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# Applied Groundwater Modelling

Demonstration case

## Applied Groundwater Modelling

Demonstration Case

Instruction 2009

Applied Groundwater Modelling Part 1 Simulation of groundwater flow with PMWIN and MODFLOW Conceptual hydrogeological model

Demonstration case

1000m 1000m

1000m

## H H0=20m 0 T M=10m; K=10m/day

HL=15m l

L=1000m

l L

Questions to be answered: 1) How groundwater levels are distributed in the aquifer? 2) How much groundwater flows through the aquifer? 3) How long it takes for groundwater to flow from the left river to the right river? 4) What is the impact on groundwater flow when a pumping well is installed in the centre of the area with a pumping rate of 500m3/day?

Applied Groundwater Modelling Numerical Modelling PMWIN+MODFLOW is used for the modelling. Step 1 Design of the model grid Number of rows: 50 Number of columns: 50 Number of layer: 1 Model area extent in easting: 1020m Model area extent in northing: 1000m

Demonstration case

Model grid Step 2 Specification of the aquifer geometry Aquifer type: confined; Boundary conditions: cells in the first and the last columns are constant head (-1); other cells are activate (1); Top elevation of the aquifer: 10m; Bottom elevation of the aquifer: 0m. Step 3 Input of the parameters The following parameters are specified: Time unit: day; Flow simulation type : steady state simulation time: 1 day; Initial head: 20m in the first column; 15m in the last column; 10m in other cells; Hydraulic conductivity: 10m/day; Effective porosity: 0.25. 3

Applied Groundwater Modelling Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Simulation of the natural groundwater flow Convergence criterion: head=0.00001; residuals=0.00001; Output control: head, drawdown, flow; Run MODFLOW; Construct head contour map; Prepare water balance table. Simulation of the impact of the pumping Input of pumping rate: 600 m3/day in 4 cells (24,25; 24,26; 25,25; 25,26); Input of the calculated steady state heads as initial heads; Run MODFLOW; Prepare head contour map; Prepare drawdown contour map; Prepare water balance table.

Demonstration case

Delineation of the capture zone Run PMPATH; Particle tracking parameters: tracking step=365days; maximum number of steps=100; Add new particles; Run particle tracking; Save pathline plot. Transient simulations of the pumping effects Flow simulation type transient; Simulation time: 30 days; Time step: 1 day; Specific storage coefficient: 0.0001; Observation wells: (30,530); (500,530); (990,530); Run MODFLOW; Prepare time series plot; Prepare time series of change of storage.

Applied Groundwater Modelling Part 2 Simulation of contaminant transport with PMWIN and MT3D

Demonstration case

This exercise is a continuation of the flow modelling in the demonstration case. Assuming that a waste disposal site is located in the upstream of the pumping wells (up left corner: 24,5; lower right corner: 25,6). Concentrations of one of chemical constitutes of the leaches is measured as 1000 g/m3. Questions to be answered: 1) 2) 3) 4) Will the leaches migrate into the pumping wells? What will be the concentration of the leaches in the pumped water? How long it takes for the leaches to transport from the disposal site to the wells? How to protect water supply wells from pollution?

Problem set 1: Permanent sources of pollution Assignment 1: Simulating advective transport from a permanent source Now we will simulate the contaminant transport with MT3D. We will first consider convection only. The following information is given: 1) In the pollution source area, a permanent source is assumed with a concentration of 1000 g/m3. The permanent source can be specified by: (1) define pollution source cells ((24,5), (24,6), (25,5) and (25,6)) as specified concentration cells with ICBUND=-1; and (2) give value of starting concentration of 1000 g/m3. 2) Define time parameter: a. Steady state model; b. time unit: day; c. time period length=3600 days; d. time step length=30 days; e. transport step size = 30 days 3) Define 5 observation wells at the following locations: a. OBS 1: (6,24) with x=110 m and y=530 m b. OBS 2: (15,24) with x=290 m and y=530 m c. OBS 3: (25,24) with x=500 m and y=530 m d. OBS 4: (36,25) with x=720 m and y=530 m e. OBS 5: (36,25) with x=990 m and y=530 m 4) Advective transport specifications: a. Solution scheme: MOC b. Particle tracking scheme: Fourth-order Runge-Kutta c. Max. moving particles: 125000 5) Output control: output frequency=121 6) Deactivate well package 7) Run MODFLOW model Please carry out the following tasks: 1) Perform the transport simulation with MT3D using methods of MOC, MMOC, HMOC and

Applied Groundwater Modelling FD, respectively Plot breakthrough curves at 5 observation wells Plot contour map of concentration at t=3600 Explain contaminant movement from source area Are there any numerical dispersion?

Demonstration case

2) 3) 4) 5)

Assignment 2: Simulating contaminant transport with advection and dispersion Let us now introduce dispersion. In the dispersion package, specify the following the dispersion constants: 1) Longitudinal dispersivity: 10m 2) Transversal dispersivity: 1m. Please carry out the following tasks: 1) Perform the contaminant transport simulation with MT3D and MOC method 2) Plot breakthrough curves at 5 observation wells 3) Plot contour map of concentration at t=3600 4) Explain contaminant movement from source area, how does dispersion influence the transport Assignment 3: Simulating contaminant transport with advection, dispersion and sorption Let introduce now sorption. In the chemical reaction package, specify the following values: 1) bulk density of porous medium: 2000 M/m3 2) distribution coefficient of the contaminant: 0.00025 m3/M These values will yield a retardation factor of 3. Please carry out the following tasks: 1) Perform the contaminant transport simulation with MT3D and MOC method 2) Plot breakthrough curves at 4 observation wells 3) Plot contour map of concentration at t=3600 4) Explain contaminant movement from source area, how does sorption influence the transport

## Applied Groundwater Modelling Problem set 2: Instantaneous source of pollution

Demonstration case

Under steady state flow, an instantaneous source of pollution can be simulated by: (1) define pollution source cells as active cells with ICBUND=1; and (2) give value of starting concentration of 1000 g/m3. Assignment 4: Simulating contaminant transport from an instantaneous source with advective transport

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Change ICBUND value in the source area into 1, Deactivate Dispersion and Chemical Reaction Package, Run MT3D with MOC method Plot breakthrough curves at 5 observation wells Explain contaminant movement from source area.

Assignment 5: Simulating contaminant transport from an instantaneous source with advective and decay reaction

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Activate Chemical Reaction package Change density and distribution coefficient into 0 and give decay constant a value of 0.001 1/day Run MT3D with MOC method Plot breakthrough curves at 5 observation wells How does decay reaction influence transport?

Assignment 6: Simulating contaminant transport from an instantaneous source with advective and dispersion transport

1) 2) 3) 4)

Activate Dispersion package Run MT3D with MOC method Plot breakthrough curves at 5 observation wells How does dispersion influence transport?

Applied Groundwater Modelling Problem set 3: Simulating permanent source pollution to water supply wells Let us activate pumping wells and increase pumping rate to 150 m3/day per well. Assignment 7: Delineating capture zone of a water supply well

Demonstration case

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Change instantaneous source into permanent source (ICBUND=-1) Activate Well package Run MODFLOW Run PMPATH and plot contour lines Delineate the capture zone of the pumping well with particle tracking Find travel time from west boundary to the pumping well

## Assignment 8: Simulating pollution of the pumping well

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Deactivate Chemical Reaction package of MT3D Run MT3D to predict the pollution of the wells with advective and dispersion transport Plot breakthrough curves of 5 observation wells, explain the concentration at the water supply well Plot contour map of concentration at t=3600 days Animate contaminant plume development into the water supply well

Applied Groundwater Modelling Problem set 4: Protect the water supply well from pollution

Demonstration case

Assume the pump and treatment method is going to be used to protect the water supply well. Two remedy pumping wells are designed, one at the cell (24, 7) and another at (25,7), each with a pumping rate of 200 m3/day. These two remedy wells should capture the plume and no water from the pollution source should flow into water supply well. Assignment 9: Simulating new capture zone of the water supply well

1) 2) 3) 4)

Add two remedy wells in Well package Run MODFLOW Run PMPATH to delineate the capture zone of the water supply well and remedy wells Does the capture zone of the water supply wells cover the source area?

## Assignment 10: Checking concentration at the water supply well

1) 2) 3) 4)

Run MT3D Plot breakthrough curves of 5 observation wells, explain the concentration at the water supply well Plot contour map of concentration at t=3600 days Are the water supply wells effectively protected?