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TITLE OF THE PROJECT Buyer segment analysis of sobha developers ltd Banglalore.


This project uses Exploratory Research Design to explore the profile of buyers of sobhas residential flates . Relevant Information is collected through MIS software and documents available in the company and interview with company executives


1) 2) 3) 4)

To analyse buyer segment of sobha developers Ltd To develop the profile of a typical buyer of sobhas flates. To find out the leading Competitors of sobha. The project is about the study on the buyers segment of the sobha developers Ltd . It helps to get an understanding about the buyer expectation and their level of satisfaction. This study could help the company to find out the actual customer satisfaction level and try to improve wherever there is a gap in between the product quality and customer expectation level


.The study is for Sobha Devalopers Ltd data have been collected to the customers thus the findings may not be applicable to other builders in Bangalore.Since data is collected only from the customers of SDL the findings may not be applicable to other builders on this market



Research design

Exploratory Research is the type of research design followed in this project.

b) Research approach
Secondary Data Analysis and expert opinion was be used to collect information. Companys Internal Records and other relevant data will be used for the secondary data analysis.It is a cross sectional study based on inputs from executives in the company and secondry data


a) Primary Source:
The Primary source for the data collection have done by Interaction with the employees of sobha developers.

b) Secondary Source:
The Secondary sources for the data collection include internal records of the company such as journals, books, other relevant records and internet. Collecying data with the help of MIS software

Sampling plan
The determination of sampling units sampling size and sampling procedure comes under the sampling plan

Sampling size
My sample size is 5 since interview 5 people from the department


Interview schedule for in-depth interview-. 1. In this organization, difference of opinion with seniors is taken posititively 2. Is Management takes sincere efforts to and utilize employees full potential.

3. Is the psychological climate in the organization is very conductive to any employee interested in developing himself by acquiring new knowledge & skills.

4. Whether the management communicates its goals & strategies effectively to its employees.


a) Time and resource constraints will lead the study to be restricted to take a
sample of 5 projects of sobha Ltd from a total of 14 projects

b) Being an outsider, company refuses to provide some data as they are

confidential in nature c) Since all the data collected and used where from the organisation ,biases would have crept in

y y y y y y y

Prepare project proposal by the first week of internship programme. Project proposal approval before 22nd March 2011. Review of literature on or before 6th April 2011. Completion of first three chapters on or before 8th April 2011. Preparation of a frame work for conducting interview on or before 10th April 2011. Interview with samples during 10th April to 30th April. Preparation of all the cases during 10th April to 6th May.


According to Professor Michael E Porter of Harvard Business School, the real estate industry not just an industry but a whole sector of the economy. It is composed of many distinct businesses, each of which is an industry. That is constructing residences, putting up prime downtown commercial space; brokerage, developing shopping malls etc. are all industries which has different economic logic. Today real estate has become a major field of business.

Real estate includes all immovable properties like land, buildings and all the natural resources. It has a great growth potential. Real estate industry is in its boom nowadays. The cause for this boom is said to bet the outsourcing business industry and consumptionled growth. The industry had a thirty percent growth rate. Of this about eighty percent of housing.Remaining twenty percent of the real estate includes office, shopping malls, the real estate development in India has been in the in the field of residential entertainment centers, hotels, multiplexes and hospitals. A vibrant real estate Investment market has gradually emerged since early 2005 in response the partial relaxation of FDI regulations in the country. Since the liberalization of foreign direct investment norms in real estate development under automatic route, there has been renewed enthusiasm and confidence among property developers and investors enormously aided by a vibrant economy, spurt in demand, flexible lending norms, competitive home loan rates and fiscal sops. Further, the change in the market fundamentals indicating good long-term growth prospects has now put Indian real estate sector on the radar screen of many crossborder real estate investors/developers. A number of global real estate investors/ developers have started flocking for real estate investment opportunities in India. With the changing landscape of the real estate sector and the increasing investment potential,distinctive trends have emerged in FDI inflows. These trends revolve around the type ofinvestors, the country of the origin of the investors and the mode of propose investment.Analyzing the current investment trend, it is estimated that the FDI flow in the sector hasprimarily been through two classes of investors; the multinational developers and thefinancial institution/venture capitalists. The multinational developers have shown preference for developing projects in the form of joint venture partnership or joint

development agreements with Indian developers. In todays scenario, China and India are among the major destinations witnessing strong cross border real estate investments, according to a report by Jones Lang LaSalle on Global Real Estate Capital-The Search for Opportunity Intensifies. There has been an 18 per cent increase in cross border realty investment in the first half of 2005 with a total of $237 billion. By the year end the investment is estimated to jump an all time record of approximately $550 billion, which is 20% more than 2004. The disintegration of joint families and increased income level of the Indian middle class population also proved to be instrumental in fuelling the growth of real estate sector in India. The booming real estate market in India contributed substantially in our countrys economic prosperity. It is mainly due to the all round development of our economy that India is now the second fastest growing economy of the world.In the mid of the year 2008, as the Reserve bank of India increased the repo rate and theCRR, this will have an impact on the industry. There is a slow down in the recruitmentprocess in the industry. The prices of the real estate also have come down a bit in the ITindustry, banking, real estate etc are some of the industries which shows a slower growthdue to the increase in repo rate and CRR.The India Real Estate is a profitable business for all who are interested in the realtybusiness like the developers, consultants and investors. Some of the leading houses in . Real Estate in India are Accord Builders, Appaswamy Real Estates Ltd., DLF, Eldeco,K Raheja Group, Merlin Group, Omaxe, Parsvnath developers, Sobha developers etc.The second largest employing sector in India (including construction and facilitiesmanagement), real estate is linked to about 250 ancillary industries like cement, brickand steel through backward and forward linkages. Consequently, a unit increase in expenditure in this sector has a multiplier effect and the capacity to generate income as high as five times.

Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with those improvements to it such as commercial and residential structures, roadways and ports that are all fixed in location. Meanwhile, construction is the process of building new infrastructure on real estate. Given their close inter-linkages, these sectors are often treated as one. Far from being a single activity, large scale real estate development is a feat of multitasking by a wide host of professionals, including financial analysts, legal experts, project managers, construction managers, design engineers and project architects, amongst others. The modern trend in construction design has been towards the integration of previously separated specialties, especially among large firms who offer themselves as "one-stop shops" for construction projects. In the past, architects, interior designers, engineers and developers were more likely to be entirely individual companies, even in the larger firms. Presently, a firm that is ostensibly an architecture firm may have experts from all related fields as employees, or it may have an associated company that provides each necessary skill. These design firms then work with the legal firms and financial companies to develop complete solutions.

The sector as a whole has been performing very well over the past decade, especially given the property prices rally experienced in most developed economies. Despite a correction in prices being anticipated, it came as a huge blow, accompanied as it was, by the worst recession since the Great Depression. Given sub-prime mortgages were the primary catalyst for the collapse of many leading financial institutions, leading to the economic recession, suffice to say, the industry came under heavy strain, especially in the United States. The inability to make the revised mortgage payments forced a huge number of foreclosures, creating excess supply and dramatic price falls. Meanwhile, with everyone tightening their belts, new construction halted for both commercial and residential projects, resulting in an even weaker market sentiment. Despite the dismal global scenario, the Indian market was somewhat shielded from the effects, as the economy as a whole remained more robust than its counterparts. Though private construction did not accelerate at the same pace as pre-2008, it remained positive. The largest players such as Indiabulls, GMR, Larsen & Toubro, DLF, Unitech and Grasim Industries sailed the storm and emerged relatively unscathed.

Growth potential
India is currently the second fastest-growing economy in the World. The Indian construction industry has been playing a vital role in overall economic development of the country, growing at over 20% CAGR over the past 5 years and contributing ~8% to GDP. In 2005, the sector generated around 31 million jobs (of which only ~1 million were generated by the organized sector). With the growing quantum of domestic and international capital inflow, economic growth is likely to continue, and with it, the demand for infrastructure to maintain and accelerate this trajectory. As a result, the public sector has remained a big investor in this sector, given the acute shortage of infrastructure in India compared to the requisite level required to achieve the next growth target.

The Government of India proposes to achieve 9.0% GDP growth during the Eleventh Plan period. To achieve growth of this scale, adequate infrastructure is the most basic requirement. In order to overcome the current constraint of insufficient modern infrastructure, the government is developing a program for infrastructure investment through both public and private sectors, and expects to more than double public investments from ~1.2% of GDP in FY07 to 2.8% by FY12. It is also partnering with private companies on initiatives such as the ultra mega power projects and Golden Quadrilateral project.

Future prospects
Taking cue from the Governments ambitious projects lined up for the Eleventh Plan period, the demand for construction is expected to grow by at least 8-9%, and 2.5 million employment opportunities per annum are expected to be generated. Those looking for opportunities for accelerated learning and progress would be rewarded heavily. There is a need for the full spectrum of employees from directly linked professionals like civil and mechanical engineers and architects to per-day wage construction workers and indirectly linked industrial workers such as steel and cement manufacturers to highway toll booth operators. It would be wise to join a leading Indian company, or a multi-national with a local presence, even at the starting level, as there is significant scope for training and rapid upward movement through the ranks for talented individuals.

Indian scenario
The real estate sector in India is of great importance. According to the report of the Technical Group on Estimation of Housing Shortage, an estimated shortage of 26.53 million houses during the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) provides a big investment opportunity.

According to a report Emerging trends in Real Estate in Asia Pacific 2011', released by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) and Urban Land Institute (ULI), India is the most viable investment destination in real estate. The report, which provides an outlook on Asia-Pacific real estate investment and development trends, points out that India, in particular Mumbai and Delhi, are good real estate investment options for 2011. Residential properties maintain their growth momentum and hence are viewed as more promising than other sectors. ULI is a global non-profit education and research institute.

Further, real estate companies are coming up with various residential and commercial projects to fulfill the demand for residential and office properties in Tier-II and Tier-III cities. For instance, Ansal Properties has several residential projects in cities such as Jodhpur, Ajmer, Jaipur, Panipat, Kundli and Agra. Omaxe has also planned around 40 residential and integrated township projects in Tier-II and Tier-III cities, majority of them being in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Haryana. The growth in real estate in TierII and Tier-III cities is mainly due to increase in demand for organized realty and availability of land at affordable prices in these cities.

According to the data released by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), housing and real estate sector including cineplex, multiplex, integrated townships and commercial complexes etc, attracted a cumulative foreign direct investment (FDI) worth US$ 9,405 million from April 2000 to January 2011 wherein the sector witnessed FDI amounting US$ 1,048 million during April-January 2010-11.

New Projects
Private equity fund IL&FS Investment Managers (IIML) is estimated to have invested US$ 300 million in real estate and urban infrastructure projects in 2010. Close to Nalagarh in Solan district, Dabhota is set to be the latest industrial area to be developed by the Himachal Pradesh government, say officials. The state government has already issued a notification and asked the state land acquisition officials to acquire 2,020 bighas of land at Baghota to be developed into industrial plots. Ramky Estates and Farms Limited, the real estate arm of the Ramky Group, is contemplating to enter Indian market by July 2011. The company is evaluating on land acquisitions in Kolkata and Bhubaneswar. Chennai-based VGN Developers Pvt Ltd has entered into a joint venture with private equity firm Pragnya Fund to initiate a new residential project with an investment of US$ 20.06 million in the city.

Ascendas has entered into an agreement with a Japanese consortium of Mizuho Corporate Bank (MCB) and JGC Corporation to develop integrated townships in India, according to a press release from Ascendas. The integrated township is likely to be in Chennai, which has attracted investment by a number of companies from Japan. Ascendas of Singapore will be the master developer. Godrej Group's real estate company, Godrej Properties and Frontier Home Developers, has launched a residential project in Gurgaon with joint venture partner M/s. Frontier Home Developers Pvt. Ltd. This is a debut residential project in the national capital region (NCR) for Godrej Properties. Shristi Infrastructure Development Corporation will invest US$ 444.7 million over the next three years in seven small cities in West Bengal, Tripura and Rajasthan. The money would be used to build integrated townships, healthcare facilities, hospitality and sports facilities, retail malls, logistics hubs and commercial and residential complexes. Realty major Ansal Properties & Infrastructure Ltd plans to invest about US$ 330.8 million over the next three years on expansion of its existing integrated townships and to develop a group housing project in Haryana. Vision India Real Estate, a closely-held business group in the US, is investing US$ 5 million in Gem Group's upcoming residential project in Chennai. This will be the first joint development project for the US company that is proposing to invest US$ 100 to US$ 200 million over the next three years on projects, especially in the logistics arena. Realty major Embassy Property Developments has entered into a joint venture with MK Land Holding, a Malaysian company that specializes in pre-fabricated affordable housing, to build projects in the affordable housing segment. The proposed project entails an investment of over US$ 1.2 billion. Thai real estate developer Pruksa Global plans to invest US$ 218 million in projects in India and launched its first residential project in the country at Bangalore in October 2010. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is in talks with several real estate developers to create large affordable housing projects in India. For FY-09 and FY-10 (fiscal year ending June 30), IFC's highest exposure has been in India. Out of the US$ 3.5 billion that IFC has

committed in India, US$ 2.5-2.6 billion have been disbursed. IFC will continue to invest roughly US$ 1 billion in India every year for the next two or three years.

With property boom spreading in all directions, real estate in India is touching new heights. However, the growth also depends on the policies adopted by the government to facilitate investments mainly in the economic and industrial sector. The new stand adopted by Indian government regarding foreign direct investment (FDI) policies has encouraged an increasing number of countries to invest in Indian Properties.

India has displaced US as the second-most favored destination for FDI in the world. As the investment scenario in India changes, India which has attracted more than three times foreign investment at US$ 7.96 billion during the first half of 2005-06 fiscal, as against US$ 2.38 billion during the corresponding period of 2004-05, making India amongst the "dominant host countries" for FDI in Asia and the Pacific (APAC).

The positive outlook of Indian government is the key factor behind the sudden rise of the Indian Real Estate sector - the second largest employer after agriculture in India. This budding sector is today witnessing development in all area such as - residential, retail and commercial in metros of India such as Mumbai, Delhi & NCR, Kolkata and Chennai. Easier access to bank loans and higher earnings are some of the pivotal reasons behind the sudden jump in Indian real estate.

Why Invest In Indian Real Estate?

Flying high on the wings of booming real estate, property in India has become a dream for every potential investor looking forward to dig profits. All are eyeing Indian property market for a wide variety of reasons:

Its ever growing economy which is on a continuous rise with 8.1 percent increase witnessed in the last financial year. The boom in economy increases purchasing power of its people and creates demand for real estate sector.

India is going to produce an estimated 2 million new graduates from various Indian universities during this year, creating demand for 100 million square feet of office and industrial space.

Presence of a large number of Fortune 500 and other reputed companies will attract more companies to initiate their operational bases in India thus creating more demand for corporate space.

Real estate investments in India yield huge dividends. 70 percent of foreign investors in India are making profits and another 12 percent are breaking even.

Apart from IT, ITES and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) India has shown its expertise in sectors like auto-components, chemicals, apparels, pharmaceuticals and jewellery where it can match the best in the world. These positive attributes of India is definitely going to attract more foreign investors in the near future.

The relaxed FDI rules implemented by India last year has invited more foreign investors and real estate in India is seemingly the most lucrative ground at present. The revised investor friendly policies allowed foreigners to own property, and dropped the minimum size for housing estates built with foreign capital to 25 acres (10 hectares) from 100 acres (40 hectares). With this sudden change in investment policies, the overseas firms can now put up commercial buildings as long as the projects surpass 50,000 square meters (538,200 square feet) of floor space.

Indian real estate sector is on boom and this is the right time to invest in property in India to reap the highest rewards.

This page describes the Real Estate in Bangalore. Bangalore is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is the original Information Technology (IT) destination of India. The city of Bangalore is the primary hub of the burgeoning IT industry of India. For the past few years many Information Technology enabled Services (I.T.E.S) and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) companies have set up offices in Bangalore. This has created an active demand for commercial and residential properties in Bangalore. In the commercial segment of the Bangalore Real Estate, office spaces are the most in demand. This is due to many IT companies either shifting base to Bangalore or expanding their office floor area in the city. The property developers are also catering to the customers by building 'state of the art' constructions. Some example of this trend is the environment friendly 'Green Office' buildings. The retail segment in the Bangalore Real Estate is also strong; thanks to the rise in disposable income among Bangaloreans. The Residential segment in Bangalore Real Estate has also shown amazing developments. Real Estate developers are constructing unique properties to attract the cream of the prospective real estate consumer. New trends are European style villas and look-alike American skyscrapers. The Real Estate in Bangalore is also witnessing a new trend-the construction of 'Serviced Apartments' aimed at business travelers coming to the city. These apartments are a substitute for expensive hotel rooms. These apartments will offer short-term stay and cater to the requirements of corporate, businesspersons, and expatriates and also to the well-heeled tourist. Bangalore currently has around 1000 serviced apartments and there is an active demand for more of this facility. Bangalore city is expanding to the north and new centers like Whitefield, Bellary Road and Hebal are being developed. This will bring a plethora of opportunities in the real estate sector for prospective investors in Bangalore.

Bangalore Villa

Villas as an option for residential accommodation is coming up in Bangalore. Major builders are offering the villas in the Bangalore Real Estate Market. Some of the major locations where villas are located in Bangalore are

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Whitefield Bangalore - East, Karnataka Arathahalli Bangalore - East, Karnataka Bannerghatta Road Bangalore - South, Karnataka BTM Layout Stage 2 Bangalore - South West, Karnataka HSR Layout Bangalore - East, Karnataka Kalyana Nagar Bangalore - North, Karnataka Koramangala Bangalore - South East, Karnataka Lavelle Road Bangalore - Central, Karnataka Sarjapur Road Bangalore - East, Karnataka Jakkur Bangalore - North, Karnatak

Real estate is a legal term (in some jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, USA, Dubai, Trinidad and Tobago and The Bahamas) that encompasses land along with improvements to the land, such as buildings, fences, wells and other site improvements that are fixed in locationimmovable. Real estate law is the body of regulations and legal codes which pertain to such matters under a particular jurisdiction and include things such as commercial and residential real property transactions. Real estate is often considered synonymous with real property (sometimes called realty), in contrast with personal property (sometimes called chattel or personalty under chattel law or personal property law).

However, in some situations the term "real estate" refers to the land and fixtures together, as distinguished from "real property", referring to ownership of land and appurtenances, including anything of a permanent nature such as structures, trees, minerals, and the interest, benefits, and inherent rights thereof. Real property is typically considered to be immovable property. The terms real estate and real property are used primarily in common law, while civil law jurisdictions refer instead to immovable property. In law, the word real means relating to a thing , as distinguished from a person. Thus the law broadly distinguishes between "real" property (land and anything affixed to it) and "personal" property (everything else, e.g., clothing, furniture, money). The conceptual difference was between immovable property, which would transfer title along with the land, and movable property, which a person would retain title to. The oldest use of the term "Real Estate" that has been preserved in historical records was

in 1666. This use of "real" also reflects the ancient and feudal preference for land, and the ownership (and owners) thereof.

Some people have claimed that the word real in this sense is descended (like French royal and Spanish real) from the Latin word for 'king'. In the feudal system (which has left many traces in the common law) the king was the owner of all land, and everyone who occupied land paid him rent directly or indirectly (through lords who in turn paid the king), in cash, goods or services (including military service). Property tax, paid to the state, can be seen as a relic of that system, as is the term fee simple. However, this derivation of real is a misconception. Real estate terminology and practice outside the United States (around the world)

Real estate as "real property" in the U.K.

In British usage, "real property", often shortened to just "property", generally refers to land and fixtures, while the term "real estate" is used mostly in the context of probate law, and means all interests in land held by a deceased person at death, excluding interests in money arising under a trust for sale of or charged on land.[5]

See Real property for a definition and Estate agent for a description of the practice in the UK.

Real estate in Mexico and Central America

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2010)

The real estate businesses in Mexico,Canada,Guam and Central America are different from the way that they are conducted in the United States.

Some similarities include a variety of legal formalities (with professionals such as real estate agents generally employed to assist the buyer); taxes need to be paid (but typically less than those in U.S.); legal paperwork will ensure title; and a neutral party such as a title company will handle documentation and money to make the smooth

exchange between the parties. Increasingly, U.S. title companies are doing work for U.S. buyers in Mexico and Central America.

Prices are often much cheaper than most areas of the U.S., but in many locations, prices of houses and lots are as expensive as the U.S., one example being Mexico City. U.S. banks have begun to give home loans for properties in Mexico, but, so far, not for other Latin American countries.

One important difference from the United States is that each country has rules regarding where foreigners can buy. For example, in Mexico, foreigners cannot buy land or homes within 50 km (31 mi) of the coast or 100 km (62 mi) from a border unless they hold title in a Mexican Corporation or a Fideicomiso (a Mexican trust).In Honduras, however, they may buy beach front property directly in their name. There are different rules regarding certain types of property: ejidal land communally held farm property can only be sold after a lengthy entitlement process, but that does not prevent them from being offered for sale.

In Costa Rica, real estate agents do not need a license to operate, but the transfer of property requires a lawyer.

Residential real estate

The legal arrangement for the right to occupy a dwelling is known as the housing tenure. Types of housing tenure include owner occupancy, Tenancy, housing cooperative, condominiums (individually parceled properties in a single building), public housing, squatting, and cohousing. The occupants of a residence constitute a household.

Residences can be classified by, if, and how they are connected to neighboring residences and land. Different types of housing tenure can be used for the same physical type. For example, connected residents might be owned by a single entity and leased out, or owned separately with an agreement covering the relationship between units and common areas and concerns. 'Single-family detached home'

Major categories in North America and Europe

Attached / multi-unit dwellings Apartment - An individual unit in a multi-unit building. The boundaries of the apartment are generally defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Often seen in multi-story apartment buildings. Multi-family house - Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is a separate apartment or unit. Terraced house (a.k.a. townhouse or rowhouse) - A number of single or multiunit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space. Condominium - Building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals. Common grounds are owned and shared jointly. There are townhouse or rowhouse style condominiums as well. Cooperative (a.k.a. "co-op) - A type of multiple ownership in which the residents of a multi-unit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment or unit. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Semi-detached dwellings Duplex - Two units with one shared wall. Single-family detached home Portable dwellings Mobile homes - Potentially a full-time residence which can be (might not in practice be) movable on wheels. 6. Houseboats - A floating home 7. Tents - Usually very temporary, with roof and walls consisting only of fabriclike material.

The size of an apartment or house can be described in square feet or meters. In the United States, this includes the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces. The "square meters" figure of a house in Europe may report the total area of the walls enclosing the home, thus including any attached garage and non-living spaces, which makes it important to inquire what kind of surface definition has been used.

It can be described more roughly by the number of rooms. A studio apartment has a single bedroom with no living room (possibly a separate kitchen). A one-bedroom apartment has a living or dining room separate from the bedroom. Two bedroom, three bedroom, and larger units are common. (A bedroom is defined as a room with a closet for clothes storage.)

Major categories in India and the Asian Subcontinent

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Housing Societies (CGHS) Condominiums Builder flats Chawls Havelis Lal Dora - Where people carry out commercial and residential activities both.

The size is measured in Gaz (square yards), Quila, Marla, Beegha, and acre.

See List of house types for a complete listing of housing types and layouts, real estate trends for shifts in the market and house or home for more general information.

Mortgages in real estate

In recent years, many economists have recognized that the lack of effective real estate laws can be a significant barrier to investment in many developing countries. In most societies, rich and poor, a significant fraction of the total wealth is in the form of land and buildings.

In most advanced economies, the main source of capital used by individuals and small companies to purchase and improve land and buildings is mortgage loans (or other instruments). These are loans for which the real property itself constitutes collateral. Banks are willing to make such loans at favorable rates in large part because, if the borrower does not make payments, the lender can foreclose by filing a court action which allows them to take back the property and sell it to get their money back. For investors, profitability can be enhanced by using an off plan or pre-construction strategy to purchase at a lower price which is often the case in the pre-construction phase of development.[citation needed]

But in many developing countries there is no effective means by which a lender could foreclose, so the mortgage loan industry, as such, either does not exist at all or is only available to members of privileged social classes




Over a decade of quality focused best practices for building world class products have helped us enhance quality of life and delight customers. Over a decade of engineering excellence and unique initiative towards Backward Integration that has helped us control costs, and deliver on time, every time. Over a decade of passion in every detail of work, at every level, driving continuous innovation; has resulted in making Sobha a preferred real-estate brand in India.Over a decade of rock-solid values, uncompromising business ethos, and transparency in all transactions; have contributed to our earning the trust of all our stakeholders. Mr.PNC Menon is the founder chairman of the Sobha Group of companies. Set up in in 1995, this company have unique valu systems that have created an unparalleled name in the real estate industry. The Sobha Group, with a turnover of Rs.11, 193 Million in fiscal 2009-2010, is today a unique success story that is still growing. We anticipate building a presence in varied industries including Hotels & Resorts, Hypermarkets, Home Stores, and Building Materials. We have also ventured into retail development with the launch of The Sobha Global Mall. The Sobha Global Mall is promoted as the "Shoppertainment" destination of Bangalore where people across the social spectrum will be entertained while shopping. With a shopping complex and amusement park, 192 room plush hotel, convention center, multiplex and smart offices and an Olympic Size ice skating rink, The Sobha Global Mall will be able to fulfill every single customer need under one roof. The mall will have 4500 car parking bays in addition to two wheeler parking and outdoor parking; a discotheque that will accommodate over 1,000 people; plus a variety of other special facilities. Two 5-star hotels in Bangalore and a resort hotel in Cochin are also part of the plans. A company where quality meets consistency ,technology meets aesthetics and passion meets perfection .As of December 31st,2010in the past 15years since its inception, Sobha has completed 57residential projects and 158 contractual projects covering about 35.56million square feet of area in 17 cities across India. The company currently has 14 ongoing residential projects aggregating to 8.55Mn.sq ft, while 5.48-mn sq ft volumes of constractual projects are under various are various stages of construction &design. The company is constantly executing about 6million sq ft of work for the past 3years.The clearly puts Sobha on the top of the execution chart. Of the many occolades it has received the Best Executed Project in India award for Sobha Malachite ,Bangalore in 2007 at the CNBC Real Estate Awards is proof of its credentials as a brand synonymous with quality. In order to fuel its growth plans Sobha Developers went public offering in December 2006 ,an event that created history when the issue got over subscribed a record of 126 times .On this strong foundation is based the business plan for the future .Sobha is already developing integrated township in Kerala with diversification in to Retail and Hotel bringing Sobha Life Style products like the Sobha Restoplus Spring Mattresses and furniture to suit discerning tastes of a niche group of customers.The strength of the company lies in a sustained quality edge,backward integration, the trust it has earned from its transparency in all dealings at every stage and excellent customer service .Sobha rings to its clientele,signature projects with world class infrastructure. It is

heartening that, even in the face of such enormous expansion and change, focus on international quality will remain constant and a tenet that all Sobhaites will continue to abide by. The company intended to be present in 8 regions and 11 destination in the near future. The group is actively considering entry in to airport logistics and aviation and has held advanced discussion with an internationally renowned group for a joint venture purpose.

The Main Projects of Sobha Developers are: Residential Projects-Apartments

With more than 50 residential projects in credit,Sobha has emerged as the leading choice of the discerning home buyer in Bangalore .Exuding class and a restrained dignity that have grown to be the hallmarks of the Group.Roubust,designed to international standards, with a setting that is invariably a picture-postcard one, a Sobha home is quite unlike any other.

Residential Projects Villas& Row Houses

Sobha villas/row houses represent a new dimension in luxury.These independent internationally styled & elegant homes take aesthetics to a new level.Designed with many modern amenities,villas & row houses afford a sense of space set in lush green environs. The stamp of Sobha quality is evident in every facet of design and construction.To be a part of Sobha family as to have exclusivity par excellence

Commercial Projects-India
Sobha has many prestigious clients on its rosture such as IT gaint Infosys, HP, DELL, Taj Group, Micro and Timken to name just a few.With ever widening reputation for reliability , quality & perfection, it is no wonder that Sobha is considered the preferred builder of choice for Infosys.With 105 completed projects and an established foot print in cities like Coimbatore,pune,mysore & Chandigarh apart from, Sobha has created a benchmark for world class buildings.

Commercial Projects-Abroad
Through quality execution and dedicated customer focus, the company has earned itself prestigious clients all over the Gulf and neighboring countries .The company

is proud to count amongst its clients prominent citizen of Oman, Also to its credit are the villas of ministers &distinguished Oman citizens. Some of the outstanding projects include Hotel Palais de la Mediterranenean,France,22 VIP Villas for Le Meridian, Bahrain, refurbishment of Al Bustan place, Muscat, extension and refurbishment of Holiday Inn, Salalah.

What Makes Success of Sobha Dvelopers Quality Delivered

At Sobha the Department of Research, Development and Quality Assurance is instrumental in ensuring that quality is the essence of Sobha. It percolates to all levels of management , manpower and material. The parameters of success in the epitome of engineering precision. With top management supervision ,German quality experts &innumerable checks, it is but natural that Sobha remains the quality benchmark in the industry. Deliverable quality at Sobha is in the minutes detail in systems, process, design & execution , in the accuracy of all documents and drawings, in the monitoring of construction to ensure a finished product of superlative quality , in the training imparted to elevate manpower to the Sobha level of capability.A delighted customer perceives Sobha quality sometimes as a subtle nuance as well as an all pervading reality evident in the perfect external and beautiful landscaping, in the efficiency of operations of doors & windows, in the smooth and levels walls, neat title joints , reinforced edges and exclusive fittings and fixtures. At Sobha , quality is assured because the personal attention given to details ensures delivery of the best that can achieved in a professional and timely manner.

Backward Integration

Sobha has developed in-house expertise

to meetall crucial aspects of

construction. With in-house Design and a trained and skilled work force the company has the best in talent and technology. Sobha Developers is perhaps the only construction company in India and that has all its activities fully backward integrated. A part having architectural, mechanical & electrical expertise for design and execution , its other manufacturing facilities produce interior , metal and glazing and and concrete products.The factories are state of the- art and have a built up area of over 600,000 sft, comparable to the best the world over. With such superior infrastructure in place, quality of the end products and its timely delivery is achieved. No wonder then, at Sobha we belive that, Backward Integration is the way forward. Backward integration is what drives the organizations turnkey projects. In a turnkey scenario, we bring the expertise of all our Divisions to focus on every aspect of the project. In simple words, everything from precision engineering to aesthetic design, from quality metal glazing to high-class interiors is done in house. This allows for stringent focus on quality control - which in turn gives our customers a fine combination of precision and aesthetics. The Infosys centers in Bangalore, Mysore and several other cities are fine examples of the Group's synergy in turnkey construction.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

CRM is a unique model of SDL based on the concept of customer delight. Being a modular organization, customer relations is established with a team of professionals, each executive taking care of clients from start to hand over of a project and one year thereafter. It is CRM executives, who are in touch with the clients and are the front face of the organization. A Great force in keeping the brand intact and liasoning with customers on a regular basis , making sure their needs are understood and delivered as per the process/guidelines set by the organization . These executives make sure that the

needs of the customers are understood. They ensure effective and efficient communication, timely deliveries as per specification and the use of a customer centric approach.

Mechanical , Electrical & Plumbing Strength(MEP)

The MEP division o f Sobha Group specialize in delivering innovative products, solutions and project related services. This defines and underscores Sobhas assurance of international quality which is based on the MEP divisions expertise in areas such as Electrical , Health, Fire , Safety & Environmental Engineering . Using cutting edge technology , contemporary hi-tech German machinery and equipment, highly skilled work force the MEP division has to its credit effective designs, efficient planning& execution of optimum costs. Capabilities include Fire protection, sewage, Rain water Harvesting and developing state-of-the-art design and fabrication of fixtures to meet global trends. Sobhas MEP division has probably done the largest plumbing activity under one single company in India . This division also offers consultancy in plumbing and Electricals for Contractual projects.

Architectural Expertise

Impossible is a word never heard among Sobha Architects. Committed to their objective to design and develop building that are functionally efficient, aesthetically appealing and of word class architectural and engineering standards, they successfully face any and every challenge. Standing testimony to this claim is the Multimedia centre at Infosys Technologies including aesthetically and functionally well planned apartments like Orchid and Turquoise in Bangalore.This is just one example of their numerous accomplishments,that are now evident Pan India. With a team of more than 100 arechitects who are direct employees of the company, a modern facility, well- equipped design studio, and the strong support of the execution team, Sobha is its own architect of success. Design services include architectural, structural , interiors, mechanical, electrical and plumbing and

landscaping.Their attention to detail, exquisite proportions, designer landscaping, exciting spatial solutions and focus on quality is evident in all projects, be it Residential, Commercial, Corporate buildings, IT parks and campuses, integrated Townships, Hotels and Resorts, Learning Centres, Hospitals, Malls and others.

Corporate Social Responsibility

P N C Menon belives that, while Sobha Developers primarly responsibility remains maximization of shareholder value, its oblication towards socity is an equally integral part of Sobhas business and sustainable development model. The social responsibility activities undertaken by him have clear goals in specific areas of development and truly replicable model in the socity. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) takes on a whole new meaning at Sobha Developers, a company that distinguishes itself by not just being among the largest but also the only backward integrated real estate player in the country. Far from being regarded as a mere brand image booster, CSR at Sobha Group is a sincere devotion that stems out of genuine concern and the drive to provide comprehensive and sustainable social development to rural India. It is in this context that, Sobha Developers launched Graamasobha, a unique social developmental initiative for Vadakkenchery & Kizhakkenchery grama panchayaths in Palakkad district of Kerala in the year 2006. The entire BPL population of the two panchayaths, comprising about 2500 families, has been adopted through an in-depth scientific poverty mapping called Social Empowerment Mapping Exercise (SEME) to implement Vision 2020. The aim of this action plan is to achieve comprehensive and sustainable social empowerment of these families. The program covers key human development verticals like education, health, employment, water, sanitation and housing besides various social empowerment measures. We have also established various institutions for the development of the rural poor.

Some of the major C S R activities include

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) takes on a whole new meaning at Sobha Developers, a company that distinguishes itself by not just being among the largest but also the only backward integrated real estate player in the country. Far from being regarded as a mere brand image booster, CSR at Sobha Group is a sincere devotion that

stems out of genuine concern and the drive to provide comprehensive and sustainable social development to rural India.

It is in this context that, Sobha Developers launched Graamasobha, a unique social developmental initiative for Vadakkenchery & Kizhakkenchery grama panchayaths in Palakkad district of Kerala in the year 2006. The entire BPL population of the two panchayaths, comprising about 2500 families, has been adopted through an in-depth scientific poverty mapping called Social Empowerment Mapping Exercise (SEME) to implement Vision 2020. The aim of this action plan is to achieve comprehensive and sustainable social empowerment of these families. The program covers key human development verticals like education, health, employment, water, sanitation and housing besides various social empowerment measures. We have also established various institutions for the development of the rural poor Sobha Academy has been created to empower the rural poor to break away from the vicious circle of poverty, ignorance, deprivation and exclusion by providing their children the best of schooling possible anywhere in the world. The Sobha Health Care Center has redefined the limits of a primary healthcare institution run anywhere in the country. Sobha Hermitage is the epitome of humanity, tendering love, care and support to the neglected segments of society - senior citizens as well as young widows and their children. Sobha Vocational Training Center (SVTC) has advanced resources and facilities and aims at providing functional vocational training and paid apprenticeship in carpentry and other trades to youth from The Sobha Community Centres core purpose lies in feeding the poor, several of whom are fed free every single day. In the history of Indian villages, Sobha initiatives are perhaps first of its kind, undertaken with so much investment for designing, developing and delivering state of the art infrastructure to the poorest of the poor without any discrimination of caste.

Graamasobha stands as a successful model for others to follow to usher development at the village leve.

Sobha Construction Academy

The construction industry always had the need for well-trained and committed workmen. To fulfill this need, the Sobha Construction Academy was initiated .With the main focus area being to develop a highly trained workforce besides instilling a sense of responsibility, self confidence and pride in craftsmanship. Also , include in the curriculum are hands- on technical skills . applied academics associated with construction trade , employability and life skills. The academy provides an ideal learning ground as it takes of boarding & lodging, tool kits and safety gear of all trainees. In addition, they are also paid a monthly allowance thus enabling them to concentrate solely on the courses at hand.

The reason to set up an in-house interior division was to create products of consistent high quality, superlative finish and lasting value. Creating interiors that are on par with the best in the world and conform to world-class standards.And with every client having a different need interiors can be customized.

Glazing& Metal Work

Set up in order to raise the bar by introducing international standards for structural and architectural glazing and architectural metal works in India, Sobha Glazing and Metal Works has till date successfully executed a Plethora of projects for various organizations as well as meeting in house requirements.

Concrete Block Making

A continuation of sobha Groups journey of excellence. Holding the same values, philosophies and business ethos to heart , Sobhas concrete division manufactures

concrete blocks, pavers, kerb, water drainage channels, paving slabs and related landscape products

Future plans
With an impressive performance in the last fiscal, Sobha is quite confident about its future growth. Expressing his optimism, Mr. J C Sharma, said, We had an emphatic come back in the last two fiscals and are now all geared up to give a fresh impetus to our growth plans. In the year 2011-12, we plan to launch about 11 Million sq ft. In addition to launches in the four existing cities of our operations in Bangalore, Coimbatore, Thrissur and Pune, we plan to enter into three new territories of Mysore, NCR and Chennai. The land required for proposed launches has been fully paid up and the infrastructure needed for development is in place. The company is confident of doing better on all parameters in the present financial year, despite the current macro environment remaining difficult for the industry.

Financial plans
Financial Performance

Balance Sheet
View: Annual Data |
Period Ending All numbers in thousands

Mar 31, 2010

Mar 31, 2009

Mar 31, 2008

Mar 31, 2007

Assets Current Assets Cash And Cash Equivalents Short Term Investments Net Receivables Inventory Other Current Assets Total Current Assets Long Term Investments Property Plant and Equipment Goodwill

826,000 4,430,000 11,101,000 20,102,000 36,459,000 27,000 -

214,000 3,683,000 11,394,000 18,965,000 34,257,000 27,000 -

287,000 1,000 5,548,000 8,393,000 17,277,000 31,506,000 27,000 -

684,000 501,000 1,580,000 3,908,000 11,028,000 17,700,000 27,000 -

Intangible Assets Accumulated Amortization Other Assets Deferred Long Term Asset Charges Total Assets Liabilities Current Liabilities Accounts Payable Short/Current Long Term Debt Other Current Liabilities Total Current Liabilities Long Term Debt Other Liabilities Deferred Long Term Liability Charges Minority Interest Negative Goodwill Total Liabilities Stockholders' Equity Misc Stocks Options Warrants Redeemable Preferred Stock Preferred Stock Common Stock Retained Earnings Treasury Stock Capital Surplus Other Stockholder Equity Total Stockholder Equity Net Tangible Assets Currency in INR.

52,000 38,599,000

31,000 36,562,000

11,000 33,685,000


869,000 14,889,000 5,381,000 9,204,000 12,065,000 21,561,000 11,478,000 5,269,000 291,000 -

808,000 19,546,000 4,834,000 9,597,000 15,842,000 25,688,000 6,368,000 3,939,000 567,000 -

811,000 17,831,000 4,443,000 10,775,000 12,802,000 23,804,000 6,368,000 3,117,000 396,000 -

914,000 5,837,000 4,607,000 5,712,000 5,785,000 11,519,000 6,368,000 1,700,000 87,000 -

For the FY 2010-11, the company registered a turnover of Rs.14,643 million compared to Rs.11,193 million in 2009-10, up 31%. The profit before tax stood at Rs. 2,436 million compared to Rs.1,603 million in FY 2009-10, up 52%. The profit after tax stood at Rs. 1,825 million compared to Rs.1,367 million in 2009-10, up 34%. For the 4th Quarter ended March 31, 2011, the company clocked a turnover of Rs.3,491 million, profit before tax of Rs.535 million and profit after tax of Rs.402

y y

million. A significant point to note here is that there was no monetization of any land / development rights in Q4 of FY 2010-11 as against Rs.1240 million in Q4 of FY 2009-10. As such, the company showed a growth of 30% on real estate operation and 36% on contracting activity with reference to the corresponding quarter in the last financial year. The Company in FY 2010-11 sold 2.78 million sq ft which is higher than the volumes achieved during last financial year (2.08 million sq. ft.), a growth of 33%. Based on the impressive performance the board has recommended a dividend of Rs.3/- per share.

Commenting on the results, Mr J C Sharma, Managing Director, Sobha Developers Limited, said, It is indeed gratifying to note that in spite of the prevailing challenging environment, Sobha Developers has demonstrated its pivotal position in the real estate industry by registering record revenue arising out of its sales volume growth in both residential and contractual business and the product mix offered. What is also impressive is the sales realization which has moved above Rs 4000 per sq ft in FY 2010-11. The FY 2010-11 is the best ever performance year for the company. The company in FY 2010-11, completed and delivered 11 residential projects aggregating to 4.12 million sq ft. In addition, 11 new projects were launched, aggregating to 4.30 million sq ft. During the same time, the company has completed 25 contractual projects aggregating to 2.25 million sq ft. Speaking about the contractual side of business, Mr. J C Sharma, said, This is our other vertical, and we have done extremely well on this front too. First time during last two quarters, Sobha has bagged fresh contractual orders of about Rs1,320 million other than Infosys. Our list of prestigious clients includes ITC, Biocon, Institute of Public Enterprises (IPE), GMR, Robert Bosch, Hotel Leela Ventures and others. Infosys continues to be the biggest ongoing contractual client. Speaking on operational performance, Mr. Sharma stated The cash flow from operations in all the four quarters of FY 2010-11 remained positive. In FY 2010-11, we generated an overall operational cash flow of Rs 4,144 million. As a result of positive cash flow, we have also been able to reduce our debt by Rs.1910 million, higher than our net profit for the year. The companys net debt which was Rs13,740 million at the beginning of FY 2010-11 has been brought down to Rs11,834 million by the end of the same term. The debt - equity ratio now stands at 0.63, which we plan to bring down to 0.5 0.6 in 2011-12, added Mr. Sharma. We are indeed performing better and have created a strong foundation to capitalize on the impending growth, we see in the industry in a years time. Our net worth has doubled, cash flows are higher, execution capability has increased and our debt equity ratio is much healthier further stated Mr. Sharma. Impeccable Execution As of 31 March 2011, in the past 16 years since its inception, Sobha has completed 71 residential projects and 191 contractual projects covering about 42.68 Million sq. ft. of area. The Company currently has 23 ongoing residential projects aggregating to 6.99 million sq ft,

and 38 ongoing contractual projects aggregating to 7.42 million sq ft, under various stages of construction. Sobha has made a foot print in 20 cities and 12 states across India.

Details of the marketing Department

Marketing department play an important role in the organization, they follow disciplinary patterns in the organization. Marketing department plays a key role in the success of Sobha developers.They




The study was conducted at Sobha Developers Private Limited, Bangalore. There respondents were clients of Sobha Developers Private Limited. The study was conducted to elicit information regarding their effectiveness in the company. It is the process of dividing and differentiating customer based on similar product needs and wants. Segmentation can help to strengthen market position and operate effectively . Can build customer loyalty and sector knowledge .The buyer segment of the product had been done in the market with the help of Management information system [MIS] software . The software helps me to analysis the buyer segment of Sobha Developers. MIS is very fast and systematic, datas are stored in the software for future purpose also. The analysis helps me for getting lots of ideas and information mainly-

The study conducts exploratory interviews and focused groups .Importance ratings for brand awareness and brand ratings. Then with the help of MIS software to identify the BUYER SEGMENT ANALYSIS and collects data . Product usage patterns, attitudes towards product category and demographics, geographic, psychographics and media graphics of the respondents Geographic - region, country size, city,density, climate Demographic - age, sex, family size, race, social class, nationality lifecycle, Income, occupation, religion,

Psychographic - life style , personality, values Behavioral - occasion, benefit, user status, usage rate, loyalty status, readiness attitude towards product Geographic -geographic region, countries, provinces/state and cities Geo demographic- It focuses on segmenting people on the basis of where they live and have similar behavioural patterns stage,

Analysis Stage

Under this he applies factor analysis to the data to remove highly correlated variables then apply cluster analysis to create specific number of maximally different segments

Profiling stage
Each cluster is profiled according to its distinguishing attitudes, behaviour, demographics, psychographics and media graphics and media patterns. Each segment is given a name depending on its dominant characteristics. Market segmentation should be redone periodically because they change. The business environment of the indian housing industry has changed recently from a supplier's market to a buyer's. Establishing and implementing proper marketing strategies has increasingly become an important part of the managerial process. This research attempts to offer a characteristics profile and a forecasting model that classify the housing purchase consumers into three groups: a single-family housing purchase group, an apartment housing purchase group, and a non-purchase group. These groups can be classified and predicted by using the discriminant function: a linear combination of demographic, socio-economic, and residential characteristics. Findings in this research can provide valuable information for future efforts in identifying distinct target segments of the indian housing market.

Buyer segment Analysis RUBY PLATINUM(April10-feb11)

The study is conducted out of 77 total customers 1) 26% of the people who is working in IT industry and doing the function of software development with an annual income between 5-15 lakhs and at the age of 47 and above and with 1-5 years in the present address located in Bangalore and 4% of them are Sobha customers. 2) 16% of the people who is working in manufacturing industry and doing the function of sales and marketing with an annual income between 15-25 lakhs and at the age between 37-41 and with 6-10 years in the present address located in Mumbai and 90% of them are not Sobha customers.

10% of the people who is working in financial services industry and doing the function of production with an annual income between 25-50 lakhs and at the age

between 42-46 and with 16 years and above in the present address located in U.S.A and 6% of them are not providing any details.

Buyer Segment Analysis - RUBY(April'10-Feb'11)

The study is conducted out of 186 total customers 1. 27% of the people who is working in IT industry and doing the function of Software development with an annual income between 5-15 lakhs and at the age between 32-36 and with 1-5 years in the present address located in Bangalore and 10% of them are Sobha customer. 2. 23% of the people who is working in manufacturing industry and doing the function of finance with an annual income between 25-50 lakhs and at the age 47 and above and with 60 years and above in the present address located in U.A.E and 87% of them are not Sobha customer. 3. 9% of the people who is working in financial service industry and doing the function of operation with an annual income between 15-25 lakhs and at the age of 37-41 and with 6-10 years in the present address located in Chennai and 4% of them are not providing any details.

Buyer Segment Analysis -CINNAMON (April'10-Feb'11)

The study is conducted out of 126 total customers 1. 24% of the people who is working in IT industry and doing the function of Software development with an annual income between 5-15 lakhs and at the age between 21-26 and with 1-5 years in the present address located in Bangalore and 10% of them are Sobha customer. 2. 21% of the people who is working in media and entertainment industry and doing the function of sales and marketing with an annual income between 15-25 lakhs and at the age between 27-31 and with 6-10 years and in the present address located in Mumbai and 83% of them are not Sobha customer

18% of the people who is working in financial service industry and doing the function of operation with an annual income of 50 lakhs and above and at the age between 42-46 and with 16 years and above in the present address located in U.A.E and 8% of them are not providing any details

4. Buyer Segment Analysis FOREST VIEW (April'10-Feb'11)

The study is conducted out of 164 total customers 1. 18% of the people who is working in IT industry and doing the function of Software development with an annual income between 5-15 lakhs and at the age between 21-26 and with 1-5 years in the present address located in Bangalore and 10% of them are Sobha customer. 2. 16% of the people who is working in Travel and transport industry and doing the function of finance with an annual income between 20-30 lakhs and at the age between 37-41 and with 6-10 years and in the present address located in Newdelhi and 75% of them are not Sobha customer 3. 14% of the people who is working in Media and Entertainment industry and doing the function of Hr and Administration with an annual income of 50 lakhs and above and at the age of 47 and above and with 11-15 years in the present address located in Mumbai and 15% of them are not providing any details

5. Buyer Segment Analysis SUNSCREAN (April'10-Feb'11)

The study is conducted out of 87 total customers 1. 24% of the people who is working in IT industry and doing the function of Software development with an annual income between 5-15 lakhs and at the age between 21-26 and with 1-5 years in the present address located in Bangalore and 17% of them are Sobha customer. 2. 14% of the people who is working in hospitality services industry and doing the function of Operation with an annual income between 20-30 lakhs and at the age between 32-36 and with 6-10 years in the present address located in Newdelhi and 69% of them are not Sobha customer 3. 13% of the people who is working in Travel and transport industry and doing the function of Finance with an annual income between 15-25 and at the age between 27-31and with 11-15 years in the present address located in Mumbai and 14% of them are not providing any details