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Gender of nurses According to Ozdemira and Akanseln (2008), it is obviously seen that nursing is a suitable profession for females.

The Nursing Alliance (2008) said that the majority of professions in the health service in Ireland are female dominated. Nurses comprise the largest number of all health care workers, i.e. 41%. The Basic Grades of Physiotherapist, Speech and Language Therapist, Occupational Therapist and Dietician are predominately female and are considered equivalent to the grade of nurse. According to Ozdemira and Akanseln (2008), male students who are taking up nursing have their own perception about nursing. Most of the male students desire to be on the administrative positions in health care setting after they graduate this is how they distinguish themselves from their female colleagues. According to Elizabeth Klonoff (2001), a small portion of the womens excess morbidity is due to womens greater longevity: because women tend to live longer than men, more women than men suffer diseases of aging. (e.g Alzheimers disease, arthritis). The vast majority of gender differences in morbidity, however, cannot be attributed to gender differences in longevity and instead are the result of gender itself: around the globe, it is womens lives (how women are treated) that makes women sick and makes them sicker than men.


According to Knocaba (2007), newly employed nurses vary in their experience and education levels. However, experience and education do not assure competence in performance. Development of competence occurs by experiencing different clinical scenarios in the practice of nursing. Development of this ability can vary from nurse to nurse. Another variable that can impact competence is a nurse's perceptions of his/her ability to perform competently.

According to Sharma, anxiety seems to over stimulate and overcharge the same systems. Therefore, when anxious, we become "hyper," "fidgety," over focused or super vigilant. It's possible that the increase in appetite and craving for food seen in depression is really caused by anxiety. Therefore, a depressed individual who also exhibits hyper appetite and craving for food should be evaluated for presence of anxiety. If there is a significant level of anxiety, then therapy should obviously include techniques for anxiety reduction.

Patient satisfaction Communication

According to Casalino, lead author of the study Patients not always told of Lab Results reviewed the medical records of 5,434 randomly selected patients between the ages of 50 and 69 in 23 primary care practices. They identified 1,889 abnormal test results and 135 apparent failures to inform the patient or to document that the patient was informed. That's a rate of 7.1%, or about one out of every 14 abnormal tests. According to Newton et al. (2007), for a beginning graduate nurse, a trusting nurse-patient relationship can be difficult to develop. Anecdotal evidence suggests that newly graduate nurses often do not feel very skilled, comfortable, and/or confident at

nursing in general nor in establishing effective nurse-patient relationship during their first year of practice.


According to the Professional Nursing Ethics, nurses follow legal orders of a doctor, just the legal orders. The doctor has the special powers that the nurses dont possess like pronouncing someone as dead or prescription of some drugs. There are health updates a patient might receive; some of this may only be announced by the doctor. According to Herbert Benson, a cardiologist and professor at Harvard Medical School, says that the brain's ability to affect the body has been scientifically proven. A positive attitude can boost the immune system and contribute to physical health and recovery.
According to the Journal of Clinical Nursing, one goal of health care is patients participation wherein registered nurses must encourage the participation of their patient care in nursing care situations. This will help the patient cooperate for the improvement of condition and choose preferred course of actions for them. Working activites

Vital sign monitoring is a fundamental component of nursing care. Patients pulse, respirations, blood pressure, and body temperature are essential in identifying clinical deterioration and that these parameters must be measured consistently and recorded accurately. (Rose, 2010)
The most effective way to prevent or minimize drug effects is by monitoring the patients. Monitoring patients involves making astute observations and documenting those observations, noting changes in physical and functional status such as vital signs, performance of activities of daily living, sleeping, eating, hydrating, eliminating and mental status. Some of these

observations need to be made in conversation with the patient. There are some tasks that the patient is not able to participate, the nurse should involve a caregiver or someone closely familiar with the patient, and some of these tasks are providing sponge bath by the relatives and letting the relatives to assists the patient in his/her safety while the nurse is not around. (Rose, 2010)


Fundamental requirements have been established to protect a patients rights while hes/shes receiving care. One of the most important rights is the informed consent which states that the patient (or a responsible family member if the patient is legally incompetent) must fully understand what will be done during a test, surgery or any medical procedure and must understand its risks and implications before he can legally consent to it. Moreover, in patient preparation, a thorough working knowledge will help the nurse to prepare patients for the procedure. If the procedure to be done will be explained with clarity and compassion, the nurse will help to put the patient at ease, gain trust and cooperation, and thus ensure more accurate results. (Rose, 2010) When describing the anatomy of a person, the language used to indicate direction and location can change dependent upon the position the person is in. For this reason, it is important to have a reference position. (Rose, 2010)Some position after a surgery or in rehabilitative stage, are maintained; thus, preventing more complications that may arise. On the other hand, frequent changing of position mostly applied to those patients who are confined in one position staying for a long time, this is to prevent damage of skin integrity and mostly applicable to bed ridden clients. (Kernisan, 2010)


According to the University of Virginia Health System, the hospital should be committed in providing an environment which fosters quality health care for the patients. In order to assure both patient safety and adherence to regulatory guidelines, no medical device (supplies, accessories or equipment), whether purchased, contracted, donated, loaned or for trial, may be used in the Hospital for inpatient or outpatient care purposes without first being evaluated to ensure that an acceptance and safety inspection has been conducted prior to being used for patient care, compatibility with other medical devices in use at the Hospital has been assessed, annual preventive maintenance, where appropriate, has been scheduled and there is documentation that the appropriate training and education has been provided to potential users to achieve competence. Bed rails are still included on most beds used in hospitals, nursing homes, and rehabilitation facilities, although often the rails are kept in the down position, especially the rails near the lower part of the bed. This allows the user to sit on the edge of the bed, and also to get out of bed. In my own experience, older people often also like to have the rails along the upper part of the bed in the up position; this gives them something to hang onto as they sit up or try to get in or out of bed. (Kernisan, 2010)


According to Zarah (2010), women portrayed as using passive or emotion-focused strategies compared to mens active or problem-focused coping mechanisms According to Folkman and Lazarus community study (1980) men reported using more problem-focused coping strategies at work, when they needed more information, or when they had to accept a situation. Females According to Stevan Hobfoll, (1994), measures coping by looking into both social behavior and individual activity. It also features findings that echo the problem versus emotion distinction. These studies, they say, depict women as avoidant and more prone to depression than men because they would rather manage the negative emotions first before resolving the problem. Hobfoll, et al. also explain how the social context affects womens coping more than it does men. They add that unlike men, women often get involved in situations where they have low sense of control. According to Scott (2010), a study showed that a high body mass index (BMI) was found in adults who eat and drink in response to stress, particularly women.

t- test for anxiety male and female nurses

According to Sumbweghe Simukondan (2004), anxiety is a usual and expected occurrence among nurses. Male nurses are confronted with additional anxieties, due to role expectations for men. This small study suggests a high level of anxiety among these male nurses, and dissatisfaction about the information presented to them upon entering the hospital. The men felt particular stress about role differences between nurses and other male health workers.

Patient Male in communication

According to the Kader Parahoo et al (2002), in their study about qualitative evaluation of information given to the patient before the procedure, they have concluded that the need for information to be evidence based cannot be over-emphasized, as is the right for patients to be made fully aware of treatment choices, of their side-effects and other implications. Giving information about what patients are likely to experience during and after a stressful event is one approach that has been shown to be effective in a variety of medical settings. According to the study of Charnock D et al. (1999) confusing, ambiguous or alarming information may increase stress and anxiety. Yet, there were demand for more and better information about health problems and treatment choices, According to Coulter et al. (1999), it is not easy to gauge the amount of information that should be provided by health professionals. Care should be taken not to alarm and frighten patients. In one study in which patients reviewed leaflets, they indicated a preference for information that is balanced and includes a careful and honest assessment of the pros and cons of treatment. According to the study of Melanie Belcher et al. (2009), in their study Graduate nurses experiences of developing trust in the nursepatient relationship, They have found out that participants were commenting that they felt nervous and frustrated when they did not have the knowledge and experience to be confident enough to enter into a new relationship with a patient. From the analysis of the data it became evident that the graduate nurse did not feel confident when they perceived they lacked the necessary

knowledge to undertake some nursing procedures. This could give the patient the impression the nurse was unable to do her job as a consequence. In addition, it was clear that participants confidence decreased when patients asked medical questions about what was happening to them. Participants commented that they were not always able to answer these questions because they did not have the knowledge to do so. Being unable to develop a relationship with the patient decreased the nurses confidence leaving them feeling like they were not performing their job satisfactorily. Lack of trust resulted in the nurse distancing themselves from the patient as much as possible because the situation was too uncomfortable for them. According Leebov (2008), without a positive nurse patient relationship, there cannot be patient and family satisfaction. And there cannot be an environment that supports anxiety reduction and healing. According to the study of M. Mills, K. Sullivan et al. (1998) they cited that there is a difficulty in identifying factors that could influence patients' information needs highlights that information is an individualized aspect of care. We cannot predict that because a patient is, for example, male or female, undergoing a specific treatment, or with a certain level of education, that they will have particular type of information need.

of Patients Satisfaction for Male Patients in Participation of Patient in Care

According to Ann Marriner-Tomey (2006), nurse action is external regulatory forces that should protect, stimulate, and nurture to preserve the organization and integration of the patients behavioral system. Thus, the nurses were able to integrate the positive attitude that resulted to an optimistic perspective of the patient

According to Tworek and Kim (1981,) described the nurse's role in preoperative teaching, medication administration, record keeping, and physical assessment of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Caring was not mentioned, the strength of the relationship between patients' perceptions of nurse caring and satisfaction with nursing care has not been well established.

Male and Female Patients in Working Activities

According to Steven M Wright et al (2006), Significant differences between female and male reporting of satisfaction were found in the unadjusted analyses with males showing greater levels of satisfaction than females (P<.05). These differences disappeared or became smaller for both outpatient and inpatient services, after adjusting for covariates. For 6 of the inpatient dimensions (Transitions, Physical Comfort, Involvement Family and Friends, Courtesy, Coordination, and Access) males had higher satisfaction than females after statistical adjustment. Male Patients in Rights of the Patients According to Tungpalan, the patient has the right to obtain information as to any relationship of the hospital to other health care and educational institutions in so far as his care is concerned. The patient has the right to obtain as to the existence of any professional relationship among individuals, by names that are treating him. According to the study of Ashrafullah Mahmood (2010), the high-level quality care to patients is possible if healthcare management system is able to provide right information in right time to right place. Availability and accessibility are significant

aspects of information security, where applicable information needs to be available and accessible for user within the healthcare organization as well as across organizational borders. At the same time, it is essentials to protect the patient security from unauthorized access and maintain the appropriate level in health care regarding information security. According to Denise Wang (2007) avoiding the development of pressure sores is extremely important for anyone suffering from a spinal cord injury. Because the individual cannot move on his own he often lies or sits in the same position for hours at a time. Over time, these common pressure points (sit bones and shoulder blades) become sore and irritated, eventually resulting in an open sore that may be extremely difficult to heal. It is important for an individual confined to a chair or bed to shift position at least every three hours, day and night. Female Patients in Rights of the Patients According to K Merakou et al (2001) nursing staff seem to be the most suitable health care workers to undertake the task of informing patients about their rights, as well as promoting, protecting and advocating these rights, because, historically, nurses are much closer to the patients than doctors. They are the ones who are often directly with patients and are always nearby. However, although the Greek Nursing code of ethics (1996) refers to nurses obligation to protect the rights of patients and to use all means necessary to prevent any kind of mistreatment.

In contrary Foss (2004), Female responders added free-text comments to their multiple-choice responses more often than male responders did. Male and female

patients also drew attention to different aspects of what it was like to be hospitalized, and male and female patients also expressed themselves differently. The voices of the patients were mainly the voices of contextualizing experiences, reflecting differences in male and female patient's experiences and in the meaning the patients attached to their experiences. According to K Merakou et al.(2001) they have found out that in decision making, almost half of the patients waived their right to decide in favor of their healthcare provider. This finding coincides with other studies, Sutherland HJ et al (1989) showed that 79% of their patients preferred to leave decision making to their healthcare providers and Jahkola T. (1998) noted that this did not affect patients satisfaction with their treatment outcome.
Male Patients Satisfaction in Safety of the Patient

According to D. Gelber (2004), Back injuries continue to plague nurses out in the workforce. In 2004, 2,342 nurses in Quebec sustained work injuries of which 48.3% were spinal in nature. These accidents commonly occur while transferring or positioning patients. How a patient should be moved depends on the physical abilities and the specific environmental conditions in which the transfer will be performed. Thus calling for help and use of proper body mechanics can reduce excessive fatigue, muscle strains or tears, skeletal injuries, injury to patients, and injury to staff members who may be assisting you. Heather Blair (2008). The techniques used by nurses affect the musculoskeletal load on their spine in addition to the safety and well-being of their patients. According to the study done by Healey et al. (2007), they found out that around

one-fourth of all falls in healthcare settings are falls from bed. Such falls are associated with injury, fear of falling, functional impairment, prolonged length of stay, institutionalization, complaints, litigation and excess costs (J. Connely et al. 2007) According to E. Capezuti et al. (2002,) the use of bed rails complicates the existing clinical challenge staffs face in balancing patient safety with the promotion of independence and rehabilitation.

Females in Safety of the Patient

According to Meade, Bursell and Ketelsen (2006) they showed that nurses who performed hourly rounds on patients and give them the appropriate education not only decreased patient falls, but also increased patient satisfaction. The correlation is that patients see that nurses regularly perform visible tasks contribute to their safety, and thus feel safe to assume that the back-end activities within that hospital are more likely to be patient-safety focused. According to Wong and Cummings (2007), they studied the relationship between nursing leadership and patient outcomes. They found a connection between leaderships positive behaviors and a decrease in adverse events. This shows that patient safety starts at the top when leaders drive the change in organizational culture by walking the talk. The attitudes of leaders have a profound viral affect on spreading patient safety as a number one priority within their facilities. Healthcare staff that work within a hospital that values patient safety are more likely to experience a positive effect on workplace morale, which clearly affects the quality of patient care they deliverultimately creating a more positive environment within the hospital.

According to Weingarten et al (2006), investigated patient incidents that reflected a deficiency in service quality examples of which are waits, delays, poor care planning, and communication breakdowns. Their data showed that approximately 40% of patients reported experiencing an incident upon their hospital visit. Coincidentally, patient satisfaction scores were also decreased for those patients. The results of this study demonstrate that patients must perceive safety within the parameters of service quality measures and that if a hospital focuses on these systems of patient flow and throughput and communication, they will likely see improvement on their satisfaction scores.

T test patients

According to Lakoff (1975) every society has its own set of acceptable patterns of behaviors of norms for the role of male and female. Language often demonstrates what is considered to be natural behavior for these roles. In conversation, men tended to be direct and assertive, whereas women were over polite and passive.

The researcher found that the choice of moral framework along gender lines was not apparent. The major finding is that male and female nurses know and represent both moral perspectives of care and justice in their attempts to resolve moral conflict. (RUTGERS 1995) According to Indian Red Cross Society Kottayam (1987), the service of the female nurses is usually given to the bedridden patients and old aged people. No female nurse will be sent to the general ward of the hospitals or in the paywards where

more than one patient is admitted while the male nurses task is a multipurpose since they are also given training under the Home Management Service Scheme other than nursing. According to K Merakou et al (2001) nursing staff seem to be the most suitable health care workers to undertake the task of informing patients about their rights, as well as promoting, protecting and advocating these rights, because, historically, nurses are much closer to the patients than doctors. They are the ones who are often directly with patients and are always nearby. However, although the Greek Nursing code of ethics (1996) refers to nurses obligation to protect the rights of patients and to use all means necessary to prevent any kind of mistreatment. According to Meade, Bursell and Ketelsen (2006) it showed that nurses who performed hourly rounds on patients not only decreased patient falls, but also increased patient satisfaction. The correlation is that patients see that nurses regularly perform visible tasks that contribute to their safety, and thus feel safe to assume that the back-end activities within that hospital are more likely to be patient-safety focused.