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Paradox: snoun a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.

a self-contradictory and false proposition. Parallelism 2. grammar the repetition of a syntactic construction in successive sentences for rhetorical effect

assonance n1. the u e of the ame vowel ound with different con onant or the ame con onant with different vowel in ucce ive word or tre ed yllable , a in a line of ver e. Example are time andlight or mystery and mastery

enjambment noun the running on of the thought from one line, couplet, or tanza to the next without a yntactical break. prosody the running over of a entence from one line of ver e into the next mimesis Rhetoric .imitation or reproduction of the uppo ed word of another, a in order to repre ent hi or her character. World Engli h Dictionary

mimesis (m 1.


art, literature the imitative repre entation of nature or human behaviour

hamartia (h t n

literature the flaw in character which lead to the downfall of the protagoni t in a tragedy

catharsis the purging of the emotion or relieving of emotional ten ion , e pecially through certain kind of art, a tragedy or mu ic.

verisimilitude the appearance or emblance of truth; likelihood; probability: The play lacked veri imilitude. omething, a an a ertion, having merely the appearance of truth.

pathos the quality or power in an actual life experience or in literature, mu ic, peech, or other form of expre ion, of evoking a feeling of pity or compa ion. pity. Ob olete . uffering.

According to psychiatristCarl Jung, archetypes are innate universal psychic dispositions that form the substrate from which the basic symbols or representations of unconscious experience emerge. "The archetype is a tendency to form such representations of a motif - representations that can vary a great deal in detail without losing their basic pattern ...

They are indeed an instinctive trend".[1] Thus for example "the archetype of initiation is strongly activated to provide a meaningful transition ... with a 'rite of passage' from one stage of life to the next":[2] such stages may include being parented, initiation, courtship, marriage and preparation for death.[3]

Examples and conceptual difficulties

Although the general idea of an archetype is well recognized, there is considerable confusion as regards to their exact nature and the way they result in universal experiences. The confusion about the archetypes can partly be attributed to Jung's own evolving ideas about them in his writings and his interchangeable use of the term "archetype" and "primordial image"; it may also be attributed to the fact that, given his belief that "archetypal symbols ... are spontaneous and autonomous products of the unconscious", Jung was always intent "not to weaken the specific individual and cultural values of archetypes by leveling them out - i.e., by giving them a stereotyped, intellectually formulated meaning".[7] Strictly speaking, archetypal figures such as the hero, the goddess and the wise man are not archetypes, but archetypal images which have crystallized out of the archetypes-as-such: as Jung put it, "definite mythological images of motifs ... are nothing more than conscious representations; it would be absurd to assume that such variable representations could be inherited", as opposed to their deeper, instinctual sources - "the 'archaic remnants', which I call 'archetypes' or 'primordial images'".[8] Jung described archetypal events: birth, death, separation from parents, initiation, marriage, the union of opposites etc.; archetypal figures: great mother, father, child, devil, God, wise old man, wise old woman, Apollo, trickster, hero - not to mention "Oedipus ... the first archetype Freud discovered"[9] or "number ... an archetype of order";[10] and archetypal motifs: the Apocalypse, the Deluge, the Creation, etc. Although the number of archetypes is limitless, there are a few particularly notable, recurring archetypal images, "the chief among them being" (according to Jung) "the shadow, the Wise Old Man, the child (including the child hero), the mother ... and her counterpart, the maiden, and lastly the anima in man and the animus in woman".[11] Alternately he would speak of "the emergence of certain definite archetypes ... the shadow, the animal, the wise old man, the anima, the animus, the mother, the child".[12] Five main archetypes are sometimes enumerated:[citation needed]

y y y y

The Self, the regulating center of the psyche and facilitator of individuation - the representative of "that wholeness which the introspective philosophy of all times and climes has characterized with an inexhaustible variety of symbols, names and concepts".[13] The Shadow, the opposite of the ego image, often containing qualities that the ego does not identify with but possesses nonetheless The Anima, the feminine image in a man's psyche; or: The Animus, the masculine image in a woman's psyche The Persona, to Jung a mere "functional complex ... by no means identical to the individuality",[14] the way we present to the world - a mask which protects the Ego from negative images, and which by post-Jungians is sometimes considered an "archetype ... as a dynamic/structural component of the psyche".[15]

However the precise relationships between images such as, for example, "the fish" and its archetype were not adequately explained by Jung. Here the image of the fish is not strictly speaking an archetype. However the "archetype of the fish" points to the ubiquitous existence of an innate "fish archetype" which gives rise to the fish image. In clarifying the contentious statement that fish archetypes are universal, Anthony Stevens explains that the archetype-as-such is at once an innate predisposition to form such an image and a preparation to encounter and respond appropriately to the creature per se. This would explain the existence of snake and spider phobias, for example, in people living in urban environments where they have never encountered either creature.[16]

[edit]Actualization and complexes

Archetypes seek actualization within the context of an individual's environment and determine the degree of individuation. Jung also used the terms "evocation" and "constellation" to explain the process of actualization. Thus for example, the mother archetype is actualized in the mind of the child by the evoking of innate anticipations of the maternal archetype when the child is in the proximity of a maternal figure who corresponds closely enough to its archetypal template. This mother archetype is built into the personal unconscious of the child as a mother complex. Complexes are functional units of the personal unconscious, in the same way that archetypes are units for the collective unconscious.

[edit]Psychoid archetype
Jung proposed that the archetype had a dual nature: it exists both in the psyche and in the world at large. He called this non-psychic aspect of the archetype the "psychoid" archetype. He illustrated this by drawing on the analogy of the electromagnetic spectrum. The part of the spectrum which is visible to us corresponds to the conscious aspects of the archetype. The invisible infra-red end of the spectrum corresponds to the unconscious biological aspects of the archetype that merges with its chemical and physical conditions.[17] He suggested that not only do the archetypal structures govern the behavior of all living organisms, but that they were contiguous with structures controlling the behavior of organic matter as well. The archetype was not merely a psychic entity, but more fundamentally, a bridge to matter in general.[18] Jung used the ancient term of unus mundus; to describe the unitary reality which he believed underlay all manifest phenomena. He conceived archetypes to be the mediators of the unus mundus, organizing not only ideas in the psyche, but also the fundamental principles of matter and energy in the physical world. It was this psychoid aspect of the archetype that so impressed Nobel laureate physicist Wolfgang Pauli. Embracing Jung's concept, Pauli believed that the archetype provided a link between physical events and the mind of the scientist who studied them. In doing so he echoed the position adopted by German astronomer Johannes Kepler. Thus the archetypes which ordered our perceptions and ideas are themselves the product of an objective order which transcends both the human mind and the external world.[16]

[edit]Parallels and developments

Although the term "archetype" did not originate with Jung, its current use has largely been influenced by his conception of it. The idea of innate psychic structures, at one time a relative novelty in the humanities and sciences has now been widely adopted.
[edit]General developments

Related concepts arguably include the work of Claude Lvi-Strauss, an advocate of structuralism in anthropology, the concept of "social instincts" proposed by Charles Darwin, the "faculties" of Henri Bergson and the isomorphs of gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Kohler. In 1965 Noam Chomsky's ideas of human language acquisition being based on an "innate acquisition device" became known to the world. Melanie Klein's idea of unconscious phantasy is closely related to Jung's archetype, as both are composed of image and affect and are a-priori patternings of psyche whose contents are built from experience.

[edit]Archetypal pedagogy

Archetypal pedagogy was developed by Clifford Mayes. Mayes' work also aims at promoting what he calls archetypal reflectivity in teachers; this is a means of encouraging teachers to examine and work with psychodynamic issues, images, and assumptions as those factors affect their pedagogical practices.
[edit]Archetypes and psychology

Archetypal psychology was developed by James Hillman in the second half of the 20th century. It is in the Jungian tradition and most directly related to analytical psychology, yet departs radically. Archetypal psychology relativizes and deliteralizes the ego and focuses on the psyche, or soul, itself and the archai, the deepest patterns of psychic functioning, "the fundamental fantasies that animate all life" (Moore, in Hillman, 1991). Archetypal psychology is a polytheistic psychology, in that it attempts to recognize the myriad fantasies and mythsgods, goddesses, demigods, mortals and animalsthat shape and are shaped by our psychological lives. The ego is but one psychological fantasy within an assemblage of fantasies. Hillman was trained at the Jung Institute and was its Director after graduation. The main influence on the development of archetypal psychology is Carl Jung's analytical psychology. It is strongly influenced by Classical Greek, Renaissance, and Romantic ideas and thought. Influential artists, poets, philosophers, alchemists, and psychologists include: Nietzsche, Henry Corbin, Keats, Shelley, Petrarch, and Paracelsus. Though all different in their theories and psychologies, they appear to be unified by their common concern for the psychethe soul.
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