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BEAM ANALYSIS USING THE STIFFNESS

METHOD
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Development: The Slope-Deflection


Equations
Stiffness Matrix
General Procedures
Internal Hinges
Temperature Effects
Force & Displacement Transformation
Skew Roller Support

Slope Deflection Equations


P

Cj

settlement = j

Mij

Mji

Degrees of Freedom
M

1 DOF:

2 DOF: ,

P
B

Stiffness Definition

kAA

kBA

A
L
k AA =

4 EI
L

k BA =

2 EI
L

kBB

kAB

1
L
k BB =

4 EI
L

k AB =

2 EI
L

Fixed-End Forces
Fixed-End Forces: Loads
P
L/2

PL
8

L/2

PL
8

L
P
2

P
2

w
wL2
12
wL
2

wL2
12
wL
2

General Case

Cj

settlement = j

Mij

Mji

Mij

Mji

i
L

4 EI
2 EI
i +
j = M
ij
L
L

Mji =

2 EI
4 EI
i +
j
L
L

i
(MFij)

+
(MFji)
settlement = j

+
P
(MFij)Load

M ij = (

settlement = j

w
(MFji)Load

4 EI
2 EI
2 EI
4 EI
) i + (
) j + ( M F ij ) + ( M F ij ) Load , M ji = (
) i + (
) j + ( M F ji ) + ( M F ji ) Load 8
L
L
L
L

Equilibrium Equations
i

Cj

Cj M

Mji
Mji

jk

Mjk
j

+ M j = 0 : M ji M jk + C j = 0

Stiffness Coefficients
Mij

Mji

kii =

4 EI
L

k ji =

2 EI
L

k jj =

4 EI
L

kij =

2 EI
L

+
1

10

Matrix Formulation

M ij = (

4 EI
2 EI
) i + (
) j + ( M F ij )
L
L

M ji = (

2 EI
4 EI
) i + (
) j + ( M F ji )
L
L

M ij (4 EI / L) ( 2 EI / L) iI M ij F
M =
+ M F
EI
L
EI
L
(
2
/
)
(
4
/
)
j ji
ji

kii
k ji

[k ] =

kij
k jj

Stiffness Matrix
11

Mij

Mji

[ M ] = [ K ][ ] + [ FEM ]

([ M ] [ FEM ]) = [ K ][ ]

[ ] = [ K ]1[ M ] [ FEM ]

Mij

Mji

Fixed-end moment
Stiffness matrix matrix

+
(MFij)

(MFji)

[D] = [K]-1([Q] - [FEM])


+
(MFij)Load

(MFji)Load

Displacement
matrix

Force matrix

12

Stiffness Coefficients Derivation


Mj

Mi

Real beam
i

Mi + M j
L

Mi + M j

L/3

M jL
2 EI

Mj
EI

Conjugate beam
Mi
EI

MiL
2 EI

M j L 2L
MiL L
)( ) + (
)( ) = 0
2 EI 3
2 EI 3
M i = 2 M j (1)

+ M 'i = 0 : (

+ Fy = 0 : i (

M L
MiL
) + ( j ) = 0 (2)
2 EI
2 EI

From (1) and (2);


4 EI
) i
L
2 EI
) i
Mj =(
L
Mi = (

13

Derivation of Fixed-End Moment


Point load

P Real beam

Conjugate beam
A

M
EI

M
M
EI

M
EI

ML
2 EI

PL2
16 EI

PL
4 EI

ML
2 EI 2
PL
16 EI

M
EI

PL
ML ML 2 PL2
+ Fy = 0 :

+
= 0, M =
2 EI 2 EI 16 EI
8 14

P
PL
8

PL
8

L
P
2

P
2

P/2

PL/8

P/2

-PL/8

-PL/8
-

-PL/8

-PL/16
-

-PL/16
PL/4
+

-PL/8

PL PL PL PL
+
=
+
16
16
4
8

15

Uniform load
w

Real beam

Conjugate beam
A

B
M
EI

M
EI

M
EI

ML
2 EI

ML
2 EI

wL3
24 EI

wL2
8 EI

M
EI

wL3
24 EI

wL2
ML ML 2 wL3
+ Fy = 0 :

+
= 0, M =
2 EI 2 EI 24 EI
12 16

Settlements
Mi = Mj

Real beam

Mj

Conjugate beam

L
Mi + M j

M
EI

M
EI

Mi + M j
L
M
EI

ML
2 EI

ML
2 EI

M
EI

+ M B = 0 : (

ML L
ML 2 L
)( ) + (
)( ) = 0,
2 EI 3
2 EI 3
M=

6 EI
L2

17

Typical Problem

CB
w

P1

P2
C

A
B

L1

PL
8

PL
8

L2
wL2
12

L
0
PL
4 EI
2 EI
M AB =
A +
B + 0 + 1 1
8
L1
L1
0 EI
PL
2 EI
4
M BA =
A +
B + 0 1 1
8
L1
L1
0
2
P2 L2 wL2
4 EI
2 EI
M BC =
B +
C + 0 +
+
L2
L2
8
12
0
2
P2 L2 wL2
2 EI
4 EI
B +
C + 0 +

M CB =
8
12
L2
L2

wL2
12

18

CB
w

P1

P2
C

A
B

L1

L2

CB M
BC

MBA

M BA =
M BC

PL
2 EI
4 EI
A +
B + 0 1 1
8
L1
L1

P L wL
4 EI
2 EI
=
B +
C + 0 + 2 2 + 2
L2
L2
8
12

+ M B = 0 : C B M BA M BC = 0 Solve for B

19

P1
MAB

CB
w

MBA

A
L1

P2

MBC
L2

C M
CB

Substitute B in MAB, MBA, MBC, MCB


0
PL
4 EI
2 EI
A +
B + 0 + 1 1
M AB =
L1
L1
8
0 EI
PL
2 EI
4
M BA =
A +
B + 0 1 1
8
L1
L1
0
2
4 EI
2 EI
P2 L2 wL2
B +
C + 0 +
+
M BC =
8
12
L2
L2
0
2
P2 L2 wL2
2 EI
4 EI
B +
C + 0 +

M CB =
L2
L2
8
12

20

P1
MAB
A

Ay

CB
w

MBA
B

L1

P2
MCB

MBC
L2

Cy

By = ByL + ByR

P1
MAB

A
Ay

L1

MBA

ByL

P2

MBC
ByR

L2

C
MCB

Cy

21

Stiffness Matrix
Node and Member Identification
Global and Member Coordinates
Degrees of Freedom
Known degrees of freedom D4, D5, D6, D7, D8 and D9
Unknown degrees of freedom D1, D2 and D3

5
14

2EI
1

2
21

EI
2

8
3

22

Beam-Member Stiffness Matrix


3

E, I, A, L

k14
AE/L

k41
AE/L

k11 = AE/L

AE/L = k44

d1 = 1

d4 = 1
1

[k] =

AE/L

- AE/L

-AE/L

AE/L

23

6EI/L2 = k32

[k] =

E, I, A, L

k62 = 6EI/L2

d2 = 1
k22 =

6
6EI/L2 = k65

5
6EI/L2 = k35

d5 = 1
12EI/L3 = k52

12EI/L3
1

AE/L

12EI/L3 = k25
4

- AE/L

12EI/L3

- 12EI/L3

6EI/L2

- 6EI/L2

-AE/L

AE/L

-12EI/L3

12EI/L3

6EI/L2

- 6EI/L2

12EI/L3 = k55

24

2
k33 = 4EI/L

d3 = 1

E, I, A, L

2EI/L = k63

5
4EI/L = k66

2EI/L = k36
d6 = 1

k23 = 6EI/L2

[k] =

6EI/L2 = k53

k26 = 6EI/L2

6EI/L2 = k56

AE/L

- AE/L

12EI/L3

6EI/L2

- 12EI/L3

6EI/L2

6EI/L2

4EI/L

- 6EI/L2

2EI/L

-AE/L

AE/L

-12EI/L3

-6EI/L2

12EI/L3

-6EI/L2

6EI/L2

2EI/L

- 6EI/L2

4EI/L
25

Member Equilibrium Equations


Mi

Fxi

E, I, A, L

AE/L

AE/L x
i

Mj

Fyj
AE/L

AE/L

+
6EI/L2
6EI/L2

6EI/L2
1

x i
12EI/L3

12EI/L3

12EI/L3
4EI/L

x j

6EI/L2

Fyi

Fxj

2EI/L

x j

12EI/L3
4EI/L

2EI/L
x i

x j
1

6EI/L2
MFi

FFxi

FFyi

6EI/L2

6EI/L2

FFyj

FFxj

6EI/L2
MFj

26

Fxi = ( AE / L) i +
Fyi =

(0) i +

(0) i
Mxi =
Fxj = (AE / L) i
Fyj =

(0) i

Mj =

(0) i

Fxi

Fyj
Mi
=
Fxj
Fyj

M j

(0) i

(0) i +

(AE / L) j +

(0) j +

(0) j +

FxiF

(12EI / L3 ) i

(6EI / L2 ) i

(0) j

(12EI / L3 ) j

(6EI / L2 ) j

FyiF

(6EI / L2 ) i
(0) i

(4EI / L) i
(0) i

(0) j
( AE / L) j

(6EI / L2 ) j
(0) j

(2EI / L) j
(0) j

MiF
FxiF

(0) j

(0) j

(6EI / L2 ) j

FyjF

(0) j

(6EI / L2 ) j

(4EI / L) j

MjF

(12EI / L3 ) i (6EI / L2 ) i
(6EI / L2 ) i

(2EI / L) i

0
AE/ L

3
0
12
/
EI
L

0
6EI/ L2

0
AE/ L
0
12 EI/ L3

6EI/ L2
0

0
6EI/ L2
4 EI/ L
0
6EI/ L2
2EI/ L

AE/ L
0
12 EI/ L3
0
6EI/ L2
0
0
AE/ L
0
12 EI/ L3
6EI/ L2
0

Stiffness matrix

F
0
i Fxi


6EI/ L2 i FyiF
2EI/ L i MiF
+ F
0
j Fxj
6EI/ L2 j FyiF
F
4 EI/ L j M j

Fixed-end force matrix

[q] = [k][d] + [qF]


End-force matrix

Displacement matrix

27

6x6 Stiffness Matrix

[k ]66 =

Ni AE/ L
0
3
Vi 0
EI
L
12
/

Mi 0
6EI/ L2

Nj AE/ L
0
Vj 0
12 EI/ L3

6EI/ L2
Mj 0

AE/ L
0
12 EI/ L3
0

0
6EI/ L2
4 EI/ L

6EI/ L2

AE/ L

6EI/ L2

12 EI/ L3

2EI/ L

6EI/ L2

j
0

6EI/ L2
2EI/ L

6EI/ L2

4EI/ L

4x4 Stiffness Matrix

[k ]44

Vi 12 EI/ L3

Mi 6EI/ L2
Vj 12 EI/ L3

2
Mj 6EI/ L

i
6EI/ L2
4 EI/ L
6EI/ L2
2EI/ L

j
12 EI/ L3
6EI/ L2
12 EI/ L3
6EI/ L2

j
6EI/ L2

2EI/ L
6EI/ L2

4 EI/ L
28

2x2 Stiffness Matrix


i

[k ]22 =

Mi
Mj

4 EI / L 2EI / L

2EI / L 4 EI / L

Comment:
- When use 4x4 stiffness matrix, specify settlement.
- When use 2x2 stiffness matrix, fixed-end forces must be included.

29

General Procedures: Application of the Stiffness Method for Beam Analysis


P2y

P
M2

M1

2
Global

4
1

6
3

2
Local

5
2

4
2

30

P2y

P
M2

M1

2
Global

4
1

6
3

2
Member

5
4

6
2

Local

3
31

P2y

P
M2

M1

Global

Local

5
2

4
2

P
(qF

2)1

[FEF]

(qF1 )1

(qF1)2

(qF4 )2

(qF4)1
(qF3)1

(qF2)2

(qF3 )2

32

2
Global

Local

[q] = [T]T[q]
q1
q
2 =
q3

q4 1

1
2
3
4

1
1
0

2
0
1
0
0

3
0
0
1
0

4
0
0
0

q1'
q
2'
q3'

q4 '

[k] = [T]T[q] [T]


33

2
Global

5
2

Local

4
2

[q] = [T]T[q]
q3
q
4 =
q5

q6 2

3
4
5
6

1
1
0

2
0
1
0
0

3
0
0
1
0

4
0
0
0

q1'
q
2'
q3'

q4 '

[k] = [T]T[q] [T]


34

Stiffness Matrix:
1

[k]1 =

4
3
3

[k]2 =

[K] =

3
4
5
6

Member 1

Node 2
Member 2

5
6
35

2
1

Joint Load
Qk

6
2

M
Q 2 1z
-P2y
Q 3
Q 4 M3z

=
Q
1
Q 5

Q
6
Reaction
Qu

Du=Dunknown 5

2 3 4 1 5 6
2

3
4

1
5
6

KAA
KBA

KAB

KBB

D2 Q 2F
D F
3 Q 3
D 4 Q 4F
0 + F
D1 Q1
D5 0 Q F
0 5F
D6 Q 6

Dk = Dknown

[Q k ] = [K AA ][Du ] + [Q AF ]

QFA

QFB

[Du ] = [K AA ]1 + ([Qk ] [QAF ])

[ ]

Member Force : [q ] = [k ][d ] + q F

36

Global:

(qF2)1

(qF

[FEF]

1
2
3
4

Member 1

Q2 = M 1
2
Q = P

2y = 3
3

Q4 = M 2
4

(qF6 )2
(qF3)2

Node 2
Member 2
2

Node 2

w
2

(qF3)1

(qF1 )1
Q1
M
Q 2 1
Q 3 -P2y
M =
Q 4 2
Q 5

Q
6

4)2

(qF4)1

D1 0

D
2
D3

+
D
4
D5 0
0
D6

D2 Q 2F
D F
3 + Q 3
D4 Q 4F

(qF5 )2

Q1F

F
Q
2

F
F
F
Q 3 = (q 3 ) 1 + (q 3 ) 2
F

F
F
Q
q
q
=
+
(
)
(
)
4
4 1
4 2

Q 5F

F
Q

37

2
1

4
1

2
2
D2

D
3
=
3

D4
4

Node 2

Q2 = M 1 Q2F

Q F
Q
P
=

2y
3
3
Q = M Q F
2
4
4

38

P
qF2
qF4

qF1

[FEF]

qF3

Member 1:
1
q 1

2
q 2 =
q 3
3

4
q 4

3
k1

4
d1 = 0

d
D
=
2
2

+
d 3 = D3

d 4 = D4

q 1F
F
q 2
q 3F
F
q 4

39

w
qF6
qF4

qF3

[FEM]

qF5

Member 2:
q3
q
4
q5

q6

1
=

2
3
4

3
k1

q3F
d 3 = D3
F
d = D
4
4

+ q4
q5F
d5 = 0
F

d
=
0
q6
6

40

Example 1
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine the deflection and rotation at B.
(b) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(c) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams.

10 kN
1 kN/m
B

A
9m

C
1.5 m
3m

41

10 kN
1 kN/m
C

1.5 m
3m

9m
3

Global

Members

2
2

10 kN
1 kN/m

1.5 m

[FEF]
wL2/12

= 6.75

9m

wL2/12

= 6.75 PL/8 = 3.75

1.5 m
2

PL/8 = 3.75
42

2
1

9m

3m

Stiffness Matrix:

i
Mi
Mj

[k ]22 =

[k]1= EI

4 EI / L 2EI / L

2EI / L 4 EI / L

4/9

2/9

2/9

4/9

[k]2 = EI
2

[K] = EI

4/3

2/3

2/3

4/3

(4/9)+(4/3) 2/3

2/3

4/3

43

10 kN

1 kN/m
A

6.75

6.75
9m

3.75
1.5 m 1.5 m

Equilibrium equations: MCB = 0


MBA + MBC = 0
Global Equilibrium: [Q] = [K][D] + [QF]
2
2

MBA + MBC = 0

MCB = 0

B
C

= EI

(4/9)+(4/3) 2/3

2/3

4/3

-6.75 + 3.75 = -3
-3.75

0.779/EI
2.423/EI
44

2
1

1 kN/m
[FEF]
9m

wL2/12 = 6.75

wL2/12 = 6.75

Substitute B and C in the member matrix,


Member 1
3

MAB

MBA

= EI

[q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1


3

4/9

2/9

2/9

4/9

B= 0.779/EI

6.75

-6.75

1 kN/m
4.56 kN

-6.40

6.40 kNm

6.92 kNm
9m

6.92

4.44 kN
45

10 kN
1

1.5 m

PL/8 = 3.75

1.5 m
2

PL/8 = 3.75

[FEF]
Substitute B and C in the member matrix,
Member 2 :
2

MBC

MCB

= EI

[q]2 = [k]2[d]2 + [qF]2


2

4/3

2/3

B = 0.779/EI

2/3

4/3

C = 2.423/EI

3.75
-3.75

6.40

10 kN
6.40 kNm

7.13 kN

2.87 kN
46

10 kN

1 kN/m

6.40
6.40

6.92
4.56 kN

4.44 kN
1 kN/m

6.92 kNm

7.13 kN

B = +0.779/EI

10 kN

2.87 kN

C = +2.423/EI
C

A
4.56 kN

B
9m

11.57 kN
2.87 kN
1.5 m 1.5 m
7.13

4.56
V (kN)

x (m)
4.56 m
-4.44

M
(kNm)
-6.92

-2.87
4.32

3.48

x (m)
-6.40

47

Example 2
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine the deflection and rotation at B.
(b) Determine all the reactions at supports.

20 kN
9kN/m

40 kNm
EI

2EI
A

B
4m

C
4m

48

2EI
1

[k ] =

Vi 12 EI/ L3
Mi
2
6
/
EI
L

Vj
12 EI/ L3
Mj 6EI/ L2

EI

j
2

4 EI/ L

6EI/ L
2EI/ L

12 EI/ L
6EI/ L2
12 EI/ L3
6EI/ L2

6EI/ L

2EI/ L
6EI/ L2

4 EI/ L

0.375EI

0.75EI

3
4

-0.75EI

EI

-0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI


0.75EI

EI

0.5625

-0.375

[K] = EI

-0.375

[k]2

0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI


2EI

[k]1
1

j
3

6EI/ L

Use 4x4 stiffness matrix,

-0.75EI 2EI

3
3
4
5
6

0.1875EI 0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI


0.375EI

EI

-0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI


0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.375EI

EI
49

20 kN
9kN/m
12 kNm
18 kN

4m

40 kNm
12 kNm
18 kN

Global:

Q4 = 40
D3
D4

= EI

2EI

1
1
[Q] = [K][D] + [QF]

3 Q3 = -20

4m

0.5625

-0.375

-0.375

EI

D3
D4

18

-12

-61.09/EI
9.697/EI

50

2EI
1

9 kN/m

12 kNm
A

[qF]1

18 kN

Member 1:

12 kNm

18 kN

[q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1


1
q1

q2

q3L

q4L

12(2EI)/430.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI


0.75EI

2EI

-0.75EI

EI

-0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI


0.75EI

EI

-0.75EI 2EI
9 kN/m

A
67.51 kNm
48.18 kN

1
[q]1

d1 = 0

18

48.18

d2 = 0

12

67.51

d3 = -61.09/EI

18

-12.18

d4 = 9.697/EI

-12

53.21

53.21 kNm
B
12.18 kN
51

EI
2

Member 2:
[q]2 = [k]2[d]2 + [qF]2
3
q3R

q4R

q5

q6

0.1875EI 0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI


0.375EI

EI

-0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI


0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.375EI

7.82 kN

-7.818

d4 = 9.697/EI

-13.21

d5 = 0

7.818

d6 = 0

-18.06

18.06 kNm

13.21 kNm
B

EI

d3 =-61.09/EI

2
[q]2

C
7.82 kN
52

9 kN/m
A
67.51 kNm
48.18 kN

53.21 kNm

12.18 kN

[q]1

18.06 kNm

13.21 kNm

7.82 kN

7.82 kN

[q]2

20 kN
9kN/m

40 kNm
D3 = B = -61.09/EI

67.51 kNm
48.18 kN
48.18

4m

D4 = B = +9.697/EI 4 m

V (kN)

18.06 kNm
7.818 kN

12.18

x (m)

M
(kNm)

+
-

-67.51

-7.818

-7.818
53.21
13.21
-

x (m)
-18.08
53

Example 3
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine the deflection and rotation at B.
(b) Determine all the reactions at supports.

20 kN
9kN/m

10 kN

40 kNm
EI

2EI
A

B
4m

C
2m

2m

54

20 kN
9kN/m
A

3
1

Vi 12 EI/ L3
Mi
2
EI
L
6
/

Vj
12 EI/ L3
Mj 6EI/ L2

5
3

10 kN
12 kNm

18 kN

9 kN/m

[FEF]

EI
2m

2m
4

12 kNm

[k ]44

40 kNm

2EI
4m

Global

10 kN

6EI/ L2

12 EI/ L3
6EI/ L2
12 EI/ L3
6EI/ L2

6EI/ L2
2EI/ L

5 kNm

18 kN

4 EI/ L

5 kNm

5 kN

6EI/ L2

2EI/ L
6EI/ L2

4 EI/ L

5 kN

55

3
1

1
1

[k]1 =

2
3
4

0.75EI
0.75EI

0.1875EI

0.375EI

2m

2m

2EI

-0.75EI

EI

-0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI

12(2EI)/43 0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI

[k]2 =

4m
2

EI
4

-0.75EI 2EI/L
5

[K] = EI
6

0.5625

-0.375

0.375

4
6

-0.375
0.375

3
0.5

0.5
1

0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI


EI

-0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI


0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.375EI

EI
56

20 kN
9kN/m

10 kN

40 kNm

C
6

B4

3
1

5
2

10 kN

9 kN/m

12 kNm

12 kNm

[FEF]

18 kN

MBA+MBC = 40

= EI

MCB = 0

B
B
C

5 kNm

18 kN

Global: [Q] = [K][D] + [QF]


VBL+VBR = -20

5 kNm

5 kN

5 kN
6

0.5625

-0.375

0.375

4
6

-0.375
0.375

3
0.5

0.5
1

B
C

18 + 5 = 23
-12 + 5 = -7
-5

-116.593/EI

-7.667/EI
52.556/EI

57

3
1

9 kN/m

12 kNm

12 kNm
18 kN

18 kN

[FEF]

[q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1

Member 1:
1

VA

0.375EI 0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI

18

55.97

MAB

0.75EI

12

91.78

VBL
MBA

3
4

2EI

-0.75EI

EI

-0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI B =-116.593/EI


0.75EI

EI

-0.75EI 2EI/L

B =-7.667/EI

18
-12

-19.97
60.11

9kN/m
91.78 kNm

4m
55.97 kN

60.11 kNm
19.97 kN

58

10 kN

5
3

5 kN
Member 2:

VBR

0.1875EI

MBC

0.375EI

MCB

5
6

[FEM]

5 kN

[q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1


3

VC

5 kNm

5 kNm

0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI


EI

-0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI


0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.375EI

EI

B =-116.593/EI

-0.0278

B =-7.667/EI

-20.11

C =52.556/EI

5
-5

10.03
0

10 kN
20.11 kNm

2m

2m
2

0.0278 kN

10.03 kN

59

9kN/m

91.78 kNm

10 kN

20.11 kNm
2m
1

4m

19.97 kN

55.97 kN

60.11 kNm
20 kN

9kN/m

2m
2

0.0278 kN

10.03 kN

10 kN

C = 52.556/EI

40 kNm

91.78 kNm
55.97 kN

B = -7.667/EI

10.03 kN

B = -116.593/EI

4m

55.97

2m

2m

19.97
+

V (kN)

60.11
M
(kNm)
-91.78

+
-

-0.0278

-10.03

x (m)
-10.03

20.11
x (m)
60

Example 4
For the beam shown:
(a) Use the stiffness method to determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative free-body diagram of member.
(c) Draw the quantitative shear diagram, bending moment diagram
and qualitative deflected shape.
Take I = 200(106) mm4 and E = 200 GPa and support B settlement 10 mm.
40 kN

6 kN/m
B
A

2EI
8m

EI
B = -10 mm
4m

4m

61

2EI

EI
2

i
Use 2x2 stiffness matrix:

[k]1 =

EI
8

[k ]22 =

[K] =

EI
8

Mi
Mj

4 EI / L 2EI / L

2EI / L 4 EI / L

[k]2 =
2

12

EI
8

62

40 kN

6 kN/m

B
A

C
EI
B = -10 mm
4m
4m

2EI
8m

40 kN

6 kN/m

[FEM]load

wL2/12 = 32 kNm

32 kNm

10 mm

6(2EI)/L2 = 75 kNm
Global:
Q2 = 0
Q3 = 0
D2
D3

12

D2

D3

185.64/EI

37.5 kNm

6(EI)/L2 = 37.5 kNm


3

-61.27/EI

40 kNm

10 mm

[Q] = [K][D] +2[QF]


EI
=
8

PL/8 = 40 kNm

75 kNm

[FEM]

-32 + 40 + 75 -37.5 = 45.5


-40 - 37.5 = -77.5

rad
rad

63

6 kN/m

[FEM]load

2EI

wL2/12 = 32 kNm

32 kNm
75 kNm

[FEM]

10 mm

6(2EI)/L2 = 75 kNm
Member 1:

q1
q2

EI
=
8

[q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1


1

d1 = 0

d2 = -61.27/EI

76.37 kNm

6 kN/m

32 + 75 = 107

-32 + 75 = 43

76.37 kNm

-18.27 kNm

18.27 kNm

8m 1
31.26 kN

16.74 kN
64

40 kN
[FEM]load

PL/8 = 40 kNm

40 kNm
37.5 kNm

[FEM]

10 mm

6(EI)D/L2 = 37.5 kNm


Member 2:

q2
q3

EI
8

[q]2 = [k]2[d]2 + [qF]2


2

d2 = -61.27/EI

d3 = 185.64/EI

40 - 37.5 = 2.5

-40 - 37.5 = -77.5

18.27 kNm

kNm

40 kN
18.27 kNm
2

22.28 kN

17.72 kN
65

2EI

EI
2

1
Alternate method: Use 4x4 stiffness matrix
1

[K]

1.5

-0.375

1.5

-1.5

-1.5

0.375

-1.5

-1.5

1 12(2)/82
EI 2
1.5
=
8 3
-0.375
4
1.5

[k]1

3 12/82
4
0.75

EI
8 5

0.75
4

-0.1875 -0.75

8
3

0.75
5

1
2

0.375
1.5

1.5
8

-0.375
-1.5

EI 3
=
8 4
5

-0.375

-1.5

0.5625

1.5
0

4
0

-0.75
-0.1875

12
-0.75

-0.75
0.1875

2
-0.75

0.75

-0.75

1.5
4

[k]2

-0.1875

0.75

-0.75

0.1875

-0.75

-0.75

0
0

0
0

-0.75 -0.1875

0.75

66

40 kN

6 kN/m

B
A

C
EI
B = -10 mm

2EI
8m

4m

32 kNm

40 kNm

Q6= 0
Q4 = 0
Q6= 0
D4
D6

5
D4

4
6

D6

12

D4

D6

12

EI 4
=
8 6

2
4

20 kN

20 kN

EI 4
=
8 6

40 kNm

24 kN
24 kN
Global: [Q] = [K][D] + [QF]
4
6
Q4 = 0

3
40 kN

32 kNm

[FEF]

4m

6 kN/m

200 200 4
+(
)
8
6

-0.75 D = -0.01
5
-0.75

(200x200/8)(-0.75)(-0.01) = 37.5
(200x200/8)(0.75)(-0.01) = -37.5

-61.27/EI = -1.532x10-3

rad

185.64/EI = 4.641x10-3

rad

+
+

8
-40
8
-40

67

32 kNm

B = -10 mm

6 kN/m
32 kNm

[FEF]load

24 kN

24 kN
Member 1:

[q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1


1
1 12(2)/82
2
1.5

q1
q2

1.5

-0.375

1.5

d1 = 0

24

-1.5

d2 = 0

32

(200x200)
3
8

-0.375

-1.5

0.375

-1.5

q4

1.5

-1.5

q1

31.26

q3

q2
q3
q4

kN

76.37

kNm

16.74

kN

-18.27

kNm

76.37 kNm

d3 = -0.01

-32

d4 = -1.532x10-3
6 kN/m

24

18.27 kNm

8m 1
31.26 kN

16.74 kN
68

40 kN

40 kNm

40 kNm

-10 mm = B

[FEF]

20 kN

20 kN

Member 2:
3
3 12/82
4
0.75

q3
q4
q5

(200x200)
5
8
6

q3

22.28

kN

q4

18.27

kNm

17.72

kN

kNm

q6

-0.1875 -0.75

q6

q5

0.75

0.75

-0.1875
-0.75

0.75
2

0.1875 -0.75
-0.75

d3 = -0.01

20

d4 = -1.532x10-3

40

d5 = 0

d6 = 4.641x10-3

20
-40

40 kN
18.27 kNm
2

22.28 kN

17.72 kN
69

40 kN

6 kN/m
B

76.37 kNm

EI
B = -10 mm
17.72 kN
16.74 + 22.28 kN
8m
4m
4m

2EI

31.26 kN

V (kN)

31.26
+

5.21 m

22.28
+
-16.74

-17.72

x (m)

70.85
M
(kNm)

5.06
-

+
-

-18.27

x (m)

-76.37
Deflected
Curve

B = -10 mm
d4 = B = -1.532x10-3 rad

D6 = C = 4.641x10-3 rad

70

Example 5
For the beam shown:
(a) Use the stiffness method to determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative free-body diagram of member.
(c) Draw the quantitative shear diagram, bending moment diagram
and qualitative deflected shape.
Take I = 200(106) mm4 and E = 200 GPa and support C settlement 10 mm.
4 kN

0.6 kN/m

20 kNm

B
A

EI

2EI
8m

4m

C
C = -10 mm

4m

71

2
2EI
1
Member stiffness matrix [k]4x4
1
1 12(2)/82
EI 2
1.5
=
8 3
-0.375
4
1.5

[k]1

EI
2

1.5

-0.375

1.5

-1.5

-1.5

0.375

-1.5

-1.5

EI
=
8

3 12/82
4
0.75
5

-10 mm

[k]2

0.75
4

-0.1875 -0.75
0.75

-0.1875

0.75

-0.75

0.1875

-0.75

-0.75

Global: [Q] = [K][D] + [QF]


Q3
Q4
Q6

3
EI 4
=
8
6

0.5625
-0.75

-0.75
12

0.75
2

D3
D4

0.75

D6

5
QF3
3 -0.1875
200 200
+(
) 4 -0.75 D5 = -0.01 + QF4
8
QF6
6 -0.75
72

4 kN

0.6 kN/m

20 kNm

B
A

EI

2EI
8m

4m

10 mm
4m

Q6 = 20
D3
D4
D6

4 kNm

5
4 kNm

3
EI 4
=
8
6

EI

3
4 kN

2.4 kN
2.4 kN
Global: [Q] = [K][D] + [QF]
Q3 = 0
Q4 = 0

6
2

3.2 kNm

[FEF]

2EI

0.6 kN/m

3.2 kNm

2 kN

0.5625
-0.75

-0.75
12

0.75
2

0.75

D3
9.375
D4 + 37.5 +
D6
37.5

2 kN

2.4+2 = 4.4
-3.2+4 = 0.8
-4.0

-377.30/EI = -9.433x10-3 m
-61.53/EI = -1.538x10-3 rad
+74.50/EI = +1.863x10-3 rad
73

0.6 kN/m

3.2 kNm
1

[FEF]load

3.2 kNm
8m

2.4 kN

2.4 kN
Member 1:

[q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1


1

q1
q2
q3

q4

1.5

-0.375

1.5

d1 = 0

2.4

-1.5

d2 = 0

3.2

-0.375

-1.5

0.375

-1.5

d3 = -9.433x10-3

1.5

-1.5

d4 = -1.538x10-3

q1
q3

200 200
3
8

q4

q2

1 12(2)/82
2
1.5

8.55

kN

43.19

kNm

-3.75

kN

6.03

kNm

43.19 kNm

0.6 kN/m

2.4
-3.2

6.03 kNm

8m 1
8.55 kN

3.75 kN
74

4 kN

4 kNm

4 kNm
[FEF]

8m

10 mm

2 kN

2 kN

Member 2:
3
q3
q4
q5

200 200
=
8

q6

3 12/82
4
0.75
5
6

0.75

3.75

kN

q4

-6.0

kNm

0.25

kN

20.0

kNm

q6

-0.1875 -0.75

q3
q5

0.75

-0.1875
-0.75

0.75

d3 = -9.433x10-3

d4 = -1.538x10-3

0.1875 -0.75
-0.75

d5 = -0.01

d6 = 1.863x10-3

2
-4

4 kN
6.0 kNm

20 kNm
2

3.75 kN

0.25 kN
75

4 kN

0.6 kN/m

20 kNm

B
A

EI

2EI
8m

0.6 kN/m

43.19 kNm

4m

Deflected
Curve

4 kN
20 kNm

6.0 kNm
3.75 kN

8.55

V (kN)

M
(kNm)

10 mm
4m

6.03 kNm

8m 1
8.55 kN

3.75

-0.25
21
+

-43.19

0.25 kN

3.75 kN

D3 = -9.433 mm
D4 = -1.538x10-3 rad

x (m)
20
x (m)
D5 = -10 mm
D6 = +1.863x10-3 rad

76

Internal Hinges
Example 6
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4.
30 kN
9kN/m
Hinge
EI

2EI
A
4m

C
2m

2m

77

4
2

2EI

1
4m

EI

2m

2m

i
Use 2x2 stiffness matrix,

[k]1 =

[k ]22 =

2EI

EI

EI

2EI

[K] =

Mi
Mj

4 EI / L 2EI / L

2
EI
/
L
4
EI
/
L

[k]2 =

EI

1EI

4 0.5EI

2.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

4
0.5EI
1EI

78

30 kN
9kN/m
Hinge
3

4
2

[FEF]

0.0

EI

30 kN

15 kNm
B

15 kNm
C
2

2.0

0.0

D1

0.0

1.0

D2

0.0006

D1
D2

B
12 kNm
B

Global matrix:
0.0

9kN/m

12 kNm

-12
15

rad

-0.0015 rad

79

12 kNm

1
A

[FEF]

9kN/m
1

12 kNm
B

Member 1:

q3
q1

2EI

EI

EI

2EI

d3 = 0.0
d1 = 0.0006

12
-12

18
0.0

9 kN/m
A
18 kNm

22.5 kN

B
13.5 kN

80

4
B

15 kNm
B

30 kN

15 kNm
C

Member 2:
2
q2
q4

1EI

0.5EI

4 0.5EI

1EI

d2 = -0.0015
d4 = 0.0

15
-15

0.0
-22.5

30 kN
C

B
9.37 kN

22.5 kNm
20.63 kN

81

30 kN

9 kN/m
A
18 kNm

13.5 kN

13.5 kN

22.5 kN

9.37 kN

22.87 kN

22.5 kNm
20.63 kN

9.37 kN
30 kN

9kN/m
Hinge
EI

BR= -0.0015 rad

2EI

BL= 0.0006 rad

4m

2m

2m

22.5
V (kN)

9.37

+
2.5 m

M
(kNm)

-13.5
10.13
+

- -18

x (m)
-20.63
18.75
+
-

x (m)
-22.5

82

Example 7
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4.
20 kN
9kN/m
2EI
A

B
4m

EI

Hinge

C
4m

83

1 3

2EI
1

2 B

0.375EI

[k]1 = 1

0.75EI

2EI

-0.375EI

-0.75EI

0.75EI

EI

[k]2 =

0.1875EI

0.375EI

6
7

0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI


-0.75EI

EI

0.375EI -0.75EI
-0.75EI

2EI/L

[K] =
1

EI

0.5625

-0.75

0.375

EI 2

-0.75

2.0

0.375

0.0

1.0

0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI


EI

-0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI


0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.375EI

EI
84

20 kN
B

9kN/m
A

C
5
4

1 3

2EI
1

A
12 kNm

Global:

[FEM]
1

Q1 = -20
Q2 = 0.0

12 kNm
18 kN
3

0.5625

-0.75

0.375

D1

EI 2

-0.75

2.0

D2

0.375

0.0

1.0

D3

D1
D3

Q3 = 0.0
D2

EI

2 B

9kN/m
A
18 kN

18

-12
0.0

-0.02382 m

-0.008333 rad
0.008933 rad

85

9kN/m

2EI

12 kNm
A
18 kN

12 kNm

[FEF]

18 kN

Member 1:
4

q4

0.375EI

q5

0.75EI

2EI

1 -0.375EI

-0.75EI

0.75EI

EI

q1
q2

0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI


-0.75EI

EI

d4 = 0.0

18

d5 = 0.0

12

0.375EI -0.75EI

d1 = -0.02382

-0.75EI

d2 = -0.00833

107.32 kNm
A

2EI/L

18
-12

44.83

107.32
-8.83
0.0

9kN/m
1

B
8.83 kN

44.83 kN
86

7
1
B

EI
2

Member 2:
1
q1

0.1875EI

q3

0.375EI

q6

=6

q7

0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI


EI

-0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI


0.375EI

0.5EI

EI

-0.375EI

B
2

11.16 kN

d1 = -0.02382

d3 = 0.008933

d6= 0.0
d7= 0.0

0
0

-11.16

0.0
11.16
-44.66

44.66 kNm
11.16 kN

87

20 kN
9kN/m

BL= -0.008333 rad B

BR= 0.008933 rad C

4m

4m

9kN/m

107.32 kNm
A

44.83 kN

B
2

8.83 kN

44.66 kNm
11.16 kN

11.16 kN

44.83
V (kN)

8.83

x (m)
-11.16

-11.16

M
(kNm)
-107.32

x (m)
-44.66
88

Example 8
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
40 kNm at the end of member AB. E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4.
30 kN
9kN/m
A

Hinge
2EI
4m

40 kNm

EI

B
2m

2m

89

4
2

2EI

4m

2m

2m
j

Use 2x2 stiffness matrix:

[k ]22 =

[k]1 =

EI

2EI

EI

EI

2EI

[K] =

Mi
Mj

4 EI / L 2EI / L

2
EI
/
L
4
EI
/
L

[k]2 =

EI

1EI

4 0.5EI

2.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

4
0.5EI
1EI

90

30 kN
9kN/m
Hinge

2EI

40 kNm

EI

C
4

2
A

[FEM]

Q2 = 0.0

EI

D1
D2

B
12 kNm

15 kNm
B

15 kNm
C
2

2.0

0.0

D1

0.0

1.0

D2

0.0026

30 kN

Global matrix:
Q1 = 40

9kN/m

12 kNm

-12
15

rad

-0.0015 rad
91

12 kNm

1
A

[FEF]

9kN/m
1

12 kNm
B

Member 1:

q3
q1

2EI

EI

EI

2EI

d3 = 0.0
d1 = 0.0026

12
-12

38
40

9 kN/m
A
38 kNm

B 40 kNm
37.5 kN

1.5 kN

92

4
B

15 kNm
B

30 kN

15 kNm
C

Member 2:
2
q2
q4

1EI

4 0.5EI

4
0.5EI
1EI

d2 = -0.0015
d4 = 0.0

15
-15

0.0
-22.5

30 kN
C

B
9.37 kN

22.5 kNm
20.63 kN
93

1.5 kN

30 kN

9 kN/m
A
38 kNm

B 40 kNm

9.37 kN
7.87 kN

1.5 kN

37.5 kN

22.5 kNm
20.63 kN

9.37 kN
30 kN

9kN/m

40 kNm
Hinge

BL= 0.0026 B
rad
4m

BR=- 0.0015 rad


2m

2m

37.5
V (kN)

9.37

1.5

x (m)
-20.63

M
(kNm)

40
+
- -38

18.75
+

x (m)
-22.5

94

Example 9
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
40 kNm at the end of member AB. E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4
20 kN
9kN/m
2EI
A
4m

40 kNm

EI

Hinge

C
4m

95

20 kN
9kN/m
2EI
A

40 kNm

EI

Hinge

4m

C
4m

7
1

4
A

12 kNm
[FEM]

6
C

2 B

9 kN/m
12 kNm
1

18 kN

18 kN

[k ]44

Vi 12 EI/ L3
Mi
2
6EI/ L
Vj
12 EI/ L3
Mj 6EI/ L2

6EI/ L2

12 EI/ L3
6EI/ L2
12 EI/ L3
6EI/ L2

6EI/ L2

2EI/ L
6EI/ L2

4 EI/ L

4 EI/ L

6EI/ L2
2EI/ L

96

2EI

[k]1 =

0.375EI

0.75EI

0.75EI

EI

-0.75EI
EI
0.375EI -0.75EI
-0.75EI

0.1875EI

0.375EI
EI
-0.375EI
0.5EI
-0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI

0.375EI

0.5625

-0.75

0.375

EI 2

-0.75

2.0

0.375

0.0

1.0

1
6

2EI

[K] =

[k]2 =

0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI

1 -0.375EI

EI

2 B

2EI
-0.75EI

0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.375EI

EI
97

9kN/m

20 kN

5
4

2EI

2 B

18 kN

18 kN
Global:

Q1 = -20

Q3 = 0.0
D1
D3

EI

12 kNm

[FEF]

D2

9 kN/m

12 kNm

Q2 = 40

EI

40 kNm
1 3

0.5625

-0.75

0.375

D1

EI 2

-0.75

2.0

D2

0.375

0.0

1.0

D3

18

-12
0.0

-0.01316 m

-0.002333 rad
0.0049333 rad

98

5
4

2EI

12 kNm

0.375EI

q5

0.75EI

2EI

1 -0.375EI

-0.75EI

0.75EI

EI

q2

18 kN

[q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1

q4

q1

18 kN

12 kNm

[FEF]

Member 1:

9 kN/m

0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI

87.37 kNm

-0.75EI

EI

d4 = 0.0

18

d5 = 0.0

12

0.375EI -0.75EI

d1 = -0.01316

-0.75EI

d2 = -0.002333

2EI

2EI
49.85 kN

18
-12

49.85

87.37
-13.85
40

40 kNm
1

13.85 kN

[q]1
99

7
1
B
Member 2:

q1

0.1875EI

q3

0.375EI

=6

q7

[q]2 = [k]2[d]2 + [qF]2


1

q6

EI

0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI d1 = -0.01316


EI

-0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI


0.375EI

0.5EI

-0.375EI

EI

d3 = 0.004933
d6= 0.0
d7= 0.0

-6.18

0.0

0
0

6.18
-24.69

24.69 kNm
6.18 kN

6.18 kN
[q]2
100

20 kN
9kN/m

40 kNm
EI
BR = 0.004933 rad C
4m

2EI
BL= -0.002333 rad

4m
B

A
87.37 kNm 49.85 kN

40 kNm

13.85 kN

24.69 kNm
6.18 kN

6.18 kN

49.85
V (kN)

13.85

x (m)

-6.18

-6.18
M
(kNm)

+
-87.37

40
-

x (m)
-24.69
101

Temperature Effects

Fixed-End Forces (FEF)


- Axial
- Bending

Curvature

102

tan =

Thermal Fixed-End Forces (FEF)


Room temp = TR
T

TR

M AF

FBF

Tm> TR

FAF

Tb > Tt

axial

ct

Tt
NA

Tm =

cb

F
M
B
B

axial

Tb - Tt
TR

Tl

(T ) axial = Tm TR

y
A

Tt + Tb
2

Tm

Tt

Tb Tt
T
=( )
d
d

( T y ) = y (

T
)
d

Tb

(T ) bending = Tb Tt

103

- Axial

axial

axial

Tt
Tm> TR

FAF

Tb > Tt

TR

Tm

FBF

(T ) axial = Tm TR

FAF = axial dA
A

= E axial dA
= E (T ) axial dA

= E (T ) axial dA
= EA (T ) axial
F
( Faxial
) A = (Tm TR ) AE

104

- Bending

Tt
y

y
M AF

M BF

(Ty ) = y (

T
)
d

Tb

(T ) bending = Tb Tt

M = y y dA
F
A

= yE dA
= yE (Ty ) dA

= yEy (
= E (

T
) dA
d

T
) y 2 dA
d

F
( Fbending
)A = (

Tl Tu
) EI
d
105

Elastic Curve: Bending

O
d

(dx ) = ( d )
y ( d )

ds = dx
y

dx

Before
deformation

ds

=(

d
)
dx

dx

After
deformation

106

Bending Temperature

Tt

dx

Tl > Tu

Tb

d
Tt + Tb
2
M

Tm =

Tu

T = Tb - Tt

Tt

d
y

T
=
d

ct
cb

Tl > Tu

Tb

Tt

T
y
d

y
Tb

T
) dx
d
T
(d ) = ( )dx
d
d
M
1
T
( ) = = ( ) =
dx
d
EI

(d ) y = y (

107

Example 10
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
Room temp = 32.5oC, = 12x10-6 /oC, E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4.

T2 = 40oC
182 mm
A

T1 = 25oC
4m

EI

2EI
B

C
4m

108

T2 = 40oC
182 mm
A

T1 = 25oC
4m

C
4m
3

1
1

FEM

EI

2EI

Mean temperature = (40+25)/2 = 32.5


Room temp = 32.5oC
19.78 kNm
a(T /d)EI = 19.78 kNm
o
+7.5 C

F
Fbending
=(

-7.5 oC

T
40 25
)(2 EI ) = (12 10 6 )(
)(2 200 50) = 19.78 kN m
d
0.182
109

2
19.78 kNm 19.78 kNm
182 mm

1
2

2EI

4m

M1

EI

q2

q1

0.5

q1

0.5

q3

Element 2:
M1
M3

EI

4m

[q] = [k][d] + [qF]

Element 1:
M2

EI

-1.978
1.978

(10-3) EI

0
0

0
[M1] = 3EI1 + (1.978x10-3)EI

1 = -0.659x10-3

rad

110

2
19.78 kNm 19.78 kNm
A

182 mm

2EI

1
2

EI

4m

4m

Element 1:
M2
M1

EI

q2 = 0

q1 = -0.659x10-3

Element 2:
M1
M3

EI

0.5

q1 = -0.659x10-3

0.5

q3 = 0

26.37 kNm
A

6.59 kNm
B

4.95 kN

4.95 kN

-19.78
19.78

0
0

6.59 kNm
B

-26.37 kNm
6.59 kNm

-6.59 kNm
-3.30 kNm
3.3 kNm
C

2.47 kN

2.47 kN

111

26.37 kNm

+7.5 oC
A

4.95 kN

-7.5 oC

2.47 kN
4m

4m

2.47 kN

V (kN)

3.3 kNm

x (m)
-2.47

-4.95
26.37
M
(kNm)

Deflected
curve

6.59
-

B = -0.659x10-3 rad

x (m)
-3.30

x (m)
112

Example 11
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
Room temp = 28 oC, a = 12x10-6 /oC, E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4,
A = 20(10-3) m2
T2 = 40oC
182 mm
A

T1 =

25oC
4m

EI, AE

2EI, 2AE
B

C
4m

113

6
5

9
T2 = 40oC

A
4
T1 = 25oC

2
2EI

4m

1
B

8
2

EI

7
C

4m

Element 1:
(2 AE ) 2(20 10 3 m 2 )(200 106 kN / m 2 )
=
= 2(106 ) kN / m
L
( 4 m)
4(2 EI ) 4 2(200 106 kN / m 2 )(50 10 6 m 4 )
=
= 20(103 ) kN m
L
( 4 m)
2(2 EI ) 2 2(200 106 kN / m 2 )(50 10 6 m 4 )
=
= 10(103 ) kN m
L
( 4 m)
6(2 EI ) 6 2(200 106 kN / m 2 )(50 10 6 m 4 )
3
=
=
7
.
5
(
10
) kN
2
2
L
( 4 m)
12(2 EI ) 12 2(200 106 kN / m 2 )(50 10 6 m 4 )
3
=
=
3
.
75
(
10
) kN / m
3
3
L
( 4 m)
114

T2 = 40oC
182 mm
A

T1 =

25oC

EI, AE

2EI, 2AE

4m

4m

Fixed-end forces due to temperatures


F
Fbending
=(

T
40 25
)(2 EI ) = (12 10 6 )(
)(2 200 50) = 19.78 kN m
d
0.182

Mean temperature(Tm) = (40+25)/2 = 32.5 oC ,


TR = 28 oC
F
Faxial
= (T ) AE = (12 10 6 )(32.5 28)(2 20 10 3 m 2 )(200 10 6 kN / m 2 ) = 432 kN

432 kN

19.78 kNm
+12 oC
A

-3

oC

19.78 kNm
B

432 kN

115

9
T2 = 40oC

5
182 mm

4
A

T1 =

2EI, 2AE

25oC

EI, AE
4m

FEM

Element 1:
432 kN
[q] = [k][d] +

19.78 kNm
+12 oC
-3

[qF]

19.78 kNm
432 kN

oC

B
1

q4

2x106

0.00

0.00

- 2x106 0.00

q5

0.00

3750

7500

0.00

q6

0.00

7500 20x103

q1
q2
q3

7
C

4m

0.00

3
0.00

432

7500

0.00

-7500 10x103

-19.78

-3750

0.00

2x106

0.00

0.00

d1

-7500

0.00

3750

-7500

d2

0.00

7500 10x103

0.00

-7500 20x103

d3

19.78

-2x106 0.00

0.00 -3750

0.00

-432

116

9
T2 = 40oC

5
182 mm

4
A

T1 =

2EI, 2AE

25oC

8
2

7
C

4m

EI, AE
4m

Element 2:

[q] = [k][d] + [qF]


1

9
0.00

d1

-1875

3750

d2

0.00

-3750

5x103

d3

0.00

1x106

0.00

0.00

1875

-3750

-3750 10x103

q1

1x106

0.00

0.00

- 1x106 0.00

q2

0.00

1875

3750

0.00

q3

0.00

3750 10x103

q7
q8
q9

7 -1x106 0.00
8

0.00 -1875

-3750

0.00

0.00

5x103

0.00

3750

117

9
T2 = 40oC

5
182 mm
4
A

T1 =

2EI, 2AE

25oC

Q1 = 0.0
Q2 = 0.0

Q3 = 0.0
D1
D2
D3

8
2

EI, AE

7
C

4m
Global:

4m

3x106

0.0

0.0

D1

0.0

5625

-3750

D2

0.0

-3750

30x103

D3

0.000144

-0.0004795

-719.3x10-6

rad

-432

0.0
19.78

118

Element 1:

q4

2x106

0.00

0.00

- 2x106 0.00

0.00

432

q5

0.00

3750

7500

0.00

7500

0.00

q6

0.00

7500 20x103

-7500 10x103

-19.78

q1

q2
q3

-3750

0.00

0.00

2x106

0.00

0.00

-7500

0.00

3750

-7500

d2 = -479.5x10-6

0.00

7500 10x103

0.00

-7500 20x103

d3 = -719.3x10-6

19.78

-2x106 0.00

0.00 -3750

0.00

d1 = 144x10-6

-432

6
q4

144.0

kN

q5

-3.60

kN

q6

-23.38

kNm

-144.0

kN

3.60

kN

9.00

kNm

q1
q2
q3

5
A 4
23.38 kNm
144 kN

3.60 kN

2
B 1

9 kNm

B
3.60 kN

144 kN
119

Element 2:

9
0.00

d1 = 144x10-6

-1875

3750

d2 = -479.5x10-6

0.00

-3750

5x103

d3 = -719.3x10-6

0.00

1x106

0.00

0.00

1875

-3750

-3750 10x103
3

q1

1x106

0.00

0.00

- 1x106 0.00

q2

0.00

1875

3750

0.00

q3

0.00

37500 10x103

q7
q8
q9

7 -1x106 0.00
8

0.00 -1875

-3750

0.00

0.00

5x103

0.00

3750

q1

144

kN

q2

-3.6

kN

q3

-9

kNm

-144

kN

3.6

kN

-5.39

kNm

q7
q8
q9

2
B 1
9 kNm
144 kN

3.60 kN

8
C 7

5.39 kNm

C
3.60 kN

144 kN
120

Isolate axial part from the system


T2 = 40oC
RA
A

T1 = 25oC

EI

2EI
B

4m

RC

RA

C
4m
RA = RC

+
Compatibility equation:

dC/A = 0

R A (4) RA ( 4)
+
+ 12 10 6 (32.5 28)(4) = 0
AE
2 AE

RA = 144 kN
RC = -144 kN

121

T2 = 40oC
EI

2EI
A

T1 = 25oC

4m

4m

9 kNm

23.38 kNm
144 kN

144 kN

144 kN

144 kN

B
3.60 kN

3.60 kN

5.39 kNm

9 kNm
B

C
3.60 kN

3.60 kN

V (kN)

x (m)
-3.6

23.38
M
(kNm)
Deflected
curve

8.98
-

D2 = -0.0004795 mm

D3 = -719.3x10-6 rad

x (m)
-5.39
x (m)

122

Skew Roller Support

- Force Transformation
- Displacement Transformation
- Stiffness Matrix

123

Displacement and Force Transformation Matrices


x

6
j

2
3

6
5

3
2
i

x
124

Force Transformation
6

2
3

x =

y =

q6 = q6'

x j xi
L
y j yi
L

5
4

3
2
i

q 4
q
5
q 6

y
x

0
0
1

q4'
q
5'
q6'

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0

0
x
y
0

0
y
x
0

x
= y
0

q 1 x

q 2 y
q 3 0
=
q 4 0
q 5 0

q 6 0

q4 = q4' cos x q5' cos y

q5 = q4' cos y q5' cos x

j x

[q ] = [T ]T [q ']

0 q 1'

0 q 2'
0 q 3'

0 q 4'
0 q 5'

1 q 6'

125

Displacement Transformation
y

x
s
o
c
d4
x4 d4
6
j y
y
s
o
c
d4
5

5
4

d5

y
os
c
5

d ' 4 = d 4 cos x + d 5 cos y

d '6 = d 6

x
s
o
c
5

d' 5 = d 4 cos y + d 5 cos x

x
y

d 4'
d
5'
d 6'

x
= y
0

d 1' x

d 2' y
d 3' 0
=
d 4' 0
d 5' 0

d 6' 0

x
x

0
0
1

y
x

d 4
d
5
d 6

0
0

0
0
0
0

1
0
0 x
0 y
0
0

0
0

0
0
0
y
x
0

0 d 1

0 d 2
0 d 3

0 d 4
0 d 5

1 d 6

[d '] = [T ][d ]
126

[q ] = [T ]T [q ']

[ ]
= [T ] [k' ][d' ] + [T ] [q ' ]
[q ] = [T ] [k' ][T ][d ] + [T ] [q' ] = [k ][d ] + [q ]
= [T ] ([k' ][d' ] + q 'F )
T

Therefore,

[k ] = [T ]T [k '][T ]

[q ] = [T ] [q ' ]
F

[q ] = [T ]T [q ']
[d '] = [T ][d ]

[k ] = [T ]T [k '][T ]

127

Stiffness matrix
2*

5*

3*
1*

6*

4*

j
i

jx = cos j

iy = sin i

jy = sin j

ix = cos i

[q*] = [T]T[q]

q 1*
q
2*
q 3*

q 4 *
q 5*

q 6 *

1*
2*
=

3*
4*
5*
6*

1
ix

iy
0

0
0

2
iy
ix
0
0
0
0

3
0
0
1
0
0
0

4
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
jx jy
jy
jx
0
0

6
0
0
0

0
0

q 1'
q
2'
q 3'

q 4'
q 5'

q 6'

[ T ]T

128

1
2

[T ]

3
4
5
6

[k ']

1
2
3
4
5
6

1
2
iy
ix

iy ix
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
AE/ L

3
EI
L
0
12
/

0
6EI/ L2

0
AE/ L
0
12 EI/ L3

6EI/ L2
0

3
4
0
0
0
0
1
0
0 jx
0 jy
0
0

3
0
6EI/ L2
4 EI/ L
0

6EI/ L2
2EI/ L

5
0
0
0
jy
jx
0

6
0
0
0

0
0

AE/ L
0
0
12 EI/ L3
0
6EI/ L2
0
AE/ L
0
12 EI/ L3
0
6EI/ L2

6EI/ L2
2EI/ L

2
6EI/ L

4 EI/ L
0

129

[ k ] = [ T ]T[ k ][T] =
Ui
Ui (

AE

Vi

L
(

AE

Vj - (

Mj

Mi

Uj -(

ix2 +

AE
L
AE
L

12EI
L3

12EI
L3
6EI
L2

ixjx +

ixjy-

Vi

6EI
L2

iy2 )

) ixiy

AE
L

AE
L

L3
12EI
L3

iy

12EI

iy2 +

L2

iy jy)

-(

iyjx )

-(

AE
L
AE
L

) ixiy

L3

6EI

iy
12EI

iyjx -

iyjy +
6EI
L2

Uj

Mi

12EI
L3

ix2 )

ix
12EI
L3
12EI
L3

ix

ixjy)

ix jx ) -

6EI

iy -(

L2
6EI
L2

ix

-(

AE
L
AE
L

ixjx +

6EI

L2

6EI
L2

jy

6EI
L2

jx

AE
L

AE
L

L3

L3

L3

L3

6EI

L2

AE

ixjy )

AE

-(

jy

ixjy -

iyjy +
6EI

12EI

12EI

2EI

iyjy ) -(

jy

jx2 +

12EI

12EI

iyjx -

4EI

Vj

jy2 )

) jxjy

AE

L2

Mj
12EI
L3

12EI
L3

6EI
L2

iy

L2

ix

L2

2EI
L
6EI

) jxjy

jx

6EI

6EI

ixjx )

AE
12EI
jx2 )
( L jy2 +
L3

jx

12EI
L3

iyjx )

jy

L2

6EI
L2

jx

4EI
L

130

Example 12
For the beam shown:
(a) Use the stiffness method to determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative free-body diagram of member.
(c) Draw the quantitative bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
Take I = 200(106) mm4, A = 6(103) mm2, and E = 200 GPa for all members.
Include axial deformation in the stiffness matrix.
40 kN

4m

4m

22.02 o

131

40 kN

4m

4m

22.02o

6
5
i

3
Global

2*

3*
1*

x
22.02 o
j
x*
jx = cos 22.02o = 0.9271,
jy = cos 67.98o = 0.3749

ix = cos 0o = 1,
iy = cos 90o = 0

40 kN
40 kNm
[FEF]
20 kN

[ qF ]

6
Local

5
1

40 kNm

20sin22.02=7.5
20cos22.02=18.54 20 kN
132

Transformation matrix
6
5

3
Global

2*

4
ix = cos 0o = 1,
iy = cos 90o = 0

Member 1: [ q ] = [

q 4

q5
q 6

q 1*
q 2*

q 3*

3*
1*

2
x

*
x
jx = cos 22.02o = 0.9271,
jy = cos 67.98o = 0.3749

T ]T[q]

4
5
6
1*
2*
3*

1
1
0

0
0

2
0
1
0
0
0
0

3
4
0
0
0
0
1
0
0 0 . 9271
0 0 . 3749
0
0

6
Local

5
1

[T ]T

ix

iy
0
=
0
0

iy
0

0
0
1

0
0
0

0 jx
0 jy
0 0

ix

0
0
0

0
0
0
jy

jx
0

0
0
0

0
0

5
6
0
0 q 1'

0
0 q 2'
0
0 q 3'

0 . 3749 0 q 4'
0 . 9271 0 q 5'

0
1 q 6'
133

Local stiffness matrix


2
i

[k ]66 =

[k]1

6
Local

5
1

Ni AE/ L
0
3
Vi 0
12
/
EI
L

Mi 0
6EI/ L2

Nj AE/ L
0
Vj 0
12 EI/ L3

6EI/ L2
Mj 0

0
6EI/ L2
4 EI/ L
0
6EI/ L2
2EI/ L

1
2
1 150.0 0.000
2 0.000 0.9375
3 0.000 3.750
103 4 -150.0 0.000
5 0.000 -0.9375

3
4
5
0.000 -150.0
0.000
3.750 0.000 -0.9375
20.00 0.000 -3.750
0.000
-3.750

150.0
0.000

0.000
0.9375

0.000
-3.750

3.750

10.00

0.000

-3.750

20.00

6 0.000

0
AE/ L
0
12 EI/ L3
0
6EI/ L2
0
AE/ L
0
12 EI/ L3
0
6EI/ L2

6EI/ L2
2EI/ L

2
6EI/ L

4EI/ L

6
0.000
3.750
10.00

134

6
5

3
Global

2*

3*
1*

4
Stiffness matrix [k]:
1
2
1 150.0 0.000
2 0.000 0.9375
3 0.000 3.750
[k]1 = 103 4 -150.0 0.000
5 0.000 -0.9375
3.750

2
x
i

6
Local

5
1

x*
3
4
5
0.000
0.000 -150.0
3.750 0.000 -0.9375
20.00 0.000 -3.750

6
0.000
3.750
10.00

0.000
-3.750

150.0
0.000

0.000
0.9375

0.000
-3.750

10.00

0.000

-3.750

20.00

4
5

4
5
150.0 0.000
0.000 0.9375

6
1*
0.000 -139.0
3.750 0.351

2*
-56.25
-0.869

3*
0.000
3.750

0.000

20.00

1.406

-3.750

10.00

1* -139.0 0.351 1.406


2* -56.25 -0.869 -3.750

129.0

51.82

3* 0.000

1.406

6 0.000

Stiffness matrix [k*]: [ k* ] = [ T ]T[ k ][T]

[k*]1

= 103

3.750

3.750

10.00

51.82

1.406
21.90 -3.476
-3.476

20.00

135

6
40 kN

2*

4
4m

4m

22.02 o

20 kN

x
x*

40 kN

40 kNm
Global Equilibrium:

3*
1*

[ qF ]

40 kNm

20sin22.02=7.5
20cos22.02=18.54 20 kN

[Q] = [K][D] + [QF]


1*
Q1 = 0.0
Q3 = 0.0

D1*
D3*

1*
103 3*

129
1.406

3*
1.406

D1*

20.0

D3*

36.37x10-6

0.002

rad

-7.5
-40

136

6
40 kN

2*

4
4m

4m

Member Force :

22.02

[q] = [k*][D] +

[qF]

40 kNm

q4
q5

4
5

q6

0.000 3.750 20.00 1.406 -3.750 10.00

q1*
q2*
q3*

x
x*

40 kNm

18.54

20 kN

4
5
6
1*
2*
3*
150.0 0.000 0.000 -139.0 -56.25 0.000
0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.351 -0.869 3.750

103

40 kN

3*
1*

7.5

0
0

0
20

-5.06
27.5

40.0

60

1* -139.0 0.351 1.406 129.0 51.82 1.406 36.4x10-6


0
2* -56.25 -0.869 -3.750 51.82 21.90 -3.476
-3
2x10
*
3 0.000 3.750 10.00 1.406 -3.476 20.00

-7.54
18.54
-40.0

0
13.48
0

40 kN

60 kNm
5.06 kN
27.5 kN

13.48 kN

137

40 kN

40 kN

4m

4m

60.05 kNm
22.02 o

5.05 kN
27.51 kN

13.47 kN

50.04
+
-60.05
Bending moment diagram
(kNm)
0.002 rad

Deflected shape
138

Example 13
For the beam shown:
(a) Use the stiffness method to determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative free-body diagram of member.
(c) Draw the quantitative bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
Take I = 200(106) mm4, A = 6(103) mm2, and E = 200 GPa for all members.
Include axial deformation in the stiffness matrix.
40 kN

6 kN/m

2EI, 2AE
8m

EI, AE
4m

22.02o
4m

139

40 kN

6 kN/m

EI, AE

2EI, 2AE
8m

4m

22.02 o
AE (0.006 m 2 )(200 106 kN / m 2 )
=
L
(8 m)

4m

= 150 103 kN m

8*

9*
7*

Global
3

5
1

Local

= 20 103 kN m
2 EI
= 10 103 kN m
L

4 EI 4(200 106 kN / m 2 )(0.0002 m 4 )


=
L
(8 m)

6 6 EI 6(200 106 kN / m 2 )(0.0002 m 4 )


=
2
L
(8 m) 2
4
= 3.75 103 kN
12 EI 12(200 106 kN / m 2 )(0.0002 m 4 )
=
L2
(8 m) 3
= 0.9375 103 kN / m

140

8*

9*
7*

Global

Local : Member 1
6

[ q]
4

2
1

[q] = [q]
Thus, [k] = [k]

6
[ q]

4
5

4
5
6
1
2
0.000
150.0 0.000 0.000 -150.0
0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.000 -0.9375

0.000

3
0.000
3.750

20.00

0.000

-3.750

10.00

-150.0 0.000 0.000


2 0.000 -0.9375 -3.750
3 0.000 3.750 10.00

150.0
0.000

0.000
0.9375

0.000
-3.750

0.000

-3.750

20.00

[k]1 = [k]1 = 2x103 1

3.750

141

2
1
ix = cos 0o = 1,
iy = cos 90o = 0

9*
7*

8*

q* ]

8*

3
2

9*
7*

[ q ]

6
4

x*
jx = cos 22.02o = 0.9271,
jy = cos 67.98o = 0.3749

Member 2: Use transformation matrix, [q*] = [T]T[q]


1

q1
q2

1
2

1
0

0
1

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

q1
q2

q3

q3

7*
8*

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

q4
q5

9*

q6

q7*
q8*
q9*

0.9271 -0.3749
0.3749 0.9271
0

142

3
[ q* ]
1

8*

9*
7*

1
2
1 150.0 0.000
2 0.000 0.9375
3 0.000 3.750
103 4 -150.0 0.000
5 0.000 -0.9375

3
4
5
0.000
0.000 -150.0
3.750 0.000 -0.9375
20.00 0.000 -3.750

6
0.000
3.750
10.00

0.000
-3.750

150.0
0.000

0.000
0.9375

0.000
-3.750

3.750

10.00

0.000

-3.750

20.00

1
2

1
2
150.0 0.000
0.000 0.9375

3
7*
0.000 -139.0
3.750 0.351

8*
-56.25
-0.869

9*
0.000
3.750

0.000

20.00

1.406

-3.477

10.00

7* -139.0 0.351 1.406


8* -56.25 -0.869 -3.477

129.0

51.82

9* 0.000

1.406

6 0.000

x*

Stiffness matrix [k]:

[k]2 =

[ q ]

Stiffness matrix [k*]: [k*] = [T]T[k][T]

[k*]2 = 103

3.750

3.750

10.00

51.82

1.406
21.90 -3.476
-3.476

20.00

143

2
4

9*
7*

4
5

4
5
6
1
2
0.000
150.0 0.000 0.000 -150.0
0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.000 -0.9375

3
0.000
3.750

0.000

20.00

0.000

-3.750

10.00

-150.0 0.000 0.000


2 0.000 -0.9375 -3.750
3 0.000 3.750 10.00

150.0
0.000

0.000
0.9375

0.000
-3.750

0.000

-3.750

20.00

1
2

1
2
150.0 0.000
0.000 0.9375

3
7*
0.000 -139.0
3.750 0.351

8*
-56.25
-0.869

9*
0.000
3.750

0.000

20.00

1.406

-3.477

10.00

7* -139.0 0.351 1.406


8* -56.25 -0.869 -3.477
9* 0.000 3.750 10.00

129.0

51.82

[k]1= 2x103 1

[k*]2 = 103

8*

3.750

3.750

51.82
1.406

1.406
21.90 -3.476
-3.476

20.00
144

40 kN

6 kN/m

2
4

8*
2

40 kN

6 kN/m

32 kNm

9*

40 kNm

32 kNm

40 kNm

24 kN

24 kN
Global:
1
3
= 103 7*

0
0
0
0

9*

450
0
-139
0

0
60
1.406
10

7*
-139
1.406
129
1.406

D1

18.15x10-6

D3

-509.84x10-6

rad

58.73x10-6

0.00225

rad

D7*
D9*

18.54

20 kN

7*

7.5

9*
0
10
1.406
20

D1
D3
D7*
D9*

0
-32 + 40 = 8
-7.5
-40

145

2
4

32 kNm

q4
q5

4
5

4
5
6
1
2
0.000
150.0 0.000 0.000 -150.0
0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.000 -0.9375

q6

0.000

q1
q2
q3

= 2x103

20.00

0.000

-3.750

1 -150.0 0.000 0.000


2 0.000 -0.9375 -3.750
3 0.000 3.750 10.00

150.0
0.000

0.000
0.9375

0.000

-3.750

q4
q5

-5.45
20.18

kN
kN

q6

21.80

kNm

5.45
27.82

kN
kN

-52.39

kNm

q1
q2
q3

24 kN

24 kN

Member 1: [ q ] = [k ][d] + [qF]

3.750

32 kNm
1

6 kN/m

21.80 kNm

3
0.000 0
3.750 0
10.00 0

0
24

0.000 d1=18.15x10-6
-3.750 0

20.00 d3=-509.84
x10-6
6 kN/m

32
0
24
-32

52.39 kNm
5.45 kN

5.45 kN
20.18 kN

27.82 kN
146

3
1

40 kN

8*
9*
7*

40 kNm
x
20 kN

Member 2: [ q ] = [k ][d] + [qF]


1
2
3
7*
q1
1 150.0 0.000 0.000 -139.0
q2
2 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.351
q3
3 0.000 3.750 20.00 1.406
q7* = 103 7* -139.0 0.351 1.406 129.0
q8*
8* -56.25 -0.869 -3.750 51.82
q9*
9* 0.000 3.750 10.00 1.406
-5.45
26.55

kN
kN

q3

52.39

kNm

0
14.51

kN
kN

kNm

q7*
q8*
q9*

20sin22.02=7.5
20cos22.02=18.54 20 kN
2

x*

q1
q2

40 kNm

qF ]

8*
-56.25
-0.869

9*
0.000
3.750

18.15x10-6
0

0
20

-3.750

10.00

-509.84x10-6

40

1.406
21.90 -3.476
51.82

-3.476

20.00

58.73x10-6
0

0.00225

-7.5
18.54
-40

40 kN

52.39 kNm

5.45 kN
26.55 kN

14.51 kN
147

6 kN/m

21.80 kNm

52.39 kNm

52.39 kNm

40 kN

5.45 kN

5.45 kN

5.45 kN
26.55 kN

27.82 kN

20.18 kN

40 kN

6 kN/m

21.80 kNm

14.51 kN
14.51cos 22.02o
=13.45 kN

5.45 kN
20.18 kN

V (kN)

54.37 kN
4m

8m

26.55

20.18
+
3.36 m

4 m 14.51 kN

22.02o

+
-

x (m)
-13.45

-27.82
53.81

12.14
M
(kNm) -21.8

+
-52.39

x (m)
148