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INTRODUCTION

One of the most important problems in livestock production is sub-standard nutrition. Feed represents the largest single production expense for cattle operations. There are many different feedstuffs that can be included in rations for cattle. Beef producers rely heavily upon forages for the basis of feeding program. However, forages often must be supplemented with energy or protein to meet the nutritional needs of cattle (Mark, 2009). Many alternative and by-product feeds are now available to provide supplemental nutrition. Supplemental feeds represent the largest single cost items in the majority of operations and it is the area that receives the most scrutiny. Over the last decade, alternative or by-product feed have increased in popularity due to availability and lower cost per unit of energy and/or protein (Blasi, et al., 2000). By-product feeds can fit into feeding programme as the primary roughage, as a supplement for part of the ration. Regardless of how the products are positioned, the primary goal of supplementary feeding is to provide needed energy, protein and/or vitamins/minerals. This work, therefore, looks at the importance of alternative feeds or by-product feeds in beef cattle production system.

Improved animal feeding


The low quality of natural savanna grazing, particularly during the dry season when the crude protein content of the grasses may be as low as 2%, suggests the potential role of supplementary feeding with concentrate mixtures rich in protein. A sensitivity analysis by Johnson et al. (1971) indicates that improved feeding will have a greater impact on livestock production than any other management strategy, while comparisons of various feeding strategies carried out by de Leeuw, and Agishi (1978) suggest that the most attractive approach in economic terms would be natural savanna grazing with supplementation. Thus, the possibilities for supplementary livestock feeding in the sub-humid zone merit further discussion. A supplementary feeding project was initiated in northern Nigeria in 1962/63 under the Fulani Amenities Programme in order to reduce weight loss in cattle during the dry season. Supplements were provided at the outset on a wholly subsidized basis, with the intention of gradually phasing out the subsidy element over a six-year period (Ogunfowora et al., 1975). During the first year, the project was limited to Adamawa Province and the Zaria and Katsina areas, but during the second year it was expanded to include Bornu and Plateau Provinces. With the creation of states in Nigeria in 1967, each of the new states launched a supplementation project. The recent Sahelian droughts, which led to a drastic

reduction in available herbage and loss of livestock, emphasized the value of supplementary feeding, and the project was expanded considerably. For instance, in the former North Eastern State only 290 tonnes of cottonseed were distributed to livestock producers in 1970/71, whereas by 1974/75, 3 949 tonnes of supplementary feed were distributed, composed of cottonseed, groundnut cake, dried brewer's grains and gawo pods (fruit of Acacia albida). () The optimum amount and composition of supplementary feeds has never been determined because knowledge of animal nutrition requirements in the tropics is still deficient. The project in Nigeria aimed at providing 0.5 to 1.5 kg of supplement daily for each animal throughout the dry season. It was estimated that this level of supplementation would enable the animals to maintain the weight they had reached at the end of the rains. Rations originally consisted of equal parts of groundnut cake and cottonseed plus 2% salt. As demand for the supplements soon exceeded supply, new feeds were introduced: gawo pods around Maiduguri and groundnut tops in Sokoto (Ogunfowora et al., 1975). Supplementary feeding and forage intervention are the main means of bridging forage deficits between the wet- and the dryseasons. Maize, wheat, cassava, soybean, rice bran, and fish meals have the highest prospects. In some places, supplementary

feeds have already replaced natural grass as the main source of food for the animals. For example, ruminants raised near settlements subsist on feeds generated from households and industries (FAO, 1977).

Nearly all tamed animals in northern Nigeria depend on the protein-rich husk or bark of thrashed corn and millet (dusa). These products are obtained as by-products of corn powder processing and corn preparation. Supplementary feed provides a good source of roughage. When enriched with vitamins and flavorings, processed feeds can dramatically improve the nutrition and appetite of the animal. An important addition to livestock feeding is the use of salt licks (Vengroff 1980). In the absence of pharmaceutical mineral supplements, medicinal rocks provide the calcium, magnesium, potassium, and other trace elements for animal's health. These minerals are essential in fattening, lactation, reproduction, and good skins and hooves. The Fulani prefer the salt licks to tables because tolerance for these chemicals varies with the individual herd. Animals will lick the amount their bodies need, unlike taking tablets that can over- or

under-mineralize the herds (Riesman 1977). The cheapest and most common feed supplements are from agro-allied factories such as breweries, ginneries, wineries, and distilleries. The Dry Brewers Grain (D.B.G) is the most popular feed used by ruminants and monogastric stock. Table 1 shows the types of feeds used in Nigeria in 1985.

TABLE 1: SUPPLEMENTARY FEED OUTPUT IN NIGERIA Types of Feed Palm Kernel Meal/pellets Palm Kernel Cake Cotton Seed Cake Peanut Cake Soya Bean Meal Dried Brewers Grain Fresh Brewers Grain Wheat Offal SOURCE: (FAO, 1977). Quantity (in tons) 30,481 2,772 6,707 1,080 .... 10,182 190,628 382,660

Evolution of Supplementary Feed in Nigeria Despite their obvious use in reducing the acute shortages of food, supplementary feeds are just becoming acceptable to the Fulani pastoralists. At the beginning, the Fulani refuse to use industrial by-products, because of the profound rumors that they impair the health and reproduction of the animals. To convince the

pastoralists that industrially generated stock feeds are harmless and beneficial, the government establishes a demonstration scheme where it feeds its own livestock from these by-products. Seeing how the demonstration stocks are fattening quickly without adverse effects, the Fulani have started using

supplementary feed from industrial by-products. The government of Nigeria introduced edible industrial wastes to pastoralists around 1962. The initial products included molasses, peanut cakes, cotton seed, and dry or wet brewers grain. Within few years, these products, especially the cotton seed, became the essential non-pharmaceutical protein supplement in livestock feeds, despite their low lysine, methionine, and amino acids, the main constituents of protein. To encourage the production of supplementary feed, the government and the private firms located the feedmill industries near their raw material sources. In the beginning, the breweries and the ginneries gave out their refuse free to animal-rearers. The industries even paid dearly to get rid of the wet, bulky, brewery dross. When livestock keepers found the use of these garbage, and the demand for them grew,

the brewers and distillers started charging husbanders for these by-product. Industries started charging the very people they used to pay to remove the end-product. Unscrupulous middle men began buying the product from agro-based industries and reselling them to herders at exorbitant prices. Either because they did not know how to apply for the product, or because they were far away from the industrial sites, the Fulani had limited access to industrial products. The demand for supplementary feed among livestock-raisers rose quickly. By 1986, the Fulani were using supplementary feeds extensively. The demand for dry brewers grain alone exceeded twenty-six thousand tons. As the number of breweries, ginneries and distilleries grew in Nigeria, so did the quantity of brewers grain. In 1983, ten of the twenty-five breweries in the country produced 9,850 tons of dry matter, most of which were consumed by the Fulani livestock. Agro-industrial by-products accounted for about twenty percent of the food ration for pigs, sheep, cattle, and rabbit (FAO, 1977). Feed price rose as they

became a commercial item. A ton of D.B.G. at N40 in 1985 sold at N250 in 1988, and N450 in 1989.

By-Product Feeds
By-product feeds are what is left over after an ingredient to be used for human consumption is removed from a commodity. Because of this, the composition of a by-product can be quite different from the whole grain from which it is derived. According to Mark, (2009) all remaining components in the by-product are more concentrated since a component of the grain is removed. In most cases, the starch component of the raw material is removed (Poore, 2002). As a result of concentrating the remaining material, most by-product feeds are higher in fiber, fat, and protein than the raw product from which they originate. Although the rapidly-digested starch is removed from the feed, fiber in the form of cellulose remains and is highly digestible by ruminants such as cattle and sheep. Consequently, the (TDN) content of these feeds is not very different from the total digestible nutrient (TDN) of the whole grain from which these by-products originate (FEEDVAL4).

Specific Feeds and Their Use in Feeding Programs There are many by-product feeds which may be available in local areas. The discussion below covers those feeds which are more widely available.

Whole Cottonseed Description: Whole cottonseed is a by-product of processing cotton for fiber. Whole seed can be fed to ruminants or processed for its oil content. In recent years, it has become widely used as feed. It is used heavily in the dairy industry as a source of fiber, protein, and energy. Cottonseed is high in TDN (90%) and crude protein (22%) and is a good feed for cattle (George, 1995).

Cottonseed Hulls Description: Cottonseed hulls are the outside portion of the whole cottonseed. They are separated from the whole seed during the further processing and production of cottonseed oil. The TDN level is around 45 percent, and the protein content is approximately 4 percent. They are high in fiber and are available as intact hulls or ground and pelleted (George, 1995).

Soybean Hulls Description: Soybean hulls (seed coats) are a by-product of soybean processing for soybean oil and soybean meal. During processing, soybeans are rolled or cracked to break the whole bean into smaller pieces so that the hulls can be removed. Soybean hulls are separated from the cracked seeds by an air stream. Hulls are usually toasted to destroy the urease activity and ground to the desirable particle size. Grinding the hulls decreases particle size and increases density for mixing and shipping purposes. Bulk density varies with the fineness of grind, usually ranging from 20 to 24 pounds per cubic foot. Pelleted soy hulls, which have a considerably higher bulk density, are also available. The fiber in soy hulls is highly digestible by ruminants. This means that soy hulls are not a very effective fiber source and should not be used in a beef cattle diet as the only source of fiber (Kunkle et al.,1995).

Whole Soybeans Description: Sometimes known as full-fat soybeans or raw soybeans, whole beans may be useful in certain feeding situations. Like whole cottonseed, whole soybeans have high oil content, around 18 percent. Consequently, the energy value is quite high (94% TDN) while still possessing a fairly high protein level

(40%). Soybeans contain two enzymes, a trypsin inhibitor and urease. Trypsin inhibitors do not affect ruminants and urease is only an issue when urea is the protein source in a ration. Trypsin inhibitors and urease are destroyed when soybeans and soybean meal are heat treated (Kunkle et al.,1995).. Wheat Midds Description: Wheat middlings are a by-product of milling wheat for flour. They are high in TDN (89%), protein (19%), and phosphorus (1.0%).Wheat midds are available from flour mills. They are routinely used in commercial feeds. Their price is often attractive when higher protein content is needed in the ration (Kunkle et al.,1995).. Peanut Skins Description: Peanuts skins are the thin, outer coat on the nut after shelling (not the hull). These are a by-product from peanut shellers and are usually available during the winter and spring. They are a good energy supplement for cattle, containing an estimated 60 percent to 80 percent TDN (not experimentally determined) and 17 percent crude protein (Kunkle et al.,1995)..

Brewers' and Distillers' Grains

Description: Brewers' grains are spent grains (barley alone or a mixture of barley and other cereal grain or grain products) from the brewing of beer. Distillers' grains are by-products of alcohol production. Most of the alcohol (ethanol) made is used as a gasoline extender. Corn is the most widely used grain in alcohol production, but rye, sorghum, and wheat are sometimes used. When labeled "distiller's grains with solubles," the feed consists of distillers' grains plus the solubles of fermentation. Distillers' grains are identified by the type of grain from which they are made, for example, corn or milo distillers. Because they are by-products of a wet processing method, both brewers' and distillers' grains are available in wet and dry form. Brewers' and distillers' grains are a good source of several nutrients for ruminants. They are rich in protein, TDN, minerals, and vitamins (George, 1995).

Problems of Supplementary Feed Development in Nigeria

Apart from relieving the over-dependence on grass, industrially generated feeds improve the health and nutrition of the cattle. The development of substitute feed in Nigeria faces many obstacles. First, much of the feed is wasted through bad management practices. Second, government's ban on the import of wheat and barley has reduced the capacity of the industries to produce the by-products used as feeds. Third, other industries are using these by-products as their raw materials, thus

increasing the demand. Fourth, the Fulani cannot rely on the feeds because the supply is erratic. Fifth, transportation is a major bottleneck in the transfer of the wet, bulky industrial harvest to the consumer. Although Nigeria produces a tangible amount of scum and crop residue, much of it is wasted. About twenty percent of the crop residue remains inedible due to bad storage. The rest is lost to termites, burning, and trampling. The farmers and the Fulani use some quantity of the residue in cooking, fencing, roofing, and hut making. Animals destroy a good portion of the residue through wasteful eating habits. Many products are yet to be explored as

potential livestock food. Some that are being experimented with may take several decades before stockkeppers accept the products as safe food for their animals. The government's ban on food imports reduced the output of import-dependent industries in Nigeria. For example, the

embargo on the purchase of wheat and barley, the brewers main ingredients, curtailed the expansion and production of brewerybased supplementary feed, even though the government allowed a zero import duty on mineral/vitamin premix for livestock feeding (Bashir 1986). Corn and sorghum used as substitutes to wheat and barley by desperate breweries to remain afloat, produced low-grade wine, beer, offal, and supplementary feed. The transportation cost of processed feed from local raw materials is high. For example, corn and sorghum are grown in Northern Nigeria where only five of the country's thirty-two functioning breweries are located. The north, however, produces ninety percent of the herds that consumed the feeds. The shortage of raw material has reduced the output of the industries

or has forced their closure. In 1980, livestock feedmills have turned out over two million metric tons of feed. Livestock feed output is coming to a grinding halt in Nigeria because locally produced grains used in making animal feeds are also a human staple. Animal feed cannot be produced in large quantity where scarcity for human food is widespread. Industrial by-products are also being used as raw material for other industries. By-product output is falling because of the increase in the efficiency of the industries that use up to ninety percent of their raw materials by weight. Synthetic and petrochemical industries are substituting agricultural raw materials, thereby, lowering agro-based by-products. The Fulani have a limited and unstable supply of the

supplementary feed (Mohammed-Saleem, 1986). A few Fulani on grazing reserves getting peanut husk and corn stovers from the government, but the supply is so erratic that no one depends on them for raising livestock. Industrial by-products usually go to commercial ranchers who know the staff working in the

industries. Industrial residues are useless unless they are processed into edible food and transported to the herds.

CONCLUSION Supplements for cattle feeding programs must provide energy, although extra protein may also be needed, especially for lactating cows and growing cattle. Conventional feeds such as corn or soybean meal are readily available, as are a large number of by-product feeds. By-products are becoming more readily available as more dealers and feed mills are distributing them. Most by-products can be stored indefinitely if they are dry, while the wet products will deteriorate rapidly without special storage systems. Many by-products are better supplements to pasture or hay feeding systems than are the conventional feeds. Cost of nutrition provided should be evaluated before any supplemental feed is selected for a feeding program.

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