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International Seminar on Climate Change Environment Insight for Climate Change Mitigation




Dody Setiawan 1 *, Swari Farkhah Mufida 2 , Nadita Zairina Suchesdian 3

Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia 1*

Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia 2 Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia 3

Abstract Climate change has been an issue which frighten world society and affect many vital sectors. Indonesia which has much of natural resources potentially supply some alternative energy to mitigate climate change impacts. Solar, water, and wind are some energy available which will not polute the environment. This research will analyze potential and capacity of three kinds of energy available in Indonesia: solar, water, and wind.

Keywords: climate change, hydropower, renewable energy, solar energy, wind energy.

1. INTRODUCTION Today, the old controversial issue of climate change has been a real issue. Climate change is world society problem because of its impact which affect various sector in whole world. Climate change triggers extreme weather to be more regular and stronger. A few months ago, Europe and America had been stricken by winter storm which obstructed daily activity and community economy. In Australia, snow had fallen in summer season. In Indonesia, it has occured season sifting which harmed Indonesian farmers because they had problem in determining harvesting and cropping phase. Carbon dioxide is one of gas which highly contribute to increase green house effect which then causing climate change. Carbon dioxide measurement in Mauna Loa showed significant increase of carbon dioxide in atmosphere since 1958. Increasing of carbon dioxide also correspondence with increasing of global temperature. One of carbon dioxide emittor comes from energy based fossil fuel. Indonesia is wide country which needs large energy. Today, technology of fossil fuel based energy is not environmentally friendly so that cause environmental degradation.

Indonesian Goverment has a commitment which was expressed in a Presidential Decree No. 5 announced in 2006, which set the direction for our National Energy policies. This target will be reached by creating an enabling environment, in which both private, including civil society organizations, and public sector organizations have the mandate, right and responsibility to work on actual undertakings to achieve these targets. In July 2002, General Directorate of Electricity and Energy Utilization had promoted green energy which is unification of renewable energy, efficient energy and clean energy to create sustainable development.


Solar cells (as the name implies) are designed to convert (at least a portion of) available light into electrical energy. They do this without the use of either chemical reactions or moving parts [8]. The development of the solar cell stems

from the work of the French physicist Antoine-César Becquerel in 1839. By 1927 another metal semiconductor-junction solar cell, in this case made of copper and the semiconductor copper oxide, had been demonstrated. By the 1930s both the

International Seminar on Climate Change

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selenium cell and the copper oxide cell were being employed in light-sensitive devices, such as photometers, for use in photography. These early solar cells, however, still had energy-conversion efficiencies of less than 1 percent. This impasse was finally overcome with the development of the silicon solar cell by Russell Ohl in 1941. In 1954, three other American researchers, G.L. Pearson, Daryl Chapin, and Calvin Fuller, demonstrated a silicon solar cell capable of a 6-percent energy-conversion efficiency when used in direct sunlight. By the late 1980s silicon cells, as well as those made of gallium arsenide, with efficiencies of more than 20 percent had been fabricated. In 1989 a concentrator solar cell, a type of device in which sunlight is concentrated onto the cell surface by means of lenses, achieved an efficiency of 37 percent due to the increased intensity of the collected energy. In general, solar cells of widely varying efficiencies and cost are now available [8]. 2.1 Operating Principles Modern solar cells are based on semiconductor physics -- they are basically just P-N junction photodiodes with a very large light-sensitive area. The photovoltaic effect, which causes the cell to convert light directly into electrical energy, occurs in the three energy-conversion layers. The first of these three layers necessary for energy conversion in a solar cell is the top junction layer (made of N-type semiconductor ). The next layer in the structure is the core of the device; this is the absorber layer (the P-N junction). The last of the energy-conversion layers is the back junction layer (made of P-type semiconductor). As may be seen in the above diagram, there are two additional layers that must be present in a solar cell. These are the electrical contact layers. There must obviously be two such layers to allow electric current to flow out of and into the cell.

The electrical contact layer on the face of the cell where light enters is generally present in some grid pattern and is composed of a good conductor such as a metal. The grid pattern does not cover the


entire face of the cell since grid materials, though good electrical conductors, are generally not transparent to light. Hence, the grid pattern must be widely spaced to allow light to enter the solar cell but not to the extent that the electrical contact layer will have difficulty collecting the current produced by the cell. The back electrical contact layer has no such diametrically opposed restrictions. It need simply function as an electrical contact and thus covers the entire back surface of the cell structure. Because the back layer must be a very good electrical conductor, it is always made of metal [8].

good electrical conductor, it is always made of metal [8]. Figure 1. Operating Solar Cell 2.2

Figure 1. Operating Solar Cell

2.2 Calculation

Solar cells are characterized by a maximum Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) at zero output current and a Short Circuit Current (Isc) at zero output voltage. Since power can be computed via this equation:

P = I * V


Then with one term at zero these conditions (V = Voc / I = 0, V = 0 / I = Isc )

also represent zero power. As you might then expect, a combination of less than maximum current and voltage can be found that maximizes the power produced (called, not surprisingly, the "maximum power point"). Many BEAM designs (and, in particular, solar engines) attempt to stay at (or near) this point. The tricky part is building a design that can find the maximum power point regardless of lighting conditions



Potential in Indonesia

Indonesia receives sunlight on average 250-300 W/m 2 per year, and 14 hours / day,

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this potential should be exploited for the use

of alternative energy is solar cells [2]. The

potential of solar energy in Indonesia with an average daily radiation is 4.8

kWh/m 2 [10]. Based on solar radiation data collected in Indonesia from 18 locations, solar

radiation in Indonesia can be classified for western and eastern regions of Indonesia with radiation distribution in the Western Region of Indonesia (KBI) about 4.5 kWh /

m 2 / day with monthly variations of about 10%, and in Eastern Indonesia (KTI) of approximately 5.1 kWh / m 2 / day with monthly variations of about 9% [14].

3. HYDROPOWER Water power is one of the oldest sources of energy used by people. Today, the kinetic energy in water is mainly used to generate electricity. The process is as easy as it is efficient; water flowing downhill drives a waterwheel or a turbine, which generates electricity.[3]

Hydropower is relatively constant and can be stored easily. As a result, a number of hydropower plants can be used to provide baseload power. And water stored in lakes can also be sent through turbines in seconds to provide peak power. Water power is therefore a very flexible source of renewable energy [15]. Hydropower is called a renewable energy source because the water on the earth

is continuously replenished by precipitation.

As long as the water cycle continues, we

won’t run out of this energy source.

cycle continues, we won’t run out of this energy source. . Figure 2. Water power: Global


Figure 2. Water power: Global potential, used and untapped [9].

The picture shows that the potential hydropower ini Asia is the biggest in the world, reach the number 5.000 Twh/a and only 10% which have been use as an alternative energy. Indonesia which is one of the country in Asia Continent also has a big potent to use hydropower as its alternative energy. Indonesian Country that consist of many islands has a large area of water zone. The land water is like big rivers and lake in Indonesia that distribute all over the country and the marine water that around the country. So, developing hydropower in Indonesia is suitable to reduce used of fossil fuel as energy which non renewable and causes side effect such as green house gas. 3.1 Hydroelectricity Hydropower could be used as an alternative energy to replace the fossil fuel by forming hydroelectricity. Water energy is transformed to electric energy and then uses as fuel in machineries. To make hydroelectricity, dams are used. Dams are built on rivers where the terrain will produce an artificial lake or reservoir above the dam. A dam serves two purposes at a hydro plant. First, a dam increases the head or height of the water. Second, it controls the flow of water. Dams release water when it is needed for electricity production. Special gates called spillway gates release excess water from the reservoir during heavy rainfalls.

excess water from the reservoir during heavy rainfalls. Figure 3. Hydroelectricity Power Plant [15]. Hydroelectric

Figure 3. Hydroelectricity Power Plant [15].

Hydroelectric plants use turbine generators to produce electricity, just as thermal (coal, oil, nuclear) power plants do, except that they do not produce heat to spin the turbines. A typical hydro plant is a system with three parts:

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a power plant where the electricity is produced.

a dam that can be opened or closed to control water flow.

a reservoir (artificial lake) where water can be stored. To generate electricity, a dam opens its gates to allow water from the reservoir above to flow down through large tubes called penstocks. At the bottom of the penstocks, the fast-moving water spins the blades of turbines. The turbines are connected to generators to produce electricity. The electricity is then transported via huge transmission lines to a local utility company. The amount of electricity that can be generated at a hydro plant is determined by two factors: head and flow. Head is how far the water drops. It is the distance from the highest level of the dammed water to the point where it goes through the power- producing turbine. Flow is how much water moves through the system—the more water that moves through a system, the higher the flow. Generally, a high-head plant needs less water flow than a low-head plant to produce the same amount of electricity [15].

3.2 Calculation of the Hydropower

Energy Hydropower can be converted in the form of electricity through hydroelectric power plants. All that is required is a continuous inflow of water and a difference of height between the water level of the upstream intake of the power plant and its downstream outlet. In order to evaluate the power of flowing water, we may assume a uniform steady flow between two cross-sections of a river, with H (metres) of difference in water surface elevation between two sections for a

flow of Q (m 3 /s), the power (P) can be expressed as



(source: 16)

3.3 Potential in Indonesia

Actually, in all provinces in Indonesia, could be built hydroelectricity using hydropower. It could be held, because most of the Indonesian land has surface water as rivers or lakes such as Toba Lake, Jatiluhur Basin, and Mahakam River. Waterfalls are


also present there. The big power from the waterfalls can generate large electricity as fuel. For that reason, it will be better if Indonesia use hydropower as alternative energy beside its renewable function. Renewable energy capacity of hydropower in Indonsia is 2.870 MW from 10.577 MW resources. Indonesia could produce 17.4 TWH which is directly used as electricity for machineries [7]. The Papua provincial administration is planning to build a 2,000 -megawatt (MW) hydro-power plant to meet electricity demand and to support infrastructure needs in Papua [12].


Solar energy drives the wind, which is then dissipated due to turbulence and friction at the earth’s surface. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between the kinetic energy in the wind and the rate and limits of the extraction of that energy or the power in the wind and the maximum wind power

extractable. A comparison can be made on the basis of the kinetic energy of the winds per unit area. Only 2% of the solar input is converted into wind power and 35% of that is dissipated within 1 km of the earth’s surface. This is the wind power available for conversion to other forms of energy [6]. Annually, over the earth’s land masses, around 1.7 million TWh of energy is generated in the form of wind. Over the globe as a whole the figure is much higher. Even so, only a small fraction of the wind energy can be harnessed to generate useful energy [1].

4.1 Operating Principles

The operation is based on the scientific theory of fluid mechanics and some elements of aerodynamics. Wind turbines catch the wind by turning into or away from air flows. Wind moves the propellers mounted on a rotor and the movement turns a high-speed shaft coupled to an electric or induction generator. Rotor blade design parameters such as chord, twist angle, and length are selected to achieve optimum aerodynamic performance and acceleration efects under various wind conditions at

diferent tower height levels [5].

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The blades intersect the wind and capture the energy it contains, energy which causes them to rotate in a vertical plane about the shaft axis. The slow rotation of the shaft is normally increased by use of a gearbox, from which the rotational motion is delivered to a generator. The electrical output from the generator is then taken through cables down the turbine tower to a substation where the power is eventually fed into the electricity grid. The mechanical components at the top of the turbine tower – the rotor, gearbox and generator – are all mounted on a platform that can pivot, or yaw, about a vertical axis so that the rotor shaft is always aligned with the wind


4.1 Equation of power Density The wind energy potential over Indonesian region can be analysed by mapping the power density. The formula to calculate a wind power density :

P = 0.625 v 3



where P is power density (W/m 2 ) and v is wind velocity (m/s) [4]. 4.2 Development of Wind Energy in Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) has a mandate in development of aerospace affairs sector. Wind Energy Conversion System (Sistem Konversi Energi Angin-SKEA) is one of its programs to develop an alternative energy in Indonesia. Lapan has monitored and identified potential zone by mapping potential wind resource continuity. This technology has been applied by regional government, Department of Transmigration, Department of Maritime and Fisheries, civilian, etc. By monitoring and evaluating data of wind energy potential in Indonesia, it is founded some area which have high potential of wind energy.

Table 1. Grouping of wind energy potential and potential location by LAPAN [11].


Wind velocity

Specific Power (W/m 2 )

Capacity (kW)







- 4.0

< 75

< 10











- 5.0

75 – 150

10 – 100

NTB, NTT, South Sulawesi, Southern Java




> 5.0

> 100

> 100

South Sulawesi, NTB, NTT, Southern Coast Java


a) December-January-February

Southern Coast Java Scale a) December-January-February c) June-July-August b) March-April-May d)

c) June-July-August

Scale a) December-January-February c) June-July-August b) March-April-May d) September-October-November Figure 4 .

b) March-April-May

c) June-July-August b) March-April-May d) September-October-November Figure 4 . Power density of

d) September-October-November

b) March-April-May d) September-October-November Figure 4 . Power density of wind energy at level of 925

Figure 4. Power density of wind energy at level of 925 mb 1996-2005 [12].

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Environment Insight for Climate Change Mitigation ISBN No Figure 5. Potential Wind Energy of Indonesia In

Figure 5. Potential Wind Energy of Indonesia

In some place in Indonesia high velocity of wind flows only in certain times. In December, January and February some places have good power density such as Southern Coast of Java Island started from Palabuhan Ratu to Banyuwangi, Bali, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Nusa Tenggara Barat, south-west of Borneo Island and southern Sulawesi (see figure 4.a). In this month, potential value of density could be converted to wind energy power is to 2.1 MW/m 2 , because some area is located on the land. In March, April and May, the potential areas of wind energy are spread out from south of Bali island to Nusa Tenggara and some area at Arafuru ocean. In these months, maximum value of power density is to 1.1 MW/m2, with a potential value could be converted be wind energy power is to 0.8


During June, July and August, the maximum value of power density are higher than other months. It is up to 3.6 MW/m 2 . During June, July, August, December, January and February the monsoons influences are higher than other months. The same area with the last period is high potential to develop wind energy power generation. In the month of September, October and November, the maximum value of power density is low but it is still higher than the one during March, April and May. The Maximum of power density is to 1.7 MW/m 2 , with the potential value for power generation is to 1.1 MW/m 2 . Again, the area of south of Bali island to Nusa Tenggara and some area at Arafuru ocean have potential area that have a good potential wind energy power (Figure 4.d). Indonesia has potential of wind energy of 73 Gigawatt. In this level, the maximum value of power density is 3.6 MW/m 2 with a


potential wind power energy could be develop is to 1.1 MW/m 2 . Southern Bali, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur and Merauke (Papua) are places with high wind velocity throughout the month so that they are good potential area of wind energy. Althouh has enough wind, wind velocity in

Indonesia is not constant enough so that the energy generated by wind turbine will fluctuate [12].

on Indonesia has increased its wind power capacity since 2004 from 0.5 MW to 1.4 MW in 2010. It is very low compared with europian countries which have thousand MW capacity from wind turbine. Although it only generate small energy, Indonesia still develop the energy from wind turbine by the project SKEA (Wind Energy Conversion System).




6. CONCLUSIONS Solar energy always present in Indonesia because Indonesia is tropical country. Much of solar energy is avalaible in Indonesia so that it can be utilised by making solar panel to generate electricity. Actually, in all provinces in Indonesia could be built a hydroelectricity use hydropower. It could be held, because most of the Indonesian land has surface water as rivers or lakes. Potential of energy from hydropower is good enough so that Indonesian Government should develop this technology. Wind energy potential in indonesia is smaller than other renewable energy. This is caused by unconstant wind velocity flows over Indonesia. Some places which have good potential of wind energy are Southern Java Island, Bali, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Nusa Tenggara barat, and Merauke. Overall, wind energy only generates small energy, but Indonesian Government still improve wind energy technology by SKEA program. With its potential of some renewable energy, Indonesia can reduce its emission from energy generation. It means that Indonesia potentially mitigate climate change impact by using renewable energy.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Authors are grateful to Dr.Ir. Sobri Effendi, M.Si from Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, IPB, for lending his enthusiastic to support finishing this paper.


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