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PROJECT REPORT

ON ROAD

DUST COLLECTOR

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNDER GUIDANCE OF

MR. AMIT KOHLI

SUBMITTED BY: UNIVERSITY COLLEGE ROLLNO. ROLLNO. SHOBHIT CHOPRA 548/05 BHANU JAIN 558/05 MANMEET SINGH 564/05 VARUN KHANNA 569/05 SAURAB VERMA 570/05 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING L-626114164 L-6261141 L-626114161 L-626114155 5261111879

D.A.V INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY JALLANDHAR BATCH : 2005-2009

DAV INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR CERTIFICATE


THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THE PRESENT WORK ENTITLED ROAD DUST COLLECTOR SUBMITTED BY MR. SHOBHIT CHOPRA, BHANU JAIN, MANMEET SINGH, VARUN KHANNA, SAURAB VERMA TOWARDS THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY AND SUBMITTED IN THE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IS AN AUTHENTIC RECORD CARRIED OUT UNDER THE SUPERVISION AND GUIDANCE OF THE UNDERSIGNED.

IT IS ALSO CERTIFIED THAT THIS WORK HAS NOT BEEN SUBMITTED TO ANY OTHER UNIVERSITY FOR AWARD OF ANY DEGREE.

---------------------MR AMIT KOHLI (PROJECT GUIDE) DEPTT. OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING D.A.V INSTITUTE OF ENGG. AND TECH. JALANDHAR-144022(INDIA) THE B.TECH VIVA-VOICE EXAMINATION OF ABOVE MENTIONED STUDENTS HAS BEEN HELD SUCCESSFULLY ON___________ ____________ ______________ _________________

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE EXTERNAL EXAMINOR PROJECT GUIDE

SIGNATURE H.O.D MECH. ENGG.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

HARD WORK, GUIDANCE AND PERSEVERANCE ARE THE PRE-REQUISITES FOR ACHIEVING SUCCESS. SUPPORT FROM AN ENLIGHTENING SOURCE HELPS TO TREAD ON THE PATH TO IT WE EXPRESS OUR PROFOUND INDEBTENESS TO MR. C.L KOCHHER , DIRECTOR-CUM-PRINCIPAL, D.A.V.I.E.T FOR HIS OVERALL SUPPORT. WE EXPRESS OUR SINCERE GRATITUDE AND INDEBTENESS TO OUR PROJECT GUIDE MR. AMIT KOHLI, SENIOR LECTURER, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, DAVIET FOR HIS INVALUABLE GUIDANCE AND CONSTANT INSPIRATION THROUGHOUT OUR PROJECT.HIS DYNAMISM AND VISION HELPED US IN A BIG WAY IN COMPLETION OF THIS PROJECT.WE FEEL HONOURED TO HAVE WORKED UNDER HIS SUPERVISION. WE WOULD LIKE TO GIVE SPECIAL THANKS TO MR. RAMANDEEP SINGH JOHAL, SENIOR LECTURER, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, DAVIET FOR HIS RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUPPORT THROUOUT THE PROJECT.

WE WOULD LIKE TO SAY A BIG THANKS TO MR. MANDEEP SINGH(LAB ASSISTANTS AT DAVIET) FOR HIS ENDLESS SUPPORT IN THE END, WE OFFER OUR WARM REGARDS TO ALL THOSE WHO HELPED US DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTY IN COMPLETING OUR PROJECT. IT IS INDEED IMPOSSIBLE TO THANKS AND EXPRESS OUR INDEBTEDNESS TO THE ALMIGHTY WHICH IS AN EVERLASTING SOURCE OF AN INSPIRATION FOR US. SHOBHIT CHOPRA BHANU JAIN MANMEET SINGH VARUN KHANNA SAURAB VERMA

ABSTRACT

ENGINEERING IS AN OCEAN OF TREASURE & AN ENGINEER DIVES IN THE OCEAN IN SEARCH OF THT TREASURE

AN ROAD DUST COLLECTOR (RDC) IS A ON ROAD MOVING VEHICLE CAPABLE OF CREATING ENOUGH SUCTION TO MAKE SURE THAT IT LEAVES THE ROAD BEHIND DUST FREE.THE PRINCIPLE OF WORKING OF AN RDC IS VERY SIMPLE. IT DERIVES ITS POWER FROM A SUZUKI ENGINE WHICH IS EFFICIENT ENOUGH OF RUNNING BLOWER AND THEREBY ACHIEVING THE TARGET OF ENOUGH SUCTION TO CATCH ALL THE DUST PARTICLES

FROM THE ROAD AND SECONDLY MAKING THE WHOLE RUN WITH SLOW SPEED TO ENSURE THAT IT DONT LEFT ANY PORTION OF ROAD UNCLEAN. SO FAR MANY ROAD DUST CLEANERS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED AND USED WORLDWIDE WITH MULTIPLEXES, MALLS, SKY SKYPERS, HOTELS. BUT THESE ALL DERIVE THEIR POWER FROM 2 ENGINES FITTED IN THEM. WE SUCCESSFULLY ACHIEVED THE TARGET OF MAKIN IT RUN ON A SINGLE ENGINE AND THAT TOO IN AN EFFICENT WAY.NATURALLY, THE WORKING OF THESE SYSTEMS CAN GEBERATE ZEAL IN ANYBODYS MIND AND THE SAME HAPPENED WITH US.

LIST OF FIGURES
PAGE NO. FIGURE NO. 1 FIGURE NO. 2 FIGURE NO. 3 FIGURE NO. 4 FIGURE NO. 5

FIGURE NO. 6 FIGURE NO. 7

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO ROAD DUST COLLECTOR

INTRODUCTION

A ROAD DUST COLLECTOR IS AN ENGINE OPERATED VEHICLE DESIGNED TO TRAVEL OVER ANY SUFFICIENTLY SMOOTH SURFACE ROAD BY CUSHION OF LEAF SPRINGS ATTACHED TO FRAME TO MAKE SHOCK ABSORBING PHENOMENON INTO ACTION. COMMERCIAL USE OF ROAD DUST COLLECTOR INCLUDES CLEANING OF MULTIPLEXES FLOORS , MALLS, SKY SCRAPPERS , ROADS AND AT MANY MORE PLACES PLACES TOO. IT ADDS TO THE HUMAN COMFORT AND MAKES THE

RIDE MORE COMFORTABLE BY ADDITIONAL FEATURES LIKE CUSHIONED SEAT, SMOOTH HANDLING , EASILY ACCESIBLE BRAKES , AND IT ADDS FUN IN WORK.

PRINCIPLE OF RDC

THE BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ROAD DUST COLLECTOR IS THAT A SINGLE ENGINE IS USED TO GIVE POWER OF TRANSMISSION TO TWO PARTS AND THAT TOO AT DIFFERENT SPEED. DIFFERENT SPEED MECHANISM IS MADE TO MAKE SURE THAT BLOWER RUNS AT THE MAXIMUM SPEED AND SIMULTANEOUSLY A VERY LOW SPEED TO THE AXLE SO THAT THE RIDE IS SLOW AND THE WORK IS DONE IN THE DESIRABLE MANNER AS IT IS SUPPOSED TO.

CHAPTER 2
WORKING OF ROAD DUST COLLECTOR RDC IS A ON ROAD MOVING VEHICLE WHICH IS USED IN CLEANING ROADS.THIS VEHICLE IS EFFICIENT ENOUGH TO PULL FORCEFULLY THE DUST PARTICLES FROM THE ROAD OR ANY PLAIN SURFACE IN UPWARD DIRECTION SUCH THAT THEY CAN BE PUSHED AWAY IN A DUST BAG AFTER THEY PASS THROUGH THE VANES OF BLOWER.THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED WITH THE HELP OF 100 CC TVS SUZUKI ENGINE.ENGINE POWER IS USED HERE TO RUN THE BLOWER. WE HAVE DOUBLED THE SPEED OF BLOWER BY MAKING USE OF THE PULLEY ARRANGEMENT

AT FULL LOAD THE ENGINE TRANSMITTS AROUND 1700 RPM AT ITS SHAFT. A DOUBLE PULLY IS ATTACHED AT SHAFT WITH TWO DIAMETERS 6 INCHES AND 3 INCHES. THE 6 INCH POWERS THE BLOWER WITH THE HELP V-BELT AND THE RPMS GET DOUBLED AS THE BLOWER PULLEY HAS A DIAMETER OF 3 INCH.

REDUCTION GEAR BOX IS ATTACHED WITH THE 3 INCH PULLEY WITH THE INTERMEDIATE CLUTCH SYSTEM TO ENGAGE AND DISENGAGE THE GEAR BOX WITH THE

ENGINE.REDUCTION GEAR BOX HAS A RATIO OF 1 : 10. SUCH THAT FOR 10 REVOLUTIONS OF ENGINE SHAFT ONLY ONE CYCLE IS TRANSMITTED TO DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM LYING UNDERNEATH OUR FRAME.ONE MORE CLUTCH SYSTEM IS INTRODUCED BETWEEN REDUCTION GEAR BOX AND DIFFERENTIAL OF REAR AXLE. IT ALSO FULFILLS THE SAME PURPOSE WITH AN ADVANTAGE OF MAKING THE VEHICLE MOVE IN THE BACKWARD DIRECTION TOO.FURTHER LEAF SPRINGS ARE ATTACHED WITH THE FRAME WHICH ADDS SUPPORT TO THE FRAME AND FURTHER SHIELDS THE DRIVER FROM THE PITS AND HOLES ON THE ROAD BY ADDING SHOCK ABSORBING COMFORT.HYDRAULIC BRAKES ARE INTRODUCED SO THAT BREAKING ACTION CAN ENFORCED RIGHT AT THE MOMENT AT WHICH WE WANT WITH THE LEAST REACTION OF TIME. AN OUTLET OF AIR FROM DUST BAG ONLY IS GIVEN OUT TO ENGINE TO MAKE IT COOL. SO BLOWER OUTLET ALSO SOLVES OUR PURPOSE OF AIR COOLING OF THE ENGINE. FURTHER THE FRAME IS MADE IN A SHAPE OR WE CAN METHAMETACALLY STATE IT AS A PENTAGON.THE SHAPE IS DESIGNED TO MAKE THE FRAME BALANCED .

CHAPTER 3
DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECT

1. WE EXPERIMENTED WITH THE FOLLOWING DESIGNS:

WE USED A RECTANGULAR FRAME 6 FEET BY 4 FEET. BUT THE DESIGN ENCOUNTERED THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS REASONS: THE SYSTEM BECAME UNBALANCED BECAUSE OUR FRAME CONSISTED OF 3 TYRE SYSTEM REMEDY- TO MAKE THE FRAME BALANCED WE MADE AN A SHAPE FRAME SUCH THAT THE DIMENSIONS WERE MADE ACCORDING TO THE DESIGN OF PENTAGON WITH 2 SIDES CURVED. IT RESULTED IN SUCCESS AND OUR FRAME BECAME BALANCED

1. WE POWERED THE BLOWER WITH THE CRANK OF THE

ENGINE. BUT THE DESIGN ENCOUNTERED THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS

STARTING PROBLEMS ARISED SUDDNLY BECAUSE ENGINE WAS NOT ABLE STAND THAT MUCH LOAD OF BLOWER AS WELL REDUCTION GEAR BOX REMEDY- WE MADE ENGINE SHAFT AS THE POWER TRANSMITTING SHAFT .IT WAS ABLE TO BEAR THE LOAD AND THEN STARTING PROBLEM WAS SOLVED

THE NEXT STEP WAS TO MAKE THIS WHOLE ARRANGEMENT RUN ALONG WITH THE CLUTCH. OUR SYSTEM WAS UNABLE TO MOVE BACKWARD BECAUSE OF GEAR ENGAGEMENT SO AN ANOTHER CLUTCH SYSTEM WAS INTRODUCED IN BETWEEN REDUCTION GEAR BOX

AND THE DIFFRENTIAL BOX .SO WITH THE HELP OF ENGAGEMENT AND DIS ENGAGEMENT FUNCTION OF CLUTCH WE WERE ABLE TO ACCOMPLISH OUR TASK.

SPECIFICATIONS OF MODEL

FRAME
MATERIAL= PLYWOOD LENGTH= 6 FEET BREADTH=4 FEET FRONT IS CURVED TO MAKE FRAME BALANCED

BLOWER

FLOW RATE=2.3 m^3/min @ 13000rpm

REDUCTION GEAR BOX


GEAR RATIO= 1 : 10 SHAFT DIAMETER= 1 INCH CENTRE DISTANCE= 2.5 INCH

CLUTCH
TYPE= FRICTION CLUTCH PULLEY DIAMETER= 9 INCH

ENGINE
TYPE= 100cc 2 STROKE ENGINE, AIR COOLED

THE BASIC STRUCTURES


This is the unit on which are to be built the remainder of the units required to turn it into a power-operated vehicle. It consists of the frame, the suspension system, axles, wheels and tyres.

Frame

The conventional pressed steel frame to which all the mechanical units are attached and on which the body is superimposed.

Suspension System

The objects of suspension are:


To prevent the road shocks from being transmitted to the vehicle components. To safeguard the occupants from road shocks. To preserve the stability of the vehicle in pitching or rolling, while in motion. The conventional system, in which the road spring are attached to a rigid beam axle. The independent system, in which there is no rigid axle beam and each wheel, is free to move vertically without any reaction on the other wheel.

There are two distinct types of suspension systems:


Axles

The weight-carrying portions of the axles, whether it may be front or rear, may be considered as beams supported at the ends, loaded at two intermediate points (the spring centers) and subjected to the following loads:
1. The vertical load at the spring centers due to the

weight of the vehicle


2. A fore and-aft load at the wheel centre due to driving

or braking effort.
3. The torque reactions due to drive or brakes. 4. A side thrust at the tyre due to centrifugal force when

rounding a curve

THE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

The transmission system consists of a clutch, a gear box (also called transmission) giving four, five or even six different ratios of torque output to torque Input a propeller shaft to transmit the torque output from the gear Box to the rear axle and a differential gear to distribute the final toque equally between the driving wheels fig 1.4 shows a layout of the transmission system of an automobile.

The functions of a transmission system are:


1. To disconnect the engine from the road wheels

when desired
2. To connect the engine to the driving wheels

without shock.

3. To vary the leverage between the engine and the

driving wheels.
4. To reduce the engine speed permantly in a fixed

ratio.
5. To turn the drive through a right angle.

6. To make provision such that the driving wheels may

rotate at different speed while taking turns.


7. To make provision for the flexing of the road

springs this causes a relative movement between the engine and the driving wheels.

Clutch

Its purpose is to enable the driver to disconnect the drive from the road wheels instantaneously and to engage drive from the engine to the road wheels gradually while moving the vehicle from rest

Gear box

The gear box or the transmission provides the necessary leverage variation between the engine and road wheels.

The worm gears are widely used for transmitting power at high velocity rations between non-intersecting shafts that are generally, but not necessarily, at right angles. It can give velocity ratios as high as 300: 1 or more in a single step in a minimum of space, but it has a lower efficiency. The worm gearing is mostly used as a speed reducer, which consists of worm and a worm wheel or gear. The worn (which is the driving member) is usually of a cylindrical from having threads of the same shape as that of an involute rack. The threads of the worn may be left handed or right handed and single or multiple threads. The worm wheel or gear (which is the driven member) is similar to a helical gear with a face curved to conform to the shape of the worm. The worm is generally made of steel while the worm gear is made of bronze or cast iron for light service.

The worm gearing is classified as non-interchangeable, because a worm wheel cut with a hob of one diameter will not operate satisfactorily with a worm of different diameter, even if the thread pitch is same.

THE CONTROLS

The controls consist of:

1. Steering system. 2. Brakes.

Steering system

Primary function of the steering system is to achieve the angular motion of the front wheel to negotiate a turn. This is done through linkage which converts rotary motion of the steering handle into front road wheel. Secondary functions of the steering system are 1. To provide directional stability of the vehicle 2. To provide perfect steering system 3. To facilitate straight ahead a recovery after completing a turn 4. To minimize tyre wear

HYDRAULIC BRAKES

Layout and components

Most of the cars today use hydraulically operated foot brakes on all the wheels with an additional hand brake mechanically operated on the rear wheels. An out of the hydraulic braking system. The main component in this master cylinder, which contains reservoir for the brake fluid. Master cylinder is operated by the brake pedal and is further connected to the wheel cylinders in each wheel through steel pipe lines, unions and flexible hoses.

Master Cylinder: This can be rightly named as heart of


the hydraulic braking system. There are two main chambers viz. the fluid reservoir and compression chamber in which the piston operates. The fluid in the reservoir compensates for any change in the fluid volume in the pipelines due to temperature variations and to some extent due to leakage. To prevent leakage there are rubber seals on both ends of the piston in the compression chamber. The reduced diameter region of the piston is always surrounded by the fluid.

LEAF SPRINGS

Semi elliptic leaf springs are almost are universally used for suspension in light and heavy commercial

vehicles .For cars also, these are widely used for rear suspension.

Gives a rear axle leaf spring of semi- elliptic type. The spring consists of leaves called blades. The blades vary in length as shown. The composite spring consists of leaves called blades. The blades vary in length as shown. The composite spring is based upon the theory of a beam of uniform strength .The lengthiest blade has eyes on its ends on its ends. This blade is called master leaf .All the blades are bound together by means of steel steps as shown. The spring is supported on the axle, front or rear by means of a U-bolt. One end of the spring is mounted on the frame with a simple pin. While on the other end, connection is made with a shackle. When vehicle comes across a projection on the road surface, the wheel moves up, deflecting the spring this changes the length between the spring eyes. If both the end is fixed, the springs will not be able to accommodate this change of length. This is provide for by means of a shackle at one which gives flexible connection

CONCLUSION

IF THE THEORATICAL KNOWLEDGE CARVES AND SHAPES THE CAREER OF A PERSON, PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE POLISHES AND ADDS LUSTER AN BRILLIANCE TO IT THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO DEVELOP AN INDIGENOUS ROAD DUST COLLECTOR (RDC) FROM LOCALLY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS AND MATERIALS. FOR STARTERS, WE KNEW NOTHING ABOUT HOW TO BEGIN WITH OUR PROJECT. WE ONLY HAD A IDEA OF WHAT WE HAVE TO ACCOMPLISH.

WE STARTED BY MAKING A DESIGN WHICH WILL APPROPRIATLY FIT OUR PROJECT. AFTER THE DESIGN WAS MADE WE SEARCHED MARKET FOR ALL THE PARTS WHICH WERE DECIDED TO BE MADE PART OF IT. ASSEMBLING THESE PARTS NO DOUBT WAS NOT THAT MUCH EASY. WE FACED MANY FAILURES BUT IN THE END WE SUCCEEDED. THIS PROJECT TAUGHT US HOW TO WORK IN A TEAM. DURING THE PROJECT OUR RELATIONSHIP WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE FACULTY BECAME STRONGER. IN THE END WE FEEL THAT THIS WORK WILL BE BENEFICIAL AND HELPFUL TO ALL THOSE WHO WANT TO DEVELOP A ROAD DUST COLLECTOR

CONTINOUS EFFORT- NOT STRNGHT OR INTELLIGENCE- IS THE KEY TO UNLOCKING OUR POTENTIAL.

FUTURE ASPECTS

THE WHOLE VEHICLE CAN BE FRAMED SUCH THAT IT WILL BE FULLY COVERED FROM FRONT TO BACK IT WILL ADD TO ITS AESTHETIC LOOKS

WATER SPRINKLING SYSTEM CAN BE INTRODUCED AT THE BACK PORTION OF THE VEHICLE .

THE ROTATING BRUSHES CAN BE ATTACHED TO THE DUCT WHICH CAN BECOME ONE OF ITS FEATURE TOO