UCPA-E (BSP)

- Duplication of Active/Standby - Initialization of BTS - General Control and Status Management of BTS - Collection of H/W Alarm of BTS - Provides Timing required for BTS - Provides call processing function - Allocation/De-allocation of wire and wireless resources - Wire/wireless link management - Collection and management of alarm of LPA, FAN, LNA, RCCA, BADA, RISA, BOTA, GPS-S, RISA - H/W Remote Control of boards as above

ARIA

2.5 CFEB (Compact Front End Block)


2.5.1 Functions
CFEB (Compact Front End Block) is the block to process RF transmitting/receiving function and to perform the related functions such as high power amplification of transmitted signal, low noise amplification of received signal, conversion of transmitted/received frequency, transmitting/receiving diversity.
Major functions

Low noise amplification of received signal Filtering of transmitted/received signal Provides received signal to the receiving terminal of BUDA (based on each FA)
Capacity

Consists of 2 units such as A path and B path for each sector (Receiving Diversity)

Each unit consists of Duplexer, LNA, directional coupler and distributor as transmitting/receiving filter

Interface

CFEB interfaces with Antenna via Tx/Rx Cable. It also interfaces to LPA via Forward Traffic and interfaces to RCCB via Reverse Traffic and LNA.
Fig. 0-12 Interface between CFEB and other blocks

2.5.2 Configuration
The CFEB is configured as follows:

Fig. 0-13

CFEB Mounting Diagram

The function of each board of CFEB is as follows:


Board Name Duplexer (Tx/Rx Filter) Quantity 2 boards /Sector Function -Performs the function to filter transmitted/received signal. -Comprises transmitting/receiving band-pass filter with Duplexer structure in order to decrease the number of antenna LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) 2 boards /Sector used for each sector. -Performs Low Noise Amplification of filtered receiving signal. -The input terminal of LNA is connected to the output terminal of Duplexer receiving filter. -The output terminal of LNA is connected to Divider to transfer the receiving signal to BUDA

2.6 LPAB (Linear Power Amplifier Block)


2.6.1 Functions
After receiving the transmitting signal which was up-converted from BUDA, LPAB amplifies the signal with high power to be transferred to front end.
Major functions

High power amplification of transmitted signal


Capacity

Compliant to IS-97D Performance Standard 60 Watts/Module 16 Watts/FA


Interface

LPAB receives the signal up-converted from BUDA of RCCB via Active Divider. It also transfers the signal amplified from LPA via Combiner to Front End.
Fig. 0-14 Interface between LPAB and other blocks

2.6.2 Configuration
The LPAB is configured as follows:
Fig. 0-15 LPAB Mounting Diagram

The function of each board of LPAB is as follows:


Board Name LPA Quantity 6 boards /shelf (Based on 4FA/3Sector) Function -High power amplification of transmitted signal

2.7 BTGB (BTS Timing Generation Block)


2.7.1 Functions
BTGB receives visual information from GPS Satellite to provide visual and location information.
Major functions

Provides the internal BTS with TOD (Time of Day), 10MHz and 1PPS

Interface

GPS interfaces with UCPA of BSPB and RS-232C to transfer each visual information via UCPA to the internal BTS. It is also connected with GPS antenna via TNC Cable. In addition, GPS provides each device of internal BTS with TOD, 10Mhz and 1PPS GPS via each terminal of rear panel of GPS.
Fig. 0-16 Interface between BTGB and other blocks

2.7.2 Configuration
The BTGB is configured as follows:

Fig. 0-17

BTGB Mounting Diagram

The function of each board of BTGB is as follows:


Board Name GPS-R Quantity 1 Function -Divided into two main frames, GPS-R and GPSM -GPSM receives the information on L1 Band such as signal & orbit information and mobile visual information from GPS satellite. -GPS-R performs the comparison and control of various signals received through GPSM Receiver and provides the signal information to System.

2.8 RISB (RF & IF Supervisor Block)


2.8.1 Functions
RISB performs the function to supervise the waveform of RF and IF from BTS.
Major functions

Supervision of BTS transmitting output spectrum Identification of abnormal signal and Alarm function

Collection and storage of signal spectrum Measurement function of total power for each sector Measurement function of Channel Power for each channel
Capacity

20FA/3Sector acceptable for each board


Interface

RISA supervises IF signal from the output terminal of BUDA via IFMA (IF Multiplexing board Assembly) as well as RF signal from the output terminal of RF via RFMA (RF Multiplexing board Assembly). In addition, RISA performs status management and control by interfacing with upper-level BPPA, ARIA and HDLC.

Fig. 0-18

Interface between RISB and other blocks

2.8.2 Configuration
The RISB is configured as follows:
Fig. 0-19 RISB Mounting Diagram

The function of each board mounted on RISB is as follows:


Board Name RISA Quantity 1 Function - Supervision of BTS transmitting output spectrum - Identification of abnormal signal and Alarm function - Collection and storage of signal spectrum

2.9 BSTB (Base Station Test Block)


2.9.1 Functions
BSTB performs the function to check each channel status at the termination of BTS antenna.

Major functions

Check of the status of sending-end/receiving-end Measurement of Antenna VSWR for sending/receiving Functional test of BTS Channel Element Functional test of voice Loopback/Marcov of Mobile Simulator Remote Call function
Interface

BADA (BTS Analysis & Diagnostic Assembly) is controlled by Serial Synchronous HDLC channel connected via cable to BPPA.
Fig. 0-20 Interface between BSTB and other blocks

2.9.2 Configuration
The BSTB is configured as follows:

Fig. 0-21

BSTB Mounting Diagram

The function of each board of BSTB is as follows:


Board Name BADA Quantity 1 Function -Measures the strength of BTS transmitted power and the quality of signal, and checks the operational status of BTS -Module of BTU as supplementary equipment (Optional)

2.10 BOTB (BeacOn Transmitter Block)

2.10.1 Functions
BOTB is the board to perform Hopping BeacOn, which provides the function to transmit Pilot Channel to a desired FA at a regular cycle for a certain time.
Major functions

Provides Forward Pilot Channel Frequency Hopping function (5FA available via one port per sector) Receives the reference signal Performs Status Management and Control function
Interface

BOTA (BeacOn Transmitter Assembly) is controlled by Serial Synchronous HDLC channel connected via cable to BPPA.
Fig. 0-22 Interface between BOTB and other blocks

2.10.2 Configuration
The BOTB is configured as follows:
Fig. 0-23 BOTB Mounting Diagram

The function of each board of BOTB is as follows:


Board Name BOTA Quantity 1 Function -Module of Hopping Pilot Beacon as supplementary equipment. -Performs the function to transmit Pilot Channel to a desired FA at a regular cycle for a certain time

3. Software Configuration
3.1 Software Design Concept
Incremental model adopted

Incremental model is the model to implement final target system by partially implementing system with incrementally additional function and performance after defining the structure of whole system. The implementation and design of S/W for STAREX-IS BTS are based on this incremental model.
Technique of software architecture design

Software architecture was designed with two design techniques such as modular design technique and object-oriented design (OOD) technique. The concept of modularity is very critical, because software doesnt have any visible entity but complexity. Specially, for the system requiring high capacity S/W such as STAREX-IS BTS, the programming with the concept of modularity applied is absolutely needed, in the point of design and implementation or maintenance. For the S/W of STAREX-IS BTS, the elements to minimize the interconnectivity between softwares were separated from one another, thus to implement the modularity in technical, functional and practical level. In addition, this modularity provides the advantage of structural development of S/W and facilitates debugging, changing or addition and deletion of software, resulting in reduced development time and effort.
Software architecture style

Based on state transition structure, the software architecture was designed with reference to the following structure style:

Structure according to event-based internal call

Hierarchy structure Distributed processing structure

3.2 S/W Architecture


The Software of STAREX-IS BTS consists of several subsystems according to each function within BTS as follows:
Fig. 0-24 S/W architecture of BTS

The S/W subsystem comprising BTS is composed of 4 subsystems such as BCMS, BRMS, RCCS and DBPS. Each subsystem exchanges the signal according to its function, while performing two traffic processes such as Circuit Traffic Processing to MSC and Packet Traffic Processing to PDSN. As described above, BTS S/W is modularized and hierarchical so that each subsystem consists of several function blocks in its lower level. In this case, the block can be classified into two block types such as call processing block and OAM block. For the detail of each subsystem, see Chapter 3.3.

3.3 Major functional configuration


Each S/W block within BTS exists in a subsystem BTS. However, it can be divided into two block types such as call processing block and OAM (Operation And Maintenance) block according to the function. The following subsection intends to understand the functional flow of call processing and OAM by classifying blocks within each subsystem according to call processing and OAM function.

3.3.1 Call processing S/W


In view of hardware, Call processing in BTS is performed around BSP (Base Station Processor) and the S/W applied to BSP is BCMS (BTS Call & Management Subsystem). Accordingly, the call processing S/W supports call processing and hand-off of BTS by interworking with BSC, around blocks related to call processing of BCMS. It also performs the operation and status/resource management within BTS. Each hardware block of BTC performs a series of procedures related to call processing through relationship between Master Processor and Client Processor. The following diagram shows that the call processing S/W resides in the processor of each H/W block.

Fig. 0-25

Functional block diagram of call processing S/W in BTS

The following is the table which simply shows the function of each call processing block in each subsystem.
Subsys
BCMS

Block

Full Name
BTS Call & Management Subsystem

Functions

Processor
BSP (UCPA-E)

BCCB BTS Call Control Block

-Processes the message related to BTS call -Establishes ATM Cell routing -Performs radio resource management Hand-off processing for voice & data call -Resource allocation and collection for TC/SCH and hand-off call -Frame offset management Message handling such as Location registration, Authentication, SMS, Order, etc. Initial/periodic calibration of BTS, call Control by electric power and electricityRelated parameter management

BSP

BHCB BTS Hand-off Control Block BRMB BTS Resource Management Block

BSP BSP

BTCB

BTS Transparent Message Control Block

BSP

BPMB BTS Power Management Block

BSP

DBPS PSB PCB

Digital Baseband Processing Subsystem Pilot & Sync Channel Block Paging Channel Block Provides time information of system and system parameter. Provides the information on system. Provides the order on MS or Paging

DBP (DBPA) DBP DBP

information. ACB TCB Access Channel Block Traffic Channel Block Provides the function to allow MS to initially recognize BTS Provides the function to transmit/receive data DBP DBP

3.3.2 OAM S/W


OAM function of BTS is processed around BSM S/W in hardware level. The OAM S/W to perform OAM function, which is loaded in processor of each hardware block in BTS, performs a series of operations such as downloading, measurement & statistics, fault/status management, power control, testing, etc., thus to transfer such operations to BSM. The following diagram shows the OAM S/W loaded in the processor of each H/W block.

Fig. 0-26

Functional diagram of BTS OAM S/W

The following is the table which simply shows the function of each OAM block in each subsystem.
Subsys
BCMS BDLB BDHB

Block

Full Name
BTS Call and Management Subsystem BTS Down Loading Block BTS Data Handling Block

Functions

Processor
BSP (UCPA-E)

Firmware and S/W loading BTS configuration and operational data handling

BSP BSP

BSMB BAFB BMSB BTMB BDGB BRMS RDLB RDHB RSAB RMSB

BTS Status Management Block BTS Alarm & Fault Management Block BTS Measurement &Statistics Block BTS Test Management Block BTS Diagnosis Block BTS cell Router Management Subsystem BTS cell Router Down Load Block BTS cell Router Data Handling Block BTS cell Router Status & Alarm Management Block BTS cell Router Measurement & Statistics Block BTS cell Router Test Management Block RF & Channel Control Subsystem

BTS status control and management Fault handling in BTS S/W and H/W BTS statistics BTS testing BTS diagnosis

BSP BSP BSP BSP BSP CRP (BCRA)

CRP S/W Downloading CRP firmware and S/W loading BANB status control and fault handling BANB statistics

RTMB RCCS

BANB testing RCP (RCCA) DBC Initialization, periodic information checking with BSP, configuration data updating and operational status checking

RMMB RCP Maintenance & Management Block

RDMB

RCBU Device Management Block

MCMB Multi-Channel Maintenance Block

Channel card initialization and status, fault and alarm handling Periodic checking of Keep Alive status with channel card and statistics handling Handling of loading process with BSP and channel card Measurement, management and calibration of Tx Current Power RFC initialization and configuration information updating /operational status checking RF device initialization and status/ fault/alarm handling DBP (DBPA) The function to control each channel DBP

MCDB RPMB RMCB

Multi-Channel Downloading Block RF Power Management Block RF Main Control & Management Block RF Device Control & Management Block Digital Baseband Processing Subsystem

RDCB DBPS CMCB

Channel Main Control Block

Chapter 3. BTS Functions


1. Call Processing
Call processing is a series of operations to allocate various system resources and connect the proper call path so that a mobile subscriber can perform the desired communication. In general, call processing can be classified into 3 calls such as Mobile to Mobile, Mobile to Land and Land to Mobile according to call processing-oriented subscriber, and call processing procedure consists of originating call set-up, incoming call set-up and clear. STAREX-IS BTS performs the originating/incoming call processing for voice, circuit and high/medium/low speed packet data as follows:

1.1 Voice Call Processing


STAREX-IS BTS performs the voice call processing from the voice call of 8K EVRC and 8K/13K QCELP to Mobile to Mobile, Mobile to Land and Land to Mobile respectively. BTS sends the compressed voice signal from MS to BSC. The signal from BSC is transmitted via SLPA and vocoding procedure of VCPA and converted into PCM signal, then transmitted to MSC. MSC sends a subscriber voice signal as a PCM signal to BSC within a same MSC, other MSC or PSTN, according to the subscriber type on the incoming side. Voice call function of BTS performs the following functions: Originating/incoming function Quick Paging function Reservation Access Mode, Designate Access Mode, Power Controlled Access Mode For detail features of voice call processing, see BSC System Description.

1.2 Data Call Processing


CDMA2000 System can perform data call processing for low-speed(13K) / mediumspeed(64K) / high-speed(144K) packet data call and circuit data call such as Async, G3 Fax, etc. For this system, the procedure of packet data call processing is similar to that of general call processing; First, the system performs the procedure of validity and authentication of subscriber in interworking with MSC via 3G IOSv4.0 Protocol, then it connects the call using MIP, the standard protocol on PDSN and R-P Interface, i.e., the bearer path to which data is transmitted is not connected to MSC, but to BSC -PDSN. The packet data, which is originated from MS and transmitted to BSC via BTS, performs termination processing of Radio Link Protocol in SLPA of BSC, and then it interfaces with PDSN via PIP. And PDSN provides MS with internetwork connection. During the procedure of call set-up for packet data service, the acceptance of service option for packet data service is negotiated in the performance of service negotiation procedure. In this case, low-speed/medium-speed/high-speed packet data is performed depending on the system configuration and resource status. If the MS is in Dormant status, packet paging should be processed on request, which is performed through the service option transferred between PCF and MSC/VLR. In case of performing packet data service, the system performs the processing depending on each state such as Control Hold, Suspended State and Dormant State in MAC layer. Circuit data is transferred via SLPA and VLIA, and then interfaces with MSC. In IWF, it also performs the function to interface with signaling system of circuit connection on cable network. Data call function performs the following functions: IS-2000 high-speed / medium-speed / low-speed packet data call processing Circuit data call processing IS-2000 Protocol processing for packet data service For detailed features of data call processing, see BSC System Description.

1.3 Call Admission Control


Call Admission Control is the control function to allow MSC or BTS to accept or reject the request for wireless resource allocation in order to leverage wireless resources and maintain high-quality service. In addition, this function also changes the property of another wireless resource, in order to accept the request for the allocation of specific wireless resource. Resource allocation method can be classified into two methods; wireless resource allocation method (FA, traffic channel, Walsh code channel) and wire resource allocation method (frame offset). BTS performs wireless resource allocation prior to wire resource allocation. Channel assignment inquires the existence of establishable resource by performing paging for channel resources within system, and if there is no resource allocable, it terminates the call. Meanwhile, if there is any resource allocable, it performs the procedure of call-related connection. In the system, there is not any limitation of the number of packet data service user. However, there is only limitation of total data rate available from BTS. Accordingly, if all users request for low-speed data service, the more user can use the service than if all users request high-speed data service. In the software level, an operator can change the threshold for total data rate available from BTS. However, the threshold has only the numerical limitation, which may be limited by radio environment, total transmitted power of BTS, etc. If radio channel resources are exhausted If all system resources are exhausted, this informs an operator of the related information. In occurrence of hand-off If Target BTS has no resource, the hand-off procedure fails and the call is maintained to the resource of Source BTS. Subsequently, if the radio environment becomes worse, the call ultimately terminates or hard hand-off occurs between FA. Before the call terminates, Call Admission Control continues to request for support to Target BTS. In this case, if there is any resource available at Target BTS, this starts the procedure of resource allocation for hand-off.

General Call Admission Control

STAREX-IS BTS performs the following functions in order to perform Call Admission Control. Periodically collects the volume of total transmitted power in forward channel and the average SIR value in backward channel for each FA/sector in Channel Element Controller. Identifies the usage profile of channel card, channel element and Walsh code to check and manage the status of resource allocation. Checks the volume of transmitted power in forward channel and the average SIR value in backward channel available for the specific channel element, if necessary. STAREX-IS BTS performs Call Admission Control according to the existence of the following: Cell load status, channel element resource for each FA/sector, Walsh resource, transmitted power resource and wire link resource. Each resource can be allocated, only if there is any abnormality in threshold. FA allocation method
Classification Resource allocation based on RF resources Description - RF resource means the volume of power available forwardly or backwardly. - This is the method that the FA with the smallest volume of forward direction power of all FAs available in BTS is allocated to MS. - This method is a disadvantage of the potential longer call set-up time, because the power should be calculated with moving average for a certain Resource allocation to FA requested by MS time so that BTS can correctly measure forward direction power. - This is the method that BTS allocates resources to FA requested by MS. - This is the simplest method of resource allocation to maximize the traffic carrying capacity. - If there is no BTS resource within the relevant FA/sector requested by MS, or if it is impossible to allocate resources due to alarm or fault, BTS transfers the call to FA with the largest traffic channel available. - In the operation of Multi-FA, this method is a disadvantage of any potential inconsistent power ratio between FA.

Traffic channel assignment method If the physical traffic channel is considered to be normally operated, the relevant physical channel is managed with cue data structure in the software level. That is, BTS saves the physical channel to cue in each order of normally operated channels. And if there is a call request from MS, each channel is assigned at cue in regular order. Additionally, in case of

call clear, the channel is saved to cue so that all traffic channels can be equally used. Traffic channel management can be performed by each call such as voice call, hand-off call and data call. Traffic channel management for hand-off call is performed according to the traffic channel management for reserved hand-off. Data call may be processed equally as ordinary call or may be allocated separately. The method of separate data call allocation includes the channel reservation as hand-off call and the channel assignment to dedicated FA. Walsh code channel assignment BTS performs Walsh code channel management for each Sector/FA. BTS also manages Sector/FA-specific Walsh code as cue and for 128-Walsh code and 64-Walsh code, it performs Walsh code channel management to lessen the number of cases of useless code due to its collision. Channel element assignment Channel card performs call processing to make load volume dispersed to each FA/sector. For some channel element block assigned for overhead channel switch-over, resource allocation is withheld. However, resources are allocated, only if the channel element for call processing is insufficient Frame offset allocation (E1 link allocation) Frame offset is used to disperse the load of trunk line. BTS has a cue structure for frame offset in each trunk line. The frame offset should be allocated, which is used at least within trunk line available in the assigned traffic channel. For hand-off call, the frame offset is first allocated, followed by the traffic channel with the relevant trunk line, in order to minimize hard hand-off between frame offsets. In case of call clear, the used frame offset is returned onto the cue structure of relevant private line, thus to perform the resource management for frame offset.
Call Admission Control for Data Call

In case of data call set-up, only Multiplex Option that specifies the maximum rate without any limitation to specific speed is determined. Unless there is any special reason, Multiplex Option accepts the matter requested from MS as it is. Determination of radio channel speed The optimum speed on the radio channel transmitted/received to MS is determined within the limitation of maximum speed at the point of SCH allocation. This intends to determine the optimum speed by synthetically judging the status of radio channel at the point of needful SCH. BTS periodically receives the report on the strength of pilot signal, in order to synthetically judge the status of radio channel, and it periodically measures the call load within system. SCH allocation is enabled if necessary. However, if there is no data to transfer, SCH is directly de-allocated. After SCH is de-allocated, low-speed data service using FCH (Fundamental Channel) is available.

Data call admission control For the allocation of data call, user should determine whether to perform data call admission in consideration of remaining volume of power in sector. After performing data call admission, low-speed data service using FCH is first progressed. If it is necessary to increase the speed, the optimum speed is determined in consideration of the remaining volume of power for each sector, followed by the procedure of SCH allocation.

1.4 Channel Processing


Forward Channel

F-PICH(Forward Pilot Channel) F-PICH features the always transmission to forward link and the non-modulation spread spectrum signal used for the synchronization of MS within a territory of the relevant BTS. When MS is connected to CDMA network, this channel selects the largest one of all received signals. This channel is the channel to separate cells or sectors in adjacent BTS and to provide the phase reference for coherent demodulation, which is diffused to Walsh code 0. F-SYNC(Forward Synchronization Channel) F-SYNC features the channel to download different parameter information of BTS and to upload them to MS. Based on the information received in this channel, MS synchronizes internal MS time with the time on CDMA network. Accordingly, the signal transferred through F-SYNC is shared with all MSs within cell. This channel is diffused to Walsh code 32. F-PCH(Forward Paging Channel) F-PCH is the channel to transmit a variety of messages, which include the basic information required for the operation of MS, such as overhead message, broadcasting paging message, channel assignment message, SSD(Shared Security Data) update message, authentication trial message, etc. F-QPCH(Forward Quick Paging Channel) F-QPCH is the channel to transmit the information on whether to allow MS to supervise FPCH, when MS in dormant state is in slotted mode, i.e., this channel is used for the indication of paging or in case of transferring the information on change of configuration data, etc. to MS. This channel allows users to reduce the power consumption of MS by lessening the time required for MS to monitor paging channel of BTS. F-FCH(Forward Fundamental Channel) As a type of traffic channel, F-FCH is the traffic channel to transmit voice call or low-speed data call. In addition, Signaling can be transferred for Backward Compatibility of existing IS-95 in this channel. The transfer rate is variable, which features 20ms frame structure. Using this frame structure, user can transfer data at the rate of RS1(Rate Set1), RS2(Rate Set2).

F-SCH(Forward Supplemental Channel) F-SCH is the additional channel in IS-2000, which features organic operation with F-FCH and packet structure to provide high-speed data service. Unlike the Fundamental channel available for subscribers basically, this channel is assigned separately for the relevant subscriber for any potential increased data volume of subscriber.

F-SCCH(Forward Supplemental Code Channel) As used only in RC1,2, F-SCCH is the channel used for transmitting subscriber data to BTS during the calling. This channel is also available for providing MDR(Medium Data Rate) service.
Backward Channel

R-PICH(Reverse Pilot Channel) R-PICH is the channel for phase reference for coherent demodulation of BTS. This channel transmits power control bit in order to perform Forward Closed Loop Power Control. R-ACH(Reverse Access Channel) R-ACH is the channel used for the communication between MS and BTS. This channel is also used for transferring the short signaling message such as call originating, response to paging, location registration, etc. The access channel is identified solely by Long code of each MS. R-FCH(Reverse Fundamental Channel) R-FCH is the channel used for transferring subscriber data and control information to BTS during the calling. This channel also features the traffic channel to transfer voice call or lowspeed data call. The transfer rate is variable, which features 20ms frame structure. Using this frame structure, user can transfer data at the rate of RS1, RS2.
Channel configuration and operation

Overhead channel configuration


Link Forward Channel type Pilot Sync Paging Quick Paging Backward Access 1 channel/FA, sector 1 channel/FA, sector 1 channel/FA, sector (Scalable up to 7 channels depending on capacity) 1 channel/FA, sector (Scalable up to 3 channels depending on capacity) 1 channel/FA, sector (Scalable depending on capacity) Quantity

Forward overhead channels such as Pilot/Sync/Paging/Quick Paging Channel and backward channel such as Access Channel have each assigned channel element independently. BTS assigns one channel element to each overhead channel, and if there is any occurrence of fault

or alarm, it performs the dynamic assignment of another normal channel element.

Switch-over method in case of overhead channel fault Overhead channel fault is identified with diagnosis function or status management function. If there is any occurrence of fault, the overhead channel is switched over to the channel not used for traffic channel. If the channel is switched over, the configuration information of PLD is changed, and other informations such as the fault information are reported to BSM. Channel element fault
If there is any fault of channel element used as overhead channel, the switch-over to channel element available in same modem is enabled.

Model fault
If there is any fault of modem with assigned overhead channel, all overhead channels are switched over to another available modem within the same channel card. If it is impossible to enable switch-over to another modem, each overhead channel is dispersedly switched over to various modems. If there is any occurrence of modem fault, user should hold the channel assignment so that one of modems mounted on each channel card to facilitate the switch-over of overhead channel should not be used as a traffic channel as possible.

Channel card fault


If there is any fault in the channel card with assigned overhead channel, user should switch all overhead channels over to available channel card. If it is impossible to perform switch-over to another channel card, user should dispersedly switch each overhead channel over to various channel cards. In this case, make sure that the switched overhead channel should not be converged on a channel card.

Channel Pooling Scheme STAREX-IS BTS can operate traffic channel as the pooling type within a shelf, i.e., STAREX-IS BTS features the structure to enable pooling in all sectors and FAs used on shelf. If used as 6FA Omni Sector: Channel Pooling possible between 6FA If used as 2FA/3Sector: Channel Pooling possible between 2FA If used as 1FA/6Sector: Channel Pooling possible between 6 Sectors

If all traffic channel resources within a shelf are used, especially for the call requiring new channel assignment, the corresponding function is implemented so that the service of desired call is available through the function of change from BSC to FA of another shelf for the relevant call.

2. Location Registration Processing


Location registration is the procedure to allow MS to inform BTS of its own location, status, ID, slot cycle and other features. In this case, MS informs BTS of its own location and status so that BTS can effectively send the call to MS, when BTS performs the set-up of incoming call from MS. MSC directly performs the procedure of location registration, while BSS performs the procedure to register the location of MS onto CDMA Network by interworking with MSC and MS or mobile terminal. Upon the slotted mode, MS provides BTS with SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX parameter, thus to inform BTS of the information on slot supervised by MS. MS provides BTS with its own class and CAI revision number to allow user to check the capability of MS. Packet zone registration, which is newly added to location registration, performs the location registration of BSC to FA(Foreign Agent) on PDSN side for Dormant H/O between PDSN. For detail features of location registration, see BSC System Description. Let us see the outlined description in the following section:

2.1 Location Registration by MS


Power-Up Registration

This is the function to allow MS to perform the location registration, when MS uses another CDMA system upon power up or MS performed system conversion from analog system to current system.
Power-Down Registration

This is the function to allow MS to perform the location registration upon power down, only if there is a location registration on the current system.
Timer Based Registration

This is the function to allow MS to perform the location registration upon the termination of

location registration timer in MS. In this case, BTS may disable Timer Based Registration by setting REG_PRD as 0 in the system parameter message.
Distance Based Registration

Based on the difference in latitude and longitude between two BTSs, MS calculates the distance between the recently registered BTS and current BTS, thus to determine the migration distance of MS. If this distance value exceeds threshold, Distance Based Registration allows MS to perform the location registration.
Zone Based Registration

When MS is moved to the new zone not available in the list of visited location registration zone, which MS saves on its own, Zone Based Registration is enabled. In this case (including implicit location registration), the relevant zone is saved on the list, even in the termination of the relevant timer.
Parameter Change Registration

This is the function to allow MS to perform the location registration, when the parameter value of MS is changed.
Packet Zone Registration

To process the packet data service, this is the function used to set the zone controlled by a PDSN, thus to set various BTSs within such zone as the packet zone. Subsequently, MS receives the packet zone information through expansion system parameter message from BTS in every change of BTS. If the received packet zone is changed, MS performs Packet Zone Registration to FA (Foreign Agent) on PDSN side to support hand-off between PDSN in Dormant state.

2.2 Location Registration by MSC


Ordered Registration

During the call control by MSC, if it is required to perform the location registration onto MS, this function is used to allow BTS to transmit the request order for registration to MS, thus to perform the location registration.
Implicit Registration

If MS successfully sends the originating call or page response message, MSC can infer the location of MS. The registration based on this principle is called Implicit Registration. In this case, there is no message switching with MS.

Traffic Channel Registration

This is the function to allow MSC to acquire the information of location registration on MS with assigned traffic channel and to send the registration message to MS, thus to inform that the location registration is performed. Accordingly, MS recognizes that the location registration is performed through the registration message of MS, during the assignment procedure of traffic channel.

3. Hand-off
Hand-off is the function to prevent the traffic in service from being disconnected, when a mobile subscriber moves from the current service area to another adjacent area, in order to enhance the quality of traffic in CDMA2000 system. In other words, when MS moves from the serving cell (or sector) to another cell (or sector), this means the function to change the call path to the latter cell, in order to reliably maintain the conversation. MS compares the threshold value for the strength of pilot channel received from BTS with the strength of pilot channel in another adjacent BTS, which MS continues to measure. In some point of time, especially if the comparison value of these measurements shows the value required for hand-off, MS reports it to CDMA system and performs hand-off under the control of relevant system depending on the type of hand-off. Hand-off algorithm of CDMA2000 Network complies with TIA/EIA/IS-2000 and IOS v4.0, and STAREX-IS BTS performs the function to control the hand-off signal. For detail functions of hand-off, see BSC System Description. Here we will see the outlined description on the type of hand-off.

3.1 Types of hand-off


Hand-off is classified into the following 3 types : Softer Hand-off, Soft Hand-off and Hard Hand-off depending upon an usage relation of cell resources between serving cell and adjacent cell, system configuration of the adjacent cell and hand-off timing. Soft Hand-off is, based upon system configurations in two BTSs, classified into inter-BTS soft within a BSC and inter-BTS soft between remote BSC. Hard Hand-off is, within the same MSC, subdivided into a Hard Hand-off generated by Frequency modulation or Frame offset change between neighboring BTSs or inter-BTS with neighboring BSC, a Hard Hand-off between different type of BSCs and a Hard Hand-off generated between neighboring MSCs. Soft H/P functions for the BSCs to be connected through CAN and thus Soft Hand-off to be

available for the Hand-off generated within a MSC. The newly added Hand-off in CDMA 2000 System, in comparison with the existing system, provides with an Access Hand-off for MS to reduce the setup failure ratio, a Dynamic Threshold Soft Hand-off to prevent frequent Add/Drop and various Hand-off functions.

Softer Hand-off

Softer Hand-off is a kind of Soft Hand-off which is generated when mobile terminal is moving between sectors with same frequency within a BTS. Softer Hand-off, depending upon procedure and management type of pilot offset list that MS retains, is operated in 3 ways, i.e., ADD, DROP and SWAP.
Soft Hand-off

Soft Hand-off is generated when moving between BTSs within a same MSC with a same frame offset. Soft Hand-off of inter-BTS is also, depending upon procedure and management type of pilot offset list that MS retains, operated in 3 ways, i.e., ADD, DROP and SWAP. To perform the Soft Hand-off function between BSC, the controlling signal route and the traffic route for the whole inter-BSC controllers are prepared by way of CAN.
Hard Hand-off

Hard Hand-off generates in some cases when performing hand-off by altering frequency or frame offset while moving to different BTS, when hand-off generated between different types of BSC, and when the switch of MSC is temporarily disconnected while hand-off between MSCs.
Access Hand-off

Access Hand-off is generated when mobile terminal moves into another cell while call setting up. Access Entry Hand-off, before MT gets into Access Status, changes the page supervising BTS.
Dynamic Threshold Soft Hand-off

It is an enhanced feature of Soft Hand-off that set up the only sufficiently powered pilot signal as the Active Set to put radio channel resources into efficient use. Hand-off control function that performed in BSC, works similar to the control function using Static Threshold.

Enhanced Hard Hand-off

The Enhanced Hard Hand-off, in case when MT measures the strength of pilot signal in adjacent FA as well as the FA currently set and senses FA in better environment, is a function that performs hand-off in relevant FA.

Inter PDSN Dormant Hand-off

Inter PDSN Dormant Hand-off works when a terminal made a move of PDSN service area in dormant status.

3.2 Voice Call Hand-off


Softer Hand-off between sectors

Soft hand-off between sectors is one of soft hand-off types and is generated when the mobile terminal moves within the same MSC, BSC, and BTS with same frequency.
Inter-Frequency Hard Hand-off

In CDMA inter-frequency hand-off in the same BTS, if the neighboring pilot is operated with frequency other than those of current call, and when the BTS where the call is set up operates the frequency of neighboring BTS, it can hand off by using the frequency used in the neighboring BTS within the BTS.
Inter Frame Offset Hard Hand-off

Hard hand-off causes instantaneous call disconnection due to change of frequency and is generated in case of hand-off between different CDMA channels in neighboring BTSs or hand-off between different Frame Offsets.
Intra BSC Soft Hand-off

Generated when moving between BTSs within the same exchange with same frequency and same frame.
Inter BSC Soft Hand-off

For implementation of soft hand-off function between controller of BTS, control signal route and traffic route between controllers of all BTSs are prepared through CAN.

Inter MSC Soft Hand-off

This hand-off is generated between neighboring MCSs when the mobile terminal moves to the neighboring MSC.

Access Hand-off

Access hand-off is generated when the mobile terminal moves to the other cell during call setup process.
Access Entry Hand-off

Access Entry Hand-off is to change the BTS that monitors paging before the mobile terminal enters the access status.
Access Probe Hand-off

In Access Probe Hand-off, when the mobile terminal moves to other cell during call setup process and the mobile terminal moves from the current service area so that the mobile terminal cannot receive paging channel currently in use, it measures the pilot strength of neighboring BTS/sector, performs the hand-off to the BTS in new service area with the strongest strength, performs new access attempt process again and processes the sending/receiving of message.
MAHHO (Mobile Assist Hard Hand-off)

It is a method of determining hand-off at the time of hard hand-off between neighboring MSC. The mobile terminal continues to measure the strength of pilot channel, generates the Pilot Strength Measurement message and starts hand-off process.
Hopping Beacon Hand-off

Hopping Beacon hand-off performs inter frequency hard hand-off in the cell after performing hand-off between neighboring cells using Beacon device, without extending FA.
S/W Beacon Hand-off

It performs hand-off between neighboring cells after performing Inter Frequency Hard handoff in the cell.
Soft/Hard Hand-off between different companies

Hand-off is implemented using the message defined in 3G IOS V4.0. At this time, it is necessary to consult on the matter between different companies.
Soft Hand-off with IS-95A/B System

In CDMA2000 system, hand-off to IS-95 A/B system is performed after determining the timing of hand-off using the neighboring parameter of CDMA2000 system.

3.3 Data Call Hand-off


Softer Hand-off between Sectors

Performed in the same method as Soft Hand-off of voice call.


Inter Frequency Hard Hand-off

Performed in the same method as Hard Hand-off of voice call.


Inter Frame Offset Hard Hand-off

Hard Hand-off is performed in the same method as Hard Hand-off of voice call.
Intra PCF Soft Hand-off

This hand-off is generated when the mobile terminal moves to neighboring cell within same BSC(PSF) at the time of data service and is performed by newly assigning Traffic Channel.
Inter PCF Hand-off

This hand-off is generated when the mobile terminal moves to other BSC(PCF) from current BSC(PCF) at the time of data service and is performed by newly assigning Traffic Channel and R-P session.
Intra PCF Dormant Hand-off

This hand-off is generated when the mobile terminal moves to the neighboring cell in the same BSC(PCF) at system dormant status, and is performed while maintaining PPP session.
Inter PCF Dormant Hand-off

This hand-off is generated when the mobile terminal moves to the other BSC(PCF) from the current BSC(PCF) at system dormant status, and is performed while maintaining PPP session.
Inter PDSN Dormant Hand-off

This hand-off is generated when the mobile terminal moves to other PDSN service area from the current PDSN at the time of data service, and is performed by newly assigning Traffic Channel, R-P session and PPP when it transits to Active status from Dormant status.

4. Power Control
4.1 Overview
In all communication system, user signal is mixed and distorted with various noises while it is delivered through appropriate communication media. To restore this at receiving part, it is necessary to maintain SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) over certain level. Different from multiple access type such as FDMA or TDMA, communication of all subscribers are implemented at the same time using same broadband frequency band in CDMA. Thus, communication signals of each subscriber act as noise to other subscriber. Due to this feature, the strength of communication signal of each subscriber is directly related to the overall system capacity in CDMA system. System capacity can be maximized when the strength of communication signal of each subscriber is maintained at the required minimum level. In the reverse link of wireless communication system, the signal of mobile station located near cell BTS is received more strongly in cell BTS than that of mobile station located far away. (Near-end Far-end Problem) Accordingly, if proper power control cannot be implemented, the signal of mobile station located near BTS is received at cell BTS at the strength stronger than the necessary level. In CDMA system, this residue power acts as interference to the signal of other mobile station. In the forward link, the mobile station located in the margin of cell needs more power to maintain the quality of signal equivalent to that of the signal from mobile station located near cell BTS. (Corner Problem) In CDMA type system, since the signal power assigned to one mobile station acts as noise to other mobile station, it is necessary to assign few power to the mobile station which requires relative few power, and to assign the residue power from this to the mobile station which requires relatively more power, thereby maintaining certain level of SNR received in all mobile stations, in order to maximize the system capacity. Power control of CDMA system consists of Forward Link Power Control, which control the transmission power of BTS and Reverse Link Power Control, which controls the transmission power of mobile station as shown in the figure. Reverse Link Power Control is further divided into Open-Loop Power Control, Closed-Loop Power Control and Outer-Loop Power Control. Among these, Forward Link Power Control and Outer-Loop Power Control are implemented by SVC.

Figure 3-1 CDMA Power Control

CDMA Power Control

Forward Link Power Control

Reverse Link Power Control

By MS,CE & Selector

MS: Mobile Station CE: Channel Element

Open-Loop Power Control

Closed-Loop Power Control

Outer-Loop Power Control

By MS only

By MS & CE

By Selector

Figure 4-2 Configuration for Power Control

4.2 IS-95A/B based Power Control


4.2.1 Forward Link Power Control
It is a process of controlling the transmission power of cell BTS and is performed by SVC. Depending on the forward FER reported by appropriate mobile station, SVC adjusts channel gains and sends the value to appropriate CE, which in turn adjusts the power assigned to the mobile station based on such value. To report forward FER, Power Measurement Report Message (PMRM) is used at Rate Set 1(9600/4800/2400/1200 bps), and Erasure Indicator Bit(EEIB) of 1 bit size assigned to reverse frame for each 20 msec is used at Rate Set 2 (14400/7200/3600/1800 bps). Through forward link power control, cell BTS reduces the transmission power to the mobile stations with good radio environment, such as mobile station with less mobility, the mobile station which receives less signal attenuation since located near cell BTS, the mobile station with less effect of multi-path fading and shadowing effect and the mobile station with less interference from other cell. The cell BTS assigns the residue power from this to the mobile station which cannot properly receive the signal since it is located far away from the cell BTS or with poor radio environment, thereby maintaining certain level of SNR in all BTSs.

4.2.2 Reverse Link Power Control


It is a process of controlling the transmission power of mobile station, and is based on strength of all signals received at the mobile station, SNR and receiving frame quality of signal of each mobile station received at cell BTS. It consists of Open-Loop Power Control, Closed-Loop Power Control and Outer-Loop Power Control process.
Open Loop Power Control

It is a power control solely performed by the mobile station. The mobile station promptly adjusts its own transmission power in inverse proportion to the size of RSSI(Received Signal Strength Indicator). The signal of all mobile stations in the cell can be received in same strength at cell BTS through this power control process. To compensate the transmission power level of mobile station according to the radio environment of each cell, the cell BTS provides power compensation parameters to the mobile station. These parameters are sensitive to cell load, cell noise environment, antenna gain and power amplifier output.

Closed Loop Power Control

In CDMA system that uses Full Duplex type, the forward link and reverse link may experience different attenuation and fading since the frequency band used in forward link and reverse link are featured to have no correlation. Due to this feature, there is a limit in forecasting the channel status of forward link through forward link. Therefore, the signal of mobile station of which the output is adjusted in accordance with the result of Open-Loop Power Control only, may arrive at cell BTS with or without satisfactory reference SNR. Closed-Loop Power Control is used to compensate this. Closed-Loop Power Control is implemented by cell BTS and mobile station under the leading of cell BTS. Cell BTS measures SNR of mobile station signal every 1.25msec, compares this with reference threshold and gives instruction of increase or decrease to the mobile station through power control bit defined at forward link frame every 1.25msec. Mobile station increases or decreases its own transmission power by certain value (1dB nominal) according to the value of power control bit.
Outer Loop Power Control

There is a limit in the changing speed of channel environment, which can be traced through Open-Loop Power Control and Closed-Loop Power Control. Thus, if the channel environment rapidly changes beyond the traceable limit, it may generate a situation in which it is necessary to increase the SNR value used as a reference of determining power control bit, in order to maintain certain level of channel quality. That is, it is necessary to dynamically adjust reference SNR according to the channel quality. Outer-Loop Power Control performs this role and is implemented by SVC. SVC newly determines reference SNR based on rate and quality of reverse link frame every 20msec and sends the determined value to CE of BTS together with forward link frame data.

4.3 IS-2000 based Fast Power Control


CDMA2000 system supports faster forward link power control to have better adaptability to the fading environment and mobility of high-speed data, and performs power control on FCH and SCH to provide high-speed data service.

4.3.1 Fast Forward Power Control


It is to adjust the value of forward transmission power value according to the power control bit transmitted from mobile station every 1.25ms. That is, the forward power control performed at the selector of BSC at the frequency of 20ms is performed at the channel of BTS for fast performance at the frequency of 1.25ms. The mobile terminal compares the received power with the limit value of power control, and sends signal to raise the transmission power to BTS if the received power is less than limit value, and sends signal to lower the transmission power to BTS if the received power is higher than limit value. BTS raises or lowers the transmission power according to the received signal.

4.3.2 FCH Control Power


It measures SIR of power control bit for the forward link of FCH, and performs Closed Loop Power Control based on this. It measures SIR of pilot channel for the reverse link and performs closed loop power control based on this. In addition, both forward and reverse link performs Outer Loop Power Control based on FER.

4.3.3 SCH Power Control


If FCH and SCH are assigned to the same terminal, the terminal can send PCB on FCH or independent PCB for FCH and SCH depending on the power control mode set at the BTS. If the mobile terminal sends PDB on FCH only, it performs power control on SCH same as on FCH. If the mobile terminal sends independent PCB to FCH and SCH, it performs independent power control.

4.4 Performance of Power Control


4.4.1 Reverse Link
Apply the control method same as 2G system to RC1 ~ RC6. But, Power Control bit was determined based on Reverse FCH power at RC1 and RC2, and based on power of Reverse Pilot Channel at RC3 ~ RC6. Currently, it shows FER performance of 2% at commercial 2G network.

4.4.2 Forward Link


In case of RC1 and RC2, BS adjusts the Gain of Forward Traffic Channel based on the quality information (PMRM, EIB) of Forward Link provided by MS. In case of RC3 ~ RC9, Fast Power Control function was used. If there is FCH(or/and DCCH) only, set FPC mode as 0 to control at the speed of 800Hz. If there is SCH, set FPC mode as 1 to control FCH(or/and DCCH) and SCH at the speed of 400Hz respectively. In case of PMRM or EIB reference Power Control, it shows PER performance of about 1% at current commercial 2G network.

5. Paging Control
5.1 Overview
Paging is a function for BTS to deliver additional information, call on the specific mobile station, channel allocation to the mobile terminal. Mobile terminal continues to monitor paging signal after synchronizing BTS with timing. If the paging signal supported at BTS is more than 2, the terminal identifies the paging signal to monitor using hashing function.
Paging Signal

Paging signal is largely divided into system information delivered to all mobile terminals in service areas and personal paging information delivered to specific terminal only. Overhead message contains information related to access of terminal and system parameter, BTS frequency information, information for international roaming and information for neighboring BTS. BTS transmits this information once every 1.28 seconds. Personal paging information message includes message for paging, command and channel assignment message, message for transmission of character string, authentication attempt message, message updating SSD(Shared Secret Data) required for authentication, and message to be used when transmitting several information, path redirect message on specific terminal, message requesting terminal status, and the message assigning TMSI(Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) to specific terminal. In particular, since SMS(Short Message Service) can be transmitted to Paging Channel, it is processed as a signaling, rather than traffic.
Slotted Mode

Paging channel divides the system time into small slot in the 80 ms unit with interval of 2,048 and this is called slot of paging channel. Slotted mode is to monitor the paging signal for specific slot that the mobile terminal agrees with BTS and not to operate in other slot. If slot mode is properly implemented, the power consumption of terminal can be reduced. System efficiency can be improved by enabling one BTS to transmit paging signal to several terminals. If it operates in slot mode, the mobile terminal can designate SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX in the slot interval using registration message, outgoing message or Page Response Message.

5.2 Quick Paging


Quick Paging Channel is to save the consumption power of terminal battery basically. It

functions to transmit the indicator that notifies to mobile terminal which operates in slot mode whether the message within the designated paging slot is changed or not. In general slotted mode, the mobile terminal needs to unconditionally monitor paging slot for about 80 ms whenever slot interval comes back. But if Quick Paging is used, it receives the paging signal only when the paging message related to itself is changed. Therefore, the wake time of terminal can be remarkably reduced. Accordingly, the power consumption of terminal is reduced and the standby time and calling time are prolonged under certain power. QPCH(Quick Paging Channel) is an option channel that operates only when QPCH_SUPPORTED field of Extended System Parameter is designated as 1 and is 80 ms slot structure. The channel speeds are available at 9.6 Kbps and 4.8 Kbps, and can be designated separately regardless of speed of paging channel. Bit position of paging indicator within QPCH is calculated using hashing function. If the mobile terminal that supports Quick Paging Channel in slotted mode is in Idle status, the mobile terminal should wake up 100 ms earlier than the slot of paging channel that it should monitor as shown in the following figure.
Figure 0-27 Interval of Quick Paging Slot

6. GPS Receiving Function


STAREX-IS BTS receives timing information from GPS satellite and provides TOD(Time Of Day), 10MHz, 1PPS to each system.

BTGB of STAREX-IS BTS delivers 10MHz, 1PPS, TOD signal to BSPB, a bloc of each H/W within BTS, and BSPB reshapes and delivers to Channel Block, and BUDA at RF directly delivers to BTGB. If it is impossible to receive timing information from GPS satellite, it is operated by its own clock. It enables to normally operate for over 1 day, even if fault occurs, by setting 1PPS standard affecting H/O as less than 1 for normal time, and as 7 /Day for H/O. GPS-R of BTS compares the GPS-M receiving signal, track information, loading and timing information of L1 band directly from GPS satellite with various signals received through receiver of GPS-M; and classifies various signals at system to GPS-R. Following figure shows the structure of GPS.
Figure 0-28 GPS-R Block Diagram

7. Diversity
7.1 Overview
In mobile communication environment, multiple paths phenomenon may occur due to reflected waves from building and topography in the path, and results in fading phenomenon

where amplitude of receiving signal varies. Since the size of receiving power generated from fading phenomenon is frequently lowered to the heat noise of receiver, it is difficult to maintain the quality of transmission over satisfactory level. In particular, fading by multiple paths is generated by the phase difference of signal arriving at the receiver from different path. Fading aggravates the noise to signal ratio(Eb/No) by decreasing the size of signal, drops the quality of call by generating interference between signals, and decreases the capacity of system. Diversity type is used to prevent the decline of transmission quality due to fading. Diversity is the method of physically installing antennas to enable the sending and receiving of more than 2 radio waves. Space diversity type is used in mobile communication.

7.2 Type of Diversity


CDMA2000 system additionally uses sending diversity type as well as receiving diversity used in IS-95A/B, so as to enhance the quality of call.
Receiving Diversity

Receiving diversity is the method of demodulating the signals received from mobile terminal by installing 2 receiving antennas distanced from the BTS. STAREX-IS BTS provides 2 receiving antennas, 2 duplexer receiving band filters, 2 LNAs for each sector and 2 receiving paths within BUDA board, thereby minimizing the effects of fading.
Transmission Diversity

Transmission diversity is the method of receiving and demodulating various signals at one antenna in mobile terminal by spatially separating 2 transmission antennas at BTS and sending different orthogonal signals. Type of sending diversity includes OTD(Orthogonal Transmission Diversity) and STS(Space Time Spreading). It is currently implemented in STATEX-IS BTS.

8. High Speed Packet Data Service


8.1 Overview
CDMA2000 system provides High Speed Packet Data(HSPD) service to the users of mobile terminal which has laptop computer or other data devices in compliance with TIA/EIA/IS2000 or IS-707A standard. HSPD enables the subscriber of mobile terminal to use various

kinds of data application services including Internet, intranet, e-mail and high speed file transfer at various speeds up to 144Kbps through TIA/EIA/IS-2000 wireless interface. To receive packet data service, the mobile terminal receives IP from CDMA2000 network. Two kinds of IPs are used in CDMA2000 such as Simple IP and Mobile IP.

8.2 Channel Assignment Control


At least one fundamental channel(FCH) is used to provide HSPD. If more bandwidth is required than those provided at FCH, supplemental channel(SCH) is assigned to forward link or reverse link. HSPD can asymmetrically assign the bandwidth of forward link or reverse link. This enables to effectively use bandwidth in both links. STAREX-IS BSC commands the assignment or release of FCH and SCH to the subordinate BTS, which in turn assigns or release channel in accordance with this command.
FCH (Fundamental Channel)

FCH continues to occupy resources while call is in active mode. If the call becomes Dormant status, the resources assigned to FCH can be assigned to voice resource or other data resource. FCH includes forward fundamental channel(F-FCH) and reverse fundamental channel(R-FCH).
SCH (Supplemental Channel)

SCH is used when wider bandwidth is required at forward call or reverse call of HSPD. SCH is used during data burst period as determined at the system, and the speed of data supported by SCH includes 9.6 Kbps, 19.2 Kbps, 38.4 Kbps, 76.8 Kbps and 153.6 Kbps. The data speed and usage period of SCH are dynamically determined by power management algorithm and call acceptance control algorithm, and vary depending on the availability status of resource, cell load and interference. SCH includes forward fundamental channel(FSCH) and reverse fundamental channel(R-SCH).

9. Supplementary Function
STAREX-IS BTS can support to smoothly provide new services of CDMA2000. New supplementary functions provided at CDMA2000 include: QOF (Quasi-Orthogonal Function) Flexible Paging processing function PACA (Priority Access and Channel Assignment)

Tiered Service NDSS (Network Directed System Selection) service

9.1 QOF (Quasi-Orthogonal Function)


In CDMA2000 system, Walsh Code of 64 chip and Walsh Code of 256chip are used in IS-95 for high-speed data transmission and compatibility with IS-95A/B. For transmission speed control, transmission diversity, additional assignment of forward channel, it is possible to create many numbers of code that has new Quasi Orthogonal by multiplying Walsh code of 256 chip with proper masking function (QOF sign, Walsh rot) in order to separate many channels into Walsh Code of 256 chip. The extended code created like this is called QOSC(Quasi Orthogonal Spreading Code).

9.2 Flexible Paging


At CDMA2000 1X system of LGE, paging is operated in Flexible Paging type and all kinds of MSID(MIN, IMSI, ESN) can be applied. Flexible Paging type establishes virtual location area for paging called PAI(Paging Area Identification that includes BTS established by operator and the BTS belonging to existing LAI at the time of paging by extending the LAI(Location Area Identity) of BTS group, a basic unit of the 1st paging performance and registration of mobile subscriber, and performs the location registration of subscriber when LAI in service station changes, thus remarkably reducing the paging failure of subscriber located in LAI neighboring BTS, which was a problem in existing method. In addition, this paging type pages the 2nd paging to the PAI that jointly uses LAI neighboring BTS established by an operator, rather than paging attempt to the all BTS in existing mobile exchange system, thereby reducing the paging load that may occur at the time of 2nd paging. In this way, this new paging method can enhance the efficiency of mobile communication system.

9.3 PACA (Priority Access & Channel Assignment)


PACA function is to grant the priority on the traffic channel access to the subscriber at the time of originating call attempt. If call cannot be set up due to lack of idle resources at BTS due to call congestion, it saves the call setup request of mobile terminal and set up call again in accordance with the priority of the terminal when the resource is available.

Following figure shows the PACA service procedure.


Figure 0-29 PACA Service Procedure

MS
Mob Origination (S.O:Voice) BS Ack Order

BSS

MSC

CM Service Request Assignment Request PACA Message Assignment Fail Call Release PACA Message Mob Origination

1 When mobile terminal attempts originating call, this message is delivered to MSC through BSS. 2 MSC request BSS to allocate resources. 3 If BSS fails to allocate resources, BSS saves the originating call of mobile terminal where PACA function is set up, and waits until resource becomes available. It notifies PACA setup by sending PACA message to appropriate terminal. 4 BSS notifies to MSC that it failed to set up call, and performs call release process. 5 If resource becomes available at BSS, BSS sends PACA message to the mobile terminal whose originating call is saved, indicating to try originating call again. 6 Receiving PACA message, the mobile terminal tries originating call again. If the mobile phone where PACA function is set up moves to the other cell, it tries originating call again or cancels PACA function. Terminating call is not processed while PACA function is set up. PACA operating calls are entered and managed at Queue by subscriber service profile and terminating number. If Queue is in full status and other PACA operating call arrives, it preoccupies the other call of relatively low priority within Queue. This PACA service progress status should be provided to the subscriber through the terminal.

9.4 Tiered Service


Service Overview

Tiered service provides specific service such as fee discount to the specific subscriber of mobile communication located in designated user zone, in addition to existing service. Tiered service includes: Service for Office User Service for Residential User Service for Private Network User Specific office is set as user zone to the office user. This office user receives mobility in this area, and security on the voice and message as business service by PBX or Centrex. Specific region is set as user zone to the regional user. Regional user can also receive security on the voice and message like office user. Private network user can receive various special services provided by tiered service together with the services provided at CDMA2000 network. Like this, tiered service is advantageous in that it can provide various kinds of services in specific area with only one terminal.
Configuration for Service

Components for Tiered service are as shown below:


Figure 0-30 Components of Tiered Service

Subscriber

Select

Register

Features
- Public - Private - Residential

Provide

Service

Access Provide

Equipment
- Public - Private - Residential

Location Define

Assign

User Zone

Features

Tiered service combines and provides specific functions to individual or group. Available functions include 4~5 digit dialing, wireless office service and voice mail. Equipment The equipment required for Tiered service consists of general BTS equipment, private BTS equipment that only specific group can interface, and residential BTS equipment. User Zone User zone is a basic unit to provide tiered service, and is set by geographical area or private network or combination of both. User zone is a subscription option provided to the specific user group and each subscriber can check the user zone he belongs to with the name of user zone. The geographical area of User zone can be established based on the cell area of general BTS equipment or private BTS equipment, or established regardless of cell area. Mobile terminal selects user zone among several user zones according to the priority through parameter PUZL (Preferred User Zone List). In case of private BTS equipment, the mobile terminal selects the user zone through parameter, PNLM(Private Neighbor List Message).

9.5 NDSS (Network Directed System Selection)


Service Overview

NDSS(Network Direct System Selection) is a function to enable smooth service operation by selecting preferred system for each mobile terminal at network. Whether to operate NDSS function or not can be set up by subscriber or operator. In the first case, IS-95 subscriber or IS-2000 subscriber selects the preferred system through NDSS function. That is, if IS-95(or TIA/EIA/IS-2000) subscriber registers the location at TIA/EIA/IS-2000(or IS-95) network, HLR notifies NDSS information to the terminal so that the appropriate terminal can register location at suitable network. If the appropriate terminal registers its location again at suitable network, HLR notifies this to the MSC of previous network so as to delete the registration of location saved in the VLR of MSC. In the second case, the network determines NDSS and notifies it to the mobile terminal when the mobile terminal tries call. That is, when the call tried by subscriber arrives at MSC through BTS and BSC, MSC asks the suitability of subscriber to HLR. If such subscriber is not registered in the appropriate network, HLR notifies NDSS information to the mobile terminal so that such mobile terminal can try call to the suitable network. If the mobile terminal tries call to the suitable network, the appropriate network normally processes the call.
NDSS Information Provision Service

Provide NDSS Function by HLR judgment

NDSS function is provided by HLR judgment when the location of subscriber is not registered at MSC of appropriate network. HLR separates whether the subscriber whose location is registered is IS-95 subscriber or TIA/EIA/IS-2000 subscriber. If the registration of subscriber location is not performed at the suitable network, it notifies proper NDSS information to the mobile terminal so as to perform NDSS function. HLR performs the location registration process on the call setup, separates IS95/TIA/EIA/IS-2000 subscriber and notifies proper NDSS information to the mobile terminal. Provide NDSS Function by MSC judgment NDSS function is provided by MSC judgment when the location of subscriber is registered at MSC of appropriate network. It determines whether NDSS is necessary or not at MSC in order to reduce the overall load of network and the load of HLR. When the subscriber of mobile communication tries originating call, MSC checks the NDSS information registered at MSC and service option of appropriate subscriber and notifies to the mobile terminal. Provide NDSS Function by both HLR judgment and MSC judgment NDSS function is provided by both HLR and MSC judgment when HLR receives NDSS information and MSC checks the information on the neighboring network with NDSS available. When the subscriber of mobile communication registers the location, and when the NDSS information registered at HLR is different from NDDR information registered in MSC, MSC independently judges and provides NDSS information to the mobile terminal. In addition, if the service option requested by mobile terminal is unsuitable for NDSS information provided at HLR, MSC independently judges and notifies proper NDSS information to the terminal.

Chapter 4. Operation and Maintenance of BTS


Operation and maintenance of STAREX-IS BTS are mainly done at BSM, an operation system of BSC and BTS, and each processor in BTS.

1. Operation Function
1.1 System Initialization Function
It loads Application, OS and PLD to the appropriate BSC and BTS from BSM so that system can normally operates at the time of MMC and Power ON/OFF by operator or initial operation of system. If the power is provided at the BTS, Booter operating of BSP, a main processor of BTS starts. Booter of BSP requests loading to BSC, upper level process, and Application starts after loading OS, PLD, its own Application and upper Application. At this time, BSM transmits all files in zip format for operation of BSC and directly loads PLD on BTS.
Figure 0-31 Initialization Process of BTS

1.2 Configuration Management


STAREX-IS BTS can control the information on configuration of system. It can view and change various kinds of operation parameter by BSM, and saves the changed data in PLD(Programmable Loading Data) File in BSM for the conformity of data. Operator can perform batch processing for addition of configuration to system. Function to manage the configuration and operation parameter of BTS is performed in details as shown below.
Function to process change of BTS Acceptance

FA extension / Sector extension / Change of BTS type can be processed by clicking appropriate icon in graphics. Function to process change of BTS acceptance is performed in details as shown below: Automatically update Neighbor List of BTS Change the address of processor at BTS Function to collect and manage latitude and longitude data of BTS Function to manage overload control reference value for each process of BTS Function to explore the address of BTS with the name of BTS Print/change information on configuration of BTS Print/change information on configuration of channel card Print/change information on configuration of call channel Print/change information on configuration of paging channel Print/change information on configuration of channel element Print/change information on configuration of channel list Extension/deletion of BTS Extension/deletion of sector Extension/deletion of FA

Print/change information on operation of BTS Print/change information on operation of sector Print/change information on operation of CDMA channel Print/change information on operation of system Print/change forward power control Print/change reverse power control

Function to Manage Neighbor List

Graphic neighbor enables to add and delete the information related to Neighbor. In consideration of convenience of users, this function can be performed by clicking Select, Delete, Add and New Add icon in graphic menu. Function to manage Neighbor List is performed in details as shown below Function to view Neighbor List of BTS of same manufacturer in other MSC Function to request the Neighbor List of BTS of same manufacturer in other MSC to BSM of appropriate MSC. Function to add and delete Neighbor List bi-directionally Function to analyze and to edit GUI-based Neighbor List

1.3 Man-machine interface Function


Man-machine interface Function can be divided into Text Base and GUI(Graphic User Interface). It performs the processing of basic commands of Text Base, manages users and process the text generated in the system to Log File. GUI(Graphic User Interface) is designed to allow easy access of operator to the system, and all commands can be processed with graphic processing including the status/fault of

appropriate Board. Man-machine interface function is performed in details as shown below. Function to execute commands through selection of menu. Provide help on how to use commands on GUI window. Short Form Command function Command patch processing function(Batch Job) Function to manage the commands entered by the operator and the output of such command

1.4 Statistics Function


Collection of statistics data generated at each BTS is saved in BSM per file. It is possible to analyze the traffic statistics required for operation, using separate tools. Statistics function can be logically divided into 3 kinds. On Demand Statistics The user designates the statistics item and BTS at certain time the user wants and measure as many as the specific interval. Hourly Statistics Collects all statistics at fixed time without request of user and report to NMS. On line Statistics Collect statistics every 5 minutes and send to NMS for real time checking.

Statistics Function can be largely divided into 5 categories. Traffic related statistics Hand-off related statistics Cal processing related statistics Packet related statistics Other statistics

1.5 Interface with NMS


BSM performs the management of MIB for construction of TMN and uses CMIP according to MO(manager object) defined for data communication with NMS. Interface function with NMS is performed in details as shown below. Function to transmit the collected statistics to NMS Function to transmit the collected fault/alarm message to NMS Function to correct/transmit the configuration and operation parameter upon request of NMS Function to perform BSM command and transmit the result upon request of NMS

1.6 Remote Control


STAREX-IS BTS implements Remote Control function through BSM and PSTN modem access if it is required to reset due to occurrence of expected fault. If the network itself is in normal status, it can provide Reset function through transmission of message at BSM. If network function is abnormal, however, it can promptly process and restore the fault by providing modem access function through PSTN network. In addition, the expense of management can be saved since it enables remote processing without directly visiting each station. Remote diagnosis and control function on main processor and device of BSC and BTS can be performed in more details as shown below. Remote Reset function of main processor of BTS Remote Reset function of transmission line control H/W

2. Maintenance Function
2.1 Status Management
STAREX-IS BTS continuously manages the status of call processing resources, device, link and various processors of system, and notifies the information on status of target under management exactly to the operator. If the transition of status of target under management occurs, transition status is managed real time. Upper processor performs Keep Alive, which periodically manages the status of lower processors. It is possible to view the status of target under management using MMC(Man Machine Communication) command at BSM, to Restart and to Reboot it. If problem occurs in the appropriate resource, management of call resource status separate it after sufficient test and assists to provide high quality service. It notifies the cause of separation to the operator for prompt and exact actions. Status management function of BTS can be performed in details as shown below.

Function to display the status of process and device of BTS real time in topdown type in GUI for easy identification.

Designed and implemented to reflect the change in configuration of BTS in status graphic without correction of original information. Sanity Monitoring function of processor S/W of BTS Display the processor S/W status of BTS to status graphic. Check and diagnose status and error of GPS of BTS and view TOD. Function to manage status of ATM

2.2 Fault Management


STAREX-IS BTS functions to detect fault and to send it to BSM if fault occurs in various processors, link, device and power board. BSM collects, manages and analyzes all faults that may occur in BTS and BSC real time, and report them audibly and visibly to the operator. Upon request of operator, it can display the current status of fault and performs the test and control function on the sub system where fault is generated. Target for fault management includes the target for status management, that is, sub system, board, processor and memory. If any problem occurs in these targets, it exactly and promptly reports the faults so that the operator can operate system stably.

The function of fault management can be divided into 3 functions as shown below.
Division Fault detection function Fault diagnosis function Function It periodically monitors fault and prepares error reports. Fault can be identified by performing diagnosis function on factors of faults. It generates and analyzes factors of error, and receives reports on factors of error at appropriate fault factors. Accordingly, system test function belongs to fault diagnosis function.

Fault processing function

Fault processing can be mainly performed by other parts of BSM system..

At generator or release of fault, appropriate information is promptly reported to the operator using operator terminal, GUI, audible device, and Alarm Panel. Resources with fault are automatically excluded from service so as to prevent the problem of lowering system quality due to such resources at call processing. Alarm on fault can be divided into S/W alarm that detects the device supervising upper Master Processor by software, and H/W alarm that has separate device for detecting alarm and detects and process alarm. S/W alarm and H/W alarm are mixed and used wholly according to features of each NE. Each alarm is separated with class (Critical, Major, Minor) and the class of alarm can be changed by the operator depending on the features of operator and BTS. Alarm processing can trace appropriate parts with separate tool at BSM. Following is the class of alarm.
Class of Alarm Critical Alarm Status and Actions This function is used to display fault that has severely adverse effect on service with detrimental effects. Emergency action is necessary regardless of timing of fault. This function is used to display the malfunction or fault of main circuits or considerable damage on the service of system. These faults should be immediately reported to the operator so that he can test or restore the function. This function is used to display fault that does not have severe impact on call processing function or to the service or subscriber. It is not that urgent to take action to this.

Major Alarm

Minor Alarm

To minimize the effects of fault, it reports the break-down faults so that the operator can separate or restore the appropriate fault block if necessary. In addition, it can identify exact

status of fault through diagnosis function, so as to help separate or restore the fault.

The function to collect or process the alarm and fault can be performed in details as shown below. Function to display the collected faults to text Function to save the collected fault as file Function to analyze fault/alarm message and to display it in graphics Provide help on the cause and actions of fault/alarm Fault/alarm message includes detailed information that can analyze the cause and type of fault/alarm, timing and location of error. Provide the class of fault/alarm Display the status of process and device of BSC and BTS in GUI in topdown type. If fault and alarm occur, it displays them in accordance with the class for easy identification. Upon request of operator, this function reads and displays the details of latest Down of appropriate processor or lower device that is managed by appropriate processor, saved in the processor of BSC and BTS. BSC and BTS have function to grant the alarm number and alarm collection port for environment equipment. Function to process alarm message on environment equipment.

2.3 Test and Diagnosis Function


BSM performs the test function of inspecting quality data related to various kinds of calls, inspects the fault generated during operation and maximizes BTS diagnosis function. It performs On Demand test by operator and periodic test on each device. The results of various test is managed real time in Log File and separate analysis tool is constructed on appropriate Log File. Test and diagnosis function of BTS can be performed in details as shown below:
Loopback Call and Marcov Call function

The purpose of BTS Loopback Call test is to measure the quality at specific channel or

specific wireless sections, using measured FER(Forward, Reverse) after setup of Loopback call on wireless sections between channel and terminal. BTS Markov test is to measure the call quality at specific channel or specific wireless section using measured FER(Forward, Reverse) after setup of Markov call at the wireless section between channel and terminal. When Markov test starts, it turns on BTU(BTS Test Unit) terminal and sets up Matrix Switch to receive paging from designated sector. When the originating or terminating call set up Markov call thereafter, it maintains call for certain period of time and then measures FER(Frame Error Rate) from terminal (Forward) and Channel Element(Reverse).

Tx/Rx VSWR Test

BADA board consisting of BTU is provided with H/W to measure VSWR of sending and receiving antenna.
Debugger Function of Important Processor

It provides the function to check or to control with Portable PC the data on BTS processor, device or channel resource status/fault, and configuration/operation information through Debugger Port of main processors of BTS.
CAI Performance Test

It can measure CAI performance test through Cell DM and Mobile DM.
Link Test Function

Link Test functions include Ping Test, IPC Test, ATM Path Test and trunk BER Test. Ping Test is to check the link status of Application Level using Ping command to the target processor from Master Processor. IPC Test is to inspect whether there is a problem in link or not by performing IPV Test on embedded processor/device. ATM Path Test is to inspect whether there is any problem in ATM Link Level by performing ATM Layer Test on the embedded processor/ /device. Trunk BER Test is to obtain the error by sending and receiving as many ATM Cells as designated by operator to the designated BTS link.
Call Trace Test Function

If a call is not successfully set up but stops during the call setup process, this function identifies where the fault occurs during cal setup process and traces which process the call stopped during protocol processing. That is, it can trance and display the details of the call setup process, monitoring of status

after cal setup and call release process on the mobile station by designating some mobile terminal with MSIN (Mobile Station Identification Number) value of IMSI at BSM. In addition, it allows dynamic graphic processing of call quality(forward/reverse FER) for specific call per instantaneous value and accumulated value, and can display Active Set of all hand-off cell, Activity, pilot strength for hand-off control and setup resource, power control threshold andEb/No, RTD value. Call Trace function can trace up to 3 calls simultaneously.

OCNS(Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator) Function

Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator (OCNS) can enhance stability of transmitted power by measuring the noise effect(interference) that is generated due to other terminal in the cell in test as well as other cells in Forward Link. That is, the measured Digital Gain value varies depending on the number of subscribers accepted in system, and is related to pilot, sync, paging, traffic channels, and is saved in Channel Element Controller. Cell controller enables to transmit fixed level of power at all times using Data rate and measured Digital Gain.

2.4 Security Function


Security function can be divided into accuracy guarantee function and access control function. Accuracy guarantee function is to guarantee the accuracy of timing information generated as well as exact source of received information. Access control function is to control the access of unauthorized users and grant the access right to the authorized users. Each command has class of performance and the operator can perform the commands suitable for the class only. It performs terminal log in and log out to access the system, and set up ID and password of each operator. In addition, it grants the class in accordance with the importance level of commands. Provide the class of command, allowing the BSM manager to adjust the class of commands. Provide the class of user, allowing the BSM manager to adjust the class of user Provide the class of terminal, allowing the BSM manager to adjust the class

of terminal.

2.5 Inventory Function


Inventory function is performed in details as shown below. Display of header(Serial Number, PCB Version, applied remote station) Display details of Board repairs Status of CN(Change Notice) application Inventory algorithm is as shown below. If the operator requests the overall history of one board 1 The operator requests data by entering commands. 2 Entered data is transmitted to appropriate CCP. 3 CCP transmits the received data to appropriate BSP as it is.

BSP collects and raise the overall data on board if it is lower board, and request the overall data to RCP and transmits to CPP, upper processor if it is RCP(RCCA) related board. 5 It displays the information received from CCP on the screen. 6 If information on board is changed, it saves the latest information in the file.
4

If the operator requests the data for each function. 1 This function is added to coincide the data when application requests the lower process for data at data disagreement or omission. BSM operator can directly enter the command. 2 It separates the final data on CN application status, details of repair and special remarks by requesting operation and transmits them to CCP. 3 CCP transmits the received data to appropriate BSP as it is. 4 BSP collects and raise the contents of request if it is lower board, and request the contents to RCP and transmits it to CPP, upper processor if it is RCP(RCCA) related board. Display the information received from CCP on the screen. 5 It saves only latest information in file.

2.6 Overload Control Function


Overload control function is to early detect the fault factor of overall processing function due to bottleneck phenomenon on traffic path for call processing or depletion of resources in

control processor at call congestion, to analyze the appropriate causes and to take actions according to the cases so as to minimize the effect on the call processing, a basic function of system and to maintain the system status for continuous service. Overload status of system is determined by integrating load level of CPU and availability of various resources. Load class can be changed by the operator. It is implemented to has flexibility in rapid load change at the generation/release of overload.
Types of Overload Control

Automatic Overload Control If overload occurs, it can selectively restrict the service request and maintenance function according to the priority service level and overload conditions in the system, in order to prevent rapid decline of call processing capability or system down if overload occurs. Manual Overload Control The operator can manually perform overload control process to test the system operation at overload status or emergency situation.
Overload Control Actions for each CPU Load

Following table shows the overload class and control actions according to CPU Load.
Class Normal Minor Major Critical Threshold of CPU Load 0~85% 86~90% 91~95% 96~100% Overload control actions None Reports only to BSM Console Restricts the new originating call in appropriate BSC. No effect on existing call Restricts the new originating call and terminating call in appropriate BSC. No effect on existing call.

Abbreviations

A
AAA AAL ACB APPD ARIA ATM AuC Authentication, Authorization, Accounting ATM Adaptation Layer Access Channel Block AAL type 2/5 Protocol Processing Daughter board Alarm & Remote control Interface board Assembly Asynchronous Transfer Mode Authentication Center

B
BADA BAFB BANB BCCB BCMS BCRA BDGB BDHB BDLB BHCA BHCB BMSB BOTA BOTB BPMB BPPA BRMB BRMS BTS Analysis & Diagnostic board Assembly) BTS Alarm & Fault Management Block BTS ATM Network Block BTS Call Control Block BTS Call and Management Subsystem BTS Cell Router board Assembly BTS Diagnosis Block BTS Data Handling Block BTS Down Loading Block Busy Hour Call Attempt BTS Hand-off Control Block BTS Measurement & Statistics Block BeacOn Transmitter board Assembly BeacOn Transmitter Block BTS Power Management Block BTS Peripheral Control Processor board Assembly BTS Resource Management Block BTS Cell Router Management Subsystem Base Station Controller Base Station Manager BTS Status Management Block Base Station Signaling Processor Block

BSC
BSM BSMB BSPB

BSTB BTCB BTGB BTMB BTS BTU BUDA

Base Station Test Block BTS Transparent Message Control Block BTS Timing Generation Block BTS Test Management Block Base Station Transceiver System BTS Test Unit BS sector conversion & Up/Down converter board Assembly

C
CCN CCBS CCP CFEB CN Circuit Core Network Customer Care and Billing System Call Control Processor Compact Front End Block Change Notice

D
DBPB DBPS Digital Bank Processor Block Digital Baseband Processing Subsystem

E
EMI Electro-Magnetic Interference

F
FA FER F-FCH F-PCH F-PICH F-QPCH F-SCCH F-SCH F-SYNC Foreign Agent Frame Error Rate Forward Fundamental Channel Forward Paging Channel Forward Pilot Channel Forward Quick Paging Channel Forward Supplemental Code Channel Forward Supplemental Channel Forward Synchronization Channel

G
GPS GPS-R GUI Global Positioning System GPS Receive Graphic User Interface

H
HA HDLC HLR HPA HSPD Home Agent High level Data Link Control Home Location Register High Power Amplifier High Speed Packet Data service

I
IP ISDN Intelligent Peripheral Integrated Service Digital Network

L
LAI LICA LPA LPAB Location Area Identity Line Interface Controller board Assembly Linear Power Amplifier Linear Power Amplifier Block

M
MAC MAHHO MCDB MCMB MMC MS MSC MSIN MTBF MTTR Medium Access Control Mobile Assist Hard Hand-off Multi-Channel Downloading Block Multi-Channel Maintenance Block Man Machine Communication Mobile Station Mobile Switching Center Mobile Station Identification Number Mean Time Between Failure Mean Time To Repair

N
NDSS NMS Network Directed System Selection Network Management System

O
OAM OCNS OMC Operation and Maintenance Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator Operation and Maintenance Center

OTD

Orthogonal Transmission Diversity

P
PACA PACA PAI PCF PCN PDSN PLD PLMN PCB PSB PSTN Priority Access and Channel Assignment Power Adjustment & Control board Assembly Paging Area Identification Packet Control Function Packet Core Network Packet Data Serving Node Programmable Loading Data Public Land Mobile Network Paging Channel Block Pilot & Sync channel Block Public Switched Telephone Network

Q
QOF QoS QOSC QPCH Quasi Orthogonal Function Quality of Service Quasi Orthogonal Spreading Code Quick Paging Channel

R
R-ACH RAN RCCA RCCB RCCS RCMD RDCB RDHB RDLB RDMB R-FCH RISB RLP RMCB RMMB R-PICH Reverse Access Channel Radio Access Channel Radio & Channel Control Processor board Assembly Radio & Channel Control Block RF & Channel Control Subsystem Remote Control Modem Daughter board RF Device Control & Management Block BTS cell router Data Handling Block BTS cell router Downloading Block RCBU Device Management Block Reverse Fundamental Channel RF & IF Supervisor Block Radio Link Protocol RF Main Control & Management Block RCP Maintenance & Management Block Reverse Pilot Channel

RPMB RSAB RTMB

RF Power Management Block BTS cell router Status & Alarm management Block BTS cell router Test Management Block

S
SCE SCH SCP SMS SMSC SNR SSD SSP STM STS Service Creation Environment Supplemental Channel Service Control Point Short Message Service Short Message Service Center Signal to Noise Ratio Shared Security Data Service Switching Point Synchronous Transfer Mode Space Time Spreading

T
TCB TCP/IP TMSI TOD Traffic Channel Block Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Time Of Day

U
UCPA UCPA-E Universal Control Processor board Assembly Universal Control Processor board Assembly Extended Memory

V
VLR VMS Visitor Location Register Voice Mailing System

W
WIN Wireless Intelligent Network

BTS System Description


2002 LG Electronics Inc.
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