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Faculty: School of Business Administration Class: Senior Class Course Code: Course Name: Time & Stress management

Lecturer: M.M Hussein Student Name: Bashir Mohamed Farah Student ID: 159 Assignment one: It is All about Stress Submission Date: 05/04/2011

Introduction
Stress is a fact of everyday life. When people reach out for Help, they are often dealing with Circumstances, situations, and stressors in their lives that leave them feeling emotionally and

Physically Overwhelmed. Many people feel that they have very little resources or skills to deal
with the high levels of stress they are experiencing. When something happens to us, we automatically evaluate the situation mentally. We Decide if it is threatening to us, how we need to deal with the situation, and what skills We can use. If we decide that the demands of the situation outweigh the skills we have, Then we label the situation as stressful and react with the classic stress response. If We decide that our coping skills outweigh the demands of the situation, then we dont See it as stressful. I will try to focus on meaning of stress, the effects of stress, and the most popular stress Manage mental and relaxation techniques that are being used today. This information could be Helpful for people who want to learn how to react to stress in a more constructive, proactive way. There are very many proven skills that we can use to manage stress. These help us to remain calm and effective in High pressure situations and help us avoid the problems of long term stress.

What Is Stress?
Experts in various fields of medicine and psychology recognize many different circumstances and events as Stressful. Depending on the circumstances or point of view, stress could be viewed as a threatening object or the event itself, the physical reaction within our bodies to the threat, or the state of mind that precedes our taking some action in response to threat. Stress can be defined as: The way your body responds to the demands of your life style i.e., the effects of wear and tear on your body. Stress Can also be defined as "the nonspecific response of the body to any demand" (Selye) "Nonspecific" means that, as far as stress and its effect on your body is concerned, the body responds to every stressor in pretty much the same way, whether that stressor is positive or negative, internal or external. "Demand" can be understood as pressure, either external (such as an upcoming test, an argument with your boyfriend or girlfriend) or internal (such as your demand on yourself that you "have to" get an A on your upcoming exam). Stress also occurs in your body when you don't get enough sleep, when you eat too much junk food or drink too much alcohol, smoke too much, or when you are studying so much that you can't think straight anymore.

Sources of Stress
We can experience stress from four basic sources:

The Environment the environment can bombard you with intense and competing Demands to adjust. Examples of environmental stressors include weather, noise, Crowding, pollution, traffic, unsafe and substandard housing and crime.

Social Stressors we can experience multiple stressors arising from the demands of the Different social roles we occupy, such as parent, spouse, and employee. Some examples of social stressors include deadlines, financial problems, job interviews, Presentations, disagreements, demands for your time and attention, loss of a loved one, divorce, and co-parenting.

Physiological Situations and circumstances affecting our body can be experienced as Physiological stressors. Examples of physiological stressors include rapid growth of Adolescence, menopause, illness, aging, giving birth, accidents, lack of exercise, poor Nutrition, and sleep disturbances. Thoughts Your brain interprets and perceives situations as stressful, difficult, painful, or pleasant. Some situations in life are stress provoking, but it is our thoughts that determine whether they are a problem for us. Types of Stressors Situations that are considered stress provoking are known as stressors. Stress is not always a bad thing. Stress is simply the bodys response to changes that create taxing Demands.

Many professionals suggest that there is a difference between what we perceive as Positive stress, and distress, which refers to negative stress. In daily life, we often use the term stress to describe negative situations. This leads many people to believe that all stress is bad for you, which is not true. Positive stress has the following characteristics: Motivates, focuses energy Is short-term Is perceived as within our coping abilities Feels exciting Improves performance In contrast, negative stress has the following characteristics: Causes anxiety or concern Can be short or long-term Is perceived as outside of our coping abilities Feels unpleasant Decreases performance Can lead to mental and physical problems Symptoms of Excess Stress

There are a number of classical symptoms of when stress gets to be too much: Increased muscle tension

Especially in the back of the neck, the top of the shoulders and between the shoulder blades, the back of the legs, the temple, the jaw, and the orbital muscles around your eyes. Unfortunately, increased Muscle tension may be hard to detect, as the body accommodates to the increased muscle tension and Starts to perceive it as "normal."

Emotional irritability You find you get really upset at the smallest of things. Small delays or frustrations really start, not just to irritate you, but to set you off on a major tantrum. Deterioration in performance, impairment in your ability to pay attention and concentrate During your classes or while you're studying, and an increased feeling of "what the hell," "who Cares?" or "what's the use?" regarding your grades, your main squeeze or your life in general. Restlessness, insomnia and disruptions of your appetite You start to feel "wired and tired" all the time. You begin to have trouble falling asleep or you wake up early. You begin to experience intrusive, racing thoughts about your classes or grades that just won't turn off. You find you're either skipping meals a lot, eating a lot of junk food, or pigging out every spare moment. You may start experiencing a lot of stomach upset, intestinal gas, diarrhea or constipation. You may find yourself smoking or drinking a lot more all of a sudden, and feeling belligerent towards anybody who notices and comments on that to you. Anxiety or panic attacks you begin experiencing a constant sense of impending doom or disaster, imagining that you are going to flunk all of your classes regardless of how you are doing realistically.

Physical illness or injury You might actually begin getting sick, either with a nasty bronchitis, flu or maybe even mono. You may find yourself becoming "accident prone" and find yourself in a few narrow scrapes on the road driving your car or find yourself losing things or dropping things all over.

How stress affects the immune system


No matter what the trigger, stress can have a serious impact on your body. There are pathways by which all mammals respond to stress? The nervous and endocrine systems release hormones and Neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain) that actually affect the functioning of nerves and tissues in the body, explains John Sheridan, a professor at Ohio State University who has conducted extensive research on the effects of stress. Prolonged activation Of these systems tend to have detrimental effects they tend to be what we call immunosuppressive. Stress depletes Cells that fight illness, Dr. Rosch adds. Stress is difficult for professionals to define because it is a highly subjective Phenomenon that differs for each of us. Things those are distressful for some Individuals can be pleasurable for Others. We also respond to stress differently. Some People blush, some eat more while others grow pale or eat less.

Coping with Stress

Conclusion
The growing scientific knowledge about the links between stress and health has tremendous practical significance. Understanding these links is essential for raising awareness among public and private policymakers about the importance of policies and programs that can help make life less stressful, particularly for those who experience the most stress and are most vulnerable to its health-damaging effects. While much remains to be learned, current knowledge makes it clear that addressing the effects of stressparticularly chronic stress, and particularly among childrencan play a critical role in realizing the health potential of all Americans

The American Institute of Stress www.stress.org

http://medlineplus.gov/ http://www.counseling.mtu.edu/stress_management.html http://www.Onconurse.com


http://www.stress.com