Sie sind auf Seite 1von 28

Louis Kahn:

Zeichnen, Denken, Architektur


Architekturdarstellung, Arbeitsprozesse und entwerferisches Denken
Michael Merrill, Dr.-Ing.
FG Entwerfen und Gebäudelehre

sium, ein Buch und eine Austel- Knowledge“ um ihre entwerferi-


lung zu produzieren – ist die schen Werkzeuge und Kenntnis-
erste umfassende und kritische se entwickeln können.
Studie von Kahns Entwurfspro-
zess mittels seiner Zeichnungen Hintergrund und Struktur
und denjenigen seines Büros. Im Durch das Projekt wird eine Linie
Gegensatz zu früheren Studien, der Untersuchung fortgesetzt,
die sich auf seine Bauten kon- die der Verfasser bereits mit zwei
zentrierten, und die die Zeich- Büchern über Kahns Arbeit be-
nungen lediglich nutzten, um gonnen hat: Louis Kahn: Draw-
Dominican Motherhouse, 1965-69 diese zu illustrieren, wird diese ing to Find Out und Louis Kahn:
Studie Kahns Zeichnungen als On the Thoughtful Making of Margret Esherick House, 1959-61
Thema und Relevanz
unabhängigen Zugang zu sei- Spaces (Lars Müller Publishers,
Heute herrscht breiter Konsenz,
nem Werk und seiner entwerfe- Zürich, 2010).
dass Louis Kahn (1901-74) zu
rischen Intelligenz betrachten.
den bedeutendsten Architek-
Die Forschung findet in enger
ten des 20. Jahrhunderts zählt.
Das Projekt ist aus mehreren Zusammenarbeit mit der Univer-
Kahns Bauten, Theorie und Leh-
Gründen relevant: Es schließt sity of Pennsylvania statt: insbe-
re haben einige der wichtigsten
eine große Forschungslücke zum sonders mit ihrer Architectural
Architekten der letzten 50 Jah-
Werk dieses wichtigen Archi- Archives. Dort befindet sich der
re tief beeinflusst, und das Be-
tekten; es liefert einen zeitigen Nachlass Kahns mit über 9.000
wusstsein für seine langfristige
Beitrag zu Theorien der Darstel- Originalzeichnungen, 40.000
Relevanz wächst weiter. Ein
lung und Architektur; und es Bürozeichnungen, sowie zahl-
signifikanter Teil von Kahns Erbe
leistet Grundforschung zur Ent- reichen Modellen, Skizzenbü-
bleibt jedoch weitgehend uner-
wicklung einer systematischen chern, Photos, Projektakten,
forscht: seine lehrreichen ent-
Basis des architektonischen Ent- usw.
werferischen Denk- und Arbeits-
werfens als akademischer Dizi-
prozesse, die heute in Form von
plin: systematisch, im Sinne von Der Projektauftakt war im Fe-
tausend von Zeichnungen im
wissenschaftlich, nachvollzieh- bruar 2014. Gegenwärtig wird
Kahn Archiv festgehalten sind.
bar und unabhängig bestreitbar. das Forschungsteam zusammen-
Dominican Motherhouse, 1965-69
Die Forschung soll u.a. demon- gestellt, das gewählte Themen
Das dreijährige Projekt – das
strieren, wie Architekten einen zu Kahns Darstellungskultur un- schungsarbeiten werden durch Förderung und Ablauf
eine internationale Forschungs-
Metier-immanenten „Body of tersuchen wird. Individuelle For- regelmäßige Zwischenplena er- Das Projekt wird von der Deut-
gruppe vernetzt, um ein Sympo-
gänzt. Zum Beratungskern ge- schen Forschungsgemeinschaft
hören: Prof. Michael Benedikt, mit einer Vollzeitstelle plus Sach-
Prof. Michael J. Lewis, Prof. Da- und Reisemittel gefördert. Die
vid Leatherbarrow, Prof. Robert Förderzeit ist von Februar 2014
McCarter, und Achive Collec- bis Februar 2017.
tions Manager William Whita-
ker. Weitere Authoren und Be- Ein Symposium findet in Zusam-
rater sind inzwischen: Nathaniel menarbeit mit University of Penn-
Kahn, Gina Pollara, Harriet Pat- sylvania, in Philadelphia, Winter
tison, Prof. David van Zanten 2016 statt. Nach Abschluss der
Prof. Sandy Isenstadt, Prof. Guy Forschungsarbeit folgen eine
Nordensen, und Prof. Daniel Buchveröffentlichung und eine
Friedman. Ausstellung in 2017.
Dominican Motherhouse, 1965-69

Tag der Forschung 2014 | Fachbereich Architektur | Technische Universität Darmstadt | Forschungsprojekt
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Architectural Representation, Work Processes, and Designerly Thinking

1. Was (und wie) Forschen Architekten an einem Entwurfslehrstuhl?

2. Was (und wie) habe ich bisher geforscht?

3. Was (und wie) wird von mir jetzt geforscht?

4. Wie (und von wem) wird diese Forschung bezahlt?


Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

1. Was (und wie) forschen Architekten?


Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Design Research / „Designerly Ways of Knowing“

„On designerly ways of thinking“: Exploring the Swampy Ground

„The dilemma of „rigor or relevance arises more accutely in some areas of practice than others. In the varied

landscape of professional practice, there is a high, hard ground where practioners can make effective use of

research-based theory and technique, and there is a swampy lowland where situations are confusing „messes“

incapable of technical solutions. The difficulty is that the problems of the high ground, however great their

technical interest, are often relatively unimportant to cleints or to the larger society, while in the swamp are the

problems of the greatest human concern. There are those who choose the swampy lowlands. They involve them-

selves in messy but cruciallly important problems, and when asked of their methods they speak of experience,

intuition and trial and error. Other professionals opt for the high ground. Hungry for technical rigor, devoted to a

n image of solid technical competence, or fearful of a world in which they don´t know what they are doing, they

confine themselves to a narrow technical practice.“ - Schön, 1983

„Those who seek to work more rigorously look to science and scholarly models for guidance, and we find refe-

rences to „design science“ and examples of „design reseach“ that would seem to fit more appropriately in other

fields. Yet, it is reasonable to think that there are other means of knowledge and ways of proceeding that are

very special to design, and it seems sensible that there should be ways of building knowledge that are especially

suited to the way that design is studied and practiced.... Design is a special form of knowledge production. Alt-

hough design´s own research culture is still young and weak, the importation of methods from more established

disciplines is not necessarily helpful“ - Owen, 1998


Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Design Culture / Areas of Design Research

Nigel Cross: Areas of Design Research


„There has been a growing awareness of the
intrinsic strenths and appropriateness of design
I. Design Phenomena
thinking within its own context, of the validity of
1. Design History
„design intelligence.“ After years of persuing its
2. Design Taxonomy
design research through the lenses of external
3. Design Technology
disciplines (science philosophy, sociology, etc.) a
significant portion of the design community has
II. Design Praxology
recognized that design need not be treated as a
4. Design Praxology
mysterious and ineffable art nor as an imitation
5. Design Modelling
of science or philosophy, but that it has its own
6. Design Metrology
distinct intellectual culture.“

III. Design Philosophy


- Cross, 2005
7. Design Axiology (value)

8. Design Philosophy (logic)

9. Design Epistimology

10. Design Pedagogy


Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

2. Was (und wie) habe ich bisher geforscht?


Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Samples of Double Page Layouts


Louis Kahn: Drawing to Find Out, Michael Merrill, 2010

OCTOBER – NOVEMBER 1966 FEBRUARY– APRIL 1968

A NEW SCHEME: ROOMS FINDING THEIR


OWN CONNECTIONS THE ELEMENTS COMPOSED

Moving forward, Kahn and Polk continued to develop their It is difficult not to be drawn into speculation by Kahn’s com- The autumn’s detailed studies of the core spaces now coalesce Regardless of scale, this ordering of spaces as a sympathetic
plan. A new, third scheme is the first that questions the impor- pelling collage. What, beyond the quickness of its method, into a comprehensive plan with Kahn’s spacious charcoal draw- foil to the patterns of human interaction was for Kahn one of
tant, but expensive, main circulation gallery. Figs. 54 – 57 Instead motivated him to this new technique ? And what was behind ing from February / March 1968. Fig. 126 With its extra-large scale the prime purposes of architecture. An ordering, like the pat-
of being able to reach the individual communal rooms by mov- the quirky geometry that had slowly taken over the schemes ? (⅛ in. = 1 ft. ) and its fuzzy texture of living and movable things, terns of use for which it is thought, which is neither absolute
ing along that spine, the buildings themselves now begin to It is tempting to look at Kahn’s contemporary work with Isamu this evocative plan — perhaps more than any thus far — invites nor predictable. ( But — paradox of the indefinite — which requires
become the spine. This collision of bodies, the corners of which Noguchi for the Levy Playground in New York (1961– 66 ), in the viewer to inhabit its spaces and to mentally take part in the absolute precision in planning ! ) By now, at the latest, we can
give way to allow movement within the plan, had been “ discov- which Noguchi’s earthforms and sculptural objects played collage of activities unfolding within. begin to sense in the Motherhouse Kahn’s ideal Albertian world,
ered ” by Kahn in Erdman Hall at Bryn Mawr College (1959 – 64 ) against Kahn’s architectural fragments in a collaged land- at once behaving like a very large house or a very small city.
and the Fisher House (1961– 67 ). Here, though, the collisions scape — a collaboration which may have encouraged more free The plan has begun to exude a sense of dynamic and gregari-
are handled with a casualness hitherto unknown in Kahn’s play in his work. 42 Then there were the profession’s recent ous inhabitance, of proximities and distances, of expansion 60 Louis I. Kahn, “Form and Design,” Architectural Design 31 (April 1961), p. 116.

larger projects. A collaged plan gives insight into a method rediscoveries of planning-meeting-accident which lay heavy and contraction. Leaving the calm of their cells, the sisters are
that may have encouraged this freedom. The shapes of the var- in the air: Delphi, the Athenian Acropolis, or the Villa Hadri- taken up in an ordered labyrinth, with multiple routes, possibil-
ious spaces have not been called into question, but rather ana. We know, too, from Vincent Scully that a reproduction of ities of serendipitous meetings, and engaging detours. While
the connections between them and how they are to be grouped. Piranesi’s etching of the Campus Martius in Rome, with its each part of the monastery may indeed be an “ entity in itself,”
By cutting the rooms from a blueprint and repositioning them tumbled collage of monuments, hung at this time on the the individual parts may only be fully understood through the
on paper, Kahn was able to shift, butt, and adjust the bodies wall above Kahn’s desk. 43 Certainly, all these — and a myriad synergies, both strong and fragile, they create with their neigh-
until — as if through the alternating pulls of attraction and re- of other — images were present in Kahn’s well-stocked visual bors. The layered ambulatory of the chapel ( and, to a lesser de-
pulsion — they had “ found ” their desired resting places, where treasury. Still, simple source hunting will not bring us very gree, of the refectory ) are intended to allow both nearness and
they could finally be pasted into place. This method was both far with Kahn: the lessons of the past may have revealed separation — Kahn’s “ wink at the chapel ” without going in: “ First
a means to expedite variation, and a manner to encourage essence and given guidance, but were not there to be mined you have a sanctuary, and the sanctuary is for those who want
groupings at those odd angles, which would not necessarily as academic quarries. to kneel. Around this sanctuary is an ambulatory for those who
be generated if drawing freehand or working with T-square are not sure but want to be near. Outside is a court for those
and triangle. 42 Interview, author with Harriet Pattison, October 21, 2004, Architectural Archives, who want to feel the presence of the chapel. And the court has
University of Pennsylvania. a wall. Those who pass the wall can just wink at it.” 60
43 Vincent Scully, Louis I. Kahn, New York, 1962, p. 37.

“ The rooms talk to each other and they make up their minds
where their positions are. And they must aspire, each room, “ I think that architects should be composers and not
to be as all comprising, as all rapport, with its nature. If you name designers. They should be composers of elements.
a room before it becomes a room, it dies; because it becomes The elements are things that are entities in themselves.”
just another item.” Louis I. Kahn, Architecture: The John William Lawrence Memorial Lectures, 1972 Louis I. Kahn, “ Space and the Inspirations,” 1967

54 Collaged plan, October 9, 1966, Louis Kahn 126 First floor: plan, February/March 1968, Louis Kahn

64 65 142 143

FEBRUARY– MARCH 1967

A NEW PLAN, A NEW CHANCE

Out of the previous weeks’ struggle, a drawing presented to the hillock open, nestling the cells into the brow of the hill with
the sisters in Media on February 16 emerges as a significant a series of ( expensive ) retaining walls and sunken gardens, the
breakthrough. Figs. 89, 91 The emphatically dualist interpretation new scheme exaggerates the existing topography, building up
of the program, with its two realms held in equipoise across from ground level and placing the tallest buildings — the tower
an open center — a constant of all previous schemes — has been and the chapel — on the crest of the hill. Geometrically as well,
called into question after nine months of work. The cells, until the new scheme is an inversion of the first scheme, in which
then divided according to the sisters’ four-tiered hierarchy, the freely floating cells were juxtaposed to the orthogonal
now form a three-sided, rectangular frame that is staked out communal spaces; now it is the cells that form the orthogonal
at its four corners by the living rooms. Into the open arms of counterpart to the informally ordered communal spaces.
this frame the plan now implodes, the communal rooms being
drawn as if by force into what had previously been the clois- On March 2,1967, shortly after submitting the new plan, David
ter. It is remarkable how the contrast between the simple Polk sent Mother Emmanuel a summary of areas together with
shapes and their seemingly spontaneous collisions within the an estimate of construction costs. 52 The complex had been
orthogonal frame gives the plan a hitherto unknown internal dramatically reduced to 50,171 square feet ( 4,660 m2 ), including
tension, as if the several buildings of the previous plans were basement and mechanical spaces, and was now estimated to
striving — without quite succeeding — to become the “ single cost $ 1,593,000, with landscaping. In his accompanying letter,
building ” Mother Emmanuel had envisioned. The elaborate Polk assured the prioress that the project could be built for
system of arcades and galleries that had been so unmistakably $ 1,500,000. Relieved that the architects had so dramatically re-
criticized in her letter has now all but disappeared, the build- duced area and cost — cutting both by well over half — the sisters
ing blocks straining, as Kahn would describe, “ to find their reinstalled the original budget of $ 1,500,000. The architects
own connections.” could breath deeply again: their project could continue.

If the previous schemes represent a series of variations based 52 Letter with cost estimate, David Polk to Mother Mary Emmanuel, March 2, 1967,
Box LIK 10, Kahn Collection.
on a group of constant premises, the new scheme may in many
respects be seen as a series of inversions of those premises.
For example, the relationship of the plan’s figure to the forest
and to the site’s topography has changed. Whereas the earlier
schemes had used the edge between woods and meadow as
a line of demarcation between the monastery’s private and
communal realms, the new configuration forms concentric
rings moving out from the center of the clearing to the forest’s
edge. The orientation of the ensemble has changed as well: by
rotating the whole ninety degrees counterclockwise, a wing of
cells now closes the figure to the north, strengthening the im-
pression of a man-made clearing in the forest. ( The previously
unchallenged parameter of direct sunlight for all cells was sac-
rificed in the process. ) Instead of first experiencing the monas-
tery in its frontality, one now approaches the tower obliquely,
slipping in along the edge of the clearing in order to find one-
self at its center. A crescent-shaped pond brackets the clearing
to the north. Where the previous schemes had held the top of

98 Core: plan, for June 28, 1967, Louis Kahn


89 Plan with site, February 1967 99 Core: plan, for June 28, 1967, Louis Kahn

104 105 116 117

84 Plan, January / February 1967, Louis Kahn


85 Plan, January / February 1967, Louis Kahn
191–93 Core buildings: wall details, Summer/Fall 1968

100 101
210 211
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Sample of Double Page Layouts


Louis Kahn: On the Thoughtful Making of Spaces, Michael Merrill, 2010

149 Dominican Motherhouse: the United States in recent decades, their unbuilt status seems even 162 – 64 Kimbell Art Museum, been planted directly in front of the park-side entry blocks the main
figure-ground, June 1966 1966 – 72: porch, section, site plan
150 Dominican Motherhouse: more regrettable. axis in an exceptionally “ non-classical ” manner — again, an ambiva-
built and grown, August 1968
While the projects above unfold their figure-ground characters on The Dominican Motherhouse lence between symmetry and asymmetry, closed and open systems.
relatively generic sites, the Dominican Motherhouse “ figure-grounds ” The bosque “grafts ” the museum onto the allée while forming a shaded
itself into a specific situation. We have seen how architectural mass, and welcoming entry area that seems to belong equally to park and
arboreal mass, and interstitial spaces were manipulated to underscore museum. ( Kahn thought it appropriate that the undecided visitor
the project’s evolving “ Form.” By the final scheme, the forest, the might be given a chance to peek into the museum before deciding
irregular spaces of the clearing, the monastery’s volumes, and the whether or not to go in. )
spaces between them have all been assigned equal status in terms of As always in Kahn’s mature work, the building’s floor plan tells only
figure and ground, effectively conjoining architecture and landscape. half the story. Viewed both in site plan and in site section, the intended
Figs. 149 –150 While the figure-ground scheme has provided an indis- built-grown reciprocity becomes more fully apparent: here, the muse-
pensible tool for seeing and describing this phenomenon, the narra- um’s regular gridded framework supporting its great vaults; there, the
tive has shown that the subtle reciprocities between the two spatial park’s regularly gridded allées with the spaces defined beneath their
realms are based on more than figure-ground phenomena, and in- crowns. The section makes it tempting to think of architecture as tree-
clude a multi-layered and intertwined system of relationships includ- mimetic and of an architecturalized garden plan. In any case, between
ing inflection, linkage of scales, the perception of the body in space, enclosed spaces of the galleries and the open space of the park is a rich
symbolic imaging, etc. and ambivalent threshold zone formed by both architecture and trees.
On the one hand, the gallery module has “ dissolved ” into the two
Further Steps Toward Reciprocity: From Membrane to Border-Space, great porches and an entry portico; on the other hand, the space
From Dyad to Triad, From Figure-Ground to Threefold Spatial Demarcation defined by the park’s trees has densified in the form of the bosque. Said
The basic figure-ground scheme ( and by “ basic ” I mean the scheme as Kahn of the porches, “ It is the same realization behind Renaissance
conventionally used, with buildings solid black and all else white ) buildings which gave the arcade to the street, though the buildings
provides a first as yet incomplete tool for describing — or designing — themselves did not need the arcade for their own purposes. So the
reciprocity between architectural and natural space. While this basic porch sits there, made as the interior is made, without any obligation
scheme offers a means for seeing and manipulating plan-space in of paintings on its walls, a realization of what is architecture. When
terms of mass and void, positive and negative, convex and concave, you look at the building and the porch, it is an offering. You know it
etc., it remains limited in regard to the projection of our experience wasn’t programmed, it is something that emerged.” 203 Like their ante-
into those spaces. One simple reason for this is because within the cedents, the Kimbell’s exterior vaults are “ made as the interior is made.”
“ dyad ” scheme we tend to picture ourselves either within the black The bosque and hardscape features such as benches and paths, on the
or, more likely, the white; or, as it has been observed, while we are other hand, begin to “ interiorize ” outside space; Michael Benedikt has
able to recognize both the two faces and the vase in Rubin’s familiar pointed out that here in the park “ one is already in.” 204 Approaching
figure-ground diagram, we seem to be able to experience them only on the gravel surface underneath the low branches, one is given views
sequentially, rather than simultaneously. both to the park and to the entry portico. After having ascended the
What is missing, then, in the simple twofold figure-ground diagram Relativity of inside and
steps to the portico, the view back into the park is now blocked by the
outside space
( and in buildings conceived in this manner ) is an additional dimen- crowns of the trees; one is now even more “ in.” Through this built-
sion to help us experience both realms simultaneously; or more grown plan-section reciprocity, Kahn and his landscape partners have
exactly, to experience ourselves in regard to both of these realms. In woven site and building into a dense and multivalent experience, at
short: a means for experiencing that inside and outside are never absolute, once transforming the character of the rather ordinary semi-urban site
always relative to each other; that each architectural space is a partial space: and giving breadth to the rather small museum.
a portion of a greater space from which it has been separated. With plan nota-
tion as our means of representing spatial reality, we tend to experience 203 Kahn, quoted in Johnson, Light is the Theme, p. 28.
this relativity while reading older poché plans — such as Nolli’s and the 204 Benedikt, Deconstructing the Kimbell. Benedikt’s analysis of the Kimbell, which includes a much more thor-
best of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts — more than we do reading modernist ough description of the elements at play between building and site than is possible here, is recommended further
reading.

160 THE TWIN PHENOMENA OF INSIDE AND OUTSIDE 161


174 THE TWIN PHENOMENA OF INSIDE AND OUTSIDE 175

174 Library, Phillips Exeter landscape: the Texas plain of Fort Worth. Raking, horizontal, and A clear spatial order Kahn’s sketch and the plan from April 22, 1968, validate the sisters’ 76 West elevation, April 22, 1968
Academy, 1965 – 72 77 East elevation, April 22, 1968
175 Academy Building, Phillips generously shade-giving in the stark Texas sun, the long-vaulted idea of placing the auditorium above the school. It is a stacking that 78 Section looking west,
Exeter Academy, 1914 –15
Kimbell sympathizes with the extended lines of these dry flatlands. simply makes functional sense, with the oft-frequented classrooms April 22, 1968
79 Section looking south,
176 Kimbell Art Museum,
1966 – 72 Fig. 176 Like the Salk Institute, the materials — here concrete, travertine, at ground level, the larger auditorium under the big roof upstairs. April 22, 1968

and lead roofing — with their subdued colors and toothy textures, What is more generally demonstrated by this move is how, in a config-
were chosen for their bleached, archaic presence in the strong sun. urative art such as architecture, the modification of a single element
Details are kept flush to emphasize the simple shapes in sunlight, may significantly affect the rest. The subtraction of one element from
revealing subtle tectonic relief only at closer range. It has been sug- the plan’s equation instantly relaxes the whole, ridding it of its for-
gested by Lawrence Speck that the long multiple vaults are refer- mally and functionally most uncomfortable moments ( the unresolved
ences to the bow-topped Texas livestock sheds which are so common school, the kinks in the circulation, etc. ). All communal rooms are
around the Fort Worth area, while the museum’s great loggias may be now in the core, resulting — for the first time since June 1966 — in a clear
seen as interpretations of the vernacular domestic Texas porch.233 spatial order. Finally convincing is the ease with which the core spaces
Whether Kahn consciously abstracted from these antecedents remains now “ inadvertently ” connect. The resulting circulation ring formed
a source of speculation, as he never spoke of the building in this way. by the linked spaces echoes the outer ring of cells and galleries, increas-
( Although later in Texas, the project for the De Menil Collection ing possibilities for traversing the plan. The tower now hosts three
seems to wink even more explicitly at local domestic architecture. ) stairs: a central stair leading directly to the library on the second
What is certain is that the Kimbell demonstrates a strong sense of its and third floors, and two additional stairs to the offices and guest
locale — a deep insight into its atmosphere, its colors, its topography, rooms above. The new private chapel forms an apse-like appendage
its vernacular — without the vaguest hint of the Southwestern vernacu- to the main chapel. The desired confessional room — present in Kahn’s
lar pastiche which has become so common in this part of America. sketch — has been left out of April’s plan.
( This ur-sense of place would later lead the artist Donald Judd to pon- The great wall of cells receives living rooms at each of its corners,
der if the Kimbell was not, perhaps, the first building to be erected in with four chimneys anchoring the horizontal wings and staking the
Fort Worth, built by an earlier — more civilized — culture than the one limits of building in the clearing. The fireplace remains a powerful
now living there.234 ) symbol of dwelling for Kahn, showing “ the presence of man in the
What these four buildings begin to intimate is that while Kahn’s Gathering, revealing,
building ” and a moment of domesticity in his institutional buildings.
mature architecture is not “about ” contextualism in the style-emulating focusing ( The monastery’s seven fireplaces hint at the degree of domesticity
desired here. ) Although included in Kahn’s February sketch, miss-
and motif-seeking postmodernist sense of the word ( nor “ about ” land-
ing in April’s plan are the stairs to the cells — only one has been drawn
scape in the contemporary, literalist, “ building-as-landscape ” sense of
in the north wing. The draftsman has also filled in the windows of
the word ), it is indeed very much about gathering, focusing, and reveal-
the cloister, drawing an unbroken wall to the courtyard. Ironically,
ing the conditions of its context. This revealing may take place at the
these two “ shorthand ” solutions — never intended as being final — have
micro-scale of the particular site: the diagonal geometries of Erdman
belonged through their repeated publication to the plan’s more “ per-
Hall and the Fisher House may be discussed in purely formal or in
manent ” and enigmatic features. ( Or are we to imagine that — build-
phenomenal terms. Anyone who has visited these buildings knows
ing code aside — Kahn would have connected the upper floor cells with
the undeniably physical experience of these diagonal foils on their
a single stair, would have considered long galleries without natural
sloping sites, how their prow-like shapes exaggerate and intensify
light ? 97 )
the sense of the immediate topography. ( Richard Serra’s site-specific
Elevations and sections The elevations attest to the continued infighting between expres-
“ elevations ” come to mind. ) This revealing may — as in Angola — have
sion and reticence. Figs. 76 – 77 The bell-shaped tower has become a carved
to do with atmosphere, may be experienced in the way that sun, wind,
block, appendaged with what seems to be an outrigger belfry. Con-
tinuing the “ house ” theme, chapel, school, and refectory are topped
233 Speck, “ Regionalism and Invention,” pp. 75 –76.

234 “ The Kimbell Museum looks the way a Greek temple must have looked among the huts. It looks the way
the Roman temple, now a church, looks among the ordinary medieval buildings of Assisi. The temple looks like civili- 97 Robert McCarter suggests that this was indeed the case and that the stairs were reinstated in the following
zation. The Kimbell is civilization in the wasteland of Fort Worth and Dallas.” Judd, “ Lecture at Yale, September version as a concession to the building code. See McCarter, Louis I. Kahn, p. 295.
1983,” p. 178.

88 “ARCHITECTURING ” 89
192 FROM SPACE TO PLACE 193
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

3. Was (und wie) wird von mir jetzt geforscht?


Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Themen: Rahmen der Untersuchungen

Section I: Kahn´s Culture of Drawing / Architectural Representation in Context

Section II: The Drawing as a Means of Appropriation and Reference

Section III: The Drawing as a Means of Exploration, Decision-Making and Process

Section IV: Between Drawn Means and Spatial Ends

Section V: The Definitive Drawing: From Design to Realization

Section V: Kahn and Beyond: Lessons in Designerly Knowing?


Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Forschungsteam / Autoren
Terminplan

Prof. Michael Benedikt, University of Texas at Austin 02. 2014: Erstes Treffen

Prof. Daniel Friedman, University of Washington 10.2014 Zwischenplenum

Prof. David Leatherbarrow, University of Pennsylvania

Prof. Sandy Isenstadt, Yale University, University of Delaware 02.2015 Zwischenplenum

Prof. Michael J. Lewis, Williams University 07.2015 Zwischenplenum

Prof. Robert McCarter, Washington University at Saint Louis

Prof. Guy Nordenson, Princeton University 02.2016 Symposium

Prof. David Van Zanten, Northwestern University, Chicago 06.2016 Zwischenplenum

William Whitaker, Collections Manager, Kahn Collection 10.2016 Abgabe Forschungsergebnisse an MM

Nathaniel Kahn 02.2017 Abgabe Forschungsergebnisse an die DFG

Harriet Pattison 10. 2017 Buchveröffentlichung und Ausstellung

Alexandra Tyng

Gina Pollara

Prof. Timothy Ingold, University of Aberdeen

Prof. Albert Nordmann, TU Darmstadt

Dr. Sabine Ammon, TU Darmstadt


Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: The Reference Drawing


Travel Sketches: Piazza del Campo, Siena, 1951; Temple of Apollo, Corinth, Greece, 1951
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: The Reference Drawing


Travel Sketches: Royal Gorge, Colorado, 1948; Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 1951
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Reference Drawing and Architectural Design


Sketch, St. Cecile Cathedral, Albi, 1959; Mikveh Israel Synagogue, Philadelphia, 1961-72
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Architecture and Landscape


US Embassy, Luanda, Angola,1957; Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA, 1959-65
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Place and Grounding


Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, 1959-65
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Place and Grounding


Hurva Synagogue, Jerusalem, 1967-74
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Inside-Outside Reciprocity


Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, TX, 1966-72; Study for Downtown Philadelphia, 1960-63
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Place and Grounding


President´s Estate, Capitol of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1963-66
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Figure-Ground Reciprocity


Sketch, Karnak, 1951; Salk Institute, 1959-65; National Assembly of Bangladesh,1962-83; Fort Wayne Fine Arts Center, 1961-73
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Inside-Outside
First Unitarian Church, Rochester, NY, 1959-63
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Scale
Dominican Motherhouse, Media, PA, 1965-69
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Inner-Office Collaboration


Margaret Esherick House, Philadelphia, PA, 1959-61
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: Architect-Engineer Collaboration


Salk Institute, 1959-65; Richards Medical Building, 1957-60
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Theme: The Definitive Drawing


Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, New York, NY, 1973-74
Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

4. Wie (und von wem) wird diese Forschung bezahlt?


Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Förderung durch die DFG: Was wurde gefördert?

- Eigene (volle) Stelle: 3 Jahre

- Reisegeld: 6x Philadelphia á 3-4 Wochen

- HiWi: ca 6000 EUR

- 20.000 EUR Kasse

- Kosten für Buch: vorgenehmigt: getrennter Antrag

- (20% = Overhead an TUD!)


Louis Kahn: Drawing, Thinking, Architecture

Förderung durch die DFG: Tipps

- Forschungslandschaft erkünden

- Konzepte Skizziern (circa 2-3 DIN A4 Seiten)

- Sich Beraten lassen (Varianten zeigen)

- Thema einbetten / den richtigen Rahmen finden

- Kosten gut einschätzen

- Sich vernetzen / Gute Partner Suchen (auch international)

- Bring was mit (ich, z.B: Team, Verlag, Symposium, Ausstellung)

- Vorleistungen zeigen (auch Rezensionen, Gutachten usw.)

- Form halten

Das könnte Ihnen auch gefallen