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ALBERT EINSTEIN(Ulm, Alemania, 14 de marzo de 1879 Princeton, Estados Unidos, 18 de abril de 1955) fue un fsico de origen alemn, nacionalizado

o suizo y estadounidense. Est considerado como el cientfico ms importante del siglo XX.1

En 1905, cuando era un joven fsico desconocido, empleado en la Oficina de Patentes de Berna, public su teora de la relatividad especial . En ella incorpor, en un marco terico simple fundamentado en postulados fsicos sencillos, conceptos y fenmenos estudiados antes por Henri Poincar y por HendrikLorentz. Como una consecuencia lgica de esta teora, dedujo la ecuacin de la fsica ms conocida a nivel popular: la equivalencia masa energa, E=mc. Ese ao public otros trabajos que sentaran bases para la fsica estadstica y la mecnica cuntica. En 1915 present la teora de la relatividad general, en la que reformul por completo el concepto de gravedad.2 Una de las consecuencias fue el surgimiento del estudio cientfico del origen y evolucin del Universo por la rama de la fsica denominada cosmologa. En 1919, cuando las observaciones britnicas de un eclipse solar confirmaron sus predicciones acerca de la curvatura de la luz, fue idolatrado por la prensa. 3 Einstein se convirti en un icono popular de la ciencia mundialmente famoso, un privilegio al alcance de muy pocos cientficos.1 Por sus explicaciones sobre el efecto fotoelctrico y sus numerosas contribuciones a la fsica terica, en 1921 obtuvo el Premio Nobel de Fsica y no por la Teora de la Relatividad, pues el cientfico a quien se encomend la tarea de evaluarla, no la entendi, y temieron correr el riesgo de que luego se demostrase errnea. 45 En esa poca era an considerada un tanto controvertida. Ante el ascenso del nazismo, hacia diciembre de 1932, el cientfico abandon Alemania con destino a Estados Unidos, donde imparti docencia en el Instituto de Estudios Avanzados de Princeton. Se nacionaliz estadounidense en 1940. Durante sus ltimos aos trabaj por integrar en una misma teora la fuerza gravitatoria y la electromagntica. Muri en Princeton, Nueva Jersey, el 18 de abril de 1955. Aunque es considerado el padre de la bomba atmica, abog en sus escritos por el pacifismo, el socialismo y el sionismo. Fue proclamado como el personaje del siglo XX y el ms preeminente cientfico por la revista Time.6
ALBERT EINSTEIN (14 March 1879 18 April 1955) was a German -born, Swiss-educated theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics, and one of the most prolific intellects in human history. [2] He received the 1921Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".[3] The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics.

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. [4] He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming a citizen in 1940 . On the eve of World War II, he helped alert President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon, and recommended that the U.S. begin similar research; this eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein was in support of defending the Allied forces, but largely denounced using the new discovery of nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, together with Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the RussellEinstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nu clear weapons. Einstein taught physics at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955. Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 nonscientific works. [4][5] His great intelligence and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius.[6]

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN fue el decimoquinto hijo de un total de diecisiete hermanos (cuatro medios hermanos de padre y el resto hermanos de padre y madre).Hijo de Josiah Franklin (1656 -1744) y de su segunda esposa AbiahFolger. Su formacin se limit a estudios bsicos en la South GrammarSchool, y slo hasta los diez aos. Primero trabaj ayudando a su padre en la fbrica de velas y jabones de su propiedad. Tras buscar satisfaccin en otros oficios (marino, carpintero, albail, tornero), a los doce aos empez a trabajar como aprendiz en la imprenta de su hermano, James Franklin. Por indicacin de ste, escribe sus dos nicas poesas, "La tragedia del faro" y "Canto de un marino" cuando se apres al famoso Teach, tambin conocido por "Barbanegra el pirata".

Abandon este gnero por las crticas d e su padre. Cuando tena 15 aos, su hermano fund el New EnglandCourant, considerado como el primer peridico realmente independiente de las colonias britnicas. En dicho diario, Benjamin escribi sus primeras obras, con el pseudnimo de SilenceDogood (entrometido silencioso). Con l escribe sus primeros artculos periodsticos, de tono crtico con las autoridades de la poca.

En 1723 se estableci en Filadelfia, pero en 1724 viaj a Inglaterra para completar y acabar su formacin como impresor en la imp renta de Palmer. All publica Disertacin sobre la libertad y la necesidad, sobre el placer y el dolor . Regres a Filadelfia el 11 de octubre de 1726. Inicialmente trabaj como administrativo para Denham. En 1727, tras recuperarse de una pleuritis, cofund el club intelectual Junto, y al ao siguiente estableci con su socio Meredith su primera imprenta propia. En septiembre de 1729 compr el peridico La Gaceta de Pensilvania, que public hasta 1748. En 1730 contrajo matrimonio con Deborah Read, con la que tuvo tres hijos, William (1731), Francis (1733) y Sarah (1743). Public adems el Almanaque del pobre Richard (1733 - 1757) y fue el encargado de la emisin de papel moneda en las colonias britnicas de Amrica (1727). En 1731 particip en la fundacin de la primera biblioteca pblica de Filadelfia, y ese mismo ao se adhiri a la masonera. En 1736 fund la UnionFireCompany, el primer cuerpo de bomberos de Filadelfia. Tambin particip en la fundacin de la Universidad de Pensilvania (1749) y el primer hospital de la ciudad. En 1763 se dedica a realizar viajes a Nueva Jersey, Nueva York y Nueva Inglaterra para estudiar y mejorar el Servicio Postal de los Estados Unidos. Pas casi todo su ltimo ao de vida encamado, enfermo nuevamente de pleuritis. Sin embargo, no ces en sus actividades polticas durante ese periodo. Finalmente, muri por agravamiento de su enfermedad en 1790, a la edad de 84 aos. Afortunadamente, tenemos mucha informacin sobre la vida y los puntos de vista de Franklin, debido a que a los 40 aos comenz a escribir su autobiografa (supuestamente para su hijo). sta fue publicada a ttulo pstumo con el ttulo de La vida privada de Benjamin Franklin . La primera edicin vio la luz en Pars en marzo de 1791 (Memoires De La Vie Prive), menos de un ao despus de su muerte, y en 1793 estaba disponible la traduccin al ingls (ThePrivateLife of the Late Benjamin Franklin).
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705 [1] ] April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author and printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass 'armonica'. He formed both the first public lending library in America and the first fire department in Pennsylvania.

Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity; as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies, then as the first United States Ambassador to France , he exemplified the emerging American nation. [2] Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical and democratic values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with

the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment. In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlighte nment without its heat."[3] To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."[4] Franklin, always proud of his working class roots, became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies. He was also partners with William Goddard and Joseph Galloway the three of whom published the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper that was known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of the British monarchy in the American colonies. [5] He became wealthy publishing Poor Richard's Almanack and The Pennsylvania Gazette. Franklin gained international renown as a scientist for his famous experiments in electricity and for his many inventions, especially the lightning rod. He played a major role in establishing the University of Pennsylvania and was elected the first president of the American Philosophical Society. Franklin became a national hero in America when he spearheaded the effort to have Parliament repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive FrancoAmerican relations. For many years he was the British postmaster for the colonies, which enabled him to set up the first national communications network. He was active in community affairs, colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania. Toward the end of his life, he freed his slaves and became one of the most prominent abolitionists. His colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, and status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored on coinage and money; warships; the names of many towns, counties, educational institutions, namesakes, and companies; and more than two centuries after his death, countless cultural references.

Manuel Elkin Patarroyo (Ataco, Tolima, Colombia, 3 de noviembre de 1946) es un inmunlogocolombiano. Culmin sus estudios de bachillerato en el Colegio Jos Max Len. Posteriormente ingres a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia para estudiar Medicina donde empezara una brillante carrera en el campo cientfico. Obtuvo su doctorado en la Universidad Rockefeller de Nueva York.

Es conocido a nivel mundial por ser el responsable del desarrollo de una vacuna sinttica contra la malaria. Esta vacuna ha sido ya probada en reas que sufren esta enfermedad como epidemia (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Brasil y, ms recientemente, en diversos pases africanos). El descubrimiento le vali en 1994 el Premio Prncipe de Asturias de Investigacin Cientfica y Tcnica.1

Manuel Elkin Patarroyo es fundador y actual director de la Fundacin Instituto de Inmunologa de Colombia asociado a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia en Bogot; director de la lnea de investigacin en Relacin Estructura -Funcin en la Bsqueda de Vacunas Sintticas en el doctorado e n ciencias biomdicas de la Universidad del Rosario; profesor de la misma universidad as como Centro Colaborador de la Organizacin Mundial de la Salud , para el desarrollo de vacunas sintticas contra la malaria, la tuberculosis y la lepra. Patarroyo es un cientifico con una gran solidaridad, y sentido de la responsabilidad social, que le ha sido reconocida con el premio Principe de Vana de la solidaridad en 2011.
Manuel Elkin Patarroyo (born November 3, 1946) [1] is a Colombianpathologist who made the world's first attempt of syntheticvaccine for malaria, a disease transmitted by mosquitoes that affects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. The vaccine candidate, first develope d in 1987, was evaluated in clinical trials carried out by the WHO in Gambia, Tanzania and Thailand, and had mixed results.[2] In 2009, a comprehensive Cochrane review assessed the SPf66 as being not efficacious in Africa and Asia, and as having a low but statistically significant efficacy of 28% in South America. [3] Today, after more than 33 years of research, the SPf66 malaria vaccine is not recommended for prophylaxis of malaria and is listed as "inactive" by th e WHO.