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INSTRUCTOR'SMANUAL Englishfor Science

Muuucmepcm8omoua o6pa3o8aguemou Eay- kama npenolvbq8amosu y.re6uuk3a yqeduqume om auMga3uumecbc 3acu,teuouey,ra8aueua aua- ,{ulcku €uk, c MameMarnu,reckuu npupogo-Ma- meMamu,reckunpolDu,! Vqe6Huktmqe nognoMo?HeycneuiHomoyc- BorBauetsamepMuHoloaurmaI o6,racmmaua npupogo-MameMamuqecKumeEayklt.

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:

INSTRUCTOR'SMANUAL

English

For

Science

FRANZIMMERMAN

--1E

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l

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,/l

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PrenticeHallRegents,EnglewoodCliffs,NewJersey07632

=

O 1989by PRf,NTICE-EALL,

INC.

ADivision of Si or & schlstcr E glewoodCliffs,N.J.07632

Englishfor Science

by Frnr Zinnncrltnrn OriginalAnrcricanEditjorPublishcdbyPrcnlicc-Hall,Inc., EnglcwoodCIilfs,NcwJcrscy,U.S.A. CopyrighlO 1989byPrcnticeHall,Inc. All righlsrcscrvcd. 'Ihis edilionisauthorizcdforsalconlyin Bulgaria

ISBN0-13-0r4572-6

Thiseditionispublishcdin Bulgariaby

TheOpenSocietyFund-Sofia,1992

Solia1463,POB114,1BulgariaSq.,

\DK ollice Bldg

l

lrhFl.

ISBN954-520-009-X

TABLE OI CONTENTS

Chaptcr1

A'bwsr

lxclure

Classifying:Tle ConrpositionofMatter

N(J

.

 

7

 

.

 

9

.

.

Chaptcr2

Comparing:TheElements

AruwcrKey .

Lccture .

.

.

Chapter3

CauseandEfiect Colo.,Light,andSoud

AnswcrKey .

kcturc

.

Chaplcr4

Hypothcsizing:MotionandOnvity

ANwcr Key .

.

Lecturc

.

11

13

t4

16

1',7

18

chaptcr5

Defining:Enetgy

ArswcrKey,

Lecture,.,

Chapter6

Exemplifying:Hcnt

ANwerKcy.

Lecture.,.

Chflptcr'7

GivingEvidel|cerS oking,Dfugs,ard Alcohol

tuEwcrKcy,

Leclurc .

Chl|plcrI

Expcrine tingrElcctricityandMngnetisnr

Lc(ture

,

.

Cbapier9

Calculaling:LiquidsandCascs

Lecture

.

.

chaplcrl0

Reporting:ThcOriginof Life

L(clure

chapterl1

Dcscribing:TbeUnivcrsc

AnswcrKcy.

Lcctlre

chapter12

Predicting:TheWeather

AnswerKey.

Lectufe

20

 

.23

.,.

24

26

.,

27

 

,

30

 

32

35

37

3t)

.41

 

.

.43

,

45

.,.,

.

4'7

CHAPTER1

ANSWERKEY

ldentiryingGencraland SPcclflcIdcl's

I LonDcrlead.nrc(urv. sil!cr: nonfcrrous "ubslance.

2. !!q; !.!b.v

:

cnnrnnsds: isids. bars!. $!5

rncrrll]sgidcs

.1. deer ma

; :c jo-n:

mal

pnon;rc.,:;nrnond. arnonhous

b.

Rocksi Isncous, t)rclinr'rph'c. s!!!!!!!!!l!!L

7.

Colfee. te

oaint: colluids

8. e!4, v99g'!4;

1!9.b

e. Sa]ts:irrorea,riacomDounds

ro.--n""r"1"-"-id",a*try!!s!rql!!a!!,4p:tllbi!-ir jg

Tra.slorrlng Inlbrmarion

()pPer

\

sold

aIuniniu

,,//

**a

\.

silimr

gcrnraiuor

CoD:platlngS.ntanccs (Answarswlll vary)

l.

catcgorics

2.

dividcd,clsscs

3.

typ€

4.

classcd

5. groupcd,classilicalions 6. clnssilicd 'T c tego(izcd 8. kind

ChonSlngActlvcVolcoto PassivcYolco

1.

2.

3.

SulfuriscxtmctcdfroNvolcaricrock.

TheelcctricbatlcrywasiDvcntedbyLuigi Galva i

ThcANcricanspiceshutlleprogramwrs lerrporarilysusperdedaltcrthe accidcntir 1986.

TbePara a canalwascompletedin 1914

l?86.

4.

5.

6.

?.

8

9.

Manypcoplewerekillcd bythc 1986oanhquakcin McxicoCily.

Nitrogencanbeerlmclcdlmln theairby liqucfication.

Bnctcriaisdestfoyedbythcwhitecorp!sclcsin thcblood

ThccrateNon lhemoonwcrc

Sirrple,one"celledplanlsandanimalsarcsonrctimcsclassifiedtogetbcr'

Probnbly causcdbymeleors

1O Artificial inlelligcncclluy bedcfiredasthecapacityofa conrPutcrto

initate

buIIlarreasoning.

UsingthePasslveVolce

1. aleexpelled

5.

is manufactured

2. wcrecalculated

6.

is called,areneeded

3. wasdiscovercd

7.

is controlled

4. wasproduced

8. wasproposed

vocabularyIn Context(readlngskllls)

1.

a

1.b

2.a

8.a

3.^

9.4

4.b

10.b

5.a

11.b

6.a

12.a

UndcrstrndlngthcRcadlng(Answerswlllvrry)

1. Atonlsareevensnlallcrthrn molccules.

2. TIreconceptoflhe alomoriginatediDancicntGrcece.

3. In ancicntGreece,mnry fioplc bclicvcdin Aristollo'sthcorythatnmlteris con'poscdof lburclcmcrts.

4. DuringthcMjddlcAgcs,lhcatomiclhcorywascollsidcrcdtooabstl"ctandwas rejectcd,

5. JolnDaltonlhougbllhatalo swcrcsolid.

6. Thcsizeof thcnucl€usinsidcannlo|lris cornpnrnblc10thcsizcofan antona footballficld,

7. Alomsconsislmai y ol spaccwitbadcnsclypackcdnuolcus.

8. Nculronshavcnoclcclricchnrgc.

9. E"1chlo

isrculnlbcclluscthcnumtlcrofitsprotonscqualsthcnun$crofils

10. NiclsBohrproposcdumodclof thcator wilh thc clcclrolrsrcvolvingarouDd

11. Elcclmnsarckcplin tlcir pathsby theforc€otattraclio belwcenthcprotons andtlreelectros.

12. Theaton cnu rbcrofan ole[rcntislhe nun$cr of electrons.

13. A.lllbcalomsol rn clcrn(nlarclhc\arnc.

14. Thcatornsofeachclenentarcuniquc.

15. Thchydrcgenalom

js

tircmostconmlonalonl jn theunjversc.

VocabullryIn Contcxt(Ustrdlngsklllt

l

a

6.b

10.b

2.a

7.b

11.a

3.a

8.a

l2.a

4.b

9.b

13.a

Usingfour Notesto ChssifY

1.M

2.C

1.8

5.C

6.M

7.M

8.E

9,C

10. E

11-C

E

t2.

LECTURE:

The Che|llistry of M:rtter

Wc rcndendicr h this chaplerlhat nrnllcrnHy lt

chssilicd accordnrg1oits Plysic'l

slateassolid,liquid, or grs. Bu( ltere is aDolhcrwayto chssify mattct Scicrrlislsclassily ruallero th0basisol chcrricrI coml)osilnm s clcr cnls, (on\Durrdi, nndrlrixturcs. ElcNc'rls are thc lxrsicsutrslanccslh (rrr ot lf, dcconTlNcd or brckor down into sim crsrlxtaflccs by oIdinflryclrc' j.nl nrc l|!. WIut rre lhcst balic suh\trrr.cs?

;ncluditrgArillollc, bclievcdu'.1thc laur

hrsicclcmcnLsthrl all things.rcr)ridcol

Sonrcofllc

c

rljcr Greck fhibsophc^,

rrc ca l, firc,air,rnd walcr.But ll'cscrtrctc'rl

Crceks wcrc philosophc$, trol scicnlisls,rtrd rs suth lhcy sF(ul.lcd bul did nol cxpcriNcnl. Durirg the Middlc Agcs, thc alclcn)istssccrcllycxl)crir[.Dlcd wilh nrctrrls

FilllIIy in thc 18lhccntury,thccrrly chcnrislsdisprovcdthclhcoryoi tlrcl()r|rclcor.nls whc tlrcy dclcnrriucd tltrl walcr wns .onrNscd ol ltydnrgcn atrd oxygcn, I'rd air $nposcd ot nilrcgc andoxygcr All(r tlat, rrn,ryi)lhc. srlNlarrccswcrc dclcnrrirrcdto

h clctnerls,rnd tlicy wcrc cllcgorizcd ns nrclrlslnd nonnthls

silvcr,gold,ircll,l]ndlcld.Nonnrirls itrcludcsolids,such:rsca r)n.ndsullirr, d grscs' su(hd oxygcqhydrogcD,ilrogcqandhcliutrr-

Mclxls nrcludccoPlrcr,

Thclistolclcncnlsgrcwrtndscictrlislslookcdli)r. pltlcminordc.toundcrslrndtlrir

bcbavior. ir 1869, tlc Russi.D .lrcnrisl Dnrilri Me dclccv olgtni^d

ctcnrc is,accordhgto llcirwcights !nd Propcrtics, inlo. lrblc ()llcd lhc pcrtudichblc ol

tlrc clcnrcnts.To d.lc,92 Mturil clcnrcnrshrvc

plubniu'r, luvc bccr p.oduccdadilici.lly. Mtny ol llrcscarccxl|el]lcly nru' ON of lhe inlcrcstnlgfacrsols.icnceisth Lalnroslrllmrlter_iocludingthcscas,Pcoplc,plauis,thc eanh - is crcaledfron).bout 20 couuno clcntcnrs.

rll

lhc kuowtr

brcrr iderrlilic,d.Scvcnl othcN,snfh Ils

I{ost conuou sul.slanccsarcnol cletrlerrls,bul corrlDu dsofclcDcnls. AconrPouftl

ndc up ol h'r'oor tuorc clcntnts lLat cinnol be scPafllcd by

is

mechaniclDtans.Forcxample,walcrcnnonlylt scpinlcdirrtohyclrcErrandoxvgc try rpmcess known aselcctrolysis.Srll, sugar al.!hol. beuzctre,andsnlfuricacidirc othcr

exanrflcs of corDpounds.Fnch compoundh.s Dole lhar onc lype ofalorr within each

molcculc,dnda comFmd lus ch mctcristicslhrt aredislirr!:lliom lhe chrr.clcristicsof

ib consiitucnLs.For exanrflc, whcn lwo atotnsol hydlogcnconrbincwilh o e aton oi

oxygeq anentirclyncwsubstanccis lanned - HrO, oI wrlc.l Srlt is flfonrp(rrd

wlich is rn.dive rntal, andchlorine,which is x poisouc,usgts Ycl srll bnsnoncol lhe

i

subslincc th.t is

ofsodirnr

characterisri$olcilherofthesetwoelements,lirnuralcly:Conpoundshavca constantor iNariableco posiljo[ Forexample,anysampleofwatercontainsthesanepmportio of hydrogcnandoxygen.Thisiscallcdthelawofdefinitiorconrposition. Subctflnccswhich are not homogen€ous,or unifom in comf,osilion,are called mixturs.Air iscsscntiillya ninure of nitrogenandoxygcr Soil,ccrDcnt,wood,mcks, aM foodproductsarccategorizedasnixlures.Theconstituentsof i nixturenlayexistin differentproponios. For€xample,a cakenny bcpreparedwilh diffcrctrlproporLionsof flour,butier,eggr,al|dsugar.Also,cachingrcdicnlina n{xturerctainsilsidentjly.lf ther€ issugari4thecak€,tte cakewill last€swect.

I

r

i '

CHAPTER2

ANSWERKEY

UndentrMing Conpartsons

1.

chrornium

5. zinc

2.

plalirum

6. sodium

r.

coPPcr

4.

gold

Usingr Talrle

 

1.

b

5.a

2.b

6.a

'7. a

8.b

CreafingSentences(Answerswill vary)

1. Thcs0rhcctcmperalurcof Mcrcuryislowertlrrntlat of Verus.

2. Th€lite spanof I(angaroois IesstbanthatoI cat,

3, A

4. Tbcdiimetcrot thccarlhis aboutfourtimc.sthcdia|nct€rof themoo$.

5. Elcphanlshavefl long€rgcst{tionpcriodthnngiraffcs.

6. ThcP (jilic OccanhasrnorcthnntwiceasInuchwateraslheAtlaDlicoccnr.

cgghnsalnostlb€sameflmountofcaloricrasanapple.

Crerting Cornparisons(Answerswill vary)

1. TclcscopcsandNicroscopcsarcinstrumenl-sthatareuscdto secobjcclsnot visiblclo thcnakcdcyc.Tclcscopcsarctsed for distacea d nicroscopes for tlirgs toosnralllo scc.

2. Subn)ri csanddolplh$ botbfu ctionundcrwntcr.Sulmrrrincsnrcshipsand mustbcconirollcdby [urmn beings;dolphi$ ar€livirg thi'rgs.

3. Conrputc6a dcnldrlfllolsarcbolhclccrrc'cdcviccsllnt pn'ccrsinfonnrlion.Conrputcrs cn lx proganxrrcd;calc.uhto$carnot.Olculilos fxdbnll arilhn)clicaipnrtsscs. Cornputcsan nrrc c(rnrpicxa'd prccessall kindsof nfonMtion.

4. Dcscns nd j$nglcs drcbolhlbundiu hotcli nlcs.Dcsensarearidrcgionswitl fcw livirg thitrgs.Ju glcsrrc wcl, iropicalrcgio s ihatrre densewith plants,nniNals,birds,nndinsccl-s.

5. Flolocopicrsandx-ray'nachincsbolhreproducci ugcs,Photocopiers

rcproducclhcsurfaccofsomcthing;x-yspcnetrale6solidsrbstanceand

rcproducetheillside.

I

r

1

Like andAs

1

Iikc

2. as

3. as,as

4. like

5. like

11

vocabulary in Context(readingskillr)

1.

b

2.n

3.a

5.b

6.b

'7. b

8.b

9.a

10. b

ll.

12.

13.

14.

a

a

b

a

Skimntirg

2. t)

Undelltanding th€Reading(Anlwerswill vary)

1.

c

18.

19.

20.

a

a

b

1. Oxygcn,nitrogen,andhydrogcnbavcsjn larprop€.ii€sandall ibree6re essentiallo litc.

2. Thcsubstancethatcauseswoodto rotisthesameastb€onethalcltuscsapples

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

lo tu r urown,

Tlrcdccayirgof foodisancxflmplcof slowoxidatio .

It is tlossible for tte firto starlspoDl:rncously.

Hurnr bcingscanmtliv€morctbanfive ninutcswilhoutoxygen.

Nilrogcnco verlstoa frccslllteby aprocesscfllled "itrogcn fixrlion.

ln conlrasttooxygcn,nitrogcniscomparalivclyinactivc.

It theairwcrcpurcoxygcn,smokingwouldbcinlpcrsiblc.

Nilroge isusedin explosivcsbccauscit isunstable.

Hydrogcnis lhc rostabu dn t clcn)crtin tbcu verse.

ThcsurisalNoslpurchydrogcn.

Hydrogcnisihcnrostrbundrl clencntinourbodicsbccruscourbodiesare

13.

14.

Ir col|trastto hydrogcn,hcliuuris Donl]aruuible,

Thccssc (inl i grcdicDtin fcrtilizcrsisnilrogcr.

VocabularyiDCortext (listennrgskilk)

1.

a

6.a

2.a

'7, b

3.

a

8.b

4.b

9.b

5.b

10. b

11.a

12. b

13.b

Urderst.ndiDgtheLecture

1.7

6.7

10.F

7. T

11.F

3.

F

8.7

12.T

4.F

9,7

13.F

5.F

LECTURE:

ThePreciousMet:rls

wlly arcsone netals sontuchn$revalu.blctbaqthc olhc^? Gold,silvcr' andcoppcr are mclrls that havebeenvdhrcdlbr lbousandsof yeals for lhcif beantiiul luster,tltcir

scrrcity,

changebascNclals, ljt(c lcad, into gold Thcy lhought lhal if lhey could lird tl'e riglrl

andlhcir usetulncssDuring thc Middle Ages,rlchc dstsscrrchcdlbr a way 1o

lbrl|ula, lhcy could, for cxrnple,

gold.Evenllc

adda ccrhin anrountol tnercury1olcrd and plod ce

grc.1Sir lsaacNcMon bel;cvcdil couldbe donclWhy js goldsovahrblc?

bchanNcrcd irto shcctssotlin tMl

Gold is lhe nost tlnllcableofall lhc 'nctals llca

250of lbelnwould equalthc thicknessofa shcctofpaper'Il is rlso lbe rlosl duclilerlr't'1'

Oncgranrofgold canbc druwninto6 wirc 1.8rrilcs ir l.nglhl Gold is thc lcastchcnricilly ttctiveofalllhc mclalsanddocsnol combincwith orfgcn

lo lbrm rus(.Thjs abil;ly to rcsjst corosn,r r)ukes il v$y dunble. i c il rllay 13sLlor

cer(lrics.

nrctals.Thc proportioDol gold jrr ar alloy is rrrcrrsurcdin krnls. Purcgdd is 24 krnts A

14 karatsgold riflg is rn rUoy of about58% gold ind srrlrll Pcrccnlngcs ot colfcr rnd

Puregold is too sofi lo bc uscd ir jcwclry so it 's usurlly alloycd witl) othel

Silvcris sirnilir1(lgoldin mrnywrys. Likcgold,it isvcryn

llqblc .nd du(lilerrd

soit js rlsouscdlbrjcwclry. SilvcrdillcNlionrgoldin rluririsororcrcadivcird trnislcd

whcncxpostd10llc

surn'cc.)Purc

h rdncssanddurlbilily.Slcrlingsilvcris92.5pcr.colsilvcrr d7.5lrrcc l.oPPcr.Silvcr

isuscdforcoinsandlbrfholog!plicIilttrbo.xusccc'tlincortrp(rtrrdsolsilvcr,such s

silvcr brouridc,rcllcd ligln. Silvcr is lhc l)cslco,rdu(1orolelc(lrj(ilv

lnrccsolsulturin lhctrir. (Silvcrsullidc,trbhck dcPos;1,lornrson ils

urcrcrscrts

silvcr js 1oosotl a'rd so i1 is usunllyrlloycd wilh copjtr t'

known.

Coppcrwas onc ol-tlr

lirst rrcl.ls Io bc lvidclyuscd.'lhe lrol)Lrlics ol

col)|cr

rcscurblcrlosc of silvcr ard gold. CoPl[r is uscdli)r dcttrnr wiring bcciLrscit is very

nrllcablc, Lxtrcrrclyduclilc.rtrcxccllcnLfondt(lor,trndlcsscxPcnsivcllri silver.Oncof

tllc pr;ncipleuscsdl coptcr is to Prdducc rlloys. Prtrcco|Pcr is inrdcqLralcli)r lools d nrchinc Pl.ls bccauscil is loo soli. Whcn rlloycd with tiu, howcvcr,il Irodrrccs b'o'rzc

tini wlrcn rlloycd wilh Tincir lroduccs Lrnss;I'rrd

whjch

whcn

ind silvcr, is i bcaulilul

jcwelry flndo

is bnrdel than eitlrcrcoPPcrd

alloycdwnh skel, it incrcrscslle 'csisl.nccr)i slccl lo codosi.u. Gfpcr.

nn'ents.

likc gold

and ftccid$ rrclal II I lns becnuscdIbr rgeslo Prcducc .oxrs'

CHAPTER3

ANSWERKEY

Idcntlfylng Causeand Effect

1.

copperis heatedto 1083'C, it nrelts

2.

Chansesoccur in plnns. thcy atsc'rucncrgy-.1iq1p9g1

J.

lherotatjonolr conrlra\sneeJle.tbccanh !rnaA eticlleU

4.ffi.=ffi-

s. @ffirfi;;"*'.a

6.

/.

8.

q.

Rubbitrsa cornhwith a cloth.a nesalivcch ctriccharsc

tisl nrovrn!cbarqcd I'irljcles. lbe joni/atio ol-alolls

Thc occrn s tides,lhc e."irrii.ffi

Tbenroreironis crnoredlo nroislair.l[e [)orc ir ru.Ls

10. Color.lhcrcflectianof liolrt.

-

u"o"ffioi,o**t*,

1.b

2.b

3.n

6.b

RecoSDlzlDgSubordln{tlon

1. Nooncwaskillcd,bccrusc

2. Wbcn. iron b.coorcs rust fcsislitrl

:. @tll,lrlrc-iutt

notttcm'unosc

4. Thcsrs prcssure i crcflscd,bccnusc

5. whcn, thccarth's gncric lic-iilliiiivhrvc rccnrcvcrsco

6, Air thcraleofa chcpriclllrcrclionincfclrscs

7.

Neon sivcsoff liEhl,whcn

8,

U, it condcnsesdireciiil;a solid

UslngSubordlnrtlon(Answerswlll vrry)

1. Whcnmercuryishcatcdto -38.9oC, il rclts.

2. NosounJcanbchcarLlita bclli. \rruckinr vr(.uu'r).

3. Chloropbylldisinlcgrates,causirgleavcstoluflrrcd,ye ow,i

4. An echoisherrrdwhc a soundwave reltccrsolTanrountain.

5. Ionsar€fonncdasanac;disdissolvedinwalcr.

6. I a lcnsis tootbino. aneyeballis toosborr,a pc6onlrcconEstrrsightcd.

ndordnge.

RecognlzlnSCtruseandEftcctIn a Prragrnph

1. Dissolvingthepcllclsin wntercruscdtheurtobrcakup.

2. Stjrrj g thepcllctssp€ededupthcreacrior.

3. Tbebrcakingoftle ctemicalbordsotsodiumhydroxidccause{tbereleascof energy.

4. Thcris€ofthe tcnpcnlurc of tle walcrwasbroughiabourby lhereteascof energy.

5. TheybrokeintosodiuInardhydrcxideiors.

6. It speededthercactior.

l4

7.

A rcl,aseofenergyrcsullcd.

8. lt rai\cdthewatertempcraturc.

1.c

6.j

2.b

3.e

8.a

+E

9.d

Vocabularyln context (rcadlngskllls)

 

8,a

2.,a

9.a

10.b

4.b

11.b

12.b

6.b

7. a

14.

3

MnklngInfaronces

1, S

6. I

11,I

2. 1

7.N

12.N

3.N

8.S

13.S

4, 1

9.S

14.S

5.N

10,N

15.I

Vocnbuhry In Contcxt 0l!tcnlng !kllls)

1.b

3.a

4,b

5.b

6,a

7.b

8.a

9.b

. 10,b

11,a

'

t2a

UbderstandlngtheL€cture

1.7

7. T

2.F

8,F

4,7

10.F

11.T

6.F

12. F

LECTURE:

The Musico[ Sound

why docsa guitar sounddillcrcnt frcm a clarinct?Ard why do both soundditfc.ent

lrc

snswercanL€tbund in a'rexplannlionothoiv soundis produced.

Soundis prcduccdby vibmtions ir tbe air and i1rmvelsh waves.Whcn a hanuner

st.ikesa ftil,

rotcculcsin the air and

produ.! wavcs.Tlresesoundwavcs rove

wller lhewnvcsrcacfitheear, thccrr drunrvibmlesandDervessenda ncss.gc lo tllebrain

tbatwchq.rs sound. The sp€eddt wbich sound l.dvcls is detenninedby tfie nEdium llrough wlicb ir

p.rsscs.Sourd lnvcls vcry faslin a solidsubsli oc,slowcr ir a liquid, rnd rhcstowestin

tbe air. SouDdtmvelsi'r thc air al 330

light.Tlratis wly wc sccIjghrringbcforcwe hearlhnndcr.Ttcre h no soundin a vacuunr

b(cruselbcrcarc

to turnon lhc odiol Tlerc is no soundwithont trn,vcmcnr.

r trunrpctor a piano evcDwhcr tlre nole is souDdedo

all lour hslrunrerls? The

tbcy bothbegir to vibmte.Tlle vibr.rions pushthe

evcrydirectionin hcaasinglylargercirctc\.

rctc6 per sccond,n{rch slowcr ttl.lnlhc spccdof

o iir ltlolcculcslo vibmte.Ncxt riDrcyou're in a vrcrLrol don,rbolhcr

qurljty. pjlc.h rljnN ro

whcthcrllesoud ishigl oriow Pil(hisdelcn incdby rhctrcqucncyolasoundwnve(or

how l;rstlhc wavevibftrlcs).Fd cxamplc,. violinjsr

a higbpircb by shodcnjng

thcvk lir ski g andcausitlg jl lo vibft.lcnpidly.A chrincristdocslhcsanr by slortcning

lh.olurur olair. A

Sound is chrftrclcrizedl)y ils pitc[

volrnrc, intersily, a d

troduccs

IongstringorcduDr of

irvibflrcsslowty,irduci ga Iowsound.

'ftc volurc ofa grmlcr lhr rnDliludc,llrc "n,nd

ttrch{adot a Iargcdrunr;s

struc& it prcducesl rgcsoundwavcswhich crcarca toudsoulld. Tl)c inlcrsily ol thcsorud rcllN (' rhcarircunlot cncrgythcsoundwavc is carryi g. Irlcils;lyisrcl.lcdtoaorplitudcirhcgrcilcrlIc;nrc sily,thctoudcrir scc rs. Thcqurlilyol-llrcsoundrclclstodiltcic cesinthctyl)colsoursucl sthcvnri.rioN

i tl'c son ds ot nrLrsicl instrunrcnts.Tlrcsc .rc dctcrorjrEdlry rhe nrjxlurcs of tlc

vibnlions. Diffcrcnl n]strumcrls trcduct differc coorbiI|J|ijorrsot vibmrions.Thc rcsulr

istlat cachiDshuorcthrsilsowrto

nrixlrrcol vibftlionsth tthccolunnrolairon!(i

vibrrtiorN lbrn thc hcad.f a dnuD. Tod.y, (.rrrpuleN arc lrci g uscd,mr o ly ro rccognircandsiNUl.rc luDranvoiccs,

but cvcn lo "pliy" mLrsic.To synrhcsizca hurrrn voic1:, )c corrpulcr vjbraresa sp.rkcr conclo lry tosimulriolhcicoustic,rlwllvcpaltcnNprcducrdby tbcbunranvoicc.Tophy a pinicularpieceolnrusic,llecomlruterisprogrinn cd fortlc preciscpjlcha ddualio

ofeacl notc.Thcrc havecvcn bccnafte rptslo havea compu!cr

pmgmrmi

Mozr rt andBcc{hovcndon't h,vc lo worry.

isdctennincdlryrhc.n,ftitudc,orsizcoilhosou d wavc\.Ttc .

loudcrthcsound.For ex.ruplc,whc

(qurliry.Tlcstringonaviolinpruduccsadiiicrcnr

rincllvhich,inturn,p,oduccsdjflcrert

'compose'

nrlodjes by

g it 10nDdonrrysclcclnolestlal Iollow rulesofhrnDony andlnelody.Sotnr,

t6

CHAPTER4

ANSWERKEY

ldcntlfyng HypothcsesIn S€ntences

1.b

2.h

. 3.a

4.a

5.b

6.b

'7. a

IdcntlfylngHypothesesIn Paragmphs Time,likespaceandmolion,isrclativc;thereisnorcalor absolutetime.

IdentlfylngP.obablllty

1. se€mit

2. couldbe

3. arethought.,.to b€

4. suggests

s. appeaN 6. asfarasweknow

7.

8. may

tbereis a theory

UslngModekof Prob!blllty(Ansrers$lll vtrry)

1,

The "gtecnhouse effcct"maybewanningourcarlh.

2, Thepandasin Chjnamaybcbccomingcxlinct. 3, fie ocean'stidesmaybeslowinglherotationofthe eartt. 4, Ouf,srrsnfly bcviolcntlycxplodinggalaxies.

5. Thccontincnlsmaybcddftingor movingonlbesurfrccoftbe earlh.

6. Tberadioactivefalloutfrcm nlcleartestexplosions .y bebannfullo ther! mosphere.

7. Thepopuhlionofthc wodd m{y bcincrcasingatadangcrcusrate,

8. Compul€rsmayb€revolutionizingindustryaroundtheworld.

1. transparent

5. transmitled

2, tmnslafe

6. lransfefted

3. transfusion

7. trd$splanb

4. transistor

8. transfonn€d

Vocabul!ryIn Contcxt(readlng rkllls)

l.b

6.b

11.a

16.b

2,^

7,b

l2.a

17.a

3.a

8.b

13.r

18,b

4.b

9.b

14.^

19.b

5.b

10.a

15.a

Understa$dingtheReadinS

 

6.F

2.F

9.7

10.T

4.7

11.T

5.7

6.F

13.T

7.

F

Vocabularyln Context(listenlnSskllls)

1.

a

7.

a

2.^

8.a

3.^

9.

a

10. a

ll.

a

6.a

UnderstandlngthcLccturo

1.

F

6.7

2.7

7. T

8.F

4,F

9T

5.7

10.T

LBCTUREI Obeyingthe Lrw of Cravity

Brlicr in thechapte.,we readaboutN€Mor's studicsof horizontrlInot'on.But Nevnonwasalso;ntcrcstcdinvcrticrI rotion.HcwaslookinsforanexDlanariotrlbrwht holdslhcmoonin ilso'bir.Hercponcdrfixtoned^y,whilcsir;ngin hisgarde'r,[e noricrJ anapplefall fromthetrc€.Hcbcgantospeculateabourhowthcforceofgiivity exlcnds10 tle topoftre€sandeventothc1o[uof nrountaiN.Ifit extendstlltt far,pefhatdit exle b allthewaytothemoon. Nc\*'lonhndalrcadyeslablisledlhatanobjectt€nds1onmvein a striighllineif ro outsjdeforceaclson it. Themoondoesnotnrovcin a strdightline,howevc5rncnloon rcvolvesaroundtheeanh.NeMonm ocludedthatthegmvitationalfbrccol thccadl Irclds themoonin its orbitaroundlhe€arth.Thissaft gnvihtionalpull holdsibesunandUc planetsin thcirplaces. NcMondetenninedtlat weightisthcgmvitatiomlforceorpullaclingonanotjecLIf youlr.tvcl!othcmooqthemassofyour bodywill bprecjselythesamcbtt yourweiglt

uill beIcss,dreio thepropon;onallysrnalle.sizeofthcmoon.Similarly,il youhnvclled to differentplanets,yourweightwouldvarywith rhemassof eacbplaneth oursolar

NeMonwasablctocalculatetherelarivcwciglrtsofthesun,theearth,andthcplanets comparingtheirrelativegirvilrtjonalstrcnglh-Thegreaierl.henassoftwo bodies,the

ry

gieaicris theforceofaltnctionber^,centhcn].Thus,tle lbrceof altmclionbcrweenrhe eanhanda200-poundpe$onisglealerthanti€ forceofattmctionbdwcenrheeadharda

100-poundpcnon.

Gravilalionalforcedepndsnoronlyor thenDssesofthc lwobodies,butalsoonrhe distancebclwccnlben.Thus,astronaulscxpcd€nc€weighuessnessonihewaytothemoon b€causclhry arcnotcioseenoughl,obcaffected ry tnegmvitalion.lpullof tle earthorrhc

NewloncxlcndcdhislawevcnfunhcLHesaidthateveryobjc.titrrheunjveneexeds

a g.avitatioal pull oncvcryotherobjecl.This'neaflstlal youdrccxcrlirga forceon a

peNonsittnrgnexl (o you,you.deskis cxcnirga

wondcringwlrywedon'lfccllhisforce,it isbccrusegmvily js

hugLbody,suchastheeanh,isinvolv€d. Ncwtonrlsoexplairedlhctidcsof lheocc n.ForlhousandsofyeflIs,ir wis noliced tlnt tlerc w s a conalaliorbclweenlhcoc.an'stidesa d thcphiscsof tbemoon,butno

onewasalrlolocxplrinit Hereasocd{haljustastbecl|rlhpullsonflrenrcon,tbcmoon pullson|]lccirlh.Thcgmvitationalpr]lotlhc |lloonbasIiulccffcrronourlandnr0sscsbut

ilp

in llc univetsc.Theconccplol u ivcnill gmvitywaslhc grcalestmrlribulionof Isaac

Ncwlor,thcnr r rnaryconsidrr1obconcol lhcgrcrtesrlbinkclsofallti

forceon yourpctrc;I,erc.lf youarc

onlyastrongforcewbena

llsonlheoccinswhicharcfrcc1omovc.Thrs,thelawofgmvily rpptiescverywbcrc

e.

AnalJzlngDctinitions

CHAPTER5

ANSWERKEY

2. !!!:!9!lgl,

3.

orEanisns

device, !bq!t!r4!!lq!!!!_!!9rgl!ralu!!!E

(cDlcr

lum ro anotter

4. pad of thebnin. thairsthe

ofl;?sonins-

5. subslance.thar docilroiia nJuail;;l

i-Arricir

6. ctoua. r4@tg=!Egrq!4

7,

studv.of thecnviionmenF

8. (clc{tiil bod\,lhatorbitsanotlercejcslialbodr

CorrectlnSDeflnltions

1.

Circulardcfinilior. Bett€r:A scienlificth€oryisa proposedexplanrlionofwhy somethingoccurs.

2.

l,acksa chsrification. Belter:An rppleisalruillhatisround,rcd,andaboutthcsizcota fisr.

3.

Tellshowyoufeelaboutilbutrotwhrrir is.

Bctlcr: Calculusis a systcmof c?lculariondevelopcdtry lx,rh Newronand lxibniz.

4.

Defirjtioni$ moredilTjcultthantennbcingdctined.

5.

Bcltcr:An carisanorganof hcaring. Ncgrljvcdcfi' tior,th t is,it tcllswhatilisnor,docsn'ltcllwharit is.

6.

Beltcr:A unicomisaficliotlrlhon'cwilhonchon in thcocntcrofilsforhead. L:rcksbolhchssificalionnndchrrictcrisrics.

7

Bctlcr:A lor adoisarypeotsror withhigh,circulnrwjrds. Lacksdisljnguishingchamctcrisrics. Betler:R.diuNisanctallicclcn)cntthalishighlyn'diorcrivc.

8.

Dcscribcsacomprssbutdoesn'rdclic il.

Bclter: A coDrpassis an iDstrurrcntthnr dctennincsdircctionby ufans of a mtatirg lrgnclizednecdlc.

9.

Givcsexarrplcsbutdoesnotdefine. BctlcrAn amphibianisa crealurcthatcantivceilherontdndor inthesea.

1O Circl'lardetinilion. Bcttcr:A supemovaisastarlhalsuddenlyexptodcs,beconingmuchbrigl erand rbengraduflllyfading.

1.

Protollsarcpositivelychirgedparriclcsrhatarecontincdinthenucteusofthe

2.

A blackholeisanareainspiccthn!hasgnvitatjonalputlsopowerlilthat nothing,notevenlight,canescape.

3.

Marinebiologislsarescientistswhostudylhcanimalsandptantstlat jive inrhe

4

Theslratosphcreisth€ IXrnion oflhe almosphererhrl is oversvennites high.

5.

Insuli isa hormoneproducedby lbepa crcaslbalisuscdin thctrcatncntof diabetes.

6. Bactriaaresimplefonnsolplanl Iifethatareihe mostabundartfom of life

onearth.

Oxidationis achemicalreactionthatirvolvestheIossofone o. norc clcctrons anatomorton.

ry

7.

8. Nitrogenisa colorless,odorlessgasthatmakes'rp80pcrccnlofihe air.

FormuhtiDgDetinltions

1. An a loeboisa orc'celledanimalthatconstanllychargesils shnpe.

| '

2. An antibioticisadr gthatcurcsb6clcrialdiscascs.

3. A lungis anorganofbreatting.

4. Acousti€sistle scienceofsound.

5. Photosyntlesisis theproccssby whichptanlsmanufacturcfood.

6. A calalystis n suktancethatspeedsup,butismotchangedt y acheNical reaclion.

7. Acaloric;saun;tfo

8. A cyclotronis anapparrtusthatborrbardsthcnuclciof atonN.

ncasuringbcat.

CrentlngDeflnltlons(Ansverswlll vArybut shouldhrve o classlflcatlonplus dlstlngulshlng charoctcrlstlcs.) 1, A canrcmisadevicefor takingphotographs.

2.

Abridgcisastruclurctba(dllowsprssrgcovcrarivcr,ro d,orlhclike.

3,

Ar x"myis a photographlakcnrhrcughasolidsrbstanceusirgelectromagnetic mdiation.

4.

A bultcrflyis aninscctwilh l rgeand{icqucnllycolodulwings.

5.

Gcologyistbestudyof thcphysicalhistoryot lhccartb.

6.

A dinllroMis aprcciousstonclhatisrradcofal$rostpurcoryshllizcdcnrbon.

7, An echoistbercpetitiorofa soundcauscdby tbcrclleclionof soundwaves,

8. Avirusisasubricroscopicagcntlbalcauscsdiscasc.

9. Catltincisadrugfoundincoflce,lc!,an.lcol drink,th lactsasasLinultrnt.

10. An aqunriumisa glasstankwhercaqunticplantsandanimalsnregrown.

Prcflxes

 

1.d

4.b

'

2.e

5.i

3.f

6.9

i

'7. c

8.h

9.a

Vocabularyin L-ontext

1.a

2.b

3. a

6.b

8.a

9.a

10. a

Underst.ndinSthe Readlng(Ansvars *ill ymy) 1. Energy canbe tmnslomcd front onetype to anolhcror transfcrrcdfromorc

2. Kin€ticenergyisthecnc{gyofmotior.

3. Lik€matt€r,energycrnnotbecreatedor destroycd.

4. Potentialenergyisth€energyofposition.

5. EinstejnsaidtfiatthcconseNationofnmfierandlhc conseraatiorofenrgyarc related.

6. Einslcjn'stheoryaboutlle conscrvationof atterandenargywasproved.

7. Thcdcvclopnlentof atomicenergydcmo stnlesthfltmaltercanbccolvcned rllioercrgy.

8. Whentrnatomissplit,itgivesoffneutrons.

9. An atomicexplosionoccunasa rcsultofthcripidcbaiflreactionol splitting

10. Fusionhkcs plnceon thesunwhcnlwo hydrogenatomsarcconrbiflcd.

11, Extrclllehcrt is roquiredforfusionto takcplrce,

12. Fusionproducedonthccarlhrcsultsi[ a bydrogcnbo$rh

vocnbulrryIn Context(llstcnlngsklll!)

l.a

2.b

'7, b

8.a

4,a

9.a

UnderstandlngtheLccturc

 

6.a

2.b

3.b

8.b

9.

tr

10.b

LECTURE:

The End of the Universe

Wc havcllrerdy readlhal e erg/ ftnnol be creaiedor destroyed.Thi,slaw of srN€Nation

ot cncrs/ is also rcftned to as lle fiIst jnw .rf $ermdyMnics. However we slrculd never

assure thal we bavean imexhanstiblesnpplyof energ/.we conshrtly ncednrorccncrg/

tx,causewleneve. we ure en€rg/, we degnde tbat eners/ into sonle lessuseful fonr- Encrgycontirually runsdownhill fonr a highcr 10a lowcr godc. This is ollcd

seco d law otthennodyDanrics.Althoush energyis alwaysconselv€d,il rsually wjndsrp rs hcal cncrgy.For cxdmplc,if you rub your handstogclhcr,thcy will gct w!rN. Your mnsclccncgy hrs (hlng.d {o hcnlcnclgy. Hcalen(gy is a lower foml ofenergy.Considerwbrl hI|ppenswbenyou drop a rock. Inyour hr d, thc rock hnsa polenlialcncrgywhich changcsinto kincLicc'rcrgyn! it Ii:11s. Wrcn it lils lle ground,it! kineticcncrgychingcs1(}bcnlcnc{t/. Heatcncrgyis a lowcr li,on of rncrgy b{"cluseit (''|nnot rcadilybc tmrsfonncd inlo uscfulwork. Whcn lhc rcck w,rsin lhc rir, jt had Fnctrtrl cncrgylo do work, suchas drjvirg a stick nrtotbeground. Allcr thc rock hils thc groLrd, it is no longcr .rl]flblc of doing ry work. Encrgy wrs Prcsc^td in thc prcc(ss,ln( siflcchcalcnc.gyis n lowcr fon otclcrgy thar lxltcntirl or kirctjc cncrgy,orcrgy is runrnrgdownhill. Orc signof thcdcgnrdingofcDcrs/ is tlrt hcatahlaysllows tio.r r winD.r objcct1()a (oolcr o'rc;il u.rvcrdoc,jthc rcvcnc.Ilyos pulan icc.Lrk in. hol drink,tcal llowslreN thc hotliquidLowrror rrclt llrccubc.Hcl t cncfs/ ncvcrLlowslnnD'r(old olrjccllo hotonc,

1bc

r)llknrgll)c (old objc(t (oldcrrnd lhc lrolobjc(t lotlcf. Hcatcrcrg/ isr low gnrdcof cncrty

r d ll)cl(nvcrlhclcnrpcmlL'rcolllr objcct,llr lowcrlhc gmdcolcncrg il.rorlaiG. ]llc downgnd;ngol ctrcrgy;s omn;lcs'cd jn othcrwry. Nalunl p()ccsscslc d 1o pr({'ccdlowa!dr shlc olgntcrdiso cr.Nolhinggds lhnr disordcrtoordcr.Whcnyou oN . trolllc oi pcrlirrc, thc lrclccul.s ol rlc |{rlunrc nrshoul irlo tlrcrir in disordcrly lirslrio.ThcyllcvcrgoblckilotIcboltlerndrclurnto.DordcrlystnlclSirnihrly,ilyou shooksonDsrll rnd pcppcrlogLlhcr,Ihry would bccourcrrixcd.'Ihcrc is nowry youcorld r)rix,slir, or shrkc lhc urixlurclrJcxtmcl lhc Mlt lrorn lhe pcpperrnd rcslotu:lwo ordcrly pilcsol dislinctsubstlnccs.TIlcdisordcroflbe u ive$ecolrtijlurllyii.rcases. If tlis mrdiljon cxistscvcrywhcrc,t])e'ralunl outcoDr will te lhat cvcrylhitrgnrlhc

univcNcwilldrgcncnlci!rlodisordcr,ille

a!rctld.Tlrisnt

u ivcrsc. Howevcr,you d.n'i ncedlo worry dMlt il, unlcssyou phr lo bc amul]d i a

ergywillbcdeplctcd,rnd rllIilc will(onr

Lo

rurgd.w'rolenergyisalfrcdlors"cnlmpy"orlhc'hcNrdcrtl"ofthc

CHAPTER6

ANSWERKEY

AntrlyzlnSExempltllcalion

l. gqr!g!_r@!!!

!l!

e!t!_rg!tpg',nd'.

orsaniccornpounLlsconrain(lfton in

combinntionwithtvdrosenandoxvsen,

2. Somebi

s travel enodnousdistanceswilboul rcsli

Theruddvlumstoneflics

3.

4

nonstoptiom AIaska10Hawaiiev€rvvear.

Parnsitesar€livinEthinsslhatf€cdoffotbef livinslhinss.Themistltoeplant liveso[f spple,maplc,or pnplar trccs.causinsthernrodiefi;-

-

Scvcnl theorieshavebcen proposed to explflin thc natureoflisht. Chistinn Huysens susscstedlbat light travelsin wav€s.Atbert Einstcin ororxr]6iiF

osisis lhecoexistenccof livinst

rtbcir mrl'ialbenefit.Plafltlice

oraphidsIi\ewithnntsinasvinbiolicrchtionshio.

AtouricrcscnrchhasIiJlolhilii

1qlqcscnrchha"IeJtothidiiclopr

ctoiiiiiG nrc

d-ilrattvnrenrednrentlredetenrenrsetenrenls.

d-iura y

Ei'rrlciniuor,leflr)iunr,calitornium.a ,l hcrkcliuDrareatt,nan'trrdc

RocognlzlnSExrInplcs

a,c

2.b

3. a,c

l.

5. s,b

UslnSMod.lsof Ncftsslty

'

1

ruslonlybcad rinistcrcd

2.

m$stbeprcp rcd

3.

|nuslbcproduced

4

ustalwaysbelurncdoff

5.

nu$t notbcinhaled

6.

ntustbcltniliz€d

7.

mustncvcrbcsllowcd

8.

must evcrbc relcased

FornulrtlnSSent.nceswlthN.ccsslty

1.

Thcelcctricilyshouldbesh!t olf.

2

Th€biooddonolsshouldbetestedtbranenria.

3.

Theradialionmonitoringdevicesshouldbecalibnrcdrcgutarly.

4.

A tircextirguishershouldbcavailablcinihclabonlory.

s. Thecxplosivedevicesshouldb€propcrlyinsulrred.

6. Therechnicia6shouldbepmtcclcdfromexcessiveradi.rion.

7. Tte r€edl€sshouldtc sterilizedbclbrctheinjections.

8. Thepaticnlsshouldbeimnuflizcdagairstlheflu.

t I

t I

I I

{ I

Sufflxes

1.

shoten

2.

b0aden

3.

dcepen

4.

darker

1.

lo identifY

2.

to solidify

3.

toliquefy

4.

to purify

f.

idcntification

2.

solidification

3.

Iiq!c{lcation

4.

purification

5. widcn

6. weaken

7. soften

Vocabulrry In Conlext

1.b

2.a

3.6

DrawlngConcluslont

9.

tighten

10.

loosen

11.

brightcn

12.

frightcn

5.

to exemplify

6.

to hunid;fy

7.

toelcctrify

8.

10clarify

5.

excmplific{tion

6.

humiditication

?. electrification

8. clarilic.tion

1. t

8.b

9,b

slrengthen

14. lengthcn

15. sharpen

straighten

 

6.b

2,6

3.b

8.a

4.a

9.a

5,a

10.a

Voc&bulnryIn Context (llstenlnSskllls)

l.b

9.a

 

6,4

10.b

3.a

1. b

11,b

4.b

8.a

12.b

UnderslandlnS the Lecture

1.7

5.F

9.7

2.F

6.7

10.T

 

11.T.

4.F

8.F

r2. F

LECTURE:

The ChangingStateof trIatter

We rcaJ-carli.r in lh;srllaph.rat\]uth^wtfnrl,eriturci i

, hrIceth.s

"h.ola

t

Ln

cr.Or,\ uirbr In.l

rlrl{nanl ( llccl.!l hflr ^ thitilr"

gas.rr.r,,,'llL.rrr

'*

cturcr to Inn

.!h,l., rc IFIt.,li.r t^li,t iJ tu

t,r,

wctdror t.r"rcr,arr

lu qcilr or \al ur. u:th

rt,c

convcrredLonioDc ptrysjel

nnqu er'rrntininrrb!

geoitrtr).i,

n\'. or bL-,.JsJ ,trit it th.jj rrJ (brng

a.lditionor subtractionof heal,alnrostaI substa€s citr lr

Mcltirg is the coDve.riotr of a solid lo a fiqu;d. I

we

ticara b]ock ot i(c, whcn tte

nove sol.astrhalibc;ord;r

tellllxnturc ot lhe nr reachcs0.C, theNoteculcsoi iccnad lo

brealsdown.nd

Subshnces @nven Irem

n'cltlnt 1063'Cardironar

rhcytunble alt overcrcb ortl.r.Gmdualty,th,,i." l*gi,,";;;,;i;

onc strrc to anottrc.at fixcrt tenrpceturus.

1535.C.Frorcnoxygcnwi nrclial 219'C.

F". ";,,,,,pi", ;];

ll r(vrFrotrh,rrctlingpru., sr.lr.c,?irg.Fr ,,nqi:t.surirltr.rt,.,,I,cr,,t.rrcot

,r,qurdsntlr(rrnrtytuclnngcilluis^tiJ.Tlrctr.,?irCl{ir,r.tr {t"ii

ils nrlti

oxfgcnr1-219'C

,i1:,iair hc.,r,J ,uIi. i(rtt). rt wi

ra,rNin,,rU . -.X_t. troIr x tr.tIrJli, i

rr'(.rr'lccutr\ tJ.!1rrrrin.na.indtvvi.,l.rrr,. rt,.,t

rllor'(urc\. th'y try tu f.{.,trc iltn lh,.iir

g trinl

For ex.nrptc,tiquid sotd

Uri

ir

r

l so|dity rr 1036.C,i.n

t! it . rtrt.1,,r\rnI., .,

\.rti!. r: ,,.

.1 r\tirr\

d

r!,.,,

rs3;,C, ";;

1r,,rrs

L:.,(.Tr.r

.,1.

rr,_t_

, J , r.,t,^r.rrr.,r.ui.rrr qrrri r: trr

,r1.t,*,

rtrir,,Ir1,rr.,,r,.,t,fult,.r

rtrJi.ut,t,t., rn.t,, r.,J.fvrr,t.r.,t\.r

ttrf

r,.,,,,,,,,.t,,,,.i,,,, i,.,,.

lr.l.r,

\ccr.' {,\.

boilirg. Liqridsthd cvapnlc

\,.l,ril Al,.'h,l,i'rJ,F-r,.rn1 irr

rxry,r,\rffrrr -nr. $hrr Ictru|l(,,\rn.d.

* rcvcscof d{bmljon

hJi.,t{^finr,,rt,c.,irinLtrhc$rrfrSr.,Ju1,t, r",,,.r,

r'tt'otUI:$lrn$.,h.rM.h.trh,itin.,i .rt,,t tit,||,t.(.,,rf\,ri",,.r,\,rtL,ul

crsily,lllrl is 11t(N r,"p"rrr,""",

v,,t,rir( tj.l.riJ y,,uj

r

.-.,;r,"(],,"r,"i,,l

J{,.t.it.J\ ","

,,, t.,.:it;;;i,i-i i;

is

c.ndons:rriol, rtrc (!nv(nion ot.avrDor int(,I tnruid.

,";,r,a,q,.',,r:ri,i,,i,i,,,,i,,.

lr;;;.,i;,,

Durinso,rdcns.rion, rrr'notcotcror.,, rrsco,,ci,,.,r,.,

,,:lllll;l'] ,r.,1:*i-r,r,n.,ri,r,

L\r

ilrcsot14 dLrs

1",,i,r.,.ur,.,.,

tb.l

., ,.,r.,,j,,,i ,.,"

jonjrrc rhcstu,rrtLrI

roon,,ro,,,,,rcco,dould(,,,", ",;,,;;il;;;il:,T;:[:il;iJ:,],lii'#;ll:.ll l';li1

::::I'nn:"1,,",iF,"rJn'|$r,rnr,.i

uln

i'd usfirI

nrrr.c.ul,J qI\gJr.fr

Li

v,n.Jr,

,,,,run.,r,.{,J,,,-.,i,nrr

rti,t.r.Jit i,i.,.dt,J{r

frocrcses rcquirurhcliqueijcnlionot,irrnd oltrcrgrscs.

whcnrLfnrcufcraponrroni

xicrtyr,tritr,.rt,ui,r;.ot ,,,, .rh

ni

,,,.|,.,I|,,,.',1,;

r

i.r,r.\ Mrn!

r.r

t.h.f

^i

.'tlr/.Dn Ir cr|ct:.AI r$lrnlf

Ilc Irol|rules,,trlc liquiJfvap.i,rc

(,|'reru,rc.nrll|rr Ir^tccuhf,i 5iJcrLc,^I|:lincr.o iJ.\\irhrLc,urt,f,

co dcnscatthcsanr speed, ard LheaDruntot.liquid lldrnrour[ofval!r i lhcc.nlxincr

L.ti,r.!JluJ

rhi.nc, ur" q h.I titIiJ i. ir r cto " J (,!r .,irr r.5, jr

,rn,lJrcFrsc,n,ortrfrjr

r.iJr lbc,,,r.l.rirr. \r thc

IdentiryingEridencc

I'

:.

! q!g!!!Ile,r'r,me

CHAPTER7

ANSWERKEY

i' r;R;r"n ;;

"to.e,l m

3.

Thcci rthis

eventurlly Rturnrollirrt

rcund.ApeFonrnveti

direc(lv e4stlronltheequrtorwitl

H:+y-!!+++!s!$r!',,r.!!!qr:!rlr_ed{s!

ir.

s.

arc molccules10transtnit

:

--r:::r:

r.:_:i:r

Lrreas\4eknowrlcinl|orcxiston venus. Tb,R

-

r_!lqf!_ff!14!Iilf!qrf_l

i\

oo

!!s!r!!

6.

Morrhineis rddiclive,Hos

allrgjpqlnslq"ci,'n

lj!nls

a nhmncc

wboire eivcr

ol r

ro

eatholien oLcun whcll Jru*qnrrrla

qnrhinitions ofnlcotal.r

scrnbelirl l.

##:ii3d!|-!!-!1slL!1q]s A "r,'ft,,llr*j-'",' ",,,,

Drrr1lng Conclustonsfrom Evtd0nce l.

b

1

3. b

2,

5.ll

6.fl

'7. a

cr.Ccdri'r

Ivnluatlng Evldcnce

1. c,d

2.c

3.a

Idcntifylng Deductivc ud

1. I

2.r

3. I

4.D

4-

5. a,c

6, n,b,c

,b,d

InductlvcRersoDlng'

5.D

6. I

1. D

8.D

UsirS RctrsonlnS Therc is no altempl hereto teach incrcaseawarencss of fttse reasonjng.

lbnrrl logi(.Tbr ohjedof lbr cxcrcisc,sontyro

ConclusionsfromiDductivereasonjrglnayorlnaynotberrue.

l. l:alse.dcducrion bccauscfir"r frcrnise isfatsc.All birdsJo notfly. (AIt birds

Dxvereatbet5.J

2. Falscinducrive reasoning. Althoughtle

thcle is no cviderce oftheir relationstip.

chamctcristics coexisrin Ejnstein,

J. Evenif illnrelal\ $ ercsojiJ

tnnrruc,nre^uryis, IiquiJrnerat).ir ttoesnor

ro ow raat. sotrdsaremctal_

4. Conclusiond^esnorfo oq frornrheprcr ise.

- anrjlrdlsareclasilled lccorJing to I hewly rhey$a Ik.

preUr;c doesnorsDecitv rhar

).

6. Tbe fi6r prenis€ is not a

ratscrnruit'\e

reasoning.Fxarnpte is norrepR\enlrrive or (ypicat.

inctusivc. Tbat is, jt doesnot say ahlllall elcnnrs

arecrtler gases orliquids.

?. Fakc intiucriv!rcaso'rin8. E\anrptc is nurrlpiL.ltor

" "'"*

:iiliiill*

npre5enlili!e.

Beinsa scnius and q orkinsharJl IEnornruiuart)

9. Co clusiondoesnotfo

owfmmprcn)jse.Thetackofproofrhatit ishannfutis

notcvidenccrhatit issalc. 1O Evcnjfallni alsbavclaits,ildoesnotfollowthrt€vcrylhingthrrbasatiili ananinui.

Voc$bulnrylJulldlnS cxcitcs - stirnulitcs

lircd - lirtigucd

harmlul - detrimcntal

cxcitabilily - irrit bility

cndurarcc - lolcmlrcc nolcnough - insu1Iicicrt pcrsladc - conv;ncc

r.

2.

3.

4.

con'rcctio 6.

10. atlrrctio

7. lubrication

rndialjon

insulaiion 9. ctiminalion 13. excrlion

corductio'r

gnvilation

11. nhsorprion

12.correlrrio,r

8. catcut:rtion

14. speculalion 15. extcnsion 16. dcmonstrarion 17. tbrnutation

2. radiator

3. insulator

5. accclefttor

6, dc rcNtrator

7. correlator 10. calcutato.

8. spcculalor

9. Iubricator

Vocabularytn Context(readlngskllls)

1.b

2.a

3.a

4.a

5,a

6.a

1.a

sklnlmlng

1,a

8.b

15' a

9.b'

16

b

10

b

71.a

11.b

18 b

12.a

19

b

13

b

l4,a

2. cocrine,anphetamines,narcotics,martuam,barbitumtes

UnderstandlngtheRaadlng

1.F

3.F

4.F

5.7

VocalularyIn Contaxt (llstanlngtkllls) l.a

2.b

3,b

4,b

UDderstandlngthcLec!ure 1. F

7. F

8.7

9.F

10.T

11,F

12,T

6,b

8.b

9.b

10.a

i. r

 

8.F

9.F

4.7

10.T

5.7

11.F

6,7

12. T

LECTURE:

The physiological Eftectsof Alcohol

So far, irrhis cbnptcr,

}ave disclssedihc hnntut effectsofsmoking ard dnjgs.

",e

thrtatfecrs our ninds andour bodicr.

Almhol is anothersubstarce

Unlil recentyeais,litlle was knowr abouttbc

c|feds of atcohot.Reccnrrcsearc[has

l[.,r othea.hutir,, nuttro$ rl

pfrioJcl ri rc.tithcr tj\.

troofryidtswill

-hown lh,ilsomc |eoph

s nt. |l lcclsuep.nJo

ounccsofwinc,lwelvc ou cesofb€er,or oneandone,hatfoun;cs of80

pu| 1wo1[irds otia

js

coflcc or1ak g a sbowcrdoesnot spcedup rbepnxrss.

ire rroF trkct)Inbeo!.e aJJirt.J

bo$ jr,u( h ir {tr)nsu rJ JnJo\ cr s InI

ounc€ofp!!c atcoholirlo

rhcblturrsrrean.once anounceir arcotor

bourfor thc body ro l)um il. Dd ki;

akorbed iDlotle bloodstrcsm, ir takesaborr an

Itisani

tcresljngandpotcntjatly dangerous tircrtharsnraltanlounrsofalcohot.nn

nukc so' e pmtle obrcrvatio h.stcctr

tlr,,

Lhn5crlic\IrhcJr,ithit r yt,cut,tctti "orr tltr,rr,lr|lt],

Thc lruth is th.t sludicsI vc sho,vnthrr srnrll doscsof l

whilc fiigh do.rcscrtr dcprcss or skrw down lhc he d nrtcaru

snlallqurulilics rnaynor tr

,h.rngc\irlI,I'nJ)\chfrrhtN

lccl goorl wfiile trrger anrou rs nrrke lhcm fect

dcfrcsscd.

.nis

spporlcd by evidence. Alcohot lakenir sma qLrntiijcs canbri g

p(,df

i

t",*r

ur i

rtiJcnrr rrrj .^{irt I,oi.f. tre

r{d.,.Jr t,.tJ i|| | ,

,

.

n I " . ||, 1

ohotpu

rp up thc ho,rltmtc

ti aa ro ar]l];iri.,n. ,+trtrorgtr

nliticsc,ru.osscri(;s

h.o lirt,atohol trkctr;n Irc qu

,ltrril|grr.rrtvfv,.rvt,.,rl.,tlth.\,rt).

ur-\l,

hcl,fig., ,J tr.c

ALoh'l h.'LrIr.rllcJ(ttc,.,,l rl.n(rv,,u.,\y.tJIr.tII^,Jfir.r.tr., tru,

lhrl rl(,lol

Alr, ri,r.

irrrr]l{

lLncfi(irl in rclicvnrglc$;o,r Al ttr

sl'ownby lllc tr(l

ix N"th

s nrclirrrc,judgrrrcntard coortinarionan: inrprircd,

tihl rurornohil(: rc:id.rd

Itr\

,,,.trd,rt",,r,l

1rri.

1,,:., 1

js a urclorir ruorclhin l)lI or.r

AI'1,||,'liIrt,rrA rtr r',itir) ,,l ttI nrrur .1.jtLt,. lrrljdrt

,,t u!

rtrrltr u

,

t

r

\t{,\ h. r,tJ rJ \r.r,n

ntcnnryol intox;cxtcd ltotlc.

Clrroni(rboholisnr rtlcctsrherl[.(tcs i! lhclx)dy.Rrso.r.hsh,ws rarrlc ,rNsclls

,t J.gfr11.rli.i,, 1rJ tnf tr

rt, .-.!,,,!.riur(l

,'l h.n\) u.(^ .ri nrlhr1drnJ.t,.,$ :irD

rnlrrg{dfurdiq!tuJ(rll,.

Alcolbl