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English Dictionary of Business Terminology

Erstellung/Compiled by: Studierende des Sprachenzentrums der Universität Hamburg

Redaktion/Edited by: Carl Kanowsky


Dieses Wirtschaftswörterbuch wurde von Teilnehmern des Projektkurses „Speaking Like the Masters
of the Universe: A Business Dictionary“ (Sprachenzentrum der Universität Hamburg) im
Sommersemester 2017 erarbeitet und zusammengestellt. Die ausgewählten Vokabeln stammen aus
aktuellen Artikeln renommierter Zeitschriften und Magazine der englischsprachigen
Wirtschaftspresse, z.B. CNN Money, Business Insider, Business Review Australia und The Financial
Times. Für jedes Wort bzw. jede Redewendung hatten die Studierenden die Aufgabe, eine klare und
verständliche Definition sowie einen Beispielsatz und eine lautliche Umschrift ins internationale
phonetische Alphabet (IPA) zu formulieren.

Folgende Hinweise sind für Leser*Innen zu beachten:

I. Internationales phonetisches Alphabet (IPA)

a. Verwendet wird ausschließlich standardamerikanisches Englisch. Zu besonderen
Abweichungen von der „Received Pronunciation“ der britischen Inseln gehört der
amerikanische „R-Laut“ [ɝ].
II. Abkürzungen
a. Verwendet werden folgende Abkürzungen:
- adj.: adjective (Adjektiv)
- adv.: adverb (Adverb)
- lit.: literally (wörtlich)
- n.: noun (Substantiv)
- sb.: somebody (jemand, -en, -em)
- sthg.: something (etwas)
- v.: verb (Verb)
III. Zeichen von besonderer Bedeutung
a. Die Stichwörter sind fett gedruckt.
b. Lautliche Umschriften befinden sich innerhalb der [] Zeichen.
c. Wortarten befinden sich innerhalb der () Zeichen.
d. Der senkrechte Strich | kennzeichnet das Ende einer Definition und den Anfang eines
e. Die Beispielsätze sind kursiv gedruckt.
f. Das Semikolon ; kennzeichnet eine weitere Definition des Wortes, die häufig
unverwandt mit der ersten Definition ist.
IV. Redewendungen
a. Redewendungen werden zusammen mit der Wortart als „idiom“ kennzeichnet.
b. In den meisten Fällen ist das Stichwort das wichtige Substantiv. Verben bzw.
Präpositionen sind meistens nach dem Stichwort gedruckt.
z. B. door, knock on sb.‘s statt knock on sb.’s door

Hamburg, im August 2017

A agreements is terribly important for
mitigating the effects of climate change.
abroad (adj./adv.) [əˈbrɑ:d] in a foreign administration (n.) [ædmɪnɪˈstreɪʃɪn]
country; overseas | He will study abroad authoritative body, or the exercise of
at a Spanish university next semester. authority; governing | The Trump
abrupt (adj.) [əˈbrʌpt] unexpected, administration released a new draft of a
sudden, surprising | The weather in proposed law last week.
Hamburg often changes abruptly from afield (adj./adv.) [əˈfi:ld] describes sthg.
sunshine to rain. that is far away in distance or time from
accord (n.) [əˈkɔrd] legal, formal, or one’s perspective; beyond; abroad | He
otherwise official agreement, esp. of a came from far afield just to attend the
diplomatic nature | The Geneva business meeting in Brussels.
Convention of 1949 is a multinational aggregate (n.) [ˈægrɪgɪt] total;
accord concerning the execution of accumulation of a whole from separate
warfare. pieces | The aggregate supply consists of
accord, of one’s own (adj./idiom) [ʌv wʌnz consumption, government spending, and
oʊn əˈkɔrd] unprompted; on one’s own; imports.
without being told | After seeing the harm aim (n.) [eɪ:m] what sb. strives for or
it had caused his best friend, he then quit hopes to achieve | Her aim is to become a
smoking of his own accord. doctor.
accordingly (adv.) [əˈkɔrdɪŋli] respectfully, alienate (v.) [ˈeɪliəneɪt] to cause a person
correspondingly, appropriately, or people to stop supporting sb. or to stop
consequently | They told me to check on feeling welcome | All these changes to the
workers’ backgrounds and I have acted newspaper have alienated its loyal
accordingly. readers.
across-the-board (adj./adv.) [əˈkrɑ:s ðʌ allegation (n.) [æləˈgɛɪʃən] accusation of
bɔrd]general; overall | The low interest sb. having committed sthg. illegal, usually
rates are a major reason for the across- without conclusive proof | Everyone knew
the-board increase in German house that she was innocent because the
prices. allegations weren’t supported by any
active ingredient (n.) [ˈæktɪv ɪnˈgridiɛnt] a evidence.
component of a medical product which alleged (adj.) [əˈlɛdʒɪd] stated that
helps directly in achieving the main goal of wrongdoing has occurred without
the substance | Ibuprofen is an active conclusive proof | The alleged tax evader
ingredient in many pain-killing was subjected to a thorough audit by the
medications. IRS.
acute (adj.) [əˈkju:t] describes a pressing allocate (v.) [ˈæləkɛɪt] to assign resources,
situation; sharp | Because the company usually funds, to a specific purpose |
has an acute need of new capital, it has $10,000 was allocated to the children’s
reached out to investors from several hospital by the local government to fund
sectors. entertainment programs.
adapt (v.) [əˈdæ:pt] to fit to or make amalgamation (n.) [əmɑlgəˈmɛɪʃən] a
suitable to sthg. | Polar bears could never process by which two organizations merge
adapt to the hot climate of the Sahara. in order to form a larger entity; the fusion
adhere (v.) [ædˈhi:r] to stick to; to attach; of two or more elements | The
to comply with, esp. law or military orders amalgamation of the two powerful banks
| Adherence to multinational climate led to anti-trust investigations on the part
of the government.
amid (prep.) [əˈmɪd] in the middle of; B
amongst | She managed to keep a cool
head amid all the chaos. backfire (v.) [ˈbækfaɪ:r] to have an adverse
appeal (n./v.) [əˈpi:l] a request; to make a effect, esp. opposite of what was intended
request; to contest a ruling | The | His plan to lower prices backfired:
government appealed to the citizens to do customers took the low prices to mean low
more to protect the environment. quality, and stopped shopping at his store.
appease (v.) [əˈpi:z] to calm a situation or bail (n.) [bɛɪ:l] money paid by an accused
sb. | The mayor made a public speech in person in order to remain out of jail until a
order to appease the angry crowd. trial can take place | Johnny made bail and
artificial (adj.) [ɑrdəˈfɪʃəl] not occurring was able to stay at home until his trial,
naturally; not genuine; created in such a though he wasn’t allowed to travel.
way as to give the appearance of reality | bailout (n.) [ˈbɛɪlaʊt] financial support
Light bulbs provide us with artificial light in given to a troubled bank, state, or
contrast to the sun, which produces corporation | The banks survived the
natural light. financial crisis thanks to a taxpayer
assess (v.) [əˈsɛs] to give an expert bailout.
opinion; to evaluate; to appraise | The balk (v.) [bɔ:k] to be unwilling to do sthg.;
teacher assesses the students’ progress to oppose a decision | I balked at the idea
every week with a short quiz. of going to the countryside for the
asset (n.) [ˈæsɛt] sthg. owned or weekend, where I feel there's nothing to
attributed to sb. which is valuable, able to do other than stare at the scenery.
generate income, or beneficial | Some of banner (adj.) [ˈbænɝ] exceptionally good,
their most important assets are the unusually positive | 2015 was a banner
patents they hold on numerous popular year for British hedge fund managers.
gadgets. bar (v.) [bɑ:r] to prevent or disallow, often
attorney (n.) [əˈtɝni] sb. who studied law by use of legal or otherwise official force;
and is qualified to practice in court | You to exclude | In many countries women
can try to represent yourself in court were barred from voting until well into the
without the expertise of an attorney, but I twentieth century.
wouldn’t recommend it. baton, take up the (v./idiom) [tɛɪk ʌp ðʌ
augment (v.) [ˈɑgmɛnt] to enlarge, to bəˈtɑ:n] to become the leader when the
expand, to increase in size or number| The original leader is no longer willing or able
negative effects of her hangover were to do the job | When the CFO couldn't
augmented by the bright light coming in come to the important meetings due to
from outside. illness, his very capable assistant took up
austerity (n.) [ɔsˈtɛɾədi] an economic the baton.
policy by which a government reduces its battalion (n.) [bəˈtæ:ljən] a special
spending | Austerity measures are often formation of individuals into a greater
put forward by governments as smart composition, esp. used in a military
fiscal policy, though they’re rarely context | There was such a large battalion
accepted by the public. of demonstrators that even the streets
awkward (adj.) [ˈɔkwɝd] describes surrounding them had to be blocked.
embarrassing, ungainly, or clumsy action batter (v.) [ˈbædɝ] to hit, to damage, to
or speech| He felt awkward when he break, to wreck | The financial crisis left
invited his girlfriend out for dinner and the credit markets even more battered
then realized he’d forgotten his money. than the raw materials market.
bbl (n.) [ˈbɝəlz] abbreviation for describes a state in which sthg. is lacking
“barrel(s),” used mainly when discussing or missing | The pupil's homework was
oil; equal to 158.987 liters | The price of a bereft of any citations or footnotes.
barrel of petroleum decreased significantly Big Brother (n.) [bɪg ˈbrʌðɝ] the fictional
after 2013. leader of the dystopian nation depicted in
beam (v.) [bi:m] to send sthg. to a remote George Orwell’s novel 1984; used today to
location instantly, without any physical refer to government surveillance that is
effort | Mesh technology aimed at deemed excessive | It may be a bit of a
beaming internet access to poorly “Big Brother”-style tactic, but I feel safer
developed areas is currently being on the train knowing that there are
implemented. security cameras.
beef up (v.) [bi:f ʌp] to make sthg. bilateral (adj.) [baɪˈlædɝəl] involving,
stronger or more important | The affecting, or otherwise being between two
company has invested $11 million to beef parties, lit. “from two sides” | Japan and
up its video news capabilities and upgrade China held bilateral talks concerning the
its website. recent actions of the North Koreans.
beef, have a (v./idiom) [hæv ʌ bi:f] to have black market (n.) [blæk ˈmɑrkɪt] a space
a disagreement, often long-term and for transactions in which buyers and
unspoken | My boss has had a beef with sellers can trade in illegal items, thereby
me ever since I went over his head and avoiding government control or taxes |
asked his own boss for advice. The black market constituted a major part
beguile (v.) [bɪˈgaɪ:l] to attract, to seduce | of the Russian economy after the fall of
I was beguiled by my bank’s promises of the Soviet Union.
large home loans at low rates. black money (n./idiom) [blæk ˈmʌni] funds
beleaguered (adj.) [bəˈli:gɝd] bothered, that are earned illegally; currency which
annoyed, plagued with problems | During has been laundered or otherwise made
the Great Recession England’s untraceable | Black money is used on the
beleaguered economy struggled to keep so-called “Dark Web” to purchase drugs,
the jobless rate down. weapons, and other illegal items.
bellwether (n.) [ˈbɛlwɛðɝ] sb. or sthg. that blistering (adj.) [ˈblɪstɝɪŋ] extremely rapid,
serves as a specific indicator of a general energetic, or impressive; severe, harsh, as
trend or movement | States like Ohio and a criticism | The blistering pace of
Missouri are often seen as bellwethers in development in China seems to have
American elections: as they go, so goes the slowed somewhat.
nation. blow (v.) [bloʊ] to breathe forcefully; to
benchmark (n./adj.) [ˈbɛntʃmɑrk] a strike; to waste; to fail, esp. an
standard of reference; describes a opportunity | The applicant blew his
standard or balanced reference | The DAX chances of getting the job when he
is the benchmark for how Germany’s answered his mobile phone during the
investment funds are operating. interview.
benefit (n.) [ˈbɛnəfɪt] sthg. helpful or blunt (v.) [blʌnt] to weaken; to lessen in
useful; advantage; profit; advantage intensity | The manager’s upbeat speech
received by employees in addition to blunted employees’ concerns about
salary, such as medical insurance or possibly lay-offs.
parental leave | The benefits received by bluster (n./v.) [ˈblʌstɝ] aggressive,
employees at Microsoft are considerable. swaggering, and combative speech, esp.
bereft (adj.) [bəˈrɛft] feeling the severe directed at institutions or abstract ideas |
sadness of a loss, esp. of a loved one; Mr. Trump’s bluster about “fake news”
may have lasting negative effects, but it bout (n.) [baʊt] a brief period of time
also seems to have aided his campaign in during which sthg. is accomplished or
the short term. happening | A bout of the measles left my
body (n.) [ˈbɑ:di] an organizational son home from school for two weeks.
framework, often regulatory in nature, Brexit (n.) [ˈbrɛksɪt] portmanteau for
with the purpose of executing specific “British exit,” referring to the UK
functions| The primary crime-fighting departure from the EU | The majority of
body on the federal level in the United English voters backed the Brexit while the
States is the FBI. majority of Scottish voters opposed it.
bogus(adj.) [ˈboʊgəs] fake, not genuine, brick-and-mortar (adj./idiom) [brɪk ænd
forged, artificial | Her forced smile was ˈmɔrdɝ] used to describe a traditional
completely bogus; it was obvious she business that operates in a building as
wasn’t really happy to see me. compared to over the internet | Online
bolster (v.) [ˈbɔlstɝ] to encourage; to retailers try to lure customers away from
support; to strengthen or further improve their brick-and-mortar competitors.
sthg., to increase effectiveness | The bruising (adj.) [ˈbru:zɪŋ] describes a harsh,
Chinese government has a plan to bolster violent, and long-lasting negative
cooperative technical projects with experience | Clinton’s loss to Trump in the
Germany. 2016 election must have been particularly
bonanza (n.) [bəˈnæ:nzə] business or bruising for her considering how well she
situation that is very profitable and boasts was predicted to perform.
significant enrichment potential | With no bubble (n.) [ˈbʌbl] unreasonably high
real competitors on the world stage after increase in prices of assets such as real
the Second World War, the US enjoyed a estate or stocks| The tulip bubble in
bonanza of unprecedented economic Amsterdam is a famous example of out-of-
growth for the following decades. control investment.
bond (n.) [bɑnd] an agreement or bully pulpit (n./idiom) [ˈbʊli ˈpɔlpɪt] a
document issued by a government or public office whose high exposure gives
organization promising to pay back the incumbent tremendous opportunity to
borrowed money to the lender at a fixed speak his/her mind on any issue | Donald
rate of interest by an agreed date | Low- Trump uses the bully pulpit to malign what
rated bonds are generally avoided by he calls "fake news."
smart investors. bump up (v./idiom) [bʌmp ʌp] to increase,
bonfire (n.) [ˈbɑnfaɪ:ɝ] a large to move sthg. forward | If the automotive
conflagration made outside, often for industry bumps up prices for cars, fewer
celebratory or ceremonial purposes | It's a people will be able to afford one.
pagan tradition to light a bonfire on Easter bumper (adj.) [ˈbʌmpɝ] very good;
holidays. exceptional | After bumper sales in the
boom time (n.) [ˈbu:m taɪm] a particularly menswear department, the store decided
lucrative or productive era | The US to branch out into children’s clothing.
economy experienced strong growth buoy (v.) [ˈbu:i] to raise or keep afloat; to
during the boom time preceding the maintain a secure position | German
financial crisis. exports have increased, buoyed by a weak
boost (v./n.) [bu:st] to provide a sudden euro.
push or burst of strength; momentum | burden (n.) [bɝdᵊn] a heavy object or
Changes in the legal framework of the impairment, also psychological, that
People’s Republic of China gave the nation impedes progress | Your sympathy for
a boost in economic growth. poorly performing employees is a burden
you’ll have to get rid of if you hope to toward the customer, who asked a lot of
move ahead in this company. questions and needed a lot of help in the
bypass (v.) [ˈbaɪpæs] get around, esp. a store.
law or regulation; avoid; leave behind | City, the (n.) [ðʌ ˈsɪdi] colloquial
Since he had a connection in the expression referring to the historic core of
government he was able to bypass most of London, one of the modern world’s most
the bureaucratic hassle. important centers of business and finance;
a metonym for the British financial
C services industry | Thousands of London
businesspeople and bankers work in the
CAC 40 (n.) [kɑ:k ˈfɔrdi] acronym for City.
“Cotation Assistée en Continu,” a French claimant (n.) [ˈkleɪmɪnt] someone who
stock index which monitors share prices at brings a case to a court of law; someone in
the forty biggest companies listed on the pursuit of damages resulting from a prior
Paris Stock Exchange | The CAC 40 is the injury | The employees combined their
primary stock exchange in the efforts and took their company to court as
Francophone world. a collective claimant in order to receive
cajole (v.) [kəˈdʒɔ:l] tto persuade by unpaid salary.
speaking gently or making attractive clean energy (n.) [kli:n ˈɛnɝdʒi] electrical
promises | After a long conversation he and other forms of power drawn from
managed to cajole me into signing the renewable sources | Clean energy
deal. accounts for a significant share of the
call the shots (v./idiom) [kɑ:l ðʌ ʃɑ:ts] to energy supply in Norway.
command, to be in charge of, to order, to clientelism (n.) [ˈklaɪ:ɛntəlɪzᵊm] a political
decide | As the senior member, the US or social structure based on patronage,
calls the shots in NATO. where a client stays loyal to the patron in
central bank (n.) [ˈsɛntrəl bɛɪnk] financial exchange for certain goods or benefits |
institution which manages a state’s The political structure of dictatorships is
currency and interest rates | The Federal based on corruption and clientelism.
Reserve is the central bank of the United close (v.) [kloʊz] to stop operating for
States. either a limited or an indefinite period |
chair (v.) [tʃɛr] to oversee a meeting, The DAX closed at 11.000 points this
group, or organization | The senator evening.
chaired the subcommittee for decades close in on (v./idiom) [kloʊz ˈɪn ɑn] To
until she retired. move nearer to something or someone,
chronic (adj.) [ˈkrɑnɪk] habitual or of long esp. a rival or specific goal | The police are
duration; long-term, marked by frequent slowly closing in on the terrorist cell.
recurrence or even constancy | Thanks to cockpit (n.) [ˈkɑ:kpɪt] the room or space
decades of investment and research, HIV where a pilot sits while operating an
has been downgraded from a death aircraft, boat, train, etc.; a metonym
sentence to a manageable, chronic illness. representing the leadership of an
chunk (n.) [tʃʌnk] an often sizeable piece organization | It can be difficult in some
of a whole, procured esp. by tearing or companies to identify who really sits in the
cutting | I invested a chunk of money in cockpit.
my new car, so it had better be worth the collaborative (adj.) [kəˈlæbrədɪv]
price! describes the working together of two or
churlish (adj.) [ˈtʃɝlɪʃ] rude, inconsiderate, more parties in order to reach a certain
mean | The salesperson was quite churlish objective | The event was a collaborative
effort by all employees of the production among analysts is that the stock market
facility. will continue to rise for the foreseeable
collective bargaining (n.) [kəˈlɛktɪv future.
ˈbɑrgənɪŋ] negotiations about pay scales consolidation (n.) [kənˈsɑlɪdɛɪʃən] process
and working conditions by a union or of solidification and strengthening by
employee representative | Although not combining; the act of bringing parts of a
all were satisfied, most employees whole together | Budget consolidation
welcomed the result of the collective means balancing total income with total
bargaining negotiations. spending.
combat (v.) [ˈkɑmbæt] to fight, to offer consultancy (n.) [kənˈsʌltᵊnsi] an
resistance | Thick jungle turned out to be institution whose employees are hired to
the biggest obstacle for US troops give expert advice on a specific topic | His
combatting the Vietcong. IT consultancy is very highly regarded—
commodity (n.) [kəˈmɑ:dɪdi] product, everyone gives him a call if they need tips
merchandise, goods, esp. raw materials | on streamlining their tech operations.
Coffee, gold, iron ore, and petroleum conundrum (n.) [kəˈnʌndrəm] a difficult
prices have seen a marked rise in problem; a mystery | She likes crime
commodity trading markets recently. novels best, especially when she can
compensate (v.) [ˈkɑ:mpɪnseɪt] to offer unravel the conundrum before it’s
payment in return for services rendered or revealed in the final chapters.
as reparations for damages | Workers convene (v.) [kənˈvi:n] to specify a time
were compensated $10/hr. for their labor and place for a meeting or conference; to
on the project. come together for such an event |
complacency (n.) [kəmˈplɛɪsənsi] a feeling Politicians from different countries have
of self-satisfaction bordering on convened a meeting in Berlin to discuss
overconfidence; smug, uncritical, or lazy pressing international issues.
acceptance of the status quo | John convey (v.) [kənˈvɛɪ] to explain, to express;
neglected to study for the exam, which he to transfer information | I tried to convey
assumed would be quite easy, but his in my graduation speech how grateful I
complacency cost him in the end. was to my family for their support during
compliance (n.) [kəmˈplɑɪəns] the act of my education.
obeying and behaving according to a convulsion (n.) [kənˈvʌlʒɪn] an unexpected
certain set of rules | The member states of and uncontrolled, often violent
the EU require of each other compliance movement; a sudden and altogether
with its regulations and laws. unexpected change or shift | I could never
comprehensive (adj.) [kɑmprɪˈhɛnsɪv] work as a stock broker—the constant
complete; including all necessary convulsions in the market would cause me
information on a particular domain | His far too much stress.
comprehensive study of the problem cope with (v.) [koʊp wɪθ] to manage, deal
convinced the board members to take with, or try to improve a difficult situation
action. | I have a tough schedule, but I’ve learned
conjure (v.) [ˈkɑndʒɝ] to make something to cope with it by getting enough sleep
appear, as if by magic; to fabricate; to and drinking lots of coffee.
create an idea within the mind | The new core (n.) [kɔr] the most basic,
Apple commercial conjures a hip and cool fundamental, or important aspect; the
aesthetic. central or most essential part of
consensus (n.) [kənˈsɛnsɪs] an agreement something | The core business of the
or overall accepted view | The consensus
company is producing, bottling, and selling crude (n./adj.) [kru:d] as an adj., describes
carbonated drinks. the raw phase of resource extraction; as a
correlation (n.) [kɔrəˈlɛɪʃən] a coherent n., refers almost exclusively to unrefined
relationship or general connection oil | Prices of crude oil have increased to
between two or more entities; a record levels due to conflict in OPEC
demonstrable relationship between two countries.
or more distinct facts or events |There is a cruise (v.) [kru:z] to reach a goal without
correlation between a consumer’s effort | Due to their excellent preparation
willingness to pay for a product and his the soccer team cruised to the
perception of its value. championship with six goals in a row.
corridor (n.) [ˈkɔrɪdɔr] a shipping lane or cull (v.) [kʌl] to reduce or narrow an
trade route along which goods, services, amount deliberately, esp. to avoid a
or energy are transported in great volume surplus | We have culled the number of
| European air corridors were severely phone models to improve our economies
blocked by smoke from an Icelandic of scale.
volcano in 2010. cumbersome (adj.) [ˈkʌmbɝsəm]
count (n.) [kaʊnt] one of a number of unmanageable; uncontrollable; inefficient;
separate charges in an indictment | The very difficult to lift, handle, or manage due
serial killer was found guilty on several more to irregular shape or size rather than
counts of murder. weight | Sometimes the big screens
counterfeit (n.) [ˈkaʊnɝfɪt] imitated, desired by smartphone customers can be
pretended, made to pass as a genuine quite cumbersome to handle.
product | The production of counterfeit
money is a very serious crime. D
covert (adj.) [kaʊˈvɝt] not openly
identifiable or accessible | Covert dampen (v.) [ˈdæmpᵊn] to weaken; to
espionage operations are a major reduce the dynamic or intensity of sthg. |
responsibility of the CIA. Eurobonds could dampen political reforms
crater (v./n.) [ˈkrɛɪdɝ] to fall drastically, because of collective guarantees.
esp. used in negative contexts; the dated (adj.) [ˈdɛɪdɪd] obsolete; old-
concave print left on a surface area from fashioned; clearly from a previous era |
an impact | The company’s stock cratered The company quickly replaces all dated
after the corruption scandal came to light. hardware so that the office remains
creditor (n.) [ˈkrɛdɪtɝ] opposite of a efficient and modern.
debtor; a person or organization that DAX (n.) [dæ:ks] a German stock market
lends money and expects the amount to where shares of the 40 leading firms in
be repaid by an agreed date | Creditors Germany are listed | The DAX is one of the
can be banks, credit card companies, or most important European stock exchange
anyone to whom you owe outstanding operations.
payments. deadlock (n.) [ˈdɛdlɑk] a state in a
cripple (v.) [ˈkrɪpᵊl] to disable sthg. or sb.; negotiation in which progress is
to make less effective | The storm crippled impossible; an unresolvable disagreement;
the power supply of the whole city. an impasse | The negotiations came to a
crucial (adj.) [ˈkruʃəl] extremely important deadlock when neither party wanted to
or critical; necessary to know or do | It is commit to further compromises.
crucial to know the basics of management dedicate (v.) [ˈdɛdɪkɛɪt] to devote to a
in order to come up with a good strategy. purpose, idea, or pathway | We award our
most dedicated employees, those who
have been with us for twenty years or designate (v.) [ˈdɛzɪgneɪt] to assign; to
more, with a company car and a generous proclaim as | This area has been
benefits package. designated a World Heritage Site by
deficit (n.) [ˈdɛfɪsɪt] a lack of sthg., usually UNESCO.
with a negative implication | The huge deteriorate (v.) [dɪˈti:riərɛɪt] to decay, to
deficit in the bank’s budget prevented progressively worsen; to reduce in quality
them from keeping all their staff. | The relationship between the ruling
degrade (v.) [dɪˈgrɛɪd] to lower in value| party and main opposition party
Confidence in the American political deteriorated rapidly over the controversial
system has been steadily degrading over question of universal healthcare.
the last 20 years. devaluation (n.) [dɪvæljuˈɛɪʃən] a
democratization (n.) [dəmɑkɪdɪˈzɛɪʃən] reduction in value of a currency | After the
adaptation to or implementation of devaluation of the euro against the dollar,
democratic principles in government, the two currencies are approximately
social life, or other areas | The US wants equal in purchasing power.
to bring democracy to some countries or dibs, have/call (v./idiom) [hæv dɪbz]/ [kɑ:l
otherwise speed up the democratization dɪbz] to claim rights to, esp. in a contest to
process. be the first to try or do sthg.; to exercise
demonetization (n.) [dɪˈmɑnətɪzɛɪʃən] the the right to possess sthg. | I have dibs on
act of invalidating specific coins or that last slice of pizza, so don’t touch it!
banknotes in a given currency | The so- digest (v.) [daɪˈdʒɛst] to handle or process
called Eurokits were handed out in 2002 to something over a certain period of time;
prevent any crises arising from the the natural processing of ingested food |
demonetization of the Deutschmark. It will take some time until the stock
denomination (n.) [dɪˈnɑmənɛɪʃən] in market has digested the crises and their
currency, the assigned value of a bill or full impact.
coin; in religion, a distinct branch of a faith dip (n.) [dɪp] a drop, a decrease, a fall |
| The euro has eight coin denominations. There is often a dip in the stock price after
denouement (n.) [dɛɪnuˈmɑnt] the end of the distribution of the dividend.
a story or the resolution of a situation in disband (v.) [dɪsˈbænd] to break apart, to
which everything is explained | The final split up from a larger structure | After
act in a drama will hopefully end in a such a poor business report the
satisfying denouement. management had no choice but to cut
deplete (v.) [dəˈpli:t] to diminish or empty expenses by disbanding their research
the supply of sthg. due to consumption or department.
usage | Our oil deposit has been depleted discrete (adj.) [dɪsˈkri:t] separate,
entirely so now we must rely on imports. independent | A receipt lists each discrete
deploy (v.) [dəˈpl ɔɪ] to distribute or send item purchased as well as a total cost.
out power and/or capital in preparation of distressing (adj.) [dɪsˈtrɛsɪŋ] upsetting,
a task | New safety regulations require worrying, concerning, troublesome | He
that we deploy screeners at all found the preparations for the final exam
international airports. to be very distressing.
deposit (n.) [dəˈpɑzɪt] a payment made ditch (v.) [dɪtʃ] to abandon, leave behind,
into an account; an amount of natural or discard sthg. that is unwanted or
resources that is found within a political or useless | After the meeting finished I
geographic area | Some Arabic countries ditched my cup of coffee in the kitchen sink
have rich oil deposits that others want to because I didn’t feel like carrying it to my
plunder. office.
dog (v.) [dɑg] to follow persistently | The subsidiary because its contribution to
economic crisis has dogged Greek society overall revenue was simply too low.
for several years. duopoly (n.) [duˈɑpəli] an environment in
domino effect (n.) [ˈdɑmɪnoʊ əˈfɛkt] a which the production and distribution of a
process whereby an initial event leads to a certain product or service on the market is
subsequent chain of related developments dominated by two suppliers | Coca-Cola
| The Fukushima accident started a and Pepsi have a veritable duopoly on the
domino effect in terms of phasing out world soft-drinks market.
nuclear energy in countries like Germany. dwindle (v.) [ˈdwɪndl] to diminish, to
door, knock on sb’s. (v./idiom) [nɑk ɑn decrease, to decline | Customers will
ˈsʌmbədiz dɔr] to approach sb.’s position dwindle as dissatisfaction increases.
or status | Some say he only became
successful by knocking on his rivals’ doors. E
dotted (adj.) [ˈdɑ:dɪd] describes a
geographic or political area with several earned value (EV) (n.) [ɝnd ˈvælju] the
distinct examples of sthg.| The desert amount of money grossed from selling a
around the site used to be dotted with product or service | The EV of Apple’s
large camps of workers who were there to iPhones is the biggest compared to other
build more mines. smartphone producers.
Dow Jones (n.) [daʊ dʒoʊnz] also Dow e-commerce (n.) [ˈikɑmɝs] the trade of
Jones Industrial Average, a New York- goods and services on the internet | E-
based stock index that reflects the commerce has made traditional shopping
development of the average performance work hard to keep their customer base.
of the 30 largest US companies listed on economy (n.) [ɪˈkɑnəmi] a monetary
the New York Stock Exchange | The system which indicates the wealth of a
election had a profound effect on the Dow state, industry, or other entity | The
Jones for several weeks afterwards. growth in exports caused a boost in
downsize (v./idiom) [ˈdaʊnsaɪz] to make a Germany’s economy.
corporation or department smaller, esp. in electorate (n.) [əˈlɛktərɪt] all of the people
the reduction of employees | Few who have the right to vote in a certain
companies have survived the recent jurisdiction | The British electorate went
volatility in the economy without for Brexit by a slim majority.
downsizing their operations in some way. embolden (v.) [ɪmˈbɔldᵊn] to encourage;
drape (v.) [drɛɪp] to wrap, to hang over, to to make sb. brave| Emboldened by the
cloak | After taking a shower I drape company's recent success, they will stick to
myself in a towel. their current corporate strategy.
drawn-out (adj.) [drɑnˈaʊt] lasting longer embrace (v.) [ɪmˈbrɛɪs] to accept with
than usual or necessary | My boss had a excitement and enthusiasm | The
drawn-out discussion with the CEO that company manager has long embraced the
lasted over a week. new e-mail concept because this makes
drought (n.) [draʊt] a long period of communication easier.
dryness that causes widespread damage in en masse (adj.) [ɑn ˈmæ:s] from the
farming, landscaping, and other areas| To French, meaning “in large amounts” or “all
avoid recurring periods of drought, the city together” | The demonstrators protested
of Los Angeles constructed an aqueduct en masse to attract the government’s
leading from the nearby mountains. attention.
dump (v.) [dʌmp] to unload; to get rid of | engrossing (adj.) [ɪnˈgroʊsɪŋ] very
The parent company dumped the interesting, fully occupying the mind or
attention | I found the presentation very | His headache was exacerbated by the
engrossing, from the first minute until the loud music next door.
last. exchange rate (n.) [ɛxˈtʃɛɪndʒ rɛɪt] the
entice (v.) [ɪnˈtaɪs] to persuade or attract ratio at which one currency may be
sb. to do sthg., esp. by offering sthg. converted into another | Years ago, the
valuable or pleasurable in return | They exchange rate between the dollar and the
enticed me into investing with false euro was much less even than it is today.
promises that tricked me from the exemplary (adj.) [ɛksˈɛmpləri] describes a
beginning. person or action which sets an example to
entitle (v.) [ɪnˈtaɪtl] to persuade or attract be followed or emulated | Experts agree
sb. to do sthg., esp. by offering sthg. that the Finnish education system is
valuable in return | Steep discounts entice exemplary, based upon the students’
customers to spend lots of money during performance.
the holidays. exodus (n.) [ˈɛksədəs] a biblical reference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the emigration of a huge number of
(n.) [ɪnˈvaɪɝnmɛnᵊl prəˈtɛkʃən ˈɛɪdʒənsi] people, often an entire population |
independent governmental organization Following considerable financial troubles
of the USA established to protect health there’s been an exodus of executives from
and the environment | The EPA has Uber.
passed several laws in order to sustain the exploit (v.) [ɛksˈplɔɪt] to utilize something
environment. for one’s own profit or advantage | You
equitable (adj.) [ˈɛkwɪdəbᵊl] fair to all should exploit your competitor’s new
parties; equal | The discussion resulted in arrival on the market and advertise your
an equitable solution for both parties. business as the more experienced one.
equity (n.) [ˈɛkwədi] the difference in extract (n.) [ˈɛkstrækt] a part of sthg.
value between the securities a company which is removed from a whole, often as a
owns and its debts | If the market value of sampling or illustration of that whole |
the house is $400,000 and the outstanding The extracts of some novels are very
loan is $100,000 the home equity is thrillingly written so as to entice readers to
$300,000. buy the book.
erode (v.) [ɪˈroʊd] to slowly disintegrate extradite (v.) [ˈɛkstrədaɪt] to deport a
from the surface to the core | By making foreign national, esp. one accused of a
one poor deal after another the company crime, to his country of citizenship for
slowly eroded their considerable financial trial; alternatively, to deport a citizen to
reserves. the country where the crime was
escalation (n.) [ɛskəˈlɛɪʃən] an increase in purported to take place so that he may
severity and intensity, to the point where face that country’s justice system | The
the situation no longer seems under murderer was extradited back to his home
control | An escalation of the conflict country and is awaiting trial there.
between Russia and Ukraine could lead to
war. F
ethos (n.) [ˈi:θɔs] the (shared) set of
beliefs and morals of a person, group, or facilitate (v.) [fəˈsɪlɪtɛɪt] to make sthg.
institution | The Apple company ethos more feasible or easier to achieve; to help
includes dedication to innovation. bring about, to assist the progress of sthg.
exacerbate (v.) [ɛgˈzæsɝbɛɪt] to make | To facilitate learning, class sizes in
sthg. worse or more harmful; to aggravate schools are generally kept below thirty
fallout (n.) [ˈfɑ:laʊt] the negative foil (v.) [fɔɪl] to prevent sb. or sthg. from
consequences of a specific event | The succeeding | Our idea of going to the US
financial crisis in 2008 produced serious for the holidays was foiled at the last
economic fallout. second by surprisingly high ticket prices.
farrago (n.) [fəˈrɛɪgoʊ] a disorganized footprint (n.) [ˈfʊtprɪnt] the impact or
composition; a confused mixture | There range that operations have on various
was a farrago of art, furniture, and fields, such as the environment, the
clothing displayed in the shop. economy, or local employment; the
favorite (n.) [ˈfɛɪvrɪt] the competitor most amount of land taken up by a building or
favored and likely to win; the expected operation | Europeans’ ecological
victor | Although the media presented footprint is much larger than Africans’ due
Hillary Clinton as the favorite to be the to higher consumption of fossil fuels.
new American president, Trump won the foray (n.) [ˈfɔreɪ] the attempt to succeed in
election. or develop sthg. that is not part of the
Federal Reserve Bank (FED) (n.) [ˈfɛdərəl company’s core business | The company’s
rɪˈsɝv beɪŋk] the central bank of the foray into book publishing was a failure.
United States | The FED is responsible for forecast (v./n.) [ˈfɔrkæst] to make a
setting interest rates. prediction based on available data and/or
fickle (adj.) [fɪkᵊl] describes sthg. unstable; previous experience; an educated outlook
quickly alternating | The market is too or prediction | This year’s financial
unpredictable to make anything but fickle forecast is hardly cause for celebration,
assumptions about its future. but at least it looks better than last year’s.
fiscal (adj.) [ˈfɪskəl] of or related to money, forensic (v.) [fɔˈrɛnzɪk] held to a scientific
esp. used in discussions of politics or standard and therefore suited for official
economics; financial, monetary| Our fiscal purposes | The court report contains
year is calculated from 1 September to 31 several examples of forensic evidence.
August. forfeit (v.) [ˈfɔrfɪt] to give away the right to
fix (v.) [fiks] to determine and/or set an have something, whether intentionally or
amount or rate | The company’s fixed unintentionally | In feudal times, a lord
costs are $4,000 each month. was liable to forfeit his rights if he
fleet (n.) [fli:t] a group of vehicles neglected to protect and defend his
operating together under the same tenants.
ownership | HVV has increased its fleet of fork out (v./idiom) [fɔrk aʊt] informal
buses by 10% over the last three years. expression for paying an often large sum
flesh out (v./idiom) [flɛʃ aʊt] to add details of money, often unwillingly | Other EU
or specifics to an otherwise general plan states have to fork out a lot of money to
or idea | Marketers need to carefully flesh pay for Greece's debts.
out the details of their strategies before fraught (adj.) [frɑ:t] dangerous, risky |
presenting them to clients. Investments in volatile industries such as
float (v.) [floʊt] to allow a currency to fashion can be extremely fraught.
change freely in accordance with given frenzy (n.) [ˈfrɛnzi] period of
market conditions | Unlike in previous uncontrollable and excessive excitement
years, this year China began to float the or emotion, esp. in the context of
RNB. purchasing | Pre-Christmas shopping is a
flourish (v.) [ˈflʊrɪʃ] to grow in a fast and welcome frenzy for many markets.
strong way | Business flourished in the FTSE 100 (n.) [ˈfʊtsi wənˈhʌndrɛd] a stock
Roaring Twenties of the last century. index that includes the 100 largest quoted
companies in Britain | The FTSE fell about savings in the company’s stocks, so
6% as a result of the election. hopefully my income will be doubled by
fuss (n.) [fʌs] an overly emotional, the end of the month.
extroverted behavior | You shouldn’t golden child (n./idiom) [ˈgoʊldən tʃaɪld] a
make a fuss if your boss gives you a bit of person or a company that is loved by
constructive criticism, but rather say everyone and seems never to do anything
‘thank you’ and try to put it to use. wrong | Nike has been the golden child of
futures (n.) [ˈfjutʃɝz] commodities which the sportswear industry for over three
are bought at agreed prices but paid for decades.
and delivered later | Oil futures will good (n.) [gʊd] a commodity which is
continue to be strong so long as the flow is produced or sold | The goods were
tightly controlled. shipped across the world to impatient
FX (n./adj.) [ɛfˈɛks] abbreviation for customers.
“foreign exchange;” describing institutions gripe (v.) [graɪp] to mutter a negative
or systems which deal in the trade of feeling or opinion; to complain | He griped
international currencies | The euro is all year about the fact she had forgotten
higher against the dollar on most FX his birthday.
markets than at any time in the past year. grips, get to (v./idiom) [gɪt tu grɪps] to try
to understand or deal with a problem or
G unpleasant reality | Our last CEO failed to
get to grips with new market patterns,
game changer (n./idiom) [ˈgɛɪm tʃɛɪndʒɝ] a which cost us dearly.
product or idea on the market which gross domestic product (GDP) (n.) [groʊs
represents a novelty and is viewed as dəˈmɛstɪk ˈprɑdəkt] or [dʒidiˈpi:] the total
revolutionary, significantly changing value of the goods and services produce in
market patterns | The first smartphone a country during a year, excluding income
was a game changer and soon had other earned in foreign countries | Looking at a
companies following Apple’s lead. country’s GDP is one of the best ways to
gauze (n.) [gɑ:z] a fabric used to wrap measure its financial health.
around an injured area of the body, thus ground breaking (n./adj.) [graʊnd ˈbrɛɪkɪŋ]
protecting it while it heals | This the official beginning of a construction
Halloween I will go as a gauze-wrapped project, often marked by the ceremonial
mummy. plunging of a spade or shovel into the
get a raise (v./idiom) [gɪt ʌ rɛɪz] to receive ground; seen as being unique or novel and
an increase in salary | Because the changing the way a product or a business
employee got a raise, he’s now able to is marketed| It wouldn’t be an
afford an expensive watch. overstatement to claim that the iPhone
get on board (v./idiom) [gɪt ɑ:n bɔrd] to was a groundbreaking piece of technology.
participate enthusiastically; to agree and
approve | We need the best people to get H
on board for this project.
go (n.) [goʊ] an attempt or effort; a trial| hail (v.) [heɪ:l] to greet or welcome sb. or
Investing in renewable energy was a tough sthg. in a glorifying manner | They hailed
but necessary go for the company. him as if his arrival would surely save the
go all-in (v./idiom) [goʊ ɑ:lˈɪn] to commit company.
to sthg. by putting everything one has hamper (v.) [ˈhæmpɝ] to restrict by means
(usually money) at risk in the hope of high of an obstacle; to hinder, to impede, to
reward| I went all-in and invested my last slow progress | Severe drought was
hampering farmers’ attempts to plant It's a heady time for investors in the real
crops. estate business as prices continue to climb.
hamstrung (adj./idiom) [ˈhæmstrəŋ] hiccup (n.) [ˈhɪkəp] a temporary problem
disabled, made unable to proceed; or difficulty | Students couldn’t log in to
deterred | He was hamstrung in the the university system because of a
competition by his opponent's use of technical hiccup which was later fixed.
psychological intimidation. high street (n./idiom) [haɪ stri:t] also
Hang Seng (n.) [hɑŋ sɛɪŋ] also “Hang Sang called “main street” in American English,
index,” the leading stock market index in the most important commercial
Hong Kong | After a drop of 1.37% the thoroughfare in a town or city; an
Hang Seng finished the day at a umbrella term for a commercial as
disappointing low. opposed to a financial center | Stores such
hard currency (n.) [hɑrd ˈkɝɛnsi] a liquid as H&M, C&A, and Peek & Cloppenburg
asset such as cash or electronic currency| are to be found on the high street of nearly
The ransom payment was made in hard every large German city.
currency rather than in gold. hike (n.) [hɑɪk] a strong increase| A price
hardline [ˈhɑrdlɑɪn] (adj.) a highly strict, hike in gasoline can often be seen at the
unyielding policy or attitude | Many beginning of school holidays.
political parties in Europe found that hinge on (v./idiom) [hɪndʒ ɑn] to be
hardline stances against immigration dependent on for success | The success of
became attractive after the refugee crisis the project hinges on each team member
of 2015-2016. giving his very best.
harness (v.) [ˈhɑrnɪs] to control and use a hoard (n./v.) [hɔrd] a large supply of
certain force, such as water, wind, or surplus goods that has been kept apart for
talent, to one’s own advantage | future use, esp. in emergency situations;
Companies have learned to harness the to collect sthg. and store it for use in the
potential of social media to attract new future | Some people hoard so many
customers. clothes and refuse to throw them away,
haven asset (n.) [ˈhɛɪvɪn ˈæsɛt] an even though they wear only a few pieces.
investment which is expected to be safe in homegrown (adj.) [ˈhoʊmgroʊn] describes
times of uncertainty | Many investors sthg. that was made locally, by hand;
were glad for their low-risk haven assets homemade; domestic | Many football
during the latest crisis. players enjoy huge numbers of fans, but
hawk (n./idiom) [hɔk] a person carrying it’s the homegrown players who really
out aggressive strategies in foreign excite local spectators.
relations | The newest occupant of the hostility (n.) [hɑsˈtɪlɪdi] unfriendliness
White House is known to be a hawk when bordering on aggression; behavior meant
it comes to North Korea. to display strong opposition or
head, keep down (v./idiom) [kip wʌnz hɛd disagreement; a show of severe disrespect
daʊn] to avoid trouble by not drawing or rejection | Many accuse Donald Trump
attention to oneself or by not doing of harboring a hostility toward Muslims.
anything out of the ordinary or taking risks hub [hʌb] (n.) a center of activity or
| I kept my head down and tried to stay interest; in transportation, a centrally
away from engaging in those bad deals important port of departure through
ever again. which most or all travelers must pass en
heady (adj.) [ˈhɛdi:] having an intense, route to their final destination |
powerful, or exhilarating effect; describing Wolfsburg is a hub for the automotive
a feeling of high energy or excitement | industry in Germany.
I roughly equal to 2.5cm| Until the release
of their best-selling product, Acme just
illicit (adj.) [ɪˈlɪsɪt] prohibited by law; barely inched along from year to year,
illegal, unlawful | The sale of illicit drugs is making only slight progress.
a serious offense in most countries. incumbent (n.) [ɪnˈkʌmbɪnt] a person or
IMF (n.) [aɪɛmˈɛf] acronym for business that currently holds a given rank
“International Monetary Fund,” an or position | Donald Trump, the incumbent
organization of 189 countries which aims US president, is facing charges against him
to develop and secure global financial which may end his time in office much
cooperation as well as monetary stability, earlier than expected.
the promotion of international trade, and index (n.) [ˈɪndɛks] a summarized data
the sustainability of economic growth in collection over a certain period that is
order to reduce poverty globally | used as a statistical device and benchmark
Developing countries depend heavily on for comparing to similar data | The Global
loans from the IMF to meet their citizens’ Innovation Index ranks the countries of the
basic needs. world according to their ability to nurture
impairment (n.) [ɪmˈpɛ:rmɪnt] an injury, and develop new ideas.
damage, or blockage which prevents indictment (n.) [ɪnˈdaɪtmɪnt] statement of
further development | Despite her severe accusation read publicly | Her face turned
impairments, Helen Keller learned to both white as the indictment was read out by
read and write. the judge.
imperative (n./adj.) [ɪmˈpɛrətɪv] sthg. that indigenous (adj.) [ɪnˈdɪdʒənɪs] originally
is essential or necessary; mandatory; belonging to a given region; native | The
urgent, of utmost importance | A kangaroo, indigenous to Australia, is
knowledge of English is an imperative known around the world.
when applying for a job in an international indignant (adj.) [ɪnˈdɪgnənt] describes a
company. feeling of anger, esp. due to perceived
imperil (v.) [ɪmˈpɛrəl] to expose to danger unfairness or injustice | The employee
| A minor slowdown in production has became indignant when he was blamed
imperiled the whole company, since those for the mistake of a colleague.
goods were meant to be on the market in inflated (adj.) [ɪnˈflɛɪdɪd] describes prices
time for the Christmas shopping season. that are excessively and artificially high |
implicate (v.) [ˈɪmplɪkɛɪt] to accuse; to Don’t buy any candy from the concession
display a connection with an event or stand at the cinema; their prices are
outcome thereof | Due to their constant ridiculously inflated!
and violent bickering, Mary was implicated inflation (n.) [ɪnˈflɛɪʃən] an increase in
in the death of her husband. prices that lowers the purchasing power of
import duty (n.) [ˈɪmpɔrt ˈdjudi] a tax on a specific currency | The company could
goods coming into a country | The import not afford to invest in another property
duty is not charged at airport stores, hence because inflation made house prices go
the name "duty free." up.
incentive (n.) [ɪnˈsɛntɪv] a motivating initial (adj.) [əˈnɪʃəl] being of, at, or related
factor that induces a person to do sthg., to the beginning; the first | Although her
either positive or negative | The generous initial impression of the man wasn’t good,
salary was a major incentive for him to she came to be quite fond of him once she
apply for this job. got to know him.
inch (v./n.) [ɪntʃ] to move along slowly and initiative (n.) [əˈnɪʃədɪv] an idea, plan, or
carefully; an Imperial unit of length prospective action put in place to make
improvements in a specific area | Other techniques were deployed by the ancient
promising initiatives include mobile Romans, who used grand aqueducts to
ordering, super-premium coffee and carry water from lakes, rivers, and springs
expanded food offerings. into neighboring cities.
insidious (adj.) [ɪnˈsɪdiəs] secretive and itch (n.) [ˈɪtʃ] an urgent desire | The itch to
with ill intent; pernicious, treacherous, see my girlfriend again after such a long
deceitful | Julius Caesar was murdered in time apart is almost more than I can bear.
an insidious plan by his own foster child, iteration (n.) [ɪdɝˈɛɪʃən] one run-through
Brutus. of a process; an instance of a particular
integral (adj.) [ˈɪntəgrəl] crucial, absolutely phenomenon | It took several iterations of
necessary, essential | Mayonnaise is an the IT overhaul, but eventually the
integral component in German cuisine. computing speed of the company was
intellectual property (n.) [ɪntəˈlɛktʃuəl brought to an acceptable level.
ˈprɑpɝdi] legal term describing an original,
non-material good that is the result of a J
creative process | If it weren't for laws
protecting intellectual property, there jeopardize (v.) [ˈdʒɛpɝdaɪz] to endanger a
would be far less research and far fewer mission or activity| His foolish behavior
technological or artistic advancements. has jeopardized his company’s relationship
intractable (adj.) [ɪnˈtræktəbᵊl] stubborn; with their most important client.
difficult to deal with or be managed | The jockey for position (v./idiom) [ˈdʒɑki fɔr
demands of the intractable lawyer made it pəˈzɪʃən] to move oneself into a desired
difficult to come to an agreement during position; to try to gain an advantage; to
the negotiations. compete fiercely for rank, power, or
intransigence (n.) [ɪnˈtrænzədʒɪnts] the influence | The candidates jockey for
inability or unwillingness to compromise; position by making ever wilder promises to
stubbornness | Donald Trump's the voters.
intransigence is legendary; he's known not
to listen to anyone's opinions but his own.
invest (v.) [ɪnˈvɛst] to put money or effort K
into sthg. to achieve a good result or profit
| The company plans to invest $5 million in K (n./idiom) [kɛɪ] one thousand, from
the new marketing campaign. Greek “kilo” | I’d love to own a Tesla but
invoke (v.) [ɪnˈvoʊk] to call upon, as in an I’m afraid I don’t have $125K to spend on a
idea or name | Customers invoke car right now.
consumer protection laws to protect their key (adj.) [ki:] critically important;
rights. essential | Education is a key factor in
IPO (n.) [aɪpiˈoʊ] acronym for predicting income.
“international public offering,” or the first kid (v./idiom) [ˈkɪ:d] to lie in a playful way;
time that a company’s stock is offered on to trivialize | When it comes to money, you
public markets | If they had just waited a had better stop kidding around and get
couple months longer before going ahead serious!
with the IPO, they could have offered their
stocks at a much higher price. L
irrigation (n.) [irəˈgɛɪʃən] method of
watering soil via dedicated channels, lament (v.) [ləˈmɛnt] to express feelings of
generally for the purposes of food dissatisfaction, disappointment, or
production | Advanced irrigation perceived unfair treatment | She laments
her living conditions all day long because livelihood (n.) [ˈlaɪvlihʊd] the money a
her husband takes all her money from her. person needs to cover his living expenses,
languish (v.) [ˈlæŋgwɪʃ] to remain stagnant i.e. food, habitation, and health care; the
in an unwanted or unpleasant position| basis of one’s existence | Most people
Children around the world languish in have to earn money in order to secure
orphanages waiting to be adopted. their livelihood.
laud (v.) [lɑ:d] to speak highly of sthg. or longstanding (adj.) [ˈlɑŋstændɪŋ] having
sb. | The new employee must be very lasted or existed for an extended period of
talented, as he is constantly being lauded time | A longstanding problem in
by the recruiter. education is how to personalize teaching
launch (v./n.) [lɑ:ntʃ] to introduce a for each student, so that none is left either
product or plan to the market; the bored or behind.
introduction thereof | The company is Ltd. (adj.) [ˈlɪmɪdɪd] / [ɛltiˈdi:] abbreviation
planning to launch a new project next fall. for “limited,” a company in which
legal tender (n.) [ˈligᵊl ˈtɛndɝ] valid investors’ liability is restricted to that
currency; accepted means of payment | which they have invested | The owners of
The legal tender of Germany, and many Hitachi Ltd. Do not have to pay all of the
other European countries, is the euro. debts if the company goes bankrupt.
lethal (adj.) [ˈli:θəl] extremely dangerous lucrative (adj.) [ˈlukrətɪv] profitable, cost-
or harmful; destructive; deadly | Very effective, generating large gains | Why is
strict hygiene regulations have been her business so lucrative? Simple! Her
introduced in the hospital to prevent the products are wildly popular.
spread of lethal bacteria.
leverage (v./n.) [ˈlɛvrɪdʒ] an existing M
resource or possession that can be used to
one’s advantage; to use an advantage in a make of (v.) [ˈmɛɪk ʌv] to have an
negotiation to achieve a favorable impression or opinion about sthg. or sb. |
outcome | Steve Jobs leveraged his They don’t know what to make of the new
considerable talents to create a company guy in the class—he seems a bit odd.
of international renown. manipulate (v.) [məˈnɪpjulɛɪt] to take
liberalization (n.) [lɪbrɪlɪˈzɛɪʃɪn] reformation control of or otherwise influence an
or modification of laws or systems to outcome in one’s favor, often by using
create a freer state of affairs | European unfair means | Many stories include
customers are demanding trade villains who use the hero’s love of family
liberalization so they won't need to pay members or romantic partners to
such high tariffs when ordering online manipulate him.
from Asia. manned (adj.) [mæ:nd] describes a vehicle
lineup (n.) [ˈlaɪnəp] a series of items or or institution that runs by itself and does
people that are categorized with one not need any direct control | The first
another | Budnikowsky offers a staggering manned space flight was executed by the
line-up of products such as toothpaste and Soviets in the 1960s.
toilet paper. margin (n.) [ˈmardʒɪn] profit; range
liquidity (n.) [ləˈkwɪdɪdi] a state of being between a smaller and a larger amount |
able to, when called upon, pay off any The Hamburg regatta team won the race
debts; the amount of readily available by a slim margin.
cash on hand | When the tax structure fell massive (adj.) [ˈmæsɪv] of enormous size,
apart the country’s liquidity soon did the scale, or degree | Grocery logistics uses
same. massive trucks to deliver goods to shops.
mature (adj.) [məˈtʃju:r] being in an introduce more diversity into the
advanced stage of development either workforce.
mentally or physically | Mature mint (v.) [mɪnt] to produce sthg. in large
technologies typically do not exhibit many quantities, esp. coins or other metals used
malfunctions, if any at all. as legal tender; to create something new,
mb/d (n.) [ɛmbiˈdi] abbreviation for pure, and of high quality | By hiring newly-
“million barrels per day,” commonly used minted college graduates, who command
to measure the rate of production or much lower salaries than their older
consumption of oil | The new oil pipeline is colleagues, companies are able to save
built to transport 1.3 mb/d. money.
measure (n.) [ˈmɛʃɝ]] an intervention mitigate (v.) [ˈmɪdɪgɛɪt] to lessen negative
made with the intent of influencing a effects; to reduce | To mitigate the
given situation | Anti-inflation measures students’ stress at the size of the task, the
have been adopted by the central bank. teacher divided the class into groups and
median (n./adj.) [ˈmi:diən] a statistical assigned each student only a part of the
parameter of a data sample which is total work.
robust against extreme values and modest (adj.) [ˈmɑ:dɪst] describes a
outliers; in a sample, the number that relatively small or limited level or amount;
equally separates the higher half from the humble, moderate, simple, quiet | He
lower half | Let {51, 60, 64, 67, 95, 99, lived a simple a modest life out in the
107, 108, 1,000,000} be a data sample: the countryside.
median is 95, whereas the arithmetic mogul (n.) [ˈmoʊgəl] an extremely rich
mean is 111.183. and powerful person, esp. due to gains
MEP (n.) [ɛmiˈpi:] acronym for “member made in business | Investment mogul
of the European Parliament;” not to be Warren Buffett is a billionaire.
confused with MP, which is a political mount (v.) [maʊnt] to attach, equip, or
position on the national level | Martin install; to grow, increase | Rumors about
Schulz was a German MEP from 19 July new costs mounted and the share price
1994 until 10 February 2017. quickly fell.
Mexican standoff (n./idiom) [ˈmɛksəkɪn multinational (n./adj.) [məltiˈnæ:ʃənəl] an
ˈstændɑf] a situation in which both sides international or transcontinental
oppose and threaten each other, but are company; describes such a company | Our
unable to reach an agreement which one small company is able to compete with the
party finds completely acceptable | The major multinationals only on the local
situation in North Korea has become a level.
Mexican standoff in which both sides are
just showcasing their weaponry to each N
other, but do not want to have official
negotiations that could prevent narrow (adj.) [ˈnɛroʊ] limited, not wide |
catastrophe for all involved. A narrow presentation of our products
midst (n.) [mɪtst] the center, the middle; won’t be effective—we need to show them
halfway between the beginning and the our whole range!
end | Germany is in the midst of Europe, Nasdaq (n.) [ˈnæzdæk] originally an
surrounded by nine countries. acronym for “National Association of
mindset (n.) [ˈmaɪnsɛt] a mental attitude Securities Dealers Automated
that is determined by certain values and Quotations,” now the world’s second-
ways of thinking; mentality | The company largest stock exchange and based in New
has to change its conservative mindset and York, focusing mainly on tech stocks | A
lot of the major Silicon Valley technology optimum (adj.) [ˈɑptəməm] most
companies are traded on the Nasdaq. desirable, ideal, or efficient | The optimum
Nikkei (n.) [ˈnikɛɪ] price-weighted stock price is one that satisfies both customers’
index of the largest Japanese companies | desire for value and producers’ desire for
The Nikkei closed high today due to a profit.
weak yen. oust (v.) [aʊst] to remove from power |
nix (v.) [nɪks] to reject, prevent, or cancel Wilhelm II was ousted as German emperor
| Our boss isn’t against nixing the entire following his country’s loss in the First
project if it’s not prepared and executed World War.
well. outflow (n.) [ˈaʊtfloʊ] movement of sthg.,
non-recurring (adj.) [nɑn rɪˈkɝɪŋ] such as money or people, out of one
something that will not or is highly unlikely location and into another | Retailer A is
to happen again | Most bosses will agree dealing with a big outflow of customers
that mistakes are usually acceptable so while Retailer B is getting ready to open a
long as they’re non-recurring. new store across the street.
novel (adj.) [ˈnɑvəl] describes sthg. new outlook (n.) [ˈoʊtlʊk] expectations for the
that is also often innovative or fashionably future; one’s predisposition, esp.
attractive to a certain target group | optimistic or pessimistic | Their outlook
Google Glass was a novel product that was bleak due to having lost all their
didn’t quite get off the ground. money.
nudge (v.) [nʌdʒ] to increase slowly | outsourcing (n.) [ˈaʊtsɔrsɪŋ] an
Interest rates have nudged up from 0.5% organizational form in which a company
to 0.75% in the last quarter. transmits one or more duties, and the jobs
who are responsible for them, to another
O firm | Many telecommunication jobs have
experienced heavy outsourcing to
obey (v.) [oʊˈbeɪ] to act according to a rule countries like India.
or regulation | The role of the police is to overhaul (n.) [ˈoʊvɝhɑl] or (v.) [oʊvɝˈhɑl]
make sure the law is obeyed. the total remake, repair, or restructuring
offset (v.) [ɑfˈsɛt] to countervail the loss or of sthg.; to totally remake, repair, or
deficiency of sthg. | Michael Jordan’s restructure | The company website isn’t at
strength as a player was used to offset the all up to date and requires a complete
weaknesses of his teammates. overhaul.
OPEC (n.) [ˈoʊpɛk] acronym for overseas (adj.) [oʊvɝˈsi:z] abroad,
“Organization of Petroleum Exporting international, beyond the ocean | Our first
Countries,” an intergovernmental overseas branch opened in Spain last year.
organization of thirteen countries that oversee (v.) [oʊvɝˈsi:] to assume control
together account for a majority of the over a process, individual, or group,
world’s oil reserves and oil production | making sure that it/they progress
The OPEC countries can exercise far more satisfactorily | The company hired a
global power than other countries of consultancy to ensure that their workers
similar size or with a similar GDP. were meeting high efficiency standards.
opt in (v.) [ɑpt ˈɪn] to decide to join a overt (adj.) [oʊˈvɝt] open, identifiable,
scheme, operation, investment, etc. | I clear | His overt frustration with his boss
refuse to opt in to any modern or novel kept him from progressing more rapidly in
plan without first seeing exhaustive the company.
P perk (n.) [pɝk] a special privilege,
advantage, or benefit | Being privately
pace (n.) [pɛɪs] the speed at which sthg. insured in Germany comes with a number
happens or develops; tempo, rate | During of well-known perks, such as a separate
the Industrial Revolution there was a rapid waiting room with free coffee.
increase in the pace of production. pervasive (adj.) [pɝˈvɛɪsɪv] present in
paramount (adj.) [ˈpɛrəmaʊnt] describes every space or instance of a particular
sthg. crucial or with comparatively phenomenon; far-reaching; profound |
superior importance; with highest priority The recent digitalization of much of the
| The paramount goal of a salesman is world is one of the most pervasive changes
short-term oriented whereas consumer of the last hundred years.
behavior researchers focus on the long- pester (v.) [ˈpɛstɝ] to annoy sb. by doing
term success of a product or company. or asking the same thing again and again |
partial (adj.) [ˈpɑrʃl] describing a segment The shopkeep pestered me to buy his
of a whole; incomplete | A partial ban on products, and wouldn't take "no" for an
smoking will go into effect next month. answer.
pass off as (v./idiom) [pæs ˈɑf æz] to piggyback off of (v./idiom) [ˈpɪgibæk ˈɑf
deliberately misrepresent sthg. or try to ʌv] to take a previous idea and build upon
make sb. believe that sthg. is other than it | A lot of companies are piggybacking
what it actually is | My friend was trying to off of one another these days to keep up
pass off his cheap gold watch as a genuine with the latest trends.
Rolex. pipeline (n.) [ˈpaɪplaɪn] channel that
pasture, put out to (v./idiom) [pʌt aʊt tu: provides a steady supply of a given
pæstʃɝ] to force sb. to retire due to age or resource; access and availability to sthg. |
obsoleteness; in horse racing, to remove Prestigious universities such as Harvard
the animal from competition and allow it and Yale act as a job placement pipeline
to live the rest of its days quietly | Before for new graduates in virtually every field.
I’m put out to pasture I hope to achieve my plague (v.) [plɛɪg] to cause trouble and
goal of reaching an upper-management worry; to have a very negative and
position. continuous impact on sthg. | Celebrities
pave the way (v./idiom) [pɛɪv ðʌ ˈwɛɪ] to are often plagued by false statements and
make sthg. possible, to enable; to set a scandals.
trend or example for future generations | plain sailing (adj./idiom) [plɛɪn ˈsɛɪlɪŋ]
A good education paves the way to a well- describes a situation that is easy to cope
paid profession. with or simple to master; with few
peddle (v.) [ˈpɛdl] to sell sthg. by directly obstacles | Getting your master’s degree
approaching the buyer, often in a public isn’t going to be plain sailing; you’re going
space | He peddled his groceries from the to have to work very hard over the next
back of his food truck. few years.
peg (v.) [pɛg] to pin, to make fast | In the play ball (v.) [plɛɪ bɑ:l] to cooperate with,
year 1962, the Egyptian pound (EGP) was esp. after being induced or encouraged to
pegged to the US dollar at a rate of 1 EGP do so | If we don't lower our prices the
= 2.30 USD. other company will refuse to play ball with
perception (v.) [pɛrˈsɛpʃən] a point of view us at the negotiating table.
based upon how things seem to the play down (v.) [plɛɪ daʊn] to attempt to
beholder; sensation, cognition | The disguise a fault or problem by neglecting
official inflation rate is often lower than to discuss it or explaining it away | Donald
many people’s perception.
Trump's staff has spent a lot of time trying holdings | A diversified portfolio is a
to play down his fiery rhetoric. necessity for a secure investment package.
pledge (v./n.) [plɛdʒ] to promise sthg. poster child (n./idiom) [ˈpoʊstɝ tʃaɪld] the
formally | Trump has pledged to build a public face of a system or movement, its
wall on the border with Mexico. best or most illustrative example | Game
plot, lose the (v./idiom) [luz ðʌ plɑt] to of Thrones is seen as the poster child for
become unable to comprehend a the new era of highly addictive television
situation, to become confused; to become programming.
mentally disordered or crazy | The techno- postpone (v.) [poʊsˈpoʊn] to put sthg. off
babble during the presentation made him to a later date; to reschedule later | Please
quickly lose the plot. don’t postpone the meeting again; you’ll
plunge (v.) [plʌndʒ] to fall or decrease already made us reschedule several times.
suddenly | The food company’s market posture (n.) [ˈpɑstʃɝ] mindset, stance,
share plunged dramatically after the attitude | Many companies are finding
health scare. they have to make public changes to their
point of sale (n.) [pɔɪnt ʌv seɪl] a location hiring and anti-discrimination postures in
where a certain product or service is order to remain popular with consumers.
purchased | Manhattan is a profitable powerhouse (n.) [ˈpaʊɝhaʊs] a person,
point of sale for upper-class brands. organization, or country having high
poise (n.) [pɔɪz] preparation; balance and influence, strength, power, or energy |
calm state, esp. in the face of adversity; Apple is the powerhouse of the
readiness to perform an action | The smartphone industry.
company has invested heavily in IT praises, sing sb.’s/sthg.’s (v./idiom) [sɪŋ
systems and is poised for the next phase of ˈprɛɪzɪz] to celebrate, applaud, or glorify
economic digitization. sthg. or sb. | The review on Amazon was
poll (n./v.) [pɔ:l] an inquiry of the public, really singing the product’s praises, so it
esp. to determine the popularity of a must be good.
candidate or legislative program; an precaution [prəˈkɔʃən] (n.) an action
election; to engage in the above activities undertaken to prevent or avoid a negative
| The poll for the German Bundestag is the future outcome | As a precaution against
primary election in Germany. acne, I wash my face with soap and water
pollutant (n.) [pəˈlutənt] a (chemical) twice a day.
substance that affects the environment in precinct (n.) [ˈprisɪŋt] a clearly shaped
a negative way| An aircraft produces a lot geographical area which is small enough
of pollutants in the air. to allow economic as well as social
populism (n.) [ˈpɑpjulɪzm] a political relationships to flourish; an administrative
orientation with the aim to pay attention district | In this precinct all shop owners
to people who feel that no political party know one another and they even practice
respects their concerns; a policy of trying some level of neighborhood assistance.
to manipulate a large mass of people by prerogative (n.) [pɝˈɑgədɪv] a special right
exaggerating their concerns and | It is the US president’s prerogative to
mobilizing them against a party or issue full pardons to convicted criminals.
perceived enemies | Anti-Semitism and procure (v.) [prəˈkju:r] to obtain, to get
race discrimination are often elements of possession | The new human resources
right-wing populism. director’s job is to procure new employees.
portfolio (n.) [pɔrtˈfoʊlioʊ] a collection of prod (v.) [prɑ:d] to persuade, incite, or
investments, securities, or other financial encourage sb. to take action, esp. when
unwilling or reluctant | My mom had to
prod me all the time when it came to into place against Russia after the
doing my homework. annexation of Crimea.
produce (n.) [ˈproʊdus] foods, especially purloin (v.) [pɝˈlɔɪn] to extract money or
fruits and vegetables, that have been property unlawfully; to steal | The cashier
grown or farmed | Chiquita is one of the purloined money from the cashbox for
biggest names in produce. weeks.
productivity (n.) [proʊdəkˈtɪvɪdi] the
amount of work a person, group, machine, R
or animal can achieve in a given period of
time; a measurement of efficiency or rack up (v./idiom) [ræ:k ˈʌp] to amass, to
output | The productivity of a company accumulate, to build up or collect | In the
depends, inter alia, on the performance of past ten years this company has racked up
the employees. a big amount of debt.
prop up (v.) [prɑp ˈʌp] to give assistance, rally (n./v.) [ˈræli] an abrupt increase in
to support | Private donations help prop stock price; to increase abruptly in price |
up charitable organizations. The stock market closed at a disappointing
proponent (n.) [prəˈpoʊnɪnt] sb. who is in low after this morning’s exciting rally.
favor of a cause or idea, a supporter | reach out to (v./idiom) [ri:tʃ aʊt tu] to
Proponents of Brexit hope that other contact sb., esp. to offer or ask for
European nations will follow Britain’s lead. assistance | The company should reach
proportionally (adv.) [prəˈpɔrʃənəli] at the out to their dissatisfied customers in order
same rate; of the same ratio; to the same to improve lagging sales.
extent as a reference value | The manager rebate (n.) [ˈribeɪt] a partial or full refund
is positing a proportional relationship | The government sent him a rebate check
between cost and price and therefore is of $17,000.
suggesting selling the new product for reboot (v.) [riˈbu:t] to start over, to begin
twice as much as it will cost to make. again from the starting point; to make a
prospect (n.) [ˈprɑspɛkt] the chance of new version; to restart, esp. a computer or
sthg. | I have a good prospect of getting other device | After a major update
the job. Windows has to be rebooted.
protectionism (n.) [prəˈtɛkʃənɪzᵊm] the recession (n.) [rəˈsɛʃən] a period of
collective actions of a government temporary economic decline characterized
designed to restrict the influx of foreign by a falling GDP and reduced industrial
products in order to protect the domestic activity | The recession is causing a
economy | The protectionism practiced in significant rise in the unemployment rate.
Germany included high tariffs on bananas reckless (adj.) [ˈrɛkləs] describes an action
from Ecuador. or person characterized by lack of proper
pullback (n.) [ˈpʊlbæk] a period of time caution or awareness of consequences |
when prices or sales decrease | There was The reckless investment of the company
a significant pullback in the stock market manager ruined the firm’s financial year.
during the financial crisis. red tape (n./idiom) [rɛd tɛɪp] used as a
pummel (v.) [ˈpʌməl] to significantly synonym of bureaucracy, esp. highlighting
weaken sb. or sthg.; to attack; to strike official process that are deemed
hard | The financial crisis pummeled the particularly inefficient | Refugees’
economy. residence in Germany is often hampered
punitive (adj.) [ˈpjunɪtɪv] penalizing, by excessive red tape.
punishing | Punitive sanctions were put redundancy (n.) [rəˈdʌndɪnsi] esp. used in
Br.E. (Am.E,. equivalent: firing), the act of
losing one’s job | Her redundancy came as repeal (v.) [rəˈpi:l] to cancel or annul sthg.,
no great shock after her poor performance esp. used in a legal context | The new
with the company’s main account. president has repealed some of the
referendum (n.) [rɛfɝˈɛndəm] a public regulations made by his predecessor.
vote which informs politicians of the repercussion (n.) [ripɝˈkʌʃɪn] the negative
public’s will; a democratic vote in which all effect of an event or action| A decrease in
eligible voters of a certain jurisdiction (as tourism would have severe repercussions
opposed to only elected officials) may for the local economy.
have their say on a critical matter | The reserve (n.) [rəˈzɝv] money or other assets
result of the Brexit referendum was that held by a bank or government institution |
the population of Great Britain wanted Oil reserves in Syria have disappeared
their country to leave the European Union. since the civil war in that country began.
refurbish (v.) [riˈfɝbɪʃ] to renovate resign (v.) [rɪˈzaɪn] to voluntarily quit or
completely | Our offices were refurbished withdraw from a job or position | Despite
after we came back from holiday to find the severity of his mistake, the board of
mold growing everywhere. directors is allowing the CEO to resign
regression (n.) [rəˈgrɛʃɪn] a setback; a rather than be fired outright.
situation in which things become restrain (v.) [rəˈstreɪn] to keep sthg. or sb.
progressively worse | The regression of his under control or within limits | A weak
Spanish skills snowballed after years of labor market restrains economic growth
living outside the Spanish-speaking world. due to less money being spent on goods
reimburse (v.) [rijɪmˈbɝs] to repay, esp. of and services.
a payment made in advance | With some retailer (n.) [ˈri:tɛɪlɝ] person or shop that
insurance plans, the insured makes the sells goods to the final consumer | IKEA is
initial payment and is then reimbursed by a major furniture retailer who make their
the insurance company after submitting a products available by pick-up or delivery.
bill. retention (n.) [rəˈtɛnʃən] the act of
rein in (v./idiom) [rɛɪn ɪn] to limit, restrict, keeping sthg. in one’s possession; inability
or control, esp. sthg. or sb. which is or unwillingness to relinquish; continuous
perceived to have gotten out of control | maintenance or existence | The retention
Sarah Palin's constant remark was that of the old e-mail technology slowed
government spending should be reined in. communication between employees.
rely (v.) [rəˈlaɪ] to count on others, to trust revive (v.) [rəˈvaɪv] to give new energy or
| Small companies rely on government strength; to bring back to life | Financial
policies to help grow their business. support from Europe is helping Greece to
remittance (n.) [rəˈmɪtɪnts] an amount of revive slowly from its economic downturn.
money that is sent as payment abroad, rife (adj.) [raɪf] commonplace, rampant,
often to family or other dependents | The often seen, esp. referring to sthg. negative
bank sent the remittance to my family’s | Due to bad sanitary conditions, the
account in Russia yesterday, so they refugee camps are usually rife with
should have the money no later than the sickness.
end of this week. ring (v.) [rɪŋ] to call sb., to communicate
render (v.) [ˈrɛndɝ] to cause sthg. or sb. to via telephone | You should stop ringing
enter a particular state; to make sthg. be me so much; it’s annoying.
or appear in a certain way | High risks and rolling blackout (n.) [ˈroʊlɪŋ ˈblækaʊt] a
low profits render the investment shutdown of electrical power, typically
unattractive. occurring with advanced warning and
sometimes deliberately produced as a cost
or energy-saving measure | Energy scheme (n.) [ski:m] an organized plan for
providers induced a rolling blackout in doing sthg. | We should all follow the
several sparsely populated areas to scheme and then everything will proceed
prevent a complete system failure. as planned.
room and board (n.) [ru:m ænd bɔrd] scion (n.) [ˈsaɪɑn] descendant, esp. the
accommodation and meals, usually chief heir | A scion of the family that owns
provided by an establishment such as a Samsung was convicted of wrongdoing
hotel or bed and breakfast | My employer and sent to prison for five years.
takes care of the costs for room and board scrap (v.) [skræp] to abandon, esp. a
while I’m on business trips. project or idea which is deemed untenable
rosy (adj.) [ˈroʊzi] describes an optimistic | My project was scrapped due to financial
and cheerful view of a situation | The troubles at the company.
company has a rosy outlook because of screen (v.) [skri:n] to examine the
expected high earnings. properties and conditions of sthg., often
roughly (adv.) [ˈrəfli:] approximately, to assuage doubt | The company records
almost, nearly | Ten divided by three were screened for any indication of tax
leaves a remainder of roughly 3.3. fraud.
rule (v.) [ru:l] to lead, to govern; to enjoy a scrutiny (n.) [ˈskru:tᵊni] a control; a
position of prominence | Edeka has ruled thorough examination, often conducted
the German grocery industry for several under conditions of extreme doubt | After
decades. people give their tax returns to the proper
rural (adj.) [ˈrɝəl] of the countryside; authorities, each undergoes a careful
removed from urban influences | They scrutiny to find any mistakes or outright
grew up on a farm in a rural area and falsehoods.
therefore have never seen a skyscraper serene (adj.) [səˈri:n] describes a calm
before. state; untroubled, peaceful | In the case of
a terrorist attack the head of state has to
S remain relatively serene, setting an
example for a public that is otherwise
S&P 500 (n.) [ˈɛsᵊnpi faɪvˈhʌndrɛd] a stock prone to panic.
index that includes the 500 largest quoted set off on (v./idiom) [sɛt ɑ:f ɑ:n] to begin
companies in the United States | The S&P along a new path | If I don’t get the raise
500 is closely monitored as a symbol of the I’m after I’ll quit the company and set off
health of the economy as a whole. on my own.
sanction (n.) [ˈsɛɪŋkʃən] punishment or setback (n.) [ˈsɛtbæk] an undesirable
penalty, esp. imposed upon one country event which causes reversion, regression,
by another | The EU has continued to or failure | The failure of our latest film
implement and enforce sanctions against was a setback, but our studio’s not dead
Russia since that country’s annexation of yet; we’ve got several movies ready to
Crimea. come out and I think they’ll be big hits.
scale down (v./idiom) [skɛɪ:l ˈdaʊn] to settlement (n.) [ˈsɛdᵊlmɪnt] an agreement
minimize or reduce in size | The company or resolution; to outcome of a decision-
found it could make more profit by scaling making process | Samsung and Apple have
down its expenses. finally reached a settlement in the patent-
scam (v.) [skæ:m] to gain money illegally infringement lawsuit.
by cheating or fraud | The poor old man sever (v.) [ˈsɛvɝ] to cut; to remove; to
was scammed by the car salesman; the old discard | Bill Gates didn’t sever ties to
piece of junk broke down a week later.
Microsoft completely when he stepped through my photos before I could stop
down as CEO. him.
shakeup (n.) [ˈʃɛɪkəp] a fundamental soar (v.) [sɔr] to increase greatly in
change in the organization of a company amount or value within a short period of
or a department | The shakeup of the firm time | Oil prices soared after Saddam
increased consumer confidence and, by Hussein torched the oil fields when
extension, the stock price. retreating from Kuwait.
shortage (n.) [ˈʃɔrdɪdʒ] a situation in which soft (adj.) [sɑft] feeble, puny, low, small |
there is a lack or limited availability of a The shareholders aren’t satisfied with the
necessary item | There is no shortage of soft growth in profits.
beer in Germany; in fact, you can find it solid (adj.) [ˈsɑlɪd] describes a situation of
anywhere and always at a fair price! strength and confidence; stable, sound |
simulation (n.) [sɪmjuˈlɛɪʃən] a The economy is now solid enough to bear
representation or rehearsal of sthg. on a the weight of higher interest rates.
smaller scale than in reality; a model | The sound (adj.) [saʊnd] wise, well-
model United Nations is a simulation of its considered, reliable, esp. describing a
real-life counterpart. decision or business practice | Acme’s
Sino- (adj.) [ˈsaɪnoʊ] Chinese, of China; sound, conservative decisions in the crisis
always used in combination with another enabled them to survive while more
national adjective, i.e. Sino-American | adventurous competitors crumbled.
Sino-British relations have improved since source (v.) [sɔrs] to obtain sthg., esp.
Hong Kong was handed back to the resources, materials, or products, from a
Chinese in 1997. certain place, supplier, or manufacturer |
sit well with (v./idiom) [sɪt wɛl wɪθ] to The company sources all its materials from
approve of; to feel comfortable with| local suppliers.
Although the new product ideas didn’t sit sovereign bond (n.) [ˈsɑvrɪn bɑnd] a
well with the marketing manager, she kept certificate of debt issued by a national
her opinions to herself, not wanting to be government | American sovereign bonds
seen as overly negative. have suffered since S&P downgraded their
skirt the rules (v./idiom) [skɝt ðʌ rulz] to rating.
evade rules without technically breaking span (v.) [spæ:n] to extend across a
them | The defendant was cleared of all geographic area or a period of time |
charges due to the fact that the evidence Siemens’s operations span several
was obtained by police having skirted the continents.
rules. Special Relationship, the (n.) [ˈspɛʃəl
slay (n.) [sleɪ] to hunt or kill; to sell a rəˈlɛɪʃənʃɪp] the particular political, social,
business or product which unseats the cultural, military, and historical ties that
previous market leader | Many companies exist between the US and the UK | Both
have claimed to have invented the product the president and the prime minister
that will slay the iPhone, but none of these affirmed the importance of the Special
has materialzed. Relationship during a joint press
sluggish (adj.) [ˈslʌgɪʃ] slow-paced and conference in Washington today.
lacking energy | Economic growth has spin out (v./idiom) [spɪn aʊt] to expand
been sluggish, though steady, since 2012. (upon) | IKEA began very small but soon
snatch (v.) [snætʃ] to take away from sb. in spun out to include furniture, lighting, and
a sudden and forceful way | He snatched all sorts of other home décor products.
my cell phone from my hand and looked spiral (v.) [ˈspaɪrəl] to gradually or
exponentially decrease or worsen in an
uncontrollable fashion | Many users find stipulated term was longer than we had
that what begins as casual drug use agreed.
quickly spirals out of control. streak (n.) [stri:k] an uninterrupted period;
sprint (v.) [sprɪnt] to hurry, to hasten | The an unbroken sequence | After a long
government is sprinting to prepare the streak of wins, the party was able to cross
new bills before the end of the term. the 5% threshold and gain a seat in the
staggering (adj.) [ˈstægərɪŋ] huge, chamber.
impressive, overwhelming | The damage strength to strength, from (adv./idiom)
caused by the storm has led to staggering [frʌm ˈstrɛŋθ tə strɛŋθ] to improve or
repair costs for the government. become more successful over time |
stall (n.) [stɑ:l] a small local shop; a kiosk | Thanks to huge investments, the
You can always buy apples from the stall company’s research team continued to go
down the road. from strength to strength.
stand pat (v./idiom) [stæ:nd pæ:t] to be strike (v.) [straɪk] to hit, to destroy, to
resolute; to be unwilling to change one’s attack | Houses have to be rebuilt due to a
mind or amend one’s words| The accused tornado which struck the region a week
stands pat in his claim that he is entirely ago, leaving chaos in its wake.
innocent of the charges. strike a chord (v./idiom) [straɪk ʌ kɔrd] to
status quo (n.) [ˈstædɪs kwoʊ] the current induce a strong sense of approval or
circumstance or state, usually accepted or agreement; to express what a sb. feels but
taken for granted by a majority of those could not adequately express or had not
concerned | The government was popular considered | The phrase “We are the
enough to call a snap election and still people!” was shouted on the streets of
maintain the status quo of seats in East Germany at the end of the 1980s,
Parliament. striking a chord with the unsatisfied
staunch (adj.) [stɑ:ntʃ] loyal in supporting citizens.
sb. or sthg.; committed in attitude; steady stymie (v.) [ˈstaɪmi] to hinder, impede,
| Staunch Catholics go to mass and cause to slow down; to prevent from sthg.
confession regularly. from happening or sb. from reaching a
sterling (n.) [ˈstɝlɪŋ] official currency of goal | In our research we were stymied by
the United Kingdom (also known as pound the lack of relevant documents.
sterling or pound) | UK’s leaving the subprime mortgage (n.) [ˈsʌbpraɪm
European market will make the pound ˈmɔrgɪdʒ] a home loan with a high risk and
vulnerable. high interest rate, esp. given before the
stifle (v.) [ˈstaɪfᵊl] to hold back, repress, or 2008 financial crisis to buyers who were
constrain; to suffocate | High taxes on unable to secure more traditional loans |
exports are stifling domestic companies' In the heyday of the subprime mortgage
business activities. boom, it was possible to get a home loan
stint (v.) [stɪnt] a period of time during without showing assets or income of any
which one performs a service or belongs kind.
to an organization, esp. military or other subsequent (adj.) [ˈsʌbsəkwɪnt] happening
public service | During his two-year stint afterwards, or as a result of; describes a
volunteering in South America he was able following event or action | They purchased
to perfect his Spanish. a lot and subsequently hired an architect
stipulate [ˈstɪpjulɛɪt] (v.) to specify to design the building.
conditions or state how things must be subsidy (n.) [ˈsʌbsɪdi] government-
done, esp. in law and contract negotiation sponsored financial support for a company
| We didn’t sign the contract because the or industry seen as especially critical or
worth protecting, intended to keep prices Sword of Damocles (n./idiom) [sɔrd ʌv
low for consumers | High subsidies for ˈdæməkli:z] symbol in Greek mythology,
agriculture in France have been a sticking representing a situation of certain danger
point in negotiations with other EU whose exact time of occurrence is
nations. unknown, creating a constant feeling of
substantial (adj.) [səbˈstænʃəl] major, stress | The fear of unemployment hangs
large, huge, remarkable | Investing in new over their heads like the Sword of
research can lead to substantial costs, and Damocles.
therefore must be carefully considered.
sue (v.) [su:] to seek legal action against T
another party | Suing is a common tactic
of Donald Trump’s; he doesn’t expect he’ll tackle (v.) [tækᵊl] to attempt to deal with a
win, but he expects the costs of defending particularly difficult or stubborn problem |
themselves will overwhelm his opponents. This issue is being tackled by our best
supply chain (n.) [səˈplaɪ tʃɛɪn] a network managers and brightest minds.
between the company and its supplier in take hold (v./idiom) [teɪk hoʊld] to
order to produce and distribute a product; assume control, to take charge| A major
the process of the product making its way crisis took hold of the US financial system
from production to distribution | Logistics after Lehman Bros. crashed in the summer
is a crucial part of supply chain of 2007.
management. tap into (v./idiom) [tæp ˈɪntu:] to use sthg.
surge (n.) [sɝdʒ] a sudden increase of that was there already but has not been
value, price, interest rate, electrical used before to gain advantage; to use
power, strength, or intensity of feeling | sthg. for your own profit | When learning
The sudden 5% surge in the DAX has left something new you should first tap into
investors feeling bullish. your existing experience to see if there are
surplus (n.) [ˈsɝpləs] an amount or any connections you can make to the
quantity that exceeds requirements; extra previously existing information.
| The German economy has been tar (v.) [tɑ:r] to sour public opinion and
generating surpluses as a result of low reputation | After the scandal tarred his
energy costs. reputation he was labeled persona non
sustainable (adj.) [səsˈtɛɪnəbᵊl] describes a grata by his colleagues.
method of resource gathering or tariff (n.) [ˈtɛrɪf] a tax on imports and
production which maintains a balance exports usually charged by the
between economic, ecologic, and social government | The USA charges a very high
concerns, and which has the potential to tariff on imported cars.
continue for an indefinite period without tempt (v.) [tɛmpt] to entice to buy; to give
upsetting this balance | Burning down an strong desire to have | The temptation
trees en masse is not the most sustainable to buy the newest model of the iPhone is
method of obtaining building material. very strong among many people.
suture (n.) [ˈsutʃɝ] a thin thread used to tentacle (n.) [ˈtɛnəkl] a long and flexible
sew together open wounds | The doctor part of the body of many sea animals,
closed the patient’s deep cuts with a used for movement as well as tactile and
suture. tensile skills | Many wealthy people feel as
sway (v.) [swɛɪ:] to cause a transformation though they’re caught in the tentacles of
or shift, esp. of opinion | His opinion was government tax agencies.
completely swayed by the persuasive tenure (n.) [ˈtɛnjɝ] the period of time in
article he read in the magazine. which a person holds an office | The
tenure of the longest-serving German turmoil (n.) [ˈtɝmɔɪl] a state of great
chancellor, Helmut Kohl, was sixteen disturbance, confusion, or anxiety;
years. turbulence, disorder | Volkswagen is still
thwart (v.) [θwɔrt] successfully inhibit or reeling from the turmoil caused by the
oppose sthg. | The summer party was emissions scandal.
thwarted by bad weather. turn a blind eye (v./idiom) [tɝn ʌ blaɪnd aɪ]
tick (v.) [tɪk] to move incrementally, esp. in to ignore wrongdoing or mismanagement
regard to rates or prices | The fans all held | The officer turned a blind eye to the
their breath as the clock ticked down to boy’s speeding; he was the mayor’s son,
zero in the final minutes of the after all.
championship match. ‘tweener (n.) [ˈtwi:nɝ] sb. or sthg. which
tout (v.) [taʊt] to advertise or praise sthg., seems to straddle two different categories
esp. as a way of encouraging people to or classifications without belonging firmly
buy it | Several insurance companies tout in either; in basketball, refers to a player
their services on local radio. able to play two different positions equally
trade barrier (n.) [ˈtrɛɪd ˌbɛriɝ] a well | ‘Tweeners like Mark, who do both
restriction or policy which limits management and sales with ease, are a
international exchange | Trade barriers major asset to this company.
such as high import taxes make it more 27, the (n.) [ðʌ twəniˈsɛvɪn] referring to
difficult for international companies to sell the member states of the EU, who until
their products here. Brexit were referred to as “The 28.” | The
trade war (n.) [trɛɪd wɔr] an economic 27 are inclined to push for a Brexit that the
conflict between at least two nations UK considers punitive.
conducted with embargoes, tariffs, and
sanctions | China is often accused of U
starting trade wars when entering new
markets around the globe. ultimate (adj.) [ˈʌltəmɪt] final, the last, the
trait (n.) [trɛɪt] a feature; a property or end, the very best | The ultimate decision,
characteristic | Empathy is a very after a lengthy discussion process, was
important trait to have when you’re a accepted gracefully by all parties.
teacher. unbearable (adj.) [ənˈbɛrəbᵊl] describes a
transparency (n.) [trænzˈpɛ:rɪnsi] the state situation which is unacceptable or
of being open to the public in terms of impossible to sustain | The mix of
government policy | The Swedish extremely high unemployment rates and
government is a model of transparency rapidly falling wages is an unbearable
and openness. situation for jobless men and women who
treble (v./n.) [ˈtrɛbᵊl] esp. used in Br.E. are unable to feed their families.
(Am.E. equivalent: triple), to result in uncompromising (adj.)
three times the original value; three times [ənˈkɑmprəmaɪzɪŋ] describes an attitude
the original value | The success of the new of rigidity and unwillingness to find
product trebled the company’s earnings in consensus in a dispute; exacting;
record time. demanding | Because both politicians
trigger (v./n.) [ˈtrɪgɝ] to cause, to induce; a were uncompromising and insisted on
cause, an inducement; the firing their point of view, no agreement could be
mechanism on a firearm | Breaking any of reached.
the laser beams in the museum will trigger unconventional (adj.) [ənkənˈvɛnʃɪnəl]
a warning sound. differing from the standard or widely
accepted norm | Many products that were
thought of as unconventional when they payroll system was upended by the young
were first released have since become manager’s new ideas.
worldwide hits. upset (v./adj.) [əpˈsɛt] or (n.) [ˈʌpsɛt] to
undercover (adj.) [əndɝˈkʌvɝ] describes a cause a disturbance or unpleasantness;
state in which a person hides his/her sad, angry, frustrated, agitated; an
identity in order to allow him/her to unexpected outcome, esp. in sports or
gather information secretly | The cops gaming | The credit crisis upset the whole
went undercover to expose a powerful of the financial system.
organized crime ring. urbanization (n.) [ɝbɪnəˈzɛɪʃən] the
undergo (v.) [əndɝˈgoʊ] to experience process by which rural areas are
change, often in a total manner | The converted into cities | Frequent
defendant braced herself to undergo a urbanization is a constant problem for
long-lasting trial. farmers.
undermine (v.) [əndɝˈmaɪn] to hamper urgent (adj.) [ˈɝdʒɪnt] requiring immediate
sb.’s chances for success; to actively work action or attention | It’s urgent that you
against sb.’s efforts | She tried to answer this client’s call as soon as
undermine her boss’s authority by possible, or he’ll find new representation!
spreading rumors about his supposed usher in (v.) [ˈʌʃɝ ɪn] to mark or cause the
incompetence. beginning of sthg., esp. a historical event
underpin (v.) [əndɝˈpɪn] to support or be or period | Brexit ushered in a new era of
the basis of a building, belief, etc. | She UK/EU relations.
underpins her views with strong, utility (n.) [juˈtɪlɪdi] a company that
convincing arguments. provides a public service, such as
undisclosed (adj.) [əndɪsˈkloʊzd] electricity, gas, water, or waste removal |
unknown, unnamed, hidden, shrouded in Investments in utilities are often sound due
secrecy | Donald Trump has kept his tax to their relative stability.
returns undisclosed, which has attracted a
lot of suspicion regarding his financial V
undo (v.) [ənˈdu:] to destroy; to remove | vast (adj.) [væ:st] extremely large, wide,
The company is undoing its own future by enormous | Vast reserves of gold are kept
ignoring and cheating their most valuable in secret locations throughout the United
customers. States.
unravel (v.) [ənˈrævᵊl] to come apart, to vested interest (n.) [ˈvɛstɪd ˈɪntrɪst] the
lose cohesion; to solve a mystery or riddle; motive of influencing and supporting
to uncover complicated twists and certain actions or arrangements in order
entanglements | The wise critic of a to gain a personal benefit | The company
country or culture starts by unraveling the managers had a vested interest in the
relevant social and political issues. signing of the contract, seeing as how they
unrest (n.) [ənˈrɛst] a state of all worked on commission.
disagreement or discontentedness | If left viable (adj.) [ˈvaɪəbᵊl] possible, feasible,
unmanaged, it is only a matter of time practicable | Saving the company is no
before severe political unrest leads to longer a viable option; I’m sorry to say we
revolution. have to sell.
upend (v.) [əpˈɛnd] to turn sthg., esp. an vital (adj.) [ˈvaɪdəl] highly important,
assumption, prediction, or other supposed essential; full of life, exuberant | For a
certainty, on its head | The decades-old healthy diet it is vital to eat lots of
volatility (n.) [vɑləˈtɪlɪdi] a state that is government project after he realized what
unstable and can change frequently and a disaster it would be.
unexpectedly | Due to high market write-off (n.) [ˈraɪdɑ:f] the cancellation of
volatility the company needs to introduce a debt, often to the benefit of the debtor
proper risk management. and the detriment of the creditor | Some
vow (v./n.) [vaʊ] to make a serious pledge, politicians have proposed that student
promise, claim, or assertion; a serious debts should be considered a write-off
pledge, promise, claim, or assertion | At a after 10 years of consecutive payments.
wedding the bridegroom vows to be wrongfoot (v./idiom) [wrɑŋˈfʊt] to
faithful to the bride for the rest of his life. surprise sb. with an unexpected action so
that he is unprepared and unable to react
W immediately | The Volkswagen stock price
fell dramatically after the share holders
wage (v./n.) [wɛɪdʒ] to engage in sthg. and were wrongfooted by the diesel emissions
continue in its pursuit; an amount of affair.
money which is specified in the
employment contract and is paid by the Z
employer to the employee in return for
the latter’s labor | The average wage for zero-sum (adj.) [ˈziroʊ sʌm] describes an
private teachers hovers at around $30 an encounter in which the losses of one party
hour. must be offset by the gains of the other |
wake (n.) [wɛɪk] the swirl of air or water Donald Trump plays politics as a zero-sum
that arises behind a moving aircraft or game: if he wins, some other party must
boat, respectively; consequence | The lose, and vice versa.
high levels of tax evasion were discovered
in the wake of the annual auditing.
wane (v.) [weɪn] to decrease; to get
weaker | At first there was a lot of
excitement about the new president, but
over time the public’s interest began to
wane. _____
warrant (v./n.) [ˈwɑrɪnt] to justify; a _____
justification; a legal document allowing for
arrest or search | Higher prices for raw
materials are used as an argument to
warrant price increases for end products.
welfare (n.) [ˈwɛlfɛ:r] the state of health
or well-being; a shorthand reference to
the American social safety net programs |
The welfare of our guests is paramount.
well-off (adj./idiom) [wɛlˈɑf] wealthy, rich
| My neighbors live in a very large house;
they must be quite well-off.
withdraw (v.) [wɪθˈdrɔ:] to take money or
other resources out of an account; to
cancel; to remove oneself from a project
or scheme | He withdrew from the
Hamburg, August 2017

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