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1DLIINI1ICN5

O morpho|ogy ls a branch of sclence abouL sLrucLures of words


O word a sound or a comblnaLlon of sounds or lLs represenLaLlon ln wrlLlna or
prlnLlna LhaL svmbollzes and communlcaLes a meanlna and mav conslsL of a slnale
morpheme or of a comblnaLlon of morphemes
O |exeme Lhe fundamenLal unlL of Lhe lexlcon of a lanauaae llnd flnds found and
flndlna are forms of Lhe Lnallsh lexeme flnd
O morpheme meanlnaful llnaulsLlc unlL conslsLlna of a word such as man or a word
elemenL such as ed ln walked LhaL cannoL be dlvlded lnLo smaller meanlnaful parLs
O a||omorph nv of Lhe varlanL forms of a morpheme lor example Lhe phoneLlc (s)
of caLs (kLs) (z) of plas (plaz) and (lz) horses (hrslz) are allomorphs of Lhe Lnallsh
plural morpheme
O free morphemes morpheme ls one LhaL can sLand alone
O bound morphemes a morpheme LhaL onlv appears as parL of a laraer word
O |ex|ca| morphemes morpheme wlLh meanlna
O funct|ona| morphemes luncLlonal morphemes conslsL of Lhe funcLlonal words ln
Lhe lanauaae con[uncLlons preposlLlons arLlcles and pronouns
O der|vat|ona| morphemes can be added Lo a word Lo creaLe (derlve) anoLher word
Lhe addlLlon of ness Lo happv for example Lo alve happlness 1hev carrv
semanLlc lnformaLlon
O |nf|ect|ona| morphemes modlfv a words Lense number aspecL and so on wlLhouL
derlvlna a new word or a word ln a new arammaLlcal caLeaorv (as ln Lhe doa
morpheme lf wrlLLen wlLh Lhe plural marker morpheme s becomes doas) 1hev
carrv arammaLlcal lnformaLlon
O stem word Lo whlch an lnflecLlon morpheme ls aLLached (reopened)
O base word Lo whlch derlvaLlonal sufflx or preflx ls aLLached ( LruLhfulness)
O root smallesL posslble base
O der|vat|ona| and |nf|ect|ona| morpho|ogy d|fferences
O |so|at|ng |anguages wlLhouL lnflecLlonal morpholoav
O agg|ut|nat|ng |anguages words conslsL of sequences of morphs wlLh each morph
represenLlna one morpheme
O |nf|ect|ng |anguages wlLh cases one morph could represenL more Lhan one
morpheme
O compound|ng word LhaL conslsLs elLher of Lwo or more elemenLs LhaL are
lndependenL words such as loudspeaker babvslL or hlah school or of speclallv
modlfled comblnlna forms of words
O aff|xat|on occurs when a bound morpheme ls aLLached Lo a rooL


2DLIINI1ICN5 AND GIVL/kLCCGNI2L LkAMLL5
O nonconcaLenaLlve processes
4 kedup||cat|on ls a morpholoalcal process ln whlch Lhe rooL or sLem of a word
(or parL of lL) ls repeaLed exacLlv or wlLh a sllahL chanae
4 Interna| mod|f|cat|on (vowe| mod|f|cat|on consonant mod|f|cat|on)
4 Convers|on llnaulsLlc process LhaL asslans an alreadv exlsLlna word Lo a new
word class (parL of speech) or svnLacLlc caLeaorv
4 8ackder|vat|on Lhe process of formlna a new word (a neoloalsm) bv exLracLlna
acLual or supposed afflxes from anoLher word shorLened words creaLed from
lonaer words
4 C||pp|ng (truncat|on) word formed bv dropplna one or more svllables from a
polvsvllablc word such as cell from cellular phone
4 Abbrev|at|ons shorLened word
4 acronym word formed from Lhe lnlLlal leLLers of a name (for example n1C
from norLh LlanLlc 1reaLv CraanlzaLlon) or bv comblnlna lnlLlal leLLers of a serles
of words (radar from radlo deLecLlon and ranalna)
4 8|end|ng
3DLIINI1ICN5 CI CCMCUND5

O compound mosL producLlve word formaLlon ln Lnallsh conslsL of Lwo or more free
morphemes
O properLles of compounds
4 b|nary structure Mn
4 r|ghthand nead
4 |nd|v|s|b|e un|ts
4 |efthand stress
4 syntact|c propert|es
4 |nher|ted from head
O Lvpes of compounds
4 endocentr|c conslsLs of a head le Lhe caLeaorlcal parL LhaL conLalns Lhe baslc
meanlna of Lhe whole compound and mod|f|ers whlch resLrlcL Lhls meanlna lor
example Lhe Lnallsh compound doahouse where house ls Lhe head and doa ls
Lhe modlfler ls undersLood as a house lnLended for a doa LndocenLrlc
compounds Lend Lo be of Lhe same parL of speech (word class) as Lhelr head as
ln Lhe case of doahouse
4 exocentr|c are hvponvms of some unexpressed semanLlc head (ea a person a
planL an anlmal) and Lhelr meanlna ofLen cannoL be LransparenLlv auessed
from lLs consLlLuenL parLs lor example Lhe Lnallsh compound whlLecollar ls
nelLher a klnd of collar nor a whlLe Lhlna
4 copu|at|ve (dvandvas) are compounds whlch have Lwo semanLlc heads ex
blLLersweeL
4 neoc|ass|ca| compounds
O classlflcaLlon of compounds accordlna Lo Lhe svnLacLlc caLeaorv of Lhe head
4 nom|na| compound where boLh elemenLs are nouns ea credlL card doa food
bus sLop aovernmenL lnqulrv 1hese can be arouped lnLo laraer compounds
whollv conslsLlna of nouns ea credlL card fraud credlL card fraud lealslaLlon
4 ad[ect|va| 1wo or more words (such as parLLlme or hlahspeed) LhaL acL as a
slnale ldea Lo modlfv a noun (a parLLlme emplovee a hlahspeed chase)
4 verba| compounds

4AIIIkA1ICN
O Lhe process of addlna afflxes Lo rooLs or bases ln order Lo varv funcLlon modlfv meanlna
eLc
O suff|xat|on a leLLer svllable or aroup of svllables added aL Lhe end of a word or word
base Lo chanae lLs meanlna alve lL arammaLlcal funcLlon or form a new word (Lx lsh ln
smalllsh ed ln walked ness ln darkness)
O pref|xat|on ls a morpholoalcal process wherebv a bound morpheme ls aLLached Lo Lhe
fronL of a rooL or sLem
O | nf|xat|on a morpholoalcal process wherebv a bound morpheme aLLaches wlLhln a rooL
or sLem
O supraf|xat|on
O d|fferences between suff|xat|on and pref|xat|on |n Lng||sh (frequency poss|b|e change
|n the category of the base effect on stress patterns and pronunc|at|on)


5LNGLI5n DLkIVA1ICNAL MCknCLCG
O nouns
4 Nom|na Act|on|s absLracL deverbal acLlon nouns" Lhe derlvaLlve nouns ln Lhls class
convev Lhe concepL of acLlon/ process of vlna"
4 Nom|na Lssend| def|n|t|on p|us examp|es of suff|xes
4 a class of absLracL dead[ecLlval nouns meanlna Lhe sLaLe / quallLv of belna x

O d[ecLlves
4 D|fference between re|at|ona| and qua||tat|ve ad[ect|ves
4 examp|es of re|at|ona| suff|xes
4 attr|but|ve and pred|cat|ve pos|t|on of ad[ect|ves
4 examp|es of possess|ona| pr|vat|ve
4 s|m|||tud|na|
4 ob[ect|ve/potent|a|
4 attenuat|ve and negat|ve ad[ect|va| aff|xat|on

O verbs alve examples of derlved verbs

4 dead[ect|va| causat|ve verbs
4 deverba| reversat|ve verbs
4 denom|na| pr|vat|ve verbs
4 repet|t|ve (re) verbs
4 negat|ve (m|s) verbs

6WCkD5 IN MIND
O Lhe slze and oraanlzaLlon of Lhe menLal lexlcon
4 1he sLore of boLh wotJs and Lhelr correspondlna meooloo(s)
4 A menta| |ex|con capac|ty
from 73000 Lo 130000 (Cldfleld 1963)
from 10000 up Lo 100000 (CrvsLal 1987)
from 43000 Lo 60000 (laa 2003)
7Lxtras
O What does |t mean that members of categor|es are un|ted by "fam||y resemb|ance"
and categor|es have "fuzzy edges"?
O Lxp|a|n the d|fference between ho||st|c and decompos|t|ona| theor|es concern|ng the
organ|zat|on of the menta| |ex|con
O Lxp|a|n the theory of prototypes g|ve two examp|es
4 roLoLvpe Lheorv ls a mode of araded caLeaorlzaLlon ln coanlLlve sclence where
some members of a caLeaorv are more cenLral Lhan oLhers
4 robln ls more blrd Lhan a penauln
4
O 1he trad|t|ona| (Ar|stote||an) v|ew on categor|es as opposed to the cogn|t|ve approach
exp|a|n the d|fferences
O 8roca's and Wern|cke's areas |n the bra|n and types of aphas|a
4 8roca's
nonfluenL aphasla
Lhe loss of ablllLv Lo produce lanauaae
speech ls dlfflculL Lo lnlLlaLe
lnLonaLlon anf sLress paLLerns are deflclenL
omlLlon of funcLlon words
no lnflecLlonal morpholoav
comprehenslon ls lnLacL
4 Wern|cke's
fluenL aphasla
lanauaae conLenL ls lncorrecL
speaklna wlLh aramaLlcallv correcL senLences
lnLonaLlon and sLress paLLerns are correcL
uLLerances are wlLhouL sense
comprehenslon ls poor