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TWO MARK QUESTIONS 1. Define an antenna. Antenna is a transition device or a transducer between a guided wave and a free space wave or vice versa. Antenna is also said to be an impedance transforming device. 2. What is meant by radiation pattern? Radiation pattern is the relative distribution of radiated power as a function of distance in space .It is a graph which shows the variation in actual field strength of the EM wave at all points which are at equal distance from the antenna. The energy radiated in a particular direction by an antenna is measured in terms of FIELD STRENGTH.(E Volts/m) 3. Define Radiation intensity? The power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle is called the radiation intensity U (watts per steradian or per square degree). The radiation intensity is independent of distance. 4. Define Beam efficiency? The total beam area ( WA) consists of the main beam area ( WM ) plus the minor lobe area ( Wm) . Thus WA = WM+ Wm . The ratio of the main beam area to the total beam area is called beam efficiency. Beam efficiency = SM = WM / WA. 5.Define Directivity? The directivity of an antenna is equal to the ratio of the maximum power density P(q,f)max to its average value over a sphere as observed in the far field of an antenna. D = P(q,f)max / P(q,f)av. Directivity from Pattern. D = 4p / WA. . Directivity from beam area(WA ). 6.What are the different types of aperture.? i) Effective aperture. ii). Scattering aperture.

iii) Loss aperture. iv) collecting aperture. v). Physical aperture. 7.Define different types of aperture.? Effective aperture(Ae). It is the area over which the power is extrated from the incident wave and delivered to the load is called effective aperture. Scattering aperture(As.) It is the ratio of the reradiated power to the power density of the incident wave. Loss aperture. (Ae). It is the area of the antenna which dissipates power as heat. Collecting aperture. (Ae). It is the addition of above three apertures. Physical aperture. (Ap). This aperture is a measure of the physical size of the antenna. 8. Define Aperture efficiency? The ratio of the effective aperture to the physical aperture is the aperture efficiency. i.e Aperture efficiency = hap = Ae / Ap (dimensionless). 9. What is meant by effective height? The effective height h of an antenna is the parameter related to the aperture.It may be defined as the ratio of the induced voltage to the incident field.i.e H= V / E. 10. What are the field zone? The fields around an antenna ay be divided into two principal regions. i. Near field zone (Fresnel zone) ii. Far field zone (Fraunhofer zone) 11.What is meant by Polarization.? The polarization of the radio wave can be defined by direction in which the electric vector E is aligned during the passage of atleast one full cycle.Also polarization can also be defined the physical orientation of the radiated electromagnetic waves in space. The polarization are three types. They are

Elliptical polarization ,circular polarization and linear polarization. 12. What is meant by front to back ratio.? It is defined as the ratio of the power radiated in desired direction to the power radiated in the opposite direction. i.e FBR = Power radiated in desired direction / power radiated in the opposite direction. 13. Define antenna efficiency.? The efficiency of an antenna is defined as the ratio of power radiated to the total input power supplied to the antenna. Antenna efficiency = Power radiated / Total input power 14. What is radiation resistance ? The antenna is a radiating device in which power is radiated into space in the form of electromagnetic wave. W = I2 R Rr = W / I2 Where Rr is a fictitious resistance called called as radiation resistance. 15 What is meant by antenna beam width? Antenna beamwidth is a measure of directivity of an antenna. Antenna beam width is an angular width in degrees, measured on the radiation pattern (major lobe) between points where the radiated power has fallen to half its maximum value .This is called as beam width between half power points or half power beam width.(HPBW). 16. What is meant by reciprocity Theorem.? If an e.m.f is applied to the terminals of an antenna no.1 and the current measured at the terminals of the another antenna no.2, then an equal current both in amplitude and phase will be obtained at the terminal of the antenna no.1 if the same emf is applied to the terminals of antenna no.2. 17.What is meant by isotropic radiator? A isotropic radiator is a fictitious radiator and is defined as a radiator which radiates fields uniformly in all directions. It is also called as isotropic source or omni directional radiator or simply unipole.

18. Define gain The ratio of maximum radiation intensity in given direction to the maximum radiation intensity from a reference antenna produced in the same direction with same input power. i.e Maximum radiation intensity from test antenna Gain (G) = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Maximum radiation intensity from the reference antenna with same input power 19. Define self impedance Self impedance of an antenna is defined as its input impedance with all other antennas are completely removed i.e away from it. 20 . Define mutual impedance The presence of near by antenna no.2 induces a current in the antenna no.1 indicates that presence of antenna no.2 changes the impedance of the antenna no.1.This effect is called mutual coupling and results in mutual impedance. 21. What is meant by cross field.? Normally the electric field E is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. In some situation the electric field E is parallel to the wave propagation that condition is called Cross field. 22.Define axial ratio The ratio of the major to the minor axes of the polarization ellipse is called the Axial Ratio. (AR). 23. What is meant by Beam Area.? The beam area or beam solid angle or WA of an antenna is given by the normalized power pattern over a sphere. WA = 4p Pn ( q,f ) dW Where dW = Sin q d q .df 24. What is duality of antenna.? It is defined as an antenna is a circuit device with a resistance and temperature on the one hand and the space device on the other with radiation patterns, beam angle ,directivity gain and aperture. 25.State Poynting theorem. It states that the vector product of electric field

intensity vector E and the magnetic filed intensity vector H at any point is a measure of the rate of energy flow per unit area at that point.The direction of power flow is perpendicular to both the electric field and magnetic field components. 26.What is point source? It is the waves originate at a fictitious volumeless emitter source at the center O of the observation circle. 27.What is meant by array.? An antenna is a system of similar antennas oriented similarly to get greater directivity in a desired direction. 28.What is meant by uniform linear array.? An array is linear when the elements of the array are spaced equally along the straight line. If the elements are fed with currents of equal magnitude and having a uniform progressive phase shift along the line, then it is called uniform linear array . 29.What are the types of array.? a. Broad side array. b. End fire array c. Collinear array. d. Parasitic array. 30.What is Broad side array.? Broad side array is defined as an arrangement in which the principal direction of radiation is perpendicular to the array axis and also the plane containing the array element. For Broad side array the phase difference EHWZHHQ DGMDFHQW HOHPHQW LV 31.Define End fire array.? End fire array is defined as an arrangement in which the principal direction of radiation is coincides with the array axis. )RU HQG )LUH DUUD\ - G :KHUH $QG G GLVWDQFH EHWZHHQ WKH HOHPHQWV 32. What is collinear array.? In this array the antenna elements are arranged coaxially by mounting the elements end to end in straight line or stacking them one over the other with radiation pattern circular symmetry. Eg. Omnidirectional antenna. 33. What is Parasitic array.? In this array the elements are fed parasitically to reduce the problem of feed line. The power is given to one element from that other elements get by electro magnetic coupling. Eg. Yagi uda antenna.

34. What is the condition on phase for the end fire array with increased directivity.? :KHQ - G SURGXFHV PD[LPXP ILHOG LQ WKH GLUHFWLRQ = 0 but does not give the maximum directivity. It has been shown by Hansen and woodyard that a large directivity is obtained by increasing the phase change EHWZHHQ WKH VRXUFHV VR WKDW - G Q This condition will be referred to as the condition for increased directivity. 35.Define array factor. The normalized value of the total field is given by, ( Q VLQ Q VLQ The field is given by the expression E will be referred to as array factor. 36. Define beam width of major lobe? It is defined the angle between the first nulls (or) it is defined as twice the angle between the first null and the major lobe maximum direction. 37. List out the expression of beam width for broad side array and end fire array. For broad side array the expression for beam width between the first nulls is given by, BWFN = ((+/ - Q G For End fire array the expression for beam width between the first nulls is given by, BWFN = ((+/ - Q G 1/ 2. 38. Differentiate broad side and End fire array.? Broad side array End fire array 1. Antennas fed in Phase 2. Maximum Radiation is perpendicular to the direction of array axis. 3. Beam width of major lobe is twice the Antenna elements are fed of out of Phase - G Maximum Radiation is directed along the array axis. Beam width is greater than that for a broad side array of

same length. BW = ((+/ - Q G 1/ 2 reciprocal of the array length. BW = ((+/ - Q G 2. 39.What is the need for the Binomial array.? The need for a binomial array is i). In uniform linear array as the array length is increased to increase the directivity, the secondary lobes also occurs. ii) For certain applications, it is highly desirable that secondary lobes should be eliminated completely or reduced to minimum desirable level compared to main lobes. 40. Define power pattern.? Graphical representation of the radial component of the pointing vector Sr at a constant radius as a function of angle is called power density pattern or power pattern. 41. What is meant by similar Point sources.? Whenever the variation of the amplitude and the phase of the field with respect to the absolute angle for any two sources are same then they are called similar point sources. The maximum amplitudes of the individual sources may be unequal. 42. What is meant by identical Point sources.? Similar point sources with equal maximum amplitudes are called identical point sources. 43. What is the principle of the pattern multiplication? The total field pattern of an array of non isotropic but similar sources is the product of the i) individual source pattern and ii) The array pattern of isotropic point sources each located at the phase center of the individual source having the same amplitude and phase. While the total phase pattern is the sum of the phase patterns of the individual source pattern and array pattern.0 44.What is the advantage of pattern multiplication? Useful tool in designing antenna approximates the pattern of a complicated array

It

without making lengthy computations 45.What is tapering of arrays? Tapering of array is a technique used for reduction of unwanted side lobes .The amplitude of currents in the linear array source is non-uniform; hence the central source radiates more energy than the ends. Tapering is done from center to end. 46.What is a binomial array? It is an array in which the amplitudes of the antenna elements in the array are arranged according to the coefficients of the binomial series. 47.What are the advantages of binomial array? Advantage: No minor lobes Disadvantages: Increased beam width Maintaining the large ratio of current amplitude in large arrays is difficult 48.What is the difference between isotropic and nonisotropic source Isotropic source radiates energy in all directions but non-isotropic source radiates energy only in some desired directions. Isotropic source is not physically realizable but non-isotropic source is physically realizable. 49.Define Side Lobe Ratio Side Lobe Ratio is defined as the ratio of power density in the principal or main lobe to the power density of the longest minor lobe. 50. List the arrays used for array tapering Binomial Array:Tapering follows the coefficient of binomial series Dolph Tchebycheff Array: Tapering follows the coefficient of Tchebycheff polynomial 51.What is a Short Dipole? Ans: A short dipole is one in which the field is oscillating because of the oscillating voltage and current.It is called so, because the length of the dipole is short and the current is almost constant throughtout the entire length of the dipole.It is also called as Hertzian Dipole which is a hypothetical antenna and is defined as a short isolated conductor carrying uniform alternating current. 52.How radiations are created from a short Dipole? Ans:The dipole has two equal charges of opposite sign oscillating up and down in a harmonic motion.The charges will move towards each other and electric filed lines were created.When the charges meet at

the midpoint, the field lines cut each other and new field are created.This process is spontaneous and so more fields are created around the antenna.This is how radiations are obtained from a short dipole.(See Figure from John. D .Kraus Book) 53.Why a short dipole is also called an elemental dipole? A short dipole that does have a uniform current will be known as the elemental dipole.Such a dipole will generally be considerably shorter than the tenth wave length maximum specified for a short dipole.Elemental dipole is also called as elementary dipole,elementary doublet and hertzian dipole. 54.What is a Infinitesimal Dipole? When the length of the short dipole is vanishingly small,then such a dipole is called a infinitesimal dipole.If dl be the infinitesimally small length and I be the current,then Idl is called as the current element. 55.Why a short dipole is called a oscillating dipole? A short dipole is initially in neutral condition and the moment a current starts to flow in one direction,one half of the dipole require an excess of charge and the other a deficit because a current is a flow of electrical charge.Then ,there will be a voltage between the two halves of the dipole.When the current changes its direction this charge unbalance will cause oscillations.Hence an oscillating current will result in an oscillating voltage.Since,in such dipole,electric charge oscillates ,it may be called as Oscilllating electric dipole. 56.What do you understand by retarded current? Since,the short electric dipole is so short,the current which is flowing through the dipole is assumed to be constant throughtout its length.The effect of this current is not felt instantaneous at a distance point only after an interval equal to the time required for the wave to propagate over the distance r is called the retardation time. The retarded current [I]=Io exp(j W-r/c)) Where U F LV WKH SKDVH UHWDUGDWLRQ 57.Define induction field The induction field will predominate at points close to the current element ,where the distance from the centre of the dipole to the particular point is less.This field is more effective in the vicinity of the current element

only.It represents the energy stored in the magnetic field surrounding the current element or conductor.This field is also known as near field. 58.Define Radiation field The radiation field will be produced at a larger distance from the the current element ,where the distance from the centre of the dipole to the particular point is very large.It is also called as distant field or far field. 59.At what distance from the dipole is the induction field equal to the radiation field? As the distance from the current element or the short dipole increases ,both induction and radiation fields emerge and start decreasing .However,a distance reaches from the conductor at which both the induction and radiation field becomes equal and the particular distance depends upon the wavelength.The two fields will thus have equal amplitude at that particular distance.This distance is given by U 60.Define Radiation Resistance It is defined as the fictitious resistance which when inserted in series with the antenna will consume the same amount of power as it is actually radiated.The antenna appears to the transmission line as a resistive component and this is known as the radiation resistance. 61.Give the expression for the effective aperture of a short dipole The effective aperture of a short dipole is given by $H 2 62.What is a dipole antenna? A dipole antenna may be defined as a symmetrical antenna in which the two ends are at equal potential relative to the midpoint. 63.What is a half wave dipole? A half wave antenna is the fundamental radio antenna of metal rod or tubing or thin wire which has a physical length of half wavelength in free space at the frequency of operation 64.Give the expression for the effective aperture of a Half wave Dipole The effective aperture of a half wave dipole is given by Ae=0 2

65.What is the radiation resistance of a half wave dipole The radiation resistance of a half wave dipole is given by Rr=73 ohm 66.What is a loop antenna? A loop antenna is a radiating coil of any convenient cross-section of one or more turns carrying radio frequency current.it may assume any shape (e.g. rectangular,square,triangular and hexagonal) 67.Give an expression of radiation resistance of a small loop Radiation resistance of a small loop is given by Rr=31,200 (A/ 2)2 68.How to increase the radiation resistance of a loop antenna The radiation resistance of a loop antenna can be increased by: 1. increasing the number of turns 2. inserting a ferrite core of very high permeability with loop antenna s circumference which will rise the magnetic field intensity called ferrite loop. 69.What are the types of loop antennas? Loop antennas are classified into: 1. (OHFWULFDOO\ 6PDOO &LUFXPIHUHQFH 2. (OHFWULFDOO\ /DUJH 'LPHQVLRQ FRPSDUDEOH WR 70.What are Electrically Small loop antennas? Electrically Small loop antennas is one in which the overall length of the loop is less than one-tenth of the wavelength. Electrically Small loop antennas have small radiation resistances that are usually smaller than their loop resistances.They are very poor radiators and seldom employed for transmission in radio communication. 71.What are Electrically large loop antennas? Electrically Large loop antennas is one in which the overall length of the loop approaches the wavelength. 72.List out the uses of loop antenna Various uses of loop antenna are: It is used as receiving antenna in portable radio and pagers It is used as probes for field measurements and as directional antennas for radio wave navigation It is used to estimate the direction of radio wave propagation 73.What are the parameters to be considered for the design of an helical antenna? The parameters to be considered for the design of an helical antenna are: 1. Bandwidth 2. Gain 3. Impedance 4. Axial Ratio 74.What are the types of radiation modes of operation for an helical antenna The two types of radiation modes of operation possible for an helical antenna are:

1. Normal mode of operation 2. Axial mode of operation 75.Which antenna will produce circularly polarized waves Helical antenna radiates circularly polarized wave. 76.List the applications of helical antenna The applications of helical antenna are: It became thw workhouse of space communications for telephone,television and data,being employed both on satellites and at ground stations Many satellites including weather satellites,data relay satellites all have helical antennas It is on many othe probes of planets and comets,including moon and mars,being used alone,in arrays or as feeds for parabolic reflectors,its circular polarization and high gain and simplicity making it effective for space application 77.Define Sky wave. Waves that arrive at the receiver after reflection in the ionosphere is called sky wave. 78.Define Tropospheric wave. Waves that arrive at the receiver after reflection from the troposphere region is called Tropospheric wave.(ie 10 Km from Earth surface). 79. Define Ground wave. Waves propagated over other paths near the earth surface is called ground wave propagation. 80.What are the type of Ground wave. Ground wave classified into two types. i. Space wave ii. Surface wave. 81 What is meant by Space Wave.? It is made up of direct wave and ground reflected wave. Also includes the portion of energy received as a result of diffraction around the earth surface and the reflection from the upper atmosphere. 82. What is meant by Surface Wave.? Wave that is guided along the earth s surface like an EM wave is guided by a transmission is called surface wave. Attenuation of this wave is directly affected by the constant of earth along which it travels. 83. What is meant by fading.? Variation of signal strength occur on line of sight paths as a result of the atmospheric conditions and it is called .It can not be predicted properly.

84. What are the type of fading.? Two types. i. Inverse bending. iii. Multi path fading. 85. What is inverse and multi path fading.? Inverse bending may transform line of sight path into an obstructed one. Multi path fading is caused by interference between the direct and ground reflected waves as well as interference between two are more paths in the atmosphere. 86.What is meant by diversity reception.? To minimize the fading and to avoid the multi path interference the technique used are diversity reception. It is obtained by two ways. i. Space diversity reception. ii. Frequency diversity reception. iii. Polarization diversity. 87. Define Space diversity Reception. This method exploits the fact that signals received at different locations do not fade together. It UHTXLUHV DQWHQQDV VSDFHG DW OHDVW DSDUW DUH SUHIHUUHG and the antenna which high signal strength at the moment dominates. 88 .Define frequency diversity Reception. This method takes advantage of the fact that signals of slightly different frequencies do not fade synchronously. This fact is utilized to minimize fading in radio telegraph circuits. 89. Define polarization diversity reception. It is used in normally in microwave links, and it is found that signal transmitted over the same path in two polarizations have independent fading patterns.in broad band dish antenna system, Polarization diversity combined with frequency diversity reception achieve excellent results. 90. What is meant by Faraday s rotation.? Due to the earth s magnetic fields, the ionosheric medium becomes anisotropic and the incident plane wave entering the ionosphere will split into ordinary and extra ordinary waves/modes. When these modes re-emerge from the ionosphere they recombine into a single plane wave again. Finally the plane of polarization will usually

have changed, this phenomenon is known as Faraday s rotation. 91. What are the factors that affect the propagation of radio waves.? i. Curvature of earth. ii. Earth s magnetic field. iii. Frequency of the signal. iv. Plane earth reflection. 92. Define gyro frequency. Frequency whose period is equal to the period of an electron in its orbit under the influence of the earths magnetic flux density B. 93. Define critical frequency. For any layer , the highest frequency that will be reflected back for vertical incidence is fcr = 91max 94. Define Magneto-Ions Splitting. The phenomenon of splitting the wave into two different components (ordinary and extra-ordinary) by the earths magnetic field is called Magneto-Ions Splitting. 95.Define LUHF. The lowest useful HF for a given distance and transmitter power is defined as the lowest frequency that will give satisfactory reception for that distance and power. It depends on i. The effective radiated power ii. Absorption character of ionosphere for the paths between transmitter and receiver. iii. The required field strength which in turn depends upon the radio noise at the receiving location and type of service involved . 96. Define Refractive index. It is defined as n = c / vp Velocity of light in vacua n= Phase velocity in the medium n=r 97Define maximum Usable Frequency.

The maximum Frequency that can be reflected back for a given distance of transmission is called the maximum usable frequency (MUF) for that distance. MUF = fcr VHF i 98. Define skip distance. The distance with in which a signal of given frequency fails to be reflected back is the skip distance for that frequency.The higher the frequency the greater the skip distance. 99. Define Optimum frequency.? Otimum frequency for transmitting between any two points is therefore selected as some frequency lying between about 50 and 85 percent of the predicted maximum usable frequency between those points. 100. What is wave impedance.? 0 / - (fc / f) LH - (fc / f) 101. Define wave velocity and Group velocity.? wave velocity vp = c / - (fc / f)2 Group velocity, vp vg = c2 vg = c2 / vp 16 MARK QUESTIONS 1. Write the potential function in different form. 2. Explain in detail about the aperture Concept Aperture represents the area of the antenna confining the effective radiations The various types of antenna apertures are i) Effective aperture. ii). Scattering aperture. iii) Loss aperture. iv) collecting aperture. v). Physical aperture. Effective aperture(Ae). It is the area over which the power is extrated from the incident wave and delivered to the load is called effective aperture. Scattering aperture(As.) It is the ratio of the reradiated power to the power density of the incident wave. Loss aperture. (Ae).

It is the area of the antenna which dissipates power as heat. Collecting aperture. (Ae). It is the addition of above three apertures. Physical aperture. (Ap). This aperture is a measure of the physical size of the antenna. The ratio of the effective aperture to the physical aperture is the aperture efficiency. i.e Aperture efficiency = hap = Ae / Ap (dimensionless). Antenna matching: When the antenna is receiving with a load resistance matched to the antenna radiation resistance , maximum power is transferred to the load and the power is also reradiated from the dipole.This is called antenna matching( Give detailed explanation ) 3.Briefly explain the radiation from a short dipole Defn: A short dipole is one in which the field is oscillating because of the oscillating voltage and current.It is called so, because the length of the dipole is short and the current is almost constant throughtout the entire length of the dipole. Fields from Oscillating Dipole: The dipole has two equal charges of opposite sign oscillating up and down in a harmonic motion.The charges will move towards each other and electric filed lines were created.when the charges meet at the midpoint, the field lines cut each other and new field are created.This process is spontaneous and so more filed are created around the antenna.This is how radiations are obtained from a short dipole.(See Figure from John. D .Kraus Book) Antenna Field Zones:The regions containing the radiations that are present around the antenna are called Zones.The fields around an antenna ay be divided into two principal regions. a)Near field zone (Fresnel zone) b)Far field zone (Fraunhofer zone) Electric and Magnetic field components of short Dipole: Write the derivations by referring The Book,K.D.Prasad. 4.Gives notes on the antenna impedances. Find the

effective aperture and Directivity of a short dipole antenna. Self Impedance: Defn:Self impedance of an antenna is defined as its input impedance with all other antennas are completely removed i.e away from it. Write the formula required Mutual Impedance: Defn:The presence of near by antenna no.2 induces a current in the antenna no.1 indicates that presence of antenna no.2 changes the impedance of the antenna no.1.This effect is called mutual coupling and results in mutual impedance. State Reciprocity theorem Formula required Effective aperture and Directivity of a short dipole antenna. Consider a plane wave incident on a short dipole.The wave is assumed to be linearly polarized with electric field in the y direction. The current in the dipole is assumed constant and in the same phase over its entire length,and the terminating resistance is assumed equal to the dipole radiation resistance. The effective aperture of this dipole is given by $H The directivity is found to be ' $H VT 5.Define Polarization? Explain the different types of polarization in detail. Polarization is defined as the orientation of electric field as a function of direction. The polarization of the radio wave can be defined by direction in which the electric vector E is aligned during the passage of atleast one full cycle.Also polarization can also be defined the physical orientation of the radiated electromagnetic waves in space.The polarization are of three types. They are: Elliptical polarization Circular polarization Linear polarization. Linear Polarisation: A linearly polarized wave is one in which the electric field remains in only one direction.For a linearly polarized wave,the axial ratio is infinity.

Elliptical polarization The electric field vector rotates and form a ellipse called polarization ellipse. The ratio of the major to the minor axes of the polarization ellipse is called the Axial Ratio. (AR). AR is greater than 1 . Circular polarization The electric filed vector rotates and form a circle and this wave is called circularly polarized wave.AR is unity. 6.Explain in detail the different cases of the array containing two isotropic sources Case 1: Arrays of two isotropic sources fed with currents of equal amplitude and in phase Case 2: Arrays of two isotropic sources fed with currents of equal amplitude and opposite phase Case 3: Arrays of two isotropic sources fed with currents of unequal amplitude and any phase Case 1: Arrays of two isotropic sources fed with currents of equal amplitude and in phase quadrature. Write about the following: Field pattern of the individual cases Find the maxima ,minima direction and half power point direction Draw the radiation pattern. 7. What is broadside array? Derive the maxima ,null directions and also the beamwidth of a broadside array. Broad side array is defined as an arrangement in which the principal direction of radiation is perpendicular to the array axis and also the plane containing the array element. For Broad side array the phase difference EHWZHHQ DGMDFHQW HOHPHQW LV Field pattern of a linear array with n isotropic sources Determine the maxima ,minima direction and half power point direction Draw the radiation pattern. 8.What is End Fire array? Derive the maxima ,null directions and also the beamwidth of a Endfire array. End fire array is defined as an arrangement in which the principal direction of radiation is coincides with the array axis. )RU HQG )LUH DUUD\ - G :KHUH $QG G GLVWDQFH EHWZHHQ WKH HOHPHQWV Field pattern of a linear array with n isotropic sources Determine the maxima ,minima direction and half power point direction

Draw the radiation pattern. 9.Explain the principle of pattern multiplication with some examples. Principle of pattern multiplication: The total field pattern of an array of non isotropic but similar sources is the product of the iii) individual source pattern and iv) The array pattern of isotropic point sources each located at the phase center of the individual source having the same amplitude and phase. While the total phase pattern is the sum of the phase patterns of the individual source pattern and array pattern.0 Situation 1: Array of two point sources fed in phase with the amplitude of the individual source to be Eo=Eo1 Sin (theta) Situation 2: Array of two point sources fed in phase with the amplitude of the individual source to be Eo=Eo1 Cos (theta) Situation 3: Array of four point sources fed in phase with the amplitude of the individual source to be Eo=Eo1 Sin (theta) 10.Explain the different techniques used for tapering of arrays Array Tapering: Tapering of array is a technique used for reduction of unwanted side lobes .The amplitude of currents in the linear array source is non-uniform; hence the central source radiates more energy than the ends. Tapering is done from center to end. Techniques used for array tapering: Binomial Array:Tapering follows the coefficient of binomial series Dolph Tchebycheff Array: Tapering follows the coefficient of Tchebycheff polynomial. 1. Binomial Array: It is an array in which the amplitudes of the antenna elements in the array are arranged according to the coefficients of the binomial series. The need for a binomial array is i). In uniform linear array as the array length is increased to increase the directivity, the secondary lobes also occurs. ii) For certain applications, it is highly desirable that secondary lobes should be eliminated completely or reduced to minimum desirable level compared to main lobes.

Advantage: No minor lobes Disadvantages: Increased beam width Maintaining the large ratio of current amplitude in large arrays is difficult 2. Dolph Tchebycheff Array: Tapering follows the coefficient of Tchebycheff polynomial. 11.Derive the fields radiated from a short electric dipole.List the far field components.Determine its radiation resistance and directivity. Fields radiated from the short dipole and radiation resistance(Refer Antennas & propagation By K.D.Prasad,Page No.210 to 227) Directivity is 1.5(Refer Antennas & propagation By K.D.Prasad,Page No.251 to 252) 12.Derive the expressions for the fields and power radiated from a half wave dipole antenna.Find its radiation resistance and directivity. Fields radiated from the short dipole and radiation resistance(Refer Antennas & propagation By K.D.Prasad,Page No.229 to 234) Directivity is 1.5(Refer Antennas & propagation By K.D.Prasad,Page No.252 to 253) 13.Derive the field radiated from a small loop antenna Small loop radiated fields(Refer Antennas By John.D.Kraus,Page No.200 to 208) 14.Explain in detail about the helical antenna Definition of helical antenna Helical Geometry Radiated fields of helical antenna Types of helix Refer Antennas By John.D.Kraus 15.Explain the different modes of operation of helical antenna Normal mode of operation Axial mode of operation. 16. Explain Ground wave Propagation. Sky wave. Waves that arrive at the receiver after reflection in the ionosphere is called sky wave. Tropospheric wave. Waves that arrive at the receiver after reflection from the troposphere region is called Tropospheric wave.(ie 10 Km from Earth surface). Ground wave. Waves propagated over other paths near the earth surface is called ground wave propagation. Type of Ground wave.

Ground wave classified into two types. iv. Space wave v. Surface wave. Space Wave. It is made up of direct wave and ground reflected wave. Also includes the portion of energy received as a result of diffraction around the earth surface and the reflection from the upper atmosphere. Surface Wave. Wave that is guided along the earth s surface like an EM wave is guided by a transmission is called surface wave. Attenuation of this wave is directly affected by the constant of earth along which it travels. 17.Explain diversity reception.? To minimize the fading and to avoid the multi path interference the technique used are diversity reception. It is obtained by two ways. 1. Space diversity reception 2. Frequency diversity reception. 3. Polarization diversity. Space diversity Reception. This method exploits the fact that signals received at different locations do not fade together. It UHTXLUHV DQWHQQDV VSDFHG DW OHDVW DSDUW DUH SUHIHUUHG and the antenna which high signal strength at the moment dominates. Frequency diversity Reception. This method takes advantage of the fact that signals of slightly different frequencies do not fade synchronously. This fact is utilized to minimize fading in radio telegraph circuits. Polarization diversity reception. It is used in normally in microwave links, and it is found that signal transmitted over the same path in two polarizations have independent fading patterns.in broad band dish antenna system, Polarization diversity combined with frequency diversity reception achieve excellent results. 18. Explain in detail ionospheric propagation. Waves that arrive at the receiver after the propagation through ionosphere is ionospheric propagation..

The ionosphere is that region of the earths atmosphere in which the constituent gases are ionized by radiation from the outer space. The region is 50 Km to 400 Km. Effective Dielectric and conductivity of an ionized gas. Reflection and refraction waves by the ionosphere. ( Refer Page no 667 to 681. Electro magnetic waves and radiating Systems .By. C.JORDAN and G.BALMAIN ) 19. Explain a. Effect of the earth magnetic field. b. Faraday rotation in Sky wave Propagation. Effect of the earth magnetic field Electrons and ions in the ionosphere are influenced not only by the fields of a passing elecro magnetic wave but also by the earth magnetic field, which causes the charged particles to move in circular or spiral paths. ( Refer Page no 687. Electro magnetic waves and radiating Systems .By. C.JORDAN and G.BALMAIN ) Faraday rotation in Sky wave Propagation Due to the earth s magnetic fields, the ionosheric medium becomes anisotropic and the incident plane wave entering the ionosphere will split into ordinary and extra ordinary waves/modes. When these modes re-emerge from the ionosphere they recombine into a single plane wave again. Finally the plane of polarization will usually have changed, this phenomenon is known as Faraday s rotation. ( Refer Page no 693. Electro magnetic waves and radiating Systems .By. C.JORDAN and G.BALMAIN ) 20. Derive the expression for Permitivity and conductivity of ionized gas.? Plasma: .Assembly of charged particles in which the time average charge density is Zero. Plasma is formed Whenver the atoms ina gas are ionized to produce equal number of ions and electrons. Eg earth ionosphere. r , = 1- Ne2 / ( P v 2 2 ) >1H2 P 2 2 )] Note: Conductivity is maximum means the wave will pass

through that medium. Conductivity is small, waves gets reflected. ( Refer Page no 670 fn. Electro magnetic waves and radiating Systems .By. C.JORDAN and G.BALMAIN ) 21.Explain the concept of Reflection and refraction waves by the ionosphere. The reflection and refraction of radio waves by the ionosphere is a function of frequency. Briefly describe the following. i. Reflection at low frequency. ii. Reflection at high frequency. iii. Maximum usable frequency. iv. Optimum frequency. v. Skip distance. Important formula for problems: i Critical frequency, fcr = 91max ii. Relative Dielectric constant r = 1- Ne2 P 2 + v2 ) iii. Phase constant, b = (2p/l) - (fc / f) iv. Wave impedance. 0 / - (fc / f) v. Wave velocity. vp = c / - (fc / f)2 vi Group velocity, vp vg = c2 vg = c2 / vp vii. Incident angle . sin i = - (fc / f)

Quick Revision for Antenna & Wave Propagation Antenna & Wave Propagation ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION TWO MARK QUESTIONS 1. Define an antenna. Antenna is a transition device or a transducer between a guided wave and a free space wave or vice versa. Antenna is also said to be an impedance transforming device. 2. What is meant by radiation pattern? Radiation pattern is the relative distribution of radiated power as a function of distance in space .It is a graph which shows the variation in actual field strength of the EM wave at all points which are at equal distance from the antenna. The energy radiated in a particular direction by an antenna is measured in terms of FIELD STRENGTH.(E Volts/m) 3. Define Radiation intensity? The power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle is called the radiation intensity U (watts per steradian or per square degree). The radiation intensity is independent of distance. 4. Define Beam efficiency? The total beam area ( WA) consists of the main beam area ( WM ) plus the minor lobe area ( Wm) . Thus WA = WM+ Wm . The ratio of the main beam area to the total beam area is called beam efficiency. Beam efficiency = SM = WM / WA. 5.Define Directivity? The directivity of an antenna is equal to the ratio of the maximum power density P(q,f)max to its average value over a sphere as observed in the far field of an antenna. D = P(q,f)max / P(q,f)av. Directivity from Pattern. D = 4p / WA. . Directivity from beam area(WA ). 6.What are the different types of aperture.? i) Effective aperture. ii). Scattering aperture.

iii) Loss aperture. iv) collecting aperture. v). Physical aperture. 7.Define different types of aperture.? Effective aperture(Ae). It is the area over which the power is extrated from the incident wave and delivered to the load is called effective aperture. Scattering aperture(As.) It is the ratio of the reradiated power to the power density of the incident wave. Loss aperture. (Ae). It is the area of the antenna which dissipates power as heat. Collecting aperture. (Ae). It is the addition of above three apertures. Physical aperture. (Ap). This aperture is a measure of the physical size of the antenna. 8. Define Aperture efficiency? The ratio of the effective aperture to the physical aperture is the aperture efficiency. i.e Aperture efficiency = hap = Ae / Ap (dimensionless). 9. What is meant by effective height? The effective height h of an antenna is the parameter related to the aperture.It may be defined as the ratio of the induced voltage to the incident field.i.e H= V / E. 10. What are the field zone? The fields around an antenna ay be divided into two principal regions. i. Near field zone (Fresnel zone) ii. Far field zone (Fraunhofer zone) 11.What is meant by Polarization.? The polarization of the radio wave can be defined by direction in which the electric vector E is aligned during the passage of atleast one full cycle.Also polarization can also be defined the physical orientation of the radiated electromagnetic waves in space. The polarization are three types. They are

Elliptical polarization ,circular polarization and linear polarization. 12. What is meant by front to back ratio.? It is defined as the ratio of the power radiated in desired direction to the power radiated in the opposite direction. i.e FBR = Power radiated in desired direction / power radiated in the opposite direction. 13. Define antenna efficiency.? The efficiency of an antenna is defined as the ratio of power radiated to the total input power supplied to the antenna. Antenna efficiency = Power radiated / Total input power 14. What is radiation resistance ? The antenna is a radiating device in which power is radiated into space in the form of electromagnetic wave. W = I2 R Rr = W / I2 Where Rr is a fictitious resistance called called as radiation resistance. 15 What is meant by antenna beam width? Antenna beamwidth is a measure of directivity of an antenna. Antenna beam width is an angular width in degrees, measured on the radiation pattern (major lobe) between points where the radiated power has fallen to half its maximum value .This is called as beam width between half power points or half power beam width.(HPBW). 16. What is meant by reciprocity Theorem.? If an e.m.f is applied to the terminals of an antenna no.1 and the current measured at the terminals of the another antenna no.2, then an equal current both in amplitude and phase will be obtained at the terminal of the antenna no.1 if the same emf is applied to the terminals of antenna no.2. 17.What is meant by isotropic radiator? A isotropic radiator is a fictitious radiator and is defined as a radiator which radiates fields uniformly in all directions. It is also called as isotropic source or omni directional radiator or simply unipole.

18. Define gain The ratio of maximum radiation intensity in given direction to the maximum radiation intensity from a reference antenna produced in the same direction with same input power. i.e Maximum radiation intensity from test antenna Gain (G) = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Maximum radiation intensity from the reference antenna with same input power 19. Define self impedance Self impedance of an antenna is defined as its input impedance with all other antennas are completely removed i.e away from it. 20 . Define mutual impedance The presence of near by antenna no.2 induces a current in the antenna no.1 indicates that presence of antenna no.2 changes the impedance of the antenna no.1.This effect is called mutual coupling and results in mutual impedance. 21. What is meant by cross field.? Normally the electric field E is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. In some situation the electric field E is parallel to the wave propagation that condition is called Cross field. 22.Define axial ratio The ratio of the major to the minor axes of the polarization ellipse is called the Axial Ratio. (AR). 23. What is meant by Beam Area.? The beam area or beam solid angle or WA of an antenna is given by the normalized power pattern over a sphere. WA = 4p Pn ( q,f ) dW Where dW = Sin q d q .df 24. What is duality of antenna.? It is defined as an antenna is a circuit device with a resistance and temperature on the one hand and the space device on the other with radiation patterns, beam angle ,directivity gain and aperture. 25.State Poynting theorem. It states that the vector product of electric field

intensity vector E and the magnetic filed intensity vector H at any point is a measure of the rate of energy flow per unit area at that point.The direction of power flow is perpendicular to both the electric field and magnetic field components. 26.What is point source? It is the waves originate at a fictitious volumeless emitter source at the center O of the observation circle. 27.What is meant by array.? An antenna is a system of similar antennas oriented similarly to get greater directivity in a desired direction. 28.What is meant by uniform linear array.? An array is linear when the elements of the array are spaced equally along the straight line. If the elements are fed with currents of equal magnitude and having a uniform progressive phase shift along the line, then it is called uniform linear array . 29.What are the types of array.? a. Broad side array. b. End fire array c. Collinear array. d. Parasitic array. 30.What is Broad side array.? Broad side array is defined as an arrangement in which the principal direction of radiation is perpendicular to the array axis and also the plane containing the array element. For Broad side array the phase difference EHWZHHQ DGMDFHQW HOHPHQW LV 31.Define End fire array.? End fire array is defined as an arrangement in which the principal direction of radiation is coincides with the array axis. )RU HQG )LUH DUUD\ - G :KHUH $QG G GLVWDQFH EHWZHHQ WKH HOHPHQWV 32. What is collinear array.? In this array the antenna elements are arranged coaxially by mounting the elements end to end in straight line or stacking them one over the other with radiation pattern circular symmetry. Eg. Omnidirectional antenna. 33. What is Parasitic array.? In this array the elements are fed parasitically to reduce the problem of feed line. The power is given to one element from that other elements get by electro magnetic coupling. Eg. Yagi uda antenna.

34. What is the condition on phase for the end fire array with increased directivity.? :KHQ - G SURGXFHV PD[LPXP ILHOG LQ WKH GLUHFWLRQ = 0 but does not give the maximum directivity. It has been shown by Hansen and woodyard that a large directivity is obtained by increasing the phase change EHWZHHQ WKH VRXUFHV VR WKDW - G Q This condition will be referred to as the condition for increased directivity. 35.Define array factor. The normalized value of the total field is given by, ( Q VLQ Q VLQ The field is given by the expression E will be referred to as array factor. 36. Define beam width of major lobe? It is defined the angle between the first nulls (or) it is defined as twice the angle between the first null and the major lobe maximum direction. 37. List out the expression of beam width for broad side array and end fire array. For broad side array the expression for beam width between the first nulls is given by, BWFN = ((+/ - Q G For End fire array the expression for beam width between the first nulls is given by, BWFN = ((+/ - Q G 1/ 2. 38. Differentiate broad side and End fire array.? Broad side array End fire array 1. Antennas fed in Phase 2. Maximum Radiation is perpendicular to the direction of array axis. 3. Beam width of major lobe is twice the Antenna elements are fed of out of Phase - G Maximum Radiation is directed along the array axis. Beam width is greater than that for a broad side array of

same length. BW = ((+/ - Q G 1/ 2 reciprocal of the array length. BW = ((+/ - Q G 2. 39.What is the need for the Binomial array.? The need for a binomial array is i). In uniform linear array as the array length is increased to increase the directivity, the secondary lobes also occurs. ii) For certain applications, it is highly desirable that secondary lobes should be eliminated completely or reduced to minimum desirable level compared to main lobes. 40. Define power pattern.? Graphical representation of the radial component of the pointing vector Sr at a constant radius as a function of angle is called power density pattern or power pattern. 41. What is meant by similar Point sources.? Whenever the variation of the amplitude and the phase of the field with respect to the absolute angle for any two sources are same then they are called similar point sources. The maximum amplitudes of the individual sources may be unequal. 42. What is meant by identical Point sources.? Similar point sources with equal maximum amplitudes are called identical point sources. 43. What is the principle of the pattern multiplication? The total field pattern of an array of non isotropic but similar sources is the product of the i) individual source pattern and ii) The array pattern of isotropic point sources each located at the phase center of the individual source having the same amplitude and phase. While the total phase pattern is the sum of the phase patterns of the individual source pattern and array pattern.0 44.What is the advantage of pattern multiplication? Useful tool in designing antenna approximates the pattern of a complicated array

It

without making lengthy computations 45.What is tapering of arrays? Tapering of array is a technique used for reduction of unwanted side lobes .The amplitude of currents in the linear array source is non-uniform; hence the central source radiates more energy than the ends. Tapering is done from center to end. 46.What is a binomial array? It is an array in which the amplitudes of the antenna elements in the array are arranged according to the coefficients of the binomial series. 47.What are the advantages of binomial array? Advantage: No minor lobes Disadvantages: Increased beam width Maintaining the large ratio of current amplitude in large arrays is difficult 48.What is the difference between isotropic and nonisotropic source Isotropic source radiates energy in all directions but non-isotropic source radiates energy only in some desired directions. Isotropic source is not physically realizable but non-isotropic source is physically realizable. 49.Define Side Lobe Ratio Side Lobe Ratio is defined as the ratio of power density in the principal or main lobe to the power density of the longest minor lobe. 50. List the arrays used for array tapering Binomial Array:Tapering follows the coefficient of binomial series Dolph Tchebycheff Array: Tapering follows the coefficient of Tchebycheff polynomial 51.What is a Short Dipole? Ans: A short dipole is one in which the field is oscillating because of the oscillating voltage and current.It is called so, because the length of the dipole is short and the current is almost constant throughtout the entire length of the dipole.It is also called as Hertzian Dipole which is a hypothetical antenna and is defined as a short isolated conductor carrying uniform alternating current. 52.How radiations are created from a short Dipole? Ans:The dipole has two equal charges of opposite sign oscillating up and down in a harmonic motion.The charges will move towards each other and electric filed lines were created.When the charges meet at

the midpoint, the field lines cut each other and new field are created.This process is spontaneous and so more fields are created around the antenna.This is how radiations are obtained from a short dipole.(See Figure from John. D .Kraus Book) 53.Why a short dipole is also called an elemental dipole? A short dipole that does have a uniform current will be known as the elemental dipole.Such a dipole will generally be considerably shorter than the tenth wave length maximum specified for a short dipole.Elemental dipole is also called as elementary dipole,elementary doublet and hertzian dipole. 54.What is a Infinitesimal Dipole? When the length of the short dipole is vanishingly small,then such a dipole is called a infinitesimal dipole.If dl be the infinitesimally small length and I be the current,then Idl is called as the current element. 55.Why a short dipole is called a oscillating dipole? A short dipole is initially in neutral condition and the moment a current starts to flow in one direction,one half of the dipole require an excess of charge and the other a deficit because a current is a flow of electrical charge.Then ,there will be a voltage between the two halves of the dipole.When the current changes its direction this charge unbalance will cause oscillations.Hence an oscillating current will result in an oscillating voltage.Since,in such dipole,electric charge oscillates ,it may be called as Oscilllating electric dipole. 56.What do you understand by retarded current? Since,the short electric dipole is so short,the current which is flowing through the dipole is assumed to be constant throughtout its length.The effect of this current is not felt instantaneous at a distance point only after an interval equal to the time required for the wave to propagate over the distance r is called the retardation time. The retarded current [I]=Io exp(j W-r/c)) Where U F LV WKH SKDVH UHWDUGDWLRQ 57.Define induction field The induction field will predominate at points close to the current element ,where the distance from the centre of the dipole to the particular point is less.This field is more effective in the vicinity of the current element

only.It represents the energy stored in the magnetic field surrounding the current element or conductor.This field is also known as near field. 58.Define Radiation field The radiation field will be produced at a larger distance from the the current element ,where the distance from the centre of the dipole to the particular point is very large.It is also called as distant field or far field. 59.At what distance from the dipole is the induction field equal to the radiation field? As the distance from the current element or the short dipole increases ,both induction and radiation fields emerge and start decreasing .However,a distance reaches from the conductor at which both the induction and radiation field becomes equal and the particular distance depends upon the wavelength.The two fields will thus have equal amplitude at that particular distance.This distance is given by U 60.Define Radiation Resistance It is defined as the fictitious resistance which when inserted in series with the antenna will consume the same amount of power as it is actually radiated.The antenna appears to the transmission line as a resistive component and this is known as the radiation resistance. 61.Give the expression for the effective aperture of a short dipole The effective aperture of a short dipole is given by $H 2 62.What is a dipole antenna? A dipole antenna may be defined as a symmetrical antenna in which the two ends are at equal potential relative to the midpoint. 63.What is a half wave dipole? A half wave antenna is the fundamental radio antenna of metal rod or tubing or thin wire which has a physical length of half wavelength in free space at the frequency of operation 64.Give the expression for the effective aperture of a Half wave Dipole The effective aperture of a half wave dipole is given by Ae=0 2

65.What is the radiation resistance of a half wave dipole The radiation resistance of a half wave dipole is given by Rr=73 ohm 66.What is a loop antenna? A loop antenna is a radiating coil of any convenient cross-section of one or more turns carrying radio frequency current.it may assume any shape (e.g. rectangular,square,triangular and hexagonal) 67.Give an expression of radiation resistance of a small loop Radiation resistance of a small loop is given by Rr=31,200 (A/ 2)2 68.How to increase the radiation resistance of a loop antenna The radiation resistance of a loop antenna can be increased by: 1. increasing the number of turns 2. inserting a ferrite core of very high permeability with loop antenna s circumference which will rise the magnetic field intensity called ferrite loop. 69.What are the types of loop antennas? Loop antennas are classified into: 1. (OHFWULFDOO\ 6PDOO &LUFXPIHUHQFH 2. (OHFWULFDOO\ /DUJH 'LPHQVLRQ FRPSDUDEOH WR 70.What are Electrically Small loop antennas? Electrically Small loop antennas is one in which the overall length of the loop is less than one-tenth of the wavelength. Electrically Small loop antennas have small radiation resistances that are usually smaller than their loop resistances.They are very poor radiators and seldom employed for transmission in radio communication. 71.What are Electrically large loop antennas? Electrically Large loop antennas is one in which the overall length of the loop approaches the wavelength. 72.List out the uses of loop antenna Various uses of loop antenna are: It is used as receiving antenna in portable radio and pagers It is used as probes for field measurements and as directional antennas for radio wave navigation It is used to estimate the direction of radio wave propagation 73.What are the parameters to be considered for the design of an helical antenna? The parameters to be considered for the design of an helical antenna are: 1. Bandwidth 2. Gain 3. Impedance 4. Axial Ratio 74.What are the types of radiation modes of operation for an helical antenna The two types of radiation modes of operation possible for an helical antenna are:

1. Normal mode of operation 2. Axial mode of operation 75.Which antenna will produce circularly polarized waves Helical antenna radiates circularly polarized wave. 76.List the applications of helical antenna The applications of helical antenna are: It became thw workhouse of space communications for telephone,television and data,being employed both on satellites and at ground stations Many satellites including weather satellites,data relay satellites all have helical antennas It is on many othe probes of planets and comets,including moon and mars,being used alone,in arrays or as feeds for parabolic reflectors,its circular polarization and high gain and simplicity making it effective for space application 77.Define Sky wave. Waves that arrive at the receiver after reflection in the ionosphere is called sky wave. 78.Define Tropospheric wave. Waves that arrive at the receiver after reflection from the troposphere region is called Tropospheric wave.(ie 10 Km from Earth surface). 79. Define Ground wave. Waves propagated over other paths near the earth surface is called ground wave propagation. 80.What are the type of Ground wave. Ground wave classified into two types. i. Space wave ii. Surface wave. 81 What is meant by Space Wave.? It is made up of direct wave and ground reflected wave. Also includes the portion of energy received as a result of diffraction around the earth surface and the reflection from the upper atmosphere. 82. What is meant by Surface Wave.? Wave that is guided along the earth s surface like an EM wave is guided by a transmission is called surface wave. Attenuation of this wave is directly affected by the constant of earth along which it travels. 83. What is meant by fading.? Variation of signal strength occur on line of sight paths as a result of the atmospheric conditions and it is called .It can not be predicted properly.

84. What are the type of fading.? Two types. i. Inverse bending. iii. Multi path fading. 85. What is inverse and multi path fading.? Inverse bending may transform line of sight path into an obstructed one. Multi path fading is caused by interference between the direct and ground reflected waves as well as interference between two are more paths in the atmosphere. 86.What is meant by diversity reception.? To minimize the fading and to avoid the multi path interference the technique used are diversity reception. It is obtained by two ways. i. Space diversity reception. ii. Frequency diversity reception. iii. Polarization diversity. 87. Define Space diversity Reception. This method exploits the fact that signals received at different locations do not fade together. It UHTXLUHV DQWHQQDV VSDFHG DW OHDVW DSDUW DUH SUHIHUUHG and the antenna which high signal strength at the moment dominates. 88 .Define frequency diversity Reception. This method takes advantage of the fact that signals of slightly different frequencies do not fade synchronously. This fact is utilized to minimize fading in radio telegraph circuits. 89. Define polarization diversity reception. It is used in normally in microwave links, and it is found that signal transmitted over the same path in two polarizations have independent fading patterns.in broad band dish antenna system, Polarization diversity combined with frequency diversity reception achieve excellent results. 90. What is meant by Faraday s rotation.? Due to the earth s magnetic fields, the ionosheric medium becomes anisotropic and the incident plane wave entering the ionosphere will split into ordinary and extra ordinary waves/modes. When these modes re-emerge from the ionosphere they recombine into a single plane wave again. Finally the plane of polarization will usually

have changed, this phenomenon is known as Faraday s rotation. 91. What are the factors that affect the propagation of radio waves.? i. Curvature of earth. ii. Earth s magnetic field. iii. Frequency of the signal. iv. Plane earth reflection. 92. Define gyro frequency. Frequency whose period is equal to the period of an electron in its orbit under the influence of the earths magnetic flux density B. 93. Define critical frequency. For any layer , the highest frequency that will be reflected back for vertical incidence is fcr = 91max 94. Define Magneto-Ions Splitting. The phenomenon of splitting the wave into two different components (ordinary and extra-ordinary) by the earths magnetic field is called Magneto-Ions Splitting. 95.Define LUHF. The lowest useful HF for a given distance and transmitter power is defined as the lowest frequency that will give satisfactory reception for that distance and power. It depends on i. The effective radiated power ii. Absorption character of ionosphere for the paths between transmitter and receiver. iii. The required field strength which in turn depends upon the radio noise at the receiving location and type of service involved . 96. Define Refractive index. It is defined as n = c / vp Velocity of light in vacua n= Phase velocity in the medium n=r 97Define maximum Usable Frequency.

The maximum Frequency that can be reflected back for a given distance of transmission is called the maximum usable frequency (MUF) for that distance. MUF = fcr VHF i 98. Define skip distance. The distance with in which a signal of given frequency fails to be reflected back is the skip distance for that frequency.The higher the frequency the greater the skip distance. 99. Define Optimum frequency.? Otimum frequency for transmitting between any two points is therefore selected as some frequency lying between about 50 and 85 percent of the predicted maximum usable frequency between those points. 100. What is wave impedance.? 0 / - (fc / f) LH - (fc / f) 101. Define wave velocity and Group velocity.? wave velocity vp = c / - (fc / f)2 Group velocity, vp vg = c2 vg = c2 / vp 16 MARK QUESTIONS 1. Write the potential function in different form. 2. Explain in detail about the aperture Concept Aperture represents the area of the antenna confining the effective radiations The various types of antenna apertures are i) Effective aperture. ii). Scattering aperture. iii) Loss aperture. iv) collecting aperture. v). Physical aperture. Effective aperture(Ae). It is the area over which the power is extrated from the incident wave and delivered to the load is called effective aperture. Scattering aperture(As.) It is the ratio of the reradiated power to the power density of the incident wave. Loss aperture. (Ae).

It is the area of the antenna which dissipates power as heat. Collecting aperture. (Ae). It is the addition of above three apertures. Physical aperture. (Ap). This aperture is a measure of the physical size of the antenna. The ratio of the effective aperture to the physical aperture is the aperture efficiency. i.e Aperture efficiency = hap = Ae / Ap (dimensionless). Antenna matching: When the antenna is receiving with a load resistance matched to the antenna radiation resistance , maximum power is transferred to the load and the power is also reradiated from the dipole.This is called antenna matching( Give detailed explanation ) 3.Briefly explain the radiation from a short dipole Defn: A short dipole is one in which the field is oscillating because of the oscillating voltage and current.It is called so, because the length of the dipole is short and the current is almost constant throughtout the entire length of the dipole. Fields from Oscillating Dipole: The dipole has two equal charges of opposite sign oscillating up and down in a harmonic motion.The charges will move towards each other and electric filed lines were created.when the charges meet at the midpoint, the field lines cut each other and new field are created.This process is spontaneous and so more filed are created around the antenna.This is how radiations are obtained from a short dipole.(See Figure from John. D .Kraus Book) Antenna Field Zones:The regions containing the radiations that are present around the antenna are called Zones.The fields around an antenna ay be divided into two principal regions. a)Near field zone (Fresnel zone) b)Far field zone (Fraunhofer zone) Electric and Magnetic field components of short Dipole: Write the derivations by referring The Book,K.D.Prasad. 4.Gives notes on the antenna impedances. Find the

effective aperture and Directivity of a short dipole antenna. Self Impedance: Defn:Self impedance of an antenna is defined as its input impedance with all other antennas are completely removed i.e away from it. Write the formula required Mutual Impedance: Defn:The presence of near by antenna no.2 induces a current in the antenna no.1 indicates that presence of antenna no.2 changes the impedance of the antenna no.1.This effect is called mutual coupling and results in mutual impedance. State Reciprocity theorem Formula required Effective aperture and Directivity of a short dipole antenna. Consider a plane wave incident on a short dipole.The wave is assumed to be linearly polarized with electric field in the y direction. The current in the dipole is assumed constant and in the same phase over its entire length,and the terminating resistance is assumed equal to the dipole radiation resistance. The effective aperture of this dipole is given by $H The directivity is found to be ' $H VT 5.Define Polarization? Explain the different types of polarization in detail. Polarization is defined as the orientation of electric field as a function of direction. The polarization of the radio wave can be defined by direction in which the electric vector E is aligned during the passage of atleast one full cycle.Also polarization can also be defined the physical orientation of the radiated electromagnetic waves in space.The polarization are of three types. They are: Elliptical polarization Circular polarization Linear polarization. Linear Polarisation: A linearly polarized wave is one in which the electric field remains in only one direction.For a linearly polarized wave,the axial ratio is infinity.

Elliptical polarization The electric field vector rotates and form a ellipse called polarization ellipse. The ratio of the major to the minor axes of the polarization ellipse is called the Axial Ratio. (AR). AR is greater than 1 . Circular polarization The electric filed vector rotates and form a circle and this wave is called circularly polarized wave.AR is unity. 6.Explain in detail the different cases of the array containing two isotropic sources Case 1: Arrays of two isotropic sources fed with currents of equal amplitude and in phase Case 2: Arrays of two isotropic sources fed with currents of equal amplitude and opposite phase Case 3: Arrays of two isotropic sources fed with currents of unequal amplitude and any phase Case 1: Arrays of two isotropic sources fed with currents of equal amplitude and in phase quadrature. Write about the following: Field pattern of the individual cases Find the maxima ,minima direction and half power point direction Draw the radiation pattern. 7. What is broadside array? Derive the maxima ,null directions and also the beamwidth of a broadside array. Broad side array is defined as an arrangement in which the principal direction of radiation is perpendicular to the array axis and also the plane containing the array element. For Broad side array the phase difference EHWZHHQ DGMDFHQW HOHPHQW LV Field pattern of a linear array with n isotropic sources Determine the maxima ,minima direction and half power point direction Draw the radiation pattern. 8.What is End Fire array? Derive the maxima ,null directions and also the beamwidth of a Endfire array. End fire array is defined as an arrangement in which the principal direction of radiation is coincides with the array axis. )RU HQG )LUH DUUD\ - G :KHUH $QG G GLVWDQFH EHWZHHQ WKH HOHPHQWV Field pattern of a linear array with n isotropic sources Determine the maxima ,minima direction and half power point direction

Draw the radiation pattern. 9.Explain the principle of pattern multiplication with some examples. Principle of pattern multiplication: The total field pattern of an array of non isotropic but similar sources is the product of the iii) individual source pattern and iv) The array pattern of isotropic point sources each located at the phase center of the individual source having the same amplitude and phase. While the total phase pattern is the sum of the phase patterns of the individual source pattern and array pattern.0 Situation 1: Array of two point sources fed in phase with the amplitude of the individual source to be Eo=Eo1 Sin (theta) Situation 2: Array of two point sources fed in phase with the amplitude of the individual source to be Eo=Eo1 Cos (theta) Situation 3: Array of four point sources fed in phase with the amplitude of the individual source to be Eo=Eo1 Sin (theta) 10.Explain the different techniques used for tapering of arrays Array Tapering: Tapering of array is a technique used for reduction of unwanted side lobes .The amplitude of currents in the linear array source is non-uniform; hence the central source radiates more energy than the ends. Tapering is done from center to end. Techniques used for array tapering: Binomial Array:Tapering follows the coefficient of binomial series Dolph Tchebycheff Array: Tapering follows the coefficient of Tchebycheff polynomial. 1. Binomial Array: It is an array in which the amplitudes of the antenna elements in the array are arranged according to the coefficients of the binomial series. The need for a binomial array is i). In uniform linear array as the array length is increased to increase the directivity, the secondary lobes also occurs. ii) For certain applications, it is highly desirable that secondary lobes should be eliminated completely or reduced to minimum desirable level compared to main lobes.

Advantage: No minor lobes Disadvantages: Increased beam width Maintaining the large ratio of current amplitude in large arrays is difficult 2. Dolph Tchebycheff Array: Tapering follows the coefficient of Tchebycheff polynomial. 11.Derive the fields radiated from a short electric dipole.List the far field components.Determine its radiation resistance and directivity. Fields radiated from the short dipole and radiation resistance(Refer Antennas & propagation By K.D.Prasad,Page No.210 to 227) Directivity is 1.5(Refer Antennas & propagation By K.D.Prasad,Page No.251 to 252) 12.Derive the expressions for the fields and power radiated from a half wave dipole antenna.Find its radiation resistance and directivity. Fields radiated from the short dipole and radiation resistance(Refer Antennas & propagation By K.D.Prasad,Page No.229 to 234) Directivity is 1.5(Refer Antennas & propagation By K.D.Prasad,Page No.252 to 253) 13.Derive the field radiated from a small loop antenna Small loop radiated fields(Refer Antennas By John.D.Kraus,Page No.200 to 208) 14.Explain in detail about the helical antenna Definition of helical antenna Helical Geometry Radiated fields of helical antenna Types of helix Refer Antennas By John.D.Kraus 15.Explain the different modes of operation of helical antenna Normal mode of operation Axial mode of operation. 16. Explain Ground wave Propagation. Sky wave. Waves that arrive at the receiver after reflection in the ionosphere is called sky wave. Tropospheric wave. Waves that arrive at the receiver after reflection from the troposphere region is called Tropospheric wave.(ie 10 Km from Earth surface). Ground wave. Waves propagated over other paths near the earth surface is called ground wave propagation. Type of Ground wave.

Ground wave classified into two types. iv. Space wave v. Surface wave. Space Wave. It is made up of direct wave and ground reflected wave. Also includes the portion of energy received as a result of diffraction around the earth surface and the reflection from the upper atmosphere. Surface Wave. Wave that is guided along the earth s surface like an EM wave is guided by a transmission is called surface wave. Attenuation of this wave is directly affected by the constant of earth along which it travels. 17.Explain diversity reception.? To minimize the fading and to avoid the multi path interference the technique used are diversity reception. It is obtained by two ways. 1. Space diversity reception 2. Frequency diversity reception. 3. Polarization diversity. Space diversity Reception. This method exploits the fact that signals received at different locations do not fade together. It UHTXLUHV DQWHQQDV VSDFHG DW OHDVW DSDUW DUH SUHIHUUHG and the antenna which high signal strength at the moment dominates. Frequency diversity Reception. This method takes advantage of the fact that signals of slightly different frequencies do not fade synchronously. This fact is utilized to minimize fading in radio telegraph circuits. Polarization diversity reception. It is used in normally in microwave links, and it is found that signal transmitted over the same path in two polarizations have independent fading patterns.in broad band dish antenna system, Polarization diversity combined with frequency diversity reception achieve excellent results. 18. Explain in detail ionospheric propagation. Waves that arrive at the receiver after the propagation through ionosphere is ionospheric propagation..

The ionosphere is that region of the earths atmosphere in which the constituent gases are ionized by radiation from the outer space. The region is 50 Km to 400 Km. Effective Dielectric and conductivity of an ionized gas. Reflection and refraction waves by the ionosphere. ( Refer Page no 667 to 681. Electro magnetic waves and radiating Systems .By. C.JORDAN and G.BALMAIN ) 19. Explain a. Effect of the earth magnetic field. b. Faraday rotation in Sky wave Propagation. Effect of the earth magnetic field Electrons and ions in the ionosphere are influenced not only by the fields of a passing elecro magnetic wave but also by the earth magnetic field, which causes the charged particles to move in circular or spiral paths. ( Refer Page no 687. Electro magnetic waves and radiating Systems .By. C.JORDAN and G.BALMAIN ) Faraday rotation in Sky wave Propagation Due to the earth s magnetic fields, the ionosheric medium becomes anisotropic and the incident plane wave entering the ionosphere will split into ordinary and extra ordinary waves/modes. When these modes re-emerge from the ionosphere they recombine into a single plane wave again. Finally the plane of polarization will usually have changed, this phenomenon is known as Faraday s rotation. ( Refer Page no 693. Electro magnetic waves and radiating Systems .By. C.JORDAN and G.BALMAIN ) 20. Derive the expression for Permitivity and conductivity of ionized gas.? Plasma: .Assembly of charged particles in which the time average charge density is Zero. Plasma is formed Whenver the atoms ina gas are ionized to produce equal number of ions and electrons. Eg earth ionosphere. r , = 1- Ne2 / ( P v 2 2 ) >1H2 P 2 2 )] Note: Conductivity is maximum means the wave will pass

through that medium. Conductivity is small, waves gets reflected. ( Refer Page no 670 fn. Electro magnetic waves and radiating Systems .By. C.JORDAN and G.BALMAIN ) 21.Explain the concept of Reflection and refraction waves by the ionosphere. The reflection and refraction of radio waves by the ionosphere is a function of frequency. Briefly describe the following. i. Reflection at low frequency. ii. Reflection at high frequency. iii. Maximum usable frequency. iv. Optimum frequency. v. Skip distance. Important formula for problems: i Critical frequency, fcr = 91max ii. Relative Dielectric constant r = 1- Ne2 P 2 + v2 ) iii. Phase constant, b = (2p/l) - (fc / f) iv. Wave impedance. 0 / - (fc / f) v. Wave velocity. vp = c / - (fc / f)2 vi Group velocity, vp vg = c2 vg = c2 / vp vii. Incident angle . sin i = - (fc / f)

Quick Revision for Electronic Circuits II Electronic Circuits II 1. Define positive feedback? If the feedback signal is in phase with input signal, then the net effect of the feedback will increase the input signal given to the amplifier. This type of feedback is said to be positive or regenerative feedback. 2. Define negative feedback? If the feedback signal is out of phase with the input signal then the input voltage applied to the basic amplifier is decreased and correspondingly the output is decreased. This type of feedback is known as negative or degenerative feedback. 3. Define sensitivity? Sensitivity is defined as the ratio of percentage change in voltage gain with feedback to the percentage change in voltage gain without feedback. 4. What are the types of feedback? i. Voltage-series feedback ii. Voltage-shunt feedback iii. Current-series feedback iv. Current-shunt feedback 5. Define feedback? A portion of the output signal is taken from the output of the amplifier and is combined with the normal input signal. This is known as feedback. 6. Write the expression for input and output resistance of voltage series feedback amplifier. Input resistance with feedback, Rif $ 5i Output resistance with feedback, Rof = Ro $ 7. Give an example for voltage-series feedback. The Common collector or Emitter follower amplifier is an example for voltage series feedback. 8. Write the expression for input and output resistance of current shunt feedback amplifier. Input resistance with feedback, Rif = Ri $

Electronic Circuits II Output resistance with feedback, Rof = Ro $ 9. Give the properties of negative feedback. i. Negative feedback reduces the gain ii. Distortion is very much reduced 10. Give the effect of negative feedback on amplifier characteristics. Type of feedback Characteristics Current-series Voltage-series Voltage-shunt Current-shunt Voltage gain Decreases Decreases Decreases Decreases Bandwidth Increases Increases Increases Increases Input resistance Increases Increases Decreases Decreases Output resistance Increases Decreases Decreases Increases 11. What is Oscillator circuit? A circuit with an active device is used to produce an alternating current is called an oscillator circuit. 12. What are the classifications of Oscillators? *Based on wave generated: i. Sinusoidal Oscillator, ii. Non-sinusoidal Oscillator or Relaxation Oscillator Ex: Square wave, Triangular wave, Rectangular wave etc. *According to principle involved: i. Negative resistance Oscillator, ii. Feedback Oscillator. *According to frequency generated: i. Audio frequency oscillator 20 Hz 20 kHz ii. Radio frequency Oscillator 30 kHz 30 MHz iii. Ultrahigh frequency Oscillator 30 MHz 3 GHz iv. Microwave Oscillator 3 GHz above. * Crystal Oscillators. 13. Define Barhausen Criterion. 7KH SURGXFW $v is greater than one this is called Barhausen criterion. Avf = Av/1- $v Avf = 1/0 =>1- $v < 0 ! $v > 1 this is the condition for feedback Oscillator. An Oscillator which follows Barkhausen criterion is called the Feedback Oscillator. 14. What are the types of feedback oscillators?

* RC-Phase shift Oscillator, * LC-Oscillators i. Tuned collector Oscillator ii. Tuned emitter Oscillator iii. Tuned collector base Oscillator iv. Hartley Oscillator v. Colpits Oscillator vi. Clap Oscillator 15. What are the conditions for oscillation? The total phase shift of an oscillator should be 360o. For feedback oscillator it should satisfies Barhausen criterion. 16. Define Piezoelectric effect. When applying mechanical energy to some type of crystals called piezoelectric crystals the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy is called piezoelectric effect. ) 1/T 17. Draw the equivalent circuit of crystal oscillator. 18. What is Miller crystal oscillator? Explain its operation. It is nothing but a Hartley oscillator its feedback Network is replaced by a crystal. Crystal normally generate higher frequency reactance due to the miller capacitance are in effect between the transistor terminal. 19. State the frequency for RC phase shift oscillator. The frequency of oscillation of RC-phase shift oscillator is F=1/

Where k=2.639. 20. Define Oscillator A circuit with an active device is used to produce an alternating current is called an oscillator circuit. 21. What is a tuned amplifier? The amplifier with a circuit that is capable of amplifying a signal over a narrow band of frequencies Are called tuned amplifiers. 22. What is the expression for resonant frequency? fr=1/2 /& 23. What happens to the circuit above and below resonance? Above resonance the circuit acts as capacitive and below resonance the circuit acts as inductive. 24. What are the different coil losses? Hysteresis loss Copper loss

Eddy current loss 25. What is Q factor? It is the ratio of reactance to resistance. 26. What is dissipation factor? It is referred as the total loss within a component i.e1/Q 27. What is the classification of tuned amplifiers? Single tuned Double tuned Stagger tuned 28. What is a single tuned amplifier? An n amplifier circuit that uses a single parallel tuned circuit as a load is called single tuned amplifier. 29. What are the advantages of tuned amplifiers? They amplify defined frequencies. Signal to noise ratio at output is good They are suited for radio transmitters and receivers 30. What are the disadvantages of tuned amplifiers? The circuit is bulky and costly The design is complex. They are not suited to amplify audio frequencies. 31. What is neutralization? The effect of collector to base capacitance of the transistor is neutralized by introducing a signal that cancels the signal coupled through collector base capacitance. This process is called neutralization. 32. What are double tuned amplifiers? The amplifiers having two parallel resonant circuit in its load are called double tuned amplifiers. 33. What is a stagger tuned amplifier? It is a circuit in which two single tuned cascaded amplifiers having certain bandwidth are taken and their resonant frequencies are adjusted that they are separated by an amount equal to the bandwidth of each stage. Since resonant frequencies are displaced it is called stagger tuned amplifier. 34. What are the advantages of stagger tuned amplifier? The advantage of stagger tuned amplifier is to have better flat, wideband characteristics. 35. What are the advantages of double tuned over single tuned? 1. Possess flatter response having steeper sides 2. Provides larger 3 db bandwidth 3. Provides large gain-bandwidth product. 36. What are the different types of neutralization? 1. Hazeltine neutralization 2. Rice neutralization 3. Neutrodyne neutralization.

37. What is rice neutralization? It uses center tapped coil in the base circuit. The signal voltages at the end of tuned base coil are equal and out of phase. 38. What is unloaded Q? It is the ratio of stored energy to the dissipated energy in a reactor or resonator. 39. What are the applications of mixer circuits? Used in radio receivers. Used to translate signal frequency to some lower frequency 40. What is up converter? When the mixer circuit is used to translate signal to high frequency, then it is called up converter. 41 What is an amplifier? An amplifier is a device which produces a large electrical output of similar characteristics to that of the input parameters. 42. How are amplifiers classified according to the input? 1. Small signal amplifier 2. Large signal amplifier 43. How are amplifiers classified according to the transistor configuration? 1. Common emitter amplifier 2. Common base amplifier 3. Common collector amplifier 44. What is the different analysis available to analyze a transistor? 1. AC analysis 2. DC analysis 45. How can a DC equivalent circuit of an amplifier be obtained? By open circuiting the capacitor. 46. How can a AC equivalent circuit of a amplifier be obtained? By replacing dc supply by a ground and short- circuiting capacitors. 47. What is feed back? It is the process of injecting some energy from the output and then returns it back to the input. 48. What is the disadvantage of negative feed back? Reduces amplifier gain. 49. Define sensitivity. It is the ratio of percentage change in voltage gain with feedback to the percentage change in voltage gain without feed back. 50. Define Desensitivity. It is the ratio of percentage change in voltage gain without feedback to the percentage change in voltage gain with feed back. the reciprocal of sensitivity. 51, What is a Multivibrator? The electronic circuits which are used to generate nonsinusoidal waveforms are called Multivibrators. 52, Name the types of Multivibrators? Bistable Multivibrator, Monostable Multivibrator,Astable Multivibrator 53, How many stable states do bistable Multivibrator have? Two stable states.

54, When will the circuit change from stable state in bistable Multivibrator ? when an external trigger pulse is applied, the circuit changes from one stable state to another. 55, What are the different names of bistable Multivibrator? Eccles Jordan circuit, trigger circuit, scale-of-2 toggle circuit, flip-flop and binary. 56, What are the applications of bistable Multivibrator? It is used in the performance of many digital operations such as counting and storing of the Binary information. It also finds applications in the generation and processing of pulse type waveforms. 57, What are the other names of monostable Multivibrator? One-shot, Single-shot, a single-cycle, a single swing, a single step Multivibrator, Univibrator. 58, Why is monostable Multivibrator called gatting circuit? The circuit is used to generate the rectangular waveform and hence can be used to gate other Circuits hence called gating circuit. 59, Why is monostable Multivibrator called delay circuit? The time between the transition from quasi-stable state to stable state can be predetermined and hence it can be used to introduce time delays with the help of fast transition. Due to this application is Called delay circuit. 60, What is the main characteristics of Astable Multivibrator The Astable Multivibrator automatically makes the successive transitions from one quasi- stable State to other without any external triggering pulse. 61, What is the other name of Astable Multivibrator- why is it called so? As it does not require any external pulse for transition, it is called free running Multivibrator. 62, What are the two types of transister bistable Multivibrator? i. Fixed bias transistor circuit ii. Self bias transistor circuit. 63, Why does one of the transistor start conducting ahead of other? The characteristic of both the transistors are never identical hence after giving supply one of the Transistors start conducting ahead of the other. 64, What are the two stable states of bistable Multivibrator? i. Q1 OFF (cut off) and Q2 ON (Saturation) ii. Q2 OFF (Cut off) and Q1 On (Saturation) 65, What finally decides the shape of the waveform for bistable multivibrator? The spacing of the triggering pulses 66, How are the values R1, R2 and VBB chosen in bistable Multivibrator?

It is chosen in such a way that in one state the base current is large enough to drive the transistor into saturation while in other state the emitter junctions is well below off. 67, What is the self biased Multivibrator? The need for the negative power supply in fixed bias bistable Multivibrator can be eliminated by rising a common emitter resistance RE. The resistance previous the necessary bias to keep one transistor or and the other OFF in the stable state such type of biasing is called self biasing and the circuit is called self biased bistable Multivibrator. 68, What are the other names of speed up capacitors. i. Commutating Capacitors ii. Transpose capacitors 69 Define transition time? It is defined as the time interval during which conduction transfers from one transistor to other. 70, What is the value of commutating capacitor. It lies in the range of tens to some hundreds of Pico farads. 71. Define resolving time. The smallest allowable interval between triggers is called resolving time. 72, Give the expression of fmax with respect to resolving time Fmax = 1/resolving time. 73, Define gate width The pulse width is the time for which the circuit remains in the quasi stable state. It is also called gate width. 74, What are the advantages of monostable Multivibrator. - used to introduce time delays as gate width is adjustable - used to produce rectangular waveform and hence can be used as gating circuit. 75, What are the applications of astable Multivibtrator. - used as a clock for binary login signals - used as a square wave generator, voltage to frequency converter. 76, What is a complementary Multivibrator It is turning half the circuit upside down. So one transistor is n-p-n while the other is p-n-p. The circuit is called complementary Multivibrator circuit. 77, What is UTP of the Schmitt trigger When Vi reaches to VBE1 +VE the Q1 gets driven to active region. This input voltage level is called upper threshold point. 78, What is the other name for UTP It is also called input turn on threshold level. 79, What is LTP Schmitt trigger. The level of Vi at which Q1 becomes OFF and Q2 on is called lower threshold

point. 80, Define transfer Characteristics The graph of output voltage against input voltage is called transfer characteristics of Schmitt trigger. 81, What is the important application of Schmitt trigger? - It is used as an amplitude comparator - It is used as a squaring circuit. 82, Define Blocking Oscillator? A special type of wave generator which is used to produce a single narrow pulse or train of pulses. 83, What are the two important elements of Blocking Oscillator? Transistor and pulse transformer 84, What are the applications of blocking Oscillator? It is used in frequency dividers, counter circuits and for switching the other circuits. 86, Give the expression for co-efficient of coupling K=M/LpLs M-> Mututal Inductance Lp -> Primary Inductance Ls -> Secondary Inductance 87, Give the formula for transformation ratio n= Ns/Np = transformation ratio Ns= Secondary Turns; Np= Primary turns 88, Define rise time It is defined by the time required by the pulse to rise from 10% of its amplitude to 90% of its amplitude. 89, Define overshoot. It is the amount by which the output exceeds its amplitude during first attempt. 90, Define flat top response. The position of the response between the trailing edge and the leading edge. 91, Define droop or a tilt The displacement of the pulse amplitude during its flat response is called droop or a tilt. 92, What are the applications of pulse transformer. i. to invert the polarity of the pulse ii. to differentiate pulse 93, When do the core saturates? When L->o as B-> Bm, the core saturates 94, What is the other name of astable Blocking Oscillator Free running blocking Oscillator 95, What are the two types of astable Blocking Oscillator?

1, Diode controlled Astable Blocking Oscillator. 2, Re controlled Astable Blocking Oscillator. 96, Define Sweeptime in sawtooth generator The period during which voltage increases linearly is called sweep time. 97, What is the other name of sawtooth generator? Ramp generator 98, Define Displacement error in the sawtooth generator? It is defined as the maximum differenece between the actual sweep voltage and linear sweep which passes through the beginning and end points of the actual sweep. 99, What is constant current charging? A capacitor is charged with a constant current source. 100, What is the miller circuit Integrator is used to convert a step waveform into ramp waveform. PART B 1, Explain bistable Multivibrator and its types? General form of bistable Multivibrator circuit. fixed Bias transistor bistable Multivibrator circuit self Bias transistor biastable Multivibrator circuit Applications 2, Explain about speedup capacitors or commutating capacitors Practical self biased bistable Multivibrator Explanation about the circuit 3, Explain about Monostable Multivibrator Explanation about the circuit diagram Pulse width of collector coupled Monostable Multivibrator Wareforms Applications 4, Explain about collector coupled astable Multivibrator Explanation about the circuit diagram Wareforms Distration & its eliminator Applications 5, Explain emitter coupled astable Multivibrator Operation and Mathematical analysis Practical circuit Advantages and disadvantages of the Multivibrator 6, Write in detail about Schmitt Trigger circuit? Circuit diagram Operation of the circuit Schmitt trigger wareforms. Hysterisis

Applications 7, Explain about pulse transformer? Ideal pulse transformer model Practical equivalent circuit Pulse response characteristics Applications of pulse transformer 8, Explain Monostable blocking oscillator using emitter timing? Circuit Diagram Mathematical analysis Expression for pulse width Triggering circuit for monostable blocking oscillator 9, Write about the core saturation method Circuit diagram Waveforms of ic and iB when core Saturates. 10, Write about astable blocking oscillator. Diode controlled astable blocking Oscillator RC controlled astable blocking Oscillator 11, Write about UJT sawtooth generator Operation Circuit diagram 12, What will happen when a step input voltage is applied to the high pass RC Circuit? Derivation The output Waveform 13 .Explain the relevant information ,how the negative feed back improves stability reduce noise and increase input impedance? Draw the circuit diagram. Explain detail the following transfer gain. stability of gain. The transfer of gain of the amplifier is not constant as it is depends upon the factors such as operating point temperature ,etc. This lack of stability can be reduced by introducing negative feed back. The signal feed back reduces the amount of the noise signal and non linear distortion. The factor (1+bA)reduces both input noise and resulting non linear distortion for considerable improvement. Thus ,noise and non linear distortion also reduced by same factor. 14.Explain voltage shunt feed back amplifiers? Draw the circuit diagram. Draw the equivalent circuit . Find the input and output impedance after feed back. 15.Explain current series feed back amplifiers? Draw the circuit diagram. Draw the equivalent circuit . Find the input and output impedance after feed back. 16.Explain the classification of amplifiers? Explain the following in detail. Voltage amplifier. Current amplifier. Trans conductance amplifier.

Trans resistance amplifier. 17.Explain current shunt and voltage shunt feed back amplifiers? Draw the circuit diagram. Draw the equivalent circuit . Find the input and output impedance after feed back. 18. With simple diagrams explain the operation of negative resistance oscillator using tunnel diode?. Draw the circuit diagram and graph. Draw the characteristics of tunnel diode. Get the expression for time period t . Draw the wave form for negative resistance oscillator. 19. Explain RC phase shift oscillator?. Draw the circuit diagram Draw the equivalent circuit. Derive the minimum value of hfe for oscillation. 20. Explain Clapp s oscillator and derive the expression for frequency of oscillation . Also explain how frequency stability can be improved Clapp s oscillator.? Draw the circuit diagram Draw the equivalent circuit. Derive the frequency of oscillation. 21. Explain Hartly oscillator and derive the equation for oscillation ? Draw the circuit diagram Draw the equivalent circuit. Derive the frequency of oscillation. 22. Explain pierce crystal oscillator and derive the equation for oscillation? Draw the circuit diagram Draw the equivalent circuit. Derive the frequency of oscillation. 23. Explain in detail about single tuned amplifier Draw the circuit diagram Draw the equivalent circuit. Derive the expression for band width 24. Explain in detail about double tuned amplifier Draw the circuit diagram Draw the equivalent circuit. Derive the expression for band width 25. Explain in detail about stagger-tuned amplifier Draw the circuit diagram Draw the equivalent circuit. Derive the expression for band width 26. Compare single tuned and double tuned amplifier Compare the circuit diagram Compare the equivalent circuit. Compare the expression for band width 27. Explain the different types of neutralization? Explain Hazeltine neutralization Explain Rice neutralization. Explain Neutrodyne neutralization

Quick Revision for Logic Circuits Digital Logic Circuits 1) Given the two binary numbers X = 1010100 and Y = 1000011, perform the subtraction (a) X -Y and (b) Y - X using 2 s complements. a) X = 1010100 2 s complement of Y = + 0111101 -------------Sum = 10010001 Discard end carry

Answer: X - Y = 0010001 b) Y = 1000011 2 s complement of X = + 0101100 --------------Sum = 1101111 There is no end carry, Therefore the answer is Y-X = -(2 s complement of 1101111) = -0010001 2). Given the two binary numbers X = 1010100 and Y = 1000011, perform the subtraction (a) X -Y and (b) Y - X using 1 s complements. a). X - Y = 1010100 - 1000011 X = 1010100 1 s complement of Y = + 0111100 -------------Sum = 10010000 End -around carry = + 1 -------------Answer: X - Y = 0010001 b). Y - X = 1000011 - 1010100 Y = 1000011 1 s complement of X = + 0101011 ----------Sum = + 1101110 There is no end carry. Therefore the answer is Y - X = -(1 s complement of 1101110) = -0010001 3). What is meant by parity bit? A parity bit is an extra bit included with a message to make the total number of 1 s either even or odd. Consider the following two characters and their even and odd parity: With even parity With odd parity ASCII A = 1000001 01000001 11000001 ASCII T = 1010100 11010100 01010100 In each case we add an extra bit in the left most position of the code to produce an even number of 1 s in the character for even parity or an odd number of 1 s in the character for odd parity. The parity bit is helpful in detecting errors during the transmission of information from one location to another. 4).What are registers? register is a group of binary cells. A register with n cells can store any discrete quantity of information that contains n bits. The state of a register is an n-tuple number of 1 s and 0 s, with each bit designating the state of one cell in the register. 5). What is meant by register transfer? A register transfer operation is a basic operation in digital systems. It consists of transfer of binary information from one set of registers into another set of registers. The transfer may be direct from one register to another, or may pass through data processing circuits to perform an operation.

6). Define binary logic? Binary logic consists of binary variables and logical operations. The variables are designated by the alphabets such as A, B, C, x, y, z, etc., with each variable having only two distinct values: 1 and 0. There are three basic logic operations: AND, OR, and NOT. 7). Define logic gates? Logic gates are electronic circuits that operate on one or more input signals to produce an output signal. Electrical signals such as voltages or currents exist throughout a digital system in either of two recognizable values. Voltage- operated circuits respond to two separate voltage levels that represent a binary variable equal to logic 1 or logic 0. 8).Define duality property. Duality property states that every algebraic expression deducible from the postulates of Boolean algebra remains valid if the operators and identity elements are interchanged. If the dual of an algebraic expression is desired, we simply interchange OR and AND operators and replace 1 s by 0 s and 0 s by 1 s. 9).Find the complement of the functions F1 = x yz + x y z and F2 = x(y z + yz). By applying De Morgan s theorem as many times as necessary. F1 = (x yz + x y z) = (x yz ) (x y z) = (x + y + z)(x + y +z ) F2 = [x(y z + yz)] = x + (y z + yz) = x + (y z ) (yz) = x + (y + z)(y + z ) 10).Find the complements of the functions F1 = x yz + x y z and F2 = x(y z + yz). by taking their duals and complementing each literal. F1 = x yz + x y z The dual of F1 is (x + y + z )(x + y + z) Complementing each literal: (x + y + z)(x + y + z ) F2 = x(y z + yz). The dual of F2 is x + (y + z )(y + z). Complement of each literal: x + (y + z)(y + z ) 11).State De Morgan s theorem. De Morgan suggested two theorems that form important part of Boolean algebra. They are, 1) The complement of a product is equal to the sum of the complements. (AB) = A + B 2) The complement of a sum term is equal to the product of the complements. (A + B) = A B 12).Reduce A.A C A.A C = 0.c [A.A = 1] =0 13). Reduce A(A + B) A(A + B) = AA + AB = A(1 + B) [1 + B = 1] = A. 14. Reduce A B C + A BC + A BC

A B C + A BC + A BC = A C (B + B) + A B C = A C + A BC [A + A = 1] = A (C + BC) = A (C + B) [A + A B = A + B] 15.) Reduce AB + (AC) + AB C(AB + C) AB + (AC) + AB C(AB + C) = AB + (AC) + AAB BC + AB CC = AB + (AC) + AB CC [A.A = 0] = AB + (AC) + AB C [A.A = 1] = AB + A + C =AB C [(AB) = A + B ] = A + B + C + AB C [A + AB = A + B] = A + B C + B + C [A + A B = A + B] =A +B+C +BC =A + B + C + B =A + C + 1 = 1 [A + 1 =1] 16. Simplify the following expression Y = (A + B)(A + C )(B + C ) Y = (A + B)(A + C )(B + C ) = (AA + AC +A B +BC )(B + C ) [A.A = 0] = (AC + A B + BC)(B + C ) = AB C + ACC + A BB + A BC + BB C + BCC = AB C + A BC 17).Simplify the following using De Morgan s theorem [((AB) C) D] [((AB) C) D] = ((AB) C) + D [(AB) = A + B ] = (AB) C + D = (A + B )C + D 18.Show that (X + Y + XY)( X + Y )(X Y) = 0 (X + Y + XY)( X + Y )(X Y) = (X + Y + X)(X + Y )(X + Y) [A + A B = A + B] = (X + Y )(X + Y )(X Y) [A + A = 1] = (X + Y )(X Y) [A.A = 1] = X.X + Y .X .Y = 0 [A.A = 0] 19).Prove that ABC + ABC + AB C + A BC = AB + AC + BC ABC + ABC + AB C + A BC =AB(C + C ) + AB C + A BC =AB + AB C + A BC =A(B + B C) + A BC =A(B + C) + A BC =AB + AC + A BC =B(A + C) + AC =AB + BC + AC =AB + AC +BC ...Proved 20).Convert the given expression in canonical SOP form Y = AC + AB + BC Y = AC + AB + BC =AC(B + B ) + AB(C + C ) + (A + A )BC

=ABC + ABC + AB C + AB C + ABC + ABC + ABC =ABC + ABC +AB C + AB C [A + A =1] 21).Convert the given expression in canonical POS form Y = ( A + B)(B + C)(A + C) Y = ( A + B)(B + C)(A + C) = (A + B + C.C )(B + C + A.A )(A + B.B + C) = (A + B + C)(A + B + C )(A + B +C)(A + B +C)(A + B + C)(A + B + C) [A + BC = (A + B)(A + C) Distributive law] = (A + B + C)(A + B + C )(A + B + C)(A + B + C)(A + B + C) 22). Find the minterms of the logical expression Y = A B C + A B C + A BC + ABC Y = A B C + A B C + A BC + ABC =m0 + m1 +m3 +m6 = P 23).Write the maxterms corresponding to the logical expression Y = (A + B + C )(A + B + C )(A + B + C) Y = (A + B + C )(A + B + C )(A + B + C) =M1.M3.M6 =0 24).Convert (4021.2)5 to its equivalent decimal. (4021.2)5 = 4 x 53 + 0 x 52 + 2 x 51 + 1 x 50 + 2 x 5-1 = (511.4)10 25) Using 10 s complement subtract 72532 - 3250 M = 72532 10 s complement of N = + 96750 ----------Sum = 169282 Discard end carry Answer = 69282 26) What are called don t care conditions? In some logic circuits certain input conditions never occur, therefore the corresponding output never appears. In such cases the output level is not defined, it can be either high or low. These output levels are indicated by X or d in the truth tables and are called don t care conditions or incompletely specified functions. 27) Write down the steps in implementing a Boolean function with levels of NAND Gates? Simplify the function and express it in sum of products. Draw a NAND gate for each product term of the expression that has at least two literals. The inputs to each NAND gate are the literals of the term. This constitutes a group of first level gates. Draw a single gate using the AND-invert or the invert-OR graphic symbol in the second level, with inputs coming from outputs of first level gates. A term with a single literal requires an inverter in the first level. How ever if the single literal is complemented, it can be connected directly to an input of the second level NAND gate. 28) Give the general procedure for converting a Boolean expression in to multilevel NAND

diagram? Draw the AND-OR diagram of the Boolean expression. Convert all AND gates to NAND gates with AND-invert graphic symbols. Convert all OR gates to NAND gates with invert-OR graphic symbols. Check all the bubbles in the same diagram. For every bubble that is not compensated by another circle along the same line, insert an inverter or complement the input literal. 29) What are combinational circuits? A combinational circuit consists of logic gates whose outputs at any time are determined from the present combination of inputs. A combinational circuit performs an operation that can be specified logically by a set of Boolean functions. It consists of input variables, logic gates, and output variables. 30) Give the design procedures for the designing of a combinational circuit. The procedure involves the following steps, From the specification of the circuit, determine the required number of inputs and outputs and assign a symbol to each. Derive the truth table that defines the required relationships between inputs and outputs. Obtain the simplified Boolean functions for each output as a function of the input variables. Draw the logic diagram and verify the correctness of the design. 31) Define half adder. A combinational circuit that performs the addition of two bits is called a half adder. A half adder needs two binary inputs and two binary outputs. The input variables designate the augend and addend bits; the output variables produce the sum and carry 32) Define full adder? A combinational circuit that performs the adtion of three bits is a full adder.It consists of three inputs and two outputs. 33) Define binary adder. A binary adder is a digital circuit that produces the arithmetic sum of two binary numbers. It can be constructed with full adders constructed in cascade, with the output carry from each full adder connected to the input carry of the next full adder in the chain. 34) What is overflow? Over flow is a problem in digital computers because the number of bits that hold the number is finite and a result that contains n + 1 bits cannot be accommodated. For this reason many computers detect the occurrence of an overflow, and when it occurs a corresponding flip flop is set that can be checked by the user. An overflow condition can be detected by observing the carry into sign bit position and the carry out of the sign bit position. If these two carries are not equal, an overflow has occurred. 35) Define magnitude comparator? A magnitude comparator is a combinational circuit that compares two numbers, A and B, and determines their relative magnitudes. The outcome of the comparison is specified by three binary variables that indicate whether a>b, A = b, or A < B. 36) What are decoders? A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from n input lines to a

maximum of 2n unique output lines. If the n bit coded information has unused combinations, he decoder may have fewer than 2n outputs. 37) What are encoders? An encoder is a digital circuit that performs the inverse operation of a decoder. An encoder has 2n and n output lines. The output lines generate the binary code corresponding to the input value. 38) Define priority encoder? A priority encoder is an encoder circuit that includes the priority function. The operation of priority encoder is such that if two or more inputs are equal to 1 at the same time, the input having the highest priority will take precedence. 39) Define multiplexer? A multiplexer is combinational circuit that selects binary information from one of many input lines and directs it to a single output line. The selection of a particular input line is controlled by a set of selection lines. Normally there are 2n input lines and n selection lines whose bit combinations determine which input is selected. 40) Define binary decoder? A decoder which has an n- bit binary input code and a one activated output out-of -2n output code is called binary decoder. A binary decoder is used when it is necessary to activate exactly one of 2n outputs based on an n-bit input value. 41. Represent binary number 1101 - 101 in power of 2 and find its decimal equivalent N = 1 x 2 3 + 1 x 2 2 + 0 x 2 1 + 1 x 2 0 + 1 x 2 -1 + 0 x 2 -2 + 1 x 2 -3 = 13.625 10 42. Convert (634) 8 to binary 634 110 011 100 Ans = 110 011 100 43. Convert (9 B 2 - 1A) H to its decimal equivalent. N = 9 x 16 2 + B x 16 1 + 2 x 16 0 + 1 x 16 -1 + A (10) x 16 -2 = 2304 + 176 + 2 + 0.0625 + 0.039 = 2482.1 10 44. What are the different classification of binary codes? 1. Weighted codes 2. Non - weighted codes 3. Reflective codes . Sequential codes 5. Alphanumeric codes 6. Error Detecting and correcting codes. 45. Convert 0.640625 decimal number to its octal equivalent. 0.640625 x 8 = 5.125 0.125 x 8 = 1.0 Ans. = 0.640 625 10 = 0.51 46. Convert 0.1289062 decimal number to its hex equivalent

0.1289062 x 16 = 2.0625 0.0625 x 16 = 1.0 Ans. = 0.21 16 47. Convert decimal number 22.64 to hexadecimal number. 16 22 -6 16 1 -1 0 0.64 x 16 = 10.24 0.24 x 16 = 3.84 0.84 x 16 = 13.44 .44 x 16 = 7.04 Ans. = (16 . A 3 D 7) 16.3 48. What are the two steps in Gray to binary conversion? The MSB of the binary number is the same as the MSB of the gray code number. So write it down.To obtain the next binary digit, perform an exclusive OR operation b/n the bit just written down and the next gray code bit. Write down the result. 49. Convert gray code 101011 into its binary equivalent. Gray Code : 1 0 1 0 1 1 Binary Code 1 1 0 0 1 0 50. Convert 10111011 is binary into its equivalent gray code. Binary Code: 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 Gray code : 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1010 0011 1101 52. Substract (0 1 0 1) 2 from (1 0 1 1) 2 1010 0101 0110 53. Find 2 S complement of (1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1) 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 s Complement +00000001 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 s complement. 54. Substract 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 from 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 using 2 s complement method 101011 + 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 s comp. of 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 Ans. in 2 s complement form - 0 0 1 1 1 0 Answer in true form. 55. What are the advantages of 1 s complement subtraction? 1) The 1 s complement subtraction can be accomplished with an binary adder. Therefore, this method is useful in arithmetic logic circuits. 2) The is complement of a number is easily obtained by inverting each bit in the

number 56. Find the excess -3 code and 9 s complement of the number 403 10 403 010000000011 001100110011+ 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 excess 3 code 9 s complement 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 57. Write the names of basic logical operators. 1. NOT / INVERT 2. AND 3. OR 58. Simplify the following expression y = (A + B) (A = C) (B + C) = (A A + A C + A B + B C) (B + C) = (A C + A B + B C) (B + C) =ABC+ACC+ABB+ABC+BBC+BCC =ABC=ABC 59. Show that the NAND connection is not associative The NAND connection is not associative says that A . B . C A . B. C A.B+CA+BC AB + C A + BC 60. What is a Logic gate? Logic gates are the basic elements that make up a digital system. The electronic gate is a circuit that is able to operate on a number of binary inputs in order to perform a particular logical function. 61. Write the names of Universal gates. 1. NAND gate 2. NOR gate 62. Why are NAND and NOR gates known as universal gates? The NAND and NOR gates are known as universal gates, since any logic function can be implemented using NAND or NOR gates. 63. Define combinational logic When logic gates are connected together to produce a specified output for certain specified combinations of input variables, with no storage involved, the resulting circuit is called combinational logic. 64. Explain the design procedure for combinational circuits The problem definition The determination of number of available input variables & required O/P variables. Assigning letter symbols to I/O variables Obtain simplified boolean expression for each O/P.

Obtain the logic diagram. 65. Define half adder and full adder The logic circuit which performs the addition of two bits is a half adder. The circuit which performs the addition of three bits is a full adder. 66. Define Decoder? A decoder is a multiple - input multiple output logic circuit which converts coded inputs into coded outputs where the input and output codes are different. 67. What is binary decoder? A decoder which has an n-bit binary i/p code and a one activated output out of 2l. output code is called binary decoder. It is used when it is necessary to activate exactly one of 2 n out puts based on an n - bit input value. 68. Define Encoder? An encoder has 2n input lines and n output lines. In encoder the output lines generate the binary code corresponding to the input value. 69. What is priority Encoder? A priority encoder is an encoder circuit that includes the priority function. In priority encoder, if 2 or more inputs are equal to 1 at the same time, the input having the highest priority will take precedence. 70. Define multiplexer? Multiplexer is a digital switch. If allows digital information from several sources to be routed onto a single output line. 71. What do you mean by comparator A comparator is a special combinational circuit designed primarily to compare the relative magnitude of two binary numbers. 72. List basic types of programmable logic devices. 1. Read only memory 2. Programmable logic Array 3. Programmable Array Logic 73. Define ROM A read only memory is a device that includes both the decoder and the OR gates within a single IC package. 74. Define address and word: In a ROM, each bit combination of the input variable is called on address. Each bit combination that comes out of the output lines is called a word. 75. What are the types of ROM 1. Masked ROM. 2. Programmable Read only Memory 3. Erasable Programmable Read only memory. 4. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory. 76. What is programmable logic array? How it differs from ROM? In some cases the number of don t care conditions is excessive, it is more economical to use a second type of LSI component called a PLA

A PLA is similar to a ROM in concept; however it does not provide full decoding of the variables and does not generates all the minterms as in the ROM..12 77. What is mask - programmable? With a mask programmable PLA, the user must submit a PLA PLA program table to the manufacturer. 78. What is field programmable logic array? The second type of PLA is called a field programmable logic array. The EPLA can be programmed by the user by means of certain recommended procedures. 79. Give the comparison between prom and PLA. PROM PLA 1. And array is fixed and or Both AND and OR arrays are array is programmable. Programmable. 2. Cheaper and simple to use. Costliest and complex than PROMS. 80. Define even parity In even parity the added parity bit will make the total number of 1s an even amount. 81. Define sequential circuit? In sequential circuits the output variables dependent not only on the present input variables but they also depend up on the past history of these input variables. 82. Give the comparison between combinational circuits and sequential circuits. Memory unit is not required Memory unity is required Parallel adder is a combinational circuit Serial adder is a sequential circuit 83. What do you mean by present state? The information stored in the memory elements at any given time define s the present state of the sequential circuit. 84. What do you mean by next state? The present state and the external inputs determine the outputs and the next state of the sequential circuit. 85. What are the types of sequential circuits? 1. Synchronous sequential circuits 2. Asynchronous sequential circuits 86. Define synchronous sequential circuit In synchronous sequential circuits, signals can affect the memory elements only at discrete instant of time. 87. Define Asynchronous sequential circuit? In asynchronous sequential circuits change in input signals can affect memory element at any instant of time 88. Define flip-flop Flip - flop is a sequential device that normally. samples its inputs and changes its outputs only at times determined by clocking signal. 89. List various types of flip-flop 1] S.R. latch 2] D latch

3] Clocked J.K. flip-flop 4] T flip-flop 90. What is race around condition? In the JK latch, the output is feedback to the input, and therefore change in the output results change in the input. Due to this in the positive half of the clock pulse if J and K are both high then output toggles continuously. This condition is known as race around condition. 91. Define rise time and fall time? The time required to change the voltage level from 10% to 90% is known as rise time, and the time required to change the voltage level from 90% to 10% is known as fall time. 92. Define propagation Delay? A propagation delay is the time required to change the output after application of the input. 93. Define shift Registers The binary information in a register can be moved from stage to stage within the register or into or out of the register upon application of clock pulses. This type of bit movement or shifting is essential for certain arithmetic and logic operations used in microprocessors. This gives rise to a group of registers called shift registers. 94. What are the types of shift register? 1. Serial in serial out shift register? 2. Serial in parallel out shift register 3. Parallel in serial out shift register 4. Parallel in parallel out shift register 5. Bidirectional shift register shift register. 95. What are the types of counter? 1. Synchronous counter 2. Asynchronous Counter 96. What are the two models in synchronous sequential circuits. 1. Moore circuit 2. Mealy circuit 97. What is moore circuit? When the output of the sequential circuit depends only on the present state of the flip-flop, the sequential circuit is referred to as moore circuit. 98. What is Mealy circuit? When the output of the sequential circuit depends on both the present state of flipflop and on the input, the sequential circuit is referred to as mealy circuit. 99. Define successor In a state diagram, if an input sequence, x takes a machine from state si to state sj, then sj is said to be the x - successor of si. 100. Define strongly connected machine? In a sequential machine many times certain subsets of states may not be reachable

from other subsets of states, even if the machine does not contain any terminal state. However, if for every pair of states si, sj of a sequential machine, there eights an input sequence which takes M from Si to Sj then sequential machine M is said to be strongly connected.

Quick revision for Electromagnetism 1.State stokes theorem. The line integral of a vector around a closed path is equal to the surface integral of the normal component of its curl over any surface bounded by the path H.dl = (xH)ds 2.State coulombs law. Coulombs law states that the force between any two point charges is directly proportional to the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It is directed along the line joining the two charges. F=Q1Q2 / 4r2 ar 3.State Gauss law for electric fields The total electric flux passing through any closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed by that surface. 4.Define electric flux. The lines of electric force is electric flux. 5.Define electric flux density. Electric flux density is defined as electric flux per unit area. 6.Define electric field intensity. Electric field intensity is defined as the electric force per unit positive charge. E =F/ Q =Q/4r2 V/m Electro Magnetic Theory 7.Name few applications of Gauss law in electrostatics. Gauss law is applied to find the electric field intensity from a closed surface.e.g)Electric field can be

determined for shell, two concentric shell or cylinders etc. 8.What is a point charge? Point charge is one whose maximum dimension is very small in comparison with any other length. 9.Define linear charge density. It is the charge per unit length. 10.Write poisson s and laplace s equations. Poisson s eqn: 2V= - v / Laplace s eqn: 2V= 0 11.State the condition for the vector F to be solenoidal. F =0 12. .State the condition for the vector F to be irrotational. xF =0 13.Define potential difference. Potential difference is defined as the work done in moving a unit positive charge from one point to another point in an electric field. 14.Define potential. Potential at any point is defined as the work done in moving a unit positive charge from infinity to that point in an electric field. V=Q / 4r 15.Give the relation between electric field intensity and electric flux density. D=E C/m2 16.Give the relationship between potential gradiant and electric field. E= - V 17.What is the physical significance of div D ? D=-v The divergence of a vector flux density is electric flux per unit volume leaving a small volume. This is equal to the volume charge density. 18. Define current density. Current density is defined as the current per unit area. J= I/A Amp/m2 19.Write the point form of continuity equation and explain its significance. J= - v / t 20.Write the expression for energy density in electrostatic field. W=1 / 2 E2 21.Write the boundary conditions at the interface between two perfect dielectrics. i)The tangential component of electric field is continuous i.e)Et1=Et2 ii)The normal component of electric flux density is continuous I.e)Dn1=Dn2 22.Write down the expression for capacitance between two parallel plates. C=A / d

23.What is meant by displacement current? Displacement current is nothing but the current flowing through capacitor. J= D / t 24.State point form of ohms law. Point form of ohms law states that the field strength within a conductor is proportional to the current density.J=E 25 Define surface charge density. It is the charge per surface area. 26.State amperes circuital law. Magnetic field intensity around a closed path is equal to the current enclosed by the path. Hdl=I 27.State Biot Savarts law. It states that the magnetic flux density at any point due to current element is proportional to the current element and sine of the angle between the elemental length and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them dB= 0Idl sin / 4r2 28.Define magnetic vector potential. It is defined as that quantity whose curl gives the magnetic flux density. B= x A = / 4 J/r dv web/m2 29.Write down the expression for magnetic field at the centre of the circular coil. H = I/2a. 30.Give the relation between magnetic flux density and magnetic field intensity. B= H 31.Write down the magnetic boundary conditions. i) The normal components of flux density B is continuous across the boundary. ii) The tangential component of field intensity is continuous across the boundary. 32.Give the force on a current element. dF = BIdlsin 33..Define magnetic moment. Magnetic moment is defined as the maximum torque per magnetic induction of flux density. m=IA 34.State Gauss law for magnetic field. The total magnetic flux passing through any closed surface is equal to zero. B.ds =0 35.Define a wave. If a physical phenomenon that occurs at one place at a given time is reproduced at other places at later times , the time delay being proportional to the space separation from the first location then the group of phenomena constitutes a wave. 36. Mention the properties of uniform plane wave. i) At every point in space ,the electric field E and magnetic field H are perpendicular to each other. ii)The fields vary harmonically with time and at the same frequency everywhere in space.

37.Write down the wave equation for E and H in free space. 2H 00 2H / t 2 =0. 38.Define intrinsic impedance or characteristic impedance. It is the ratio of electric field to magnetic field.or It is the ratio of square root of permeability to permittivity of medium. 39.Give the characteristic impedance of free space. 377ohms 40.Define propagation constant. Propagation constant is a complex number = +j where is attenuation constant is phase constant = j ( +j) 41.Define skin depth It is defined as that depth in which the wave has been attenuated to 1/e or approximately 37% of its original value. = 1/ = 2 / j 42.Define Poynting vector. The poynting vector is defined as rate of flow of energy of a wave as it propagates. P =E X H 43. State Poyntings Theorem. The net power flowing out of a given volume is equal to the time rate of decrease of the the energy stored within the volume- conduction losses. 44.Give significant physical difference between poisons and laplaces equations. When the region contains charges poisons equation is used and when there is no charges laplaces equation is applied. 45.Give the difficulties in FDM. FDM is difficult to apply for problems involving irregular boundaries and non homogenious material properties. 46.Explain the steps in finite element method. i) Discretisation of the solution region into elements. ii) Generation of equations for fields at each element iii) Assembly of all elements iv) Solution of the resulting system 47.State Maxwells fourth equation. The net magnetic flux emerging through any closed surface is zero. 48. State Maxwells Third equation The total electric displacement through the surface enclosing a volume is equal to the total charge within the volume. 49.State the principle of superposition of fields. The total electric field at a point is the algebraic sum of the individual electric field at that point.

50.Define ohms law at a point Ohms law at appoint states that the field strength within a conductor is proportional to current density. 51.Define self inductance. Self inductance is defined as the rate of total magnetic flux linkage to the current through the coil. 52.Define pointing vector. The vector product of electric field intensity and magnetic field intensity at a point is a measure of the rate of energy flow per unit area at that point. 53.Give the formula to find potential at a point which is surrounded by four orthogonal points in FDM. V0= (V1+V2+V3+V4) 54.Give the formula to find potential at a point which is surrounded by six orthogonal points in FDM. V0= (V1+V2+V3+V4 +V5+V6) 55.State Lenz law. Lenz s law states that the induced emf in a circuit produces a current which opposes the change in magnetic flux producing it. 56.What is the effect of permittivity on the force between two charges? Increase in permittivity of the medium tends to decrease the force between two charges and decrease in permittivity of the medium tends to increase the force between two charges. 57.State electric displacement. The electric flux or electric displacement through a closed surface is equal to the charge enclosed by the surface. 58.What is displacement flux density? The electric displacement per unit area is known as electric displacement density or electric flux density. 59.What is the significance of displacement current? The concept of displacement current was introduced to justify the production of magnetic field in empty space. It signifies that a changing electric field induces a magnetic field .In empty space the conduction current is zero and the magnetic fields are entirely due to displacement current. 60.Distinguish between conduction and displacement currents. The current through a resistive element is termed as conduction current whereas the current through a capacitive element is termed as displacement current. 61.Define magnetic field strength. The magnetic field strength (H) is a vector having the same direction as magnetic flux density. H=B/ 62.Give the formula to find the force between two parallel current carrying conductors.

F= I I1 / 2R 63.Give the expression for torque experienced by a current carrying loop situated in a magnetic field. T = IABsin 64 What is torque on a solenoid? T = NIABsin 65.Explain the conservative property of electric field. The work done in moving a point charge around a closed path in a electric field is zero. Such a field is said to be conservative. E.dl = 0 66.Write he expression for field intensity due to a toroid carrying a filamentary current ? I H=NI / 2R 67.What are equipotential surfaces? An equipotential surface is a surface in which the potential energy at every point is of the same vale. 68.Define loss tangent. Loss tangent is the ratio of the magnitude of conduction current density to displacement current density of the medium. Tan = / 69.Defie reflection and transmission coefficients. Reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the reflected field to that of the incident field. 70. Define transmission coefficients. Transmission coefficient is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the transmitted field to that of incident field. 71.What will happen when the wave is incident obliquely over dielectric dielectric boundary? When a plane wave is incident obliquely on the surface of a perfect dielectric part of the energy is transmitted and part of it is reflected .But in this case the transmitted wave will be refracted, that is the direction of propagation is altered. 72.What is the expression for energy stored in a magnetic field? W = LI2 73.What is energy density in magnetic field? W = H2 74.Distinguish between solenoid and toroid. Solenoid is a cylindrically shaped coil consisting of a large number of closely spaced turns of insulated wire wound usually on a non magnetic frame. If a long slender solenoid is bent into the form of a ring and there by closed on itself it becomes a toroid. 75.Describe what are the sources of electric field and magnetic field? Stationary charges produce electric field that are constant in time, hence the term electrostatics. Moving charges produce magnetic fields hence the term magnetostatics. 76.What are the significant physical differences between Poisson s and laplace s

equations. Poisson s and laplace s equations are useful for determining the electrostatic potential V in regions whose boundaries are known. When the region of interest contains charges poissons equation can be used to find the potential. When the region is free from charge laplace equation is used to find the potential. 77.State Divergence Theorem. The integral of the divergence of a vector over a volume v is equal to the surface integral of the normal component of the vector over the surface bounded by the volume. 78.Give the expression for electric field intensity due to a single shell of charge E = Q / 4r2 79.Give the expression for potential between two spherical shells V= 1/ 4 (Q1/a Q2/b) 80.Define electric dipole. Electric dipole is nothing but two equal and opposite point charges separated by a finite distance. 81.What is electrostatic force? The force between any two particles due to existing charges is known as electrostatic force, repulsive for like and attractive for unlike. 82.Define divergence. The divergence of a vector F at any point is defined as the limit of its surface integral per unit volume as the volume enclosed by the surface around the point shrinks to zero. 83.How is electric energy stored in a capacitor? In a capacitor, the work done in charging a capacitor is stored in the form of electric energy. 84.What are dielectrics? Dielectrics are materials that may not conduct electricity through it but on applying electric field induced charges are produced on its faces .The valence electron in atoms of a dielectric are tightly bound to their nucleus. 85.What is a capacitor? A capacitor is an electrical device composed of two conductors which are separated through a dielectric medium and which can store equal and opposite charges ,independent of whether other conductors in the system are charged or not. 86.Define dielectric strength. The dielectric strength of a dielectric is defined as the maximum value of electric field that can b applied to the dielectric without its electric breakdown. 87.What meaning would you give to the capacitance of a single conductor? A single conductor also possess capacitance. It is a capacitor whose one plate is at infinity. 88.Why water has much greater dielectric constant than mica.? Water has a much greater dielectric constant than mica .because water ha a permanent dipole moment, while mica does not have. 89.What is lorentz force?

Lorentz force is the force experienced by the test charge .It is maximum if the direction of movement of charge is perpendicular to the orientation of field lines. 90.Define magnetic moment. Magnetic moment is defined as the maximum torque on the loop per unit magnetic induction. 91.Define inductance. The inductance of a conductor is defined as the ratio of the linking magnetic flux to the current producing the flux. L = N / I 92.What is main cause of eddy current? The main cause of eddy current is that it produces ohmic power loss and causes local heating. 93.How can the eddy current losses be eliminated? The eddy current losses can be eliminated by providing laminations. It can be proved that the total eddy current power loss decreases as the number of laminations increases. 94.What is the fundamental difference between static electric and magnetic field lines? There is a fundamental difference between static electric and magnetic field lines .The tubes of electric flux originate and terminates on charges, whereas magnetic flux tubes are continuous. 95.What are uniform plane waves? Electromagnetic waves which consist of electric and magnetic fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation and are uniform in plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation are known as uniform plane waves. 96.Write short notes on imperfect dielectrics. A material is classified as an imperfect dielectrics for <<, that is conduction current density is small in magnitude compared to the displacement current density. 97.What is the significant feature of wave propagation in an imperfect dielectric ? The only significant feature of wave propagation in an imperfect dielectric compared to that in a perfect dielectric is the attenuation undergone by the wave. 98.What is the major drawback of finite difference method? The major drawback of finite difference method is its inability to handle curved boundaries accurately. 99.What is method of images? The replacement of the actual problem with boundaries by an enlarged region or with image charges but no boundaries is called the method of images. 100.When is method of images used? Method of images is used in solving problems of one or more point charges in the presence of boundary surfaces. Part-B 1.Find the electric field intensity of a straight uniformly charged wire of length L m and having a linear charge density of + C/m at any point at a distance of h m. Hence deduce the expression for infinitely long conductor. Hints: Field due to charge element is given by:

dE = di/ 4r2 Ex= [cos 1+cos2] /4h Ey= [sin 1-sin2] /4h For infinitely long conductor E = l / 4h 2.Derive the boundary relations for electric fields. Hints: i)The tangential component of the electric field is continuous at the surface .Et1 = Et2 ii)The normal component of the electric flux density is continuous if there is no surface charge density. Dn1 = Dn2 3.Find the electric field intensity produced by a point charge distribution at P(1,1,1)caused by four identical 3nC point charges located at P1(1,1,0) P2(-1,1,0) P3(-1,-1,0) and P4(1,-1,0). Hints: Find the field intensity at P by using the formula Ep = 1/4[( Q1/r1p 2 u1p ) +(q2/r2p 2 u2p) +(q3/r3p 2 u3p)+(q4/r4p 2)u4p)] 4.A circular disc of radius a m is charged with a charge density of C/m2 .Find the electric field intensity at a point h m from the disc along its axis. Hints: Find the field due to the tangential and normal components Total field is given by E =s /2 [1-cos ] 5. Four positive charges of 10 9 C each are situated in the XY plane at points (0,0) (0,1) (1,0) and (1,1).Find the electric field intensity and potential at (1/2 ,1/2). Hints: Find the field intensity at point using the formula E = Q / 4r2 ur Find the potential at point using the formula V = Q / 4r Find the field intensity at the point due to all four charges by using the superposition principle. 6. Given a electric field E = (-6y/x2) x + 6/x y + 5 z .Find the potential difference VAB given A(-7,2,1) and B( 4,1,2) Hint: Find the potential using the formula v=-/E.dl and substitute the points

7.Derive an expression for potential difference between two points in an electric field. Hint: The potential difference between two points r1 and r2 is V = V1 V2 V = Q / 4r1 _ Q / 4r 2 8.Find the magnetic flux density at a point Z on the axis of a circular loop of radius a that carries a direct current I. Hints: The magnetic flux density at a point due to the current element is given by dB = Idl / 4 r2 B = Ia2 / 2(a2 + z2)3/2 9.Determine the force per meter length between two long parallel wires A and B separated by 5cm in air and carrying currents of 40A in the same direction. Hints: Calculate the force per metre length using the formula F/L = I1I2 / 2d In the same direction force is attractive. 10.Derive an expression for magnetic vector potential. Hint: magnetic vector potential is A = / 4 ///J / r dv 11.Derive the magnetic boundary relations. i)The tangential component of the magnetic field is continuous across the boundary .Ht1 = Ht2 ii)The normal component of the magnetic flux density is continuous across the boundary Dn1 = Dn2 12.Find the magnetic field intensity at a distance h m above an infinite straight wire carrying a steady current I. Hints: The magnetic flux density is calculated starting from Biot savarts law. The magnetic flux density at any point due to an infinite long conductor is given by B = I / 2d 13.Two conducting concentric spherical shells with radii a and b are at potentials V0 and 0 respectively. Determine the capacitance of the capacitor. Hint: Derive the capacitance between concentric spheres using the formula C = Q /V = 4 [ ab /(b-a) ] 14State and derive an expression for Poyntings theorem. Hints: The net power flowing out of a given volume v is equal to the time rate of decrease of the energy stored

within the volume minus the conduction losses. 15.Find the forces /length between two long straight parallel conductors carrying a current of 10A in the same direction. A distance of 0.2m separates the conductors. Also find the force/length when the conductors carry currents in opposite directions. Hints: Calculate the force per metre length using the formula F/L = I1I2 / 2d In opposite direction force is repulsive 16 Derive an expression for torque acting on a loop. Hints When a current loop is placed parallel to a magnetic field forces act on the loop that tends to rotate the tangential force times the radial distance at which it acts is called torque or mechanicl moment of the loop. T=mXB 17.Derive an expression for energy and energy density in a electric field. Energy =CV2/2 Energy density = E2/2 18. .Derive an expression for energy and energy density in a magnetic field. Energy =LI2/2 Energy density = H2/2 19.Derive all the maxwells equations. Hints: i)Maxwells equation from electric Gauss law. ii) Maxwells equation from magnetic Gauss law. iii)Maxwells equation from Amperes law. iv) Maxwells equation from Faradays law. 20.Derive an expression for displacement, conduction current densities. Also obtain an expression for continuity current relations Hints: Displacement current density Jd = E/t Conduction current density Jcond = E 21.Derive the general Electromagnetic wave equation. Hint: Starting from the maxwells equation from Faradays law and Amperes law derive the Equation 2 E - ( E/ t )- (2 E/t2 ) 22.Briefly explain reflection by a perfect dielectric when a wave is incident normally on a perfect dielectric and derive expression for reflection coefficient. Hints: When a plane electromagnetic wave is incident on the surface of a perfect dielectric part of the energy is transmitted and part of it is reflected. Er / Ei = ( 2 1) /( 2 + 1)

23. Briefly explain reflection by a perfect dielectric when a wave is incident normally on a perfect conductor. Hints When the plane wave is incident normally upon the surface of a perfect conductor the wave is entirely reflected. Since there can be no loss within a perfect conductor none of the energy is absorbed. E (x,t) = 2Ei sinx sin t 24. Derive the relation between field theory and circuit theory for an RLC series circuit. Hints : Starting from field theory erquation for a series RLC circuit derive the circuit equation V= IR + L dI/dt +(1 /C) / Idt 25.State and explain Faradays and Lenzs law of induction and derive maxwells equation. Hints: The total emf induced in a circuit is equal to the time rate of decrease of the total magnetic flux linking the circuit. X E = -B/ t

Micro Processor Questions Micro Processor Questions: " What are the various registers in 8085? - Accumulator register, Temporary register, Instruction register, Stack Pointer, Program Counter are the various registers in 8085 . In 8085 name the 16 bit registers? - Stack pointer and Program counter all have 16 bits. What are the various flags used in 8085? - Sign flag, Zero flag, Auxillary flag, Parity flag, Carry flag. What is Stack Pointer? - Stack pointer is a special purpose 16-bit register in the Microprocessor, which holds the address of the top of the stack. What is Program counter? - Program counter holds the address of either the first byte of the next instruction to be fetched for execution or the address of the next byte of a multi byte instruction, which has not been completely fetched. In both the cases it gets incremented automatically one by one as the instruction bytes get fetched. Also Program register keeps the address of the next instruction. Which Stack is used in 8085? - LIFO (Last In First Out) stack is used in 8085.In this type of Stack the last stored information can be retrieved first. What happens when HLT instruction is executed in processor? - The Micro Processor enters into HaltState and the buses are tri-stated. What is meant by a bus? - A bus is a group of conducting lines that carriers data, address, & control signals. What is Tri-state logic? - Three Logic Levels are used and they are High, Low, High impedance state. The high and low are normal logic levels & high impedance state is electrical open circuit conditions. Tristate logic has a third line called enable line. Give an example of one address microprocessor? - 8085 is a one address microprocessor. In what way interrupts are classified in 8085? - In 8085 the interrupts are classified as Hardware and Software interrupts. What are Hardware interrupts? - TRAP, RST7.5, RST6.5, RST5.5, INTR. What are Software interrupts? - RST0, RST1, RST2, RST3, RST4, RST5, RST6, RST7. Which interrupt has the highest priority? - TRAP has the highest priority. Name 5 different addressing modes? - Immediate, Direct, Register, Register indirect, Implied addressing modes.

How many interrupts are there in 8085? - There are 12 interrupts in 8085. What is clock frequency for 8085? - 3 MHz is the maximum clock frequency for 8085. What is the RST for the TRAP? - RST 4.5 is called as TRAP. In 8085 which is called as High order / Low order Register? - Flag is called as Low order register & Accumulator is called as High order Register. What are input & output devices? - Keyboards, Floppy disk are the examples of input devices. Printer, LED / LCD display, CRT Monitor are the examples of output devices. Can an RC circuit be used as clock source for 8085? - Yes, it can be used, if an accurate clock frequency is not required. Also, the component cost is low compared to LC or Crystal. Why crystal is a preferred clock source? - Because of high stability, large Q (Quality Factor) & the frequency that doesn t drift with aging. Crystal is used as a clock source most of the times. Which interrupt is not level-sensitive in 8085? - RST 7.5 is a raising edge-triggering interrupt. What does Quality factor mean? - The Quality factor is also defined, as Q. So it is a number, which reflects the lossness of a circuit. Higher the Q, the lower are the losses. What are level-triggering interrupt? - RST 6.5 & RST 5.5 are level-triggering interrupts.

8086 programs ; Program to Add, Subtract, Divide and multiply to unsigned numbers Data1 Segment Addition DB 02H,82H Subtraction DB 02H,02H Multiplication DB 03H,03H Division DB 09H,03H ResultA DB ? ResultS DB ? ResultM DB 2 DUP (?) ResultD DB 2 DUP (?) Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start : Mov AX, Seg data1 Mov DS, AX ;Addition Mov SI, Offset Addition Mov AL, [SI] Mov AH, [SI+01] Add AL, AH Mov [ResultA], AL ;Subtraction Mov SI, Offset Subtraction

Mov AL, [SI] Mov AH, [SI+01] Sub Al, AH Mov [ResultS],AL ;Multiplication Mov SI, Offset Multiplication Mov AL, [SI] Mov AH, [SI+01] IMul AL Mov [ResultM],Al Mov [ResultM+1], AH ;Division Mov SI, Offset Division Mov AL, [SI] Mov AH, 00H Mov BL, [SI+01] IDiv BL Mov [ResultD], AL Mov [ResultD+1], AH Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

;Program to convert BCD to BINARY Data1 Segment HEX DB (?) Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov AL, 15H Mov BL, AL

AND BL, 0FH Mov CL, 04 SHR AL, CL Mov BH, 0AH MUL BH ADD AL, BL Mov SI, Offset HEX Mov [SI], AL Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

; Program to convert Binary to BCD Data1 Segment DEC1 DB 3 DUP (?) Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov SI, Offset DEC1 Mov AL, 0FFH Mov AH, 00H Mov BL, 64H DIV BL Mov [SI], AL Mov AL, AH Mov AH, 00 Mov BL, 0AH DIV BL INC SI Mov [SI], AL INC SI Mov [SI], AH

Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start OUTPUT: 0C5E:0000 02. 05. 05.

;Program to find that the given string is Palindrome or not.. Data1 segment CR EQU 36 Len DW (?) B1 DB 'MADAM','$' B2 DB 'Given String is not Palindrome','$' B3 DB 'Given String is Palindrome','$' Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg data1 Mov DS, AX ; To find length of string(caps) Mov SI, Offset B1 Mov BX, 00 STRLEN: Mov AL, [SI] Cmp AL, CR JE Skip INC SI INC BX JMP STRLEN Skip: Mov Len, BX Mov CX, BX SHR CX, 0001 Mov SI, Offset B1 Add SI, Len Mov DI, SI

Dec DI Mov SI, Offset B1 Again: Mov AL, [SI] Mov BL, [DI] Cmp AL, BL JNZ GO INC SI Dec DI Loop Again JMP LAST GO: Mov DX, Offset B2 Mov AH, 09 INT 21H ROT: Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H LAST: Mov DX, Offset B3 Mov AH, 09 INT 21H JMP ROT Code1 Ends END Start

OUTPUT: Given String is Palindrome ; Program to arrange the data in decending order. Data1 segment B1 DB 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08 Len DB 08 Data1 Ends Code1 segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start : Mov AX, Seg data1 Mov DS, AX

Mov SI, Offset len Mov BL, [SI] Mov CL, BL Mov SI, Offset B1 Back : DEC CL Again: Mov AL, [SI] INC SI CMP AL, [SI] JNC Noexc Mov DL, [SI] Mov [SI], AL Dec SI Mov [SI], DL INC SI Noexc: Dec CL JNZ Again Mov SI, Offset B1 Mov CL, BL Dec BL JNZ Back Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

OUTPUT:

0C5F:0000 08. 07. 06. 05. 04. 03. 02. 01. 0C5F:0008 08. ; Program to arrange the data in ascending order. Data1 segment B1 DB 08, 07, 06, 05, 04, 03, 02, 01 Len DB 08 Data1 Ends

Code1 segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start : Mov AX, Seg data1 Mov DS, AX Mov SI, Offset len Mov BL, [SI] Mov CL, BL Mov SI, Offset B1 Back : DEC CL Again: Mov AL, [SI] INC SI CMP AL, [SI] JC Noexc Mov DL, [SI] Mov [SI], AL Dec SI Mov [SI], DL INC SI Noexc: Dec CL JNZ Again Mov SI, Offset B1 Mov CL, BL Dec BL JNZ Back Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

OUTPUT: 0c5f:0000 0C5F:0000 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 0C5F:0008 08. ; Program to find GCD of Two numbers

Data1 Segment B1 DB 05, 17H B2 DB (?) Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start : Mov Ax, Seg data1 Mov DS, AX Mov SI, Offset B1 Mov AL, [SI+01] Mov BL, [SI] Back : Mov AH, 00 DIV BL CMP AH, 00 JZ next Mov AL, BL Mov BL, AH Jmp back Next : Mov B2, BL Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

OUTPUT: 0C5F:0000 0C5F:0000 05. 17. 01. ; Program to compute LCM Data1 segment B1 DB 5, 11h B2 DB (?) Data1 Ends Code1 SEgment

Assume CS:code1, DS: Data1 Start : Mov AX, Seg data1 Mov DS,AX Mov SI, Offset B1 Mov AL, [SI+01] Mov BL,[SI] Back : Mov AH, 00 Div BL CMP AH,00 JZ Go Mov AL, BL Mov BL, AH JMP Back Go : Mov AL, [SI] Mul Byte ptr[SI+01] Div BL Mov B2, AL Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End start

OUTPUT: 0C5F:0000 0C5F:0000 05. 11. 55. 00. ;Program to generate 1st N numbers of Fibonacci series. Data1 Segment RB DB 8 DUP (?) Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX

Mov SI, Offset RB Mov BYTE PTR [SI], 01 INC SI Mov BYTE PTR [SI], 01 Mov AL, 01 Mov BL, 01 Mov CX, 0006 Back: ADD AL, BL INC SI Mov [SI], AL Mov DL, AL Mov AL, BL Mov BL, DL Loop Back Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

OUTPUT: 0C5C:0000 01. 01. 02. 03. 05. 08. 0D. 15. ;program to determine printer status. Data1 Segment LF EQU 0AH CR EQU 0DH PMSG DB 'Program is printed',CR,LF PMSGLEN DW $-PMSG Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov AH, 02 Mov DX, 0001 AND AH, 20H JZ Ahead

JMP Exit Ahead: Mov CX, PMSGLEN Mov SI, Offset PMSG Mov AH, 05H Again: Mov DL, [SI] INT 21H INC SI Loop Again Exit: Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start ;Program to rename file. Data1 Segment OLD DB 'Naveen1.ASM',0 NEW DB 'Roopa1.ASM',0 SUCMSG DB 'Naveen1.ASM RENAMED, AS Roopa1.ASM','$' FAILMSG DB 'ERROR1 TATA1.ASM IS NOT RENAMED','$' Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov ES, AX LEA DX, OLD LEA DI, NEW Mov AH, 56H INT 21H JC ERROR LEA DX, SUCMSG JMP DISPLAY1 ERROR: LEA DX, FAILMSG Display1: Mov AH, 09H INT 21H

Exit: Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start OUTPUT: -g Naveen1.ASM RENAMED, AS Roopa1.ASM ;Program to detrmine user memory size. Data1 Segment CR EQU 13 LF EQU 10 MSG DB 'Memory Size in KB=' ASCRES DB 4 DUP (?),'HEX',CR,LF,'$' RES DW ? HEXCODE DB '0123456789ABCDEF' Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 HEX_ASC PROC Mov DL, 10H Mov AH, 0 Mov BX, 0 DIV DL Mov BL, AL Mov DH, HEXCODE [BX] Mov BL, AH Mov DL, HEXCODE [BX] RET HEX_ASC ENDP Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX INT 12H Mov RES, AX Mov AL, BYTE PTR RES CALL HEX_ASC

Mov ASCRES+2, DH Mov ASCRES+3, DL Mov AL, BYTE PTR RES+1 CALL HEX_ASC Mov ASCRES, DL Mov DX, Offset MSG Mov AH, 09 INT 21H Mov AH, 4Ch INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start OUTPUT: Memory Size in KB=2 80HEX ; Program to add two multi byte numbers Data1 Segment D1 DB 02h,05H,06H,03H D2 DB 85H,67H,83H,47H Result DB 5 dup(?) Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov SI, Offset D1 Mov DI, Offset D2 Mov CX, 0004 Mov BX, Offset result CLC ;Clear carry Back: Mov AL, [SI] ADC AL, [DI] Mov [BX], AL Inc SI Inc DI Inc BX

Loop Back Jnc GO Mov Byte ptr[BX], 01 Again: Mov AH, 4ch INT 21H Go: Mov Byte ptr[BX], 00 Jmp again Code1 Ends End start

OUTPUT: 0C5F:0000 02. 05. 06. 03. 85. 67. 83. 47. 0C5F:0008 87. 6C. 89. 4A. ;Program to display ASCII code and character

Data1 Segment X DB ? Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov AH, 01 INT 21H Mov SI, Offset X Mov [SI], AL CALL DISP1 Mov AL, [SI] AND AL, 0F0H Mov CL, 04H ROR AL, CL ADD AL, 30H Mov DL, AL Mov AH, 02H INT 21H

Mov AL, [SI] AND AL, 0FH CMP AL, 0AH JC SUB1 ADD AL, 07H Sub1: ADD AL, 30H Mov AH, 02H Mov DL, AL INT 21H Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H DISP1 PROC NEAR Mov AH, 02H Mov DL, 20H INT 21H Mov AH, 02H Mov DL, 3DH INT 21H Mov AH, 02H Mov DL, 20H INT 21H RET DISP1 Endp Code1 Ends End Start OUTPUT: -g 2 = 32 -g a = 61 -g e = 65 -g 1 = 31

Data1 Segment MSG DB 'HELLO WORLD USING BIOS','$' LEN EQU 22 Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov CX, LEN Mov SI, Offset MSG Next: Mov AH, 0EH Mov AL, [SI] INT 10H INC SI Loop Next Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

;Program to compute factorial of a number recursively. Data1 Segment RB DW (?) Data1 Ends

Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov AX, 0005H CALL FACT Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H FACT PROC CMP AX, 01H JE Exit PUSH AX DEC AX CALL FACT POP AX MUL RB Mov RB, AX RET Exit: Mov RB, 01 RET FACT ENDS Code1 Ends End Start

OUTPUT: 0C5C:0000 78. 00. ;Program to read character from keyboard and echo it. Data1 Segment MSG DB 'Enter Character from the keyboard(# to End)','$' Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1

Mov DS, AX Mov AH, 09 Mov DX, Offset MSG INT 21H Nextchar: Mov AH, 08H INT 21H Mov AH, 02H Mov DL, AL INT 21H CMP AL,'#' JNE Nextchar Mov AH, 4CH Mov AL, 00H INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start OUTPUT: Enter Character from the keyboard(# to End)Naveen#

;Program to multiply two 16 bit binary number. Data1 Segment Result DD (?) Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov AX, 00FFH Mov BX, 00FEH MUL BX Mov SI, Offset Result Mov WORD PTR [SI], AX Mov WORD PTR [SI+02], DX Mov AH, 4CH

OUTPUT: 0C54:0000 02. FD. 00. ;Program to count number of 1's and 0's in a given 16 bit data. Data1 Segment R1 DB (?) R0 DB (?) Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov AX, 0FFFFH Mov CX, 0010H Mov BL, 00 Rep1: ROR AX, 01 JNC Go INC BL GO: Loop Rep1 Mov R1, BL Mov DH, BL SUB DH, BL Mov R0, DH Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

Data1 Segment MA1 DB 01,02,03 MA2 DB 04,05,06 MA3 DB 07,08,09 MB1 DB 01,02,03 MB2 DB 04,05,06 MB3 DB 07,08,09 MR1 DB ?,?,? MR2 DB ?,?,? MR3 DB ?,?,? Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov SI, Offset MA1 Mov DI, Offset MB1 Mov BX, Offset MR1 Mov CX, 0009 Back: Mov AL, [SI] ADD AL, [DI] Mov [BX], AL INC AL INC BX INC SI INC DI Loop Back Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

OUTPUT:

0C54:0000 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 0C54:0008 09. 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 0C54:0010 08. 09. 02. 04. 06. 08. 0A. 0C. 0C54:0018 0E. 10. 12. 00. ;Program to addition of 2 square matrices. Data1 Segment MA1 DB 01,02,03 MA2 DB 04,05,06 MA3 DB 07,08,09 MB1 DB 01,02,03 MB2 DB 04,05,06 MB3 DB 07,08,09 MR1 DB ?,?,? MR2 DB ?,?,? MR3 DB ?,?,? Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov SI, Offset MA1 Mov DI, Offset MB1 Mov BX, Offset MR1 Mov CX, 0009 Back: Mov AL, [SI] ADD AL, [DI] Mov [BX], AL INC AL INC BX INC SI INC DI Loop Back Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

OUTPUT: 0C54:0000 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 0C54:0008 09. 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 0C54:0010 08. 09. 02. 04. 06. 08. 0A. 0C. 0C54:0018 0E. 10. 12. 00. ;Program to search an number in an array Data1 segment B1 DB 01,02,03,04,05,06,07,08,09,10,11 B2 DB 'NUMBER IS PRESENT','$' B3 DB 'NUMBER IS NOT PRESENT','$' Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS:Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov CX, 00AH Mov SI, Offset B1 Mov AL, 05 Again: CMP AL, [SI] JZ NO_OP INC SI Loop Again Mov AH, 09 Mov DX, Offset B3 INT 21H Last: Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H NO_OP: Mov AH, 09 Mov DX, Offset B2 INT 21H JMP Last

OUTPUT: NUMBER IS PRESENT ; Program to generate Multiplication Table. Data1 Segment B1 DB 10 DUP (?) Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg Data1 Mov DS, AX Mov CX, 000AH Mov SI, Offset B1 Mov DL, 02 Mov AX, 0000 Mov BL, 01 Next: Mov AL, DL MUL BL Mov [SI], AL INC BL INC SI Loop Next Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

OUTPUT: 0C5E:0000 02. 04. 06. 08. 0A. 0C. 0E. 10. 0C5E:0008 12. 14. 00. ;Program to convert Binary to BCD.

Data1 segment DEC1 DB 3 DUP (?) Data1 Ends Code1 Segment Assume CS: Code1, DS: Data1 Start: Mov AX, Seg data1 Mov DS, AX Mov SI, Offset DEC1 Mov AL, 0FFH Mov AH, 00H Mov BL, 64H DIV BL Mov [SI], AL Mov AL, AH Mov AH, 00 Mov BL, 0AH DIV BL INC SI Mov [SI], AH Mov AH, 4CH INT 21H Code1 Ends End Start

How 555 Timer Works? 555 Timer The 555 monolithic timing circuit is a highly stable device, that can act either as a time delay generator (Monostable/one-shot), a Pulse-Width-Modulator (PWM), a RC Oscillator, or a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO).

In the time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely controlled by one external resistor and one external capacitor. For a stable operation as an oscillator, the free running frequency and the duty cycle are both accurately controlled with two external resistors and one external capacitor. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling waveforms (trigger, Reset), and the output can source or sink up to 200mA. APPLICATIONS Precision Timing Pulse Generation Sequential Timing Time delay Generation Pulse Width Modulation

FEATURES Turn-off time less than 2ms Max. operating frequency greater than 500kHz Timing from microseconds to hours Operates in both astable and monostable modes High output current Adjustable duty cycle TTL compatible Temperature stability of 0.005% per C you can Visit the link for more details http://courses.ncsu.edu:8020/ece480/common/htdocs/480_555.htm#description http://courses.ncsu.edu:8020/ece480/common/htdocs/pdf/555AN.pdf

UGC NET paper 3 Electronics(Model Questions ) Hello everybody Please go thrgh the questions which may help u in some or other way in Preparation for UGC NET exam Unit VII: COUNTERS 1.1 List the different types of counters-Synchronous and Asynchronous 1.2 Explain the modulus of a counter 1.3 Compare Synchronous and Asynchronous counters 1.4 Explain the working of 4 bit ripple counter with truth table and timing diagram 1.5 Define the propagation delay in ripple counter 1.6 Explain the Mod N synchronous counter 1.7 Explain the Synchronous decade counter 1.8 Describe Mod Counters using reset input with timing diagram 1.9 Explain the working of IC's 7490, 7492 , 7493 , 74161, 74190,74192 ,74193 with their pin configuration and truth table 1.10 List out applications of counters

SHIFT REGISTERS 2.1 Explain the working of buffer register 2.2 Explain the working of various types of shift registers -SISO,SIPO,PISO, PIPO with truth table using flip flop 2.3 Explain the working of bidirectional and universal shift register 2.4 Explain the applications of shift registers 2.5 Explain the working of IC's-7491,7495,74198, 74199, 74194 with their pin configuration

SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORIES 3.1 List the different types of semiconductor memories 3.2 Explain the internal organization of static and dynamic RAM cell 3.3 Explain the different types of ROM-PROM,EPROM,EEPROM,FLASH ROM 3.4 Explain the internal organisation of ROM BIPOLAR & MOS Cell 3.5 Explain the terms Access time ,speed,capacity of RAM & ROM 3.6 List out the different RAM & ROM IC's and their capacity,reliability

3.7 Distinguish between single-in-line and dual-in-line memory module 3.8 Explain the page mode access and extended data out DRAM 3.90 Explain the need for refreshing of DRAM

4.1 Introduction to DAC and its symbol 4.2 Explain the performance parameters of DAC-Resolution,accuracy and conversion time 4.3 Explain binary weighted resistor DAC 4.4 Explain R-2R Ladder type DAC 4.5 Explain IC-1408/832 DAC with pin configuration and application

5.1 Introduction to ADC and its Symbol 5.2Explain the performance parameters of ADC-Resolution,quantization error and conversion time 5.3 Explain the ramp type and dual slope ADC's 5.4 Explain the successive-approximation type ADC 5.5 Explain the flash type ADC 5.6 Explain the working of IC 0808/0809 with pin configuration and application

DISPLAY DEVICES AND PAL SYSTEMS 6.1 Explain the operation of LED and concept of seven segment display 6.2 Explain the alphanumeric / matrix display 6.3 Explain the LCD and its types 6.4 Explain the dynamic scattering type and field effect type 6.5 List out advantages and disadvantages of LCD's 6.6 Compare between LED's and LCD's 6.7 Explain LED driver using IC 7447 decoder 6.8 Explain multiplexed displays 6.9 Explain 7 segment decoder/driver for LCD display 6.10 Introduction to PAL - Explain the basic structure and working of PAL 6.11 Implement Full adder using PAL

UGC paper 3 Electronics Paper 3 Questions in paper 3 Dec 2008 Describe various steps in photo etching IC fabrication ? State and Prove Norton's theorem? Classify different types of Oscillators? Mention Barkhausen's Criterion of Oscillation? Explain the block diagram of PLL?

Write the difference between Closed And Open loop system? What is Positive logic and Negative Logic? State Thevenin's theorem & Superposition theorem? What is Multivibrator? Classify them Explain different types of Memory? What are Conditional operators in C? Explain various storage classes in C? Define Characteristic Impedance ,Input impedance and Standing Wave Ratio of Transmission line ? Write a short note on Logic State Analyzer? Define Numerical aperture and Critical angle? Explain the working of A/D converter? Describe the interrupts in 8085 Microprocessor? Explain the working of LASER & LED in optical fibers ?

Two capacitors are connected in parallel through a switch. C1= 1uF, C2= 0.25uF. Initially the switch is open, C1 is charged to 10V. What happens if we close the switch? No losses in wires and capacitors.

You have 2 switches to control the light in the long corridor. You want to be able to turn the light on entering the corridor and turn it off at the other end. Do the wiring circuit. There are 3 switches that can turn on and off a light in the room. How to connect them? What will be the voltage level between the 2 capacitors? The Vcc = 10v DC.

Suppose, you work on a specification for a system with some digital parameters. The spec table has has Min,Typ and Max colomns for each parameter. In what column would you put a Setup time and a Hold time? Design a simple circuit based on combinational logic to double the output frequency.

8bit ADC with parallel output converts an input signal into digital numbers. You have to come up with an idea of a circuit , that finds MAX of every 10 numbers at the output of the ADC. Implement a comparator that compares two 2-bit numbers A and B. The comparator should have 3

You have a 8 bit ADC clocking data out every 1mS. Design a system that will sort the output data and keep the statistics of how often each binary number appears at the output of ADC. What types of flip-flops do you know?

Implement D- latch from - RS flip flop; - multiplexer. How to convert D-latch into JK-latch and JK-latch into D-latch?

There are two counters to 16, built from negedge D- FF . The first circuit is synchronous and the second one is "ripple" (cascading). Which circuit has less propagation delay?

What is the difference between a flip-flop and a latch? Write an HDL code for their behavioral models.

Describe the operation of a DAC. What are the most important parameters of a DAC? Do we really need both INL and DNL to estimate linearity?

Compare briefly all types of ADC that you know . How will the output signal of an ideal integrator look like after - a positive pulse is applied to the input; - a series of 10 positive pulses ? How to design a divide-by-3 counter with equal duty cycle ? question from Anonymous

For an 8-bit flash A/D converter with an input range from 0V to 2.55V, describe what happens when the input voltage changes from 1.27V to 1.28V Your system has CPU, ALU and two 8bit registers. There is no external memory. Can you swap the contence of the registers ? We swapped 2 transistors in CMOS inverter (put n-transistor at the top and p-transistor at the bottom). Can this circuit work as a non-inverting buffer?

Convert D-latch into divider by 2. What is the max clock frequency the circuit can handle ? T_setup= 6nS T_hold = 2nS T_propagation = 10nS The circle can rotate clockwise and back. Use minimum hardware to build a circuit to indicate the direction of rotating.

:An IC device draws higher current when temperature gets: - higher? - lower?

To enter the office people have to pass through the corridor. Once someone gets into the office the light turns on. It goes off when noone is present in the room. There are two registration sensors in the corridor. Build a state machine diagram and design a circuit to control the light.

A voltage source with internal impedance Z_source = 50 OHm is connected to a transmission line with Z = 50 OHm. Z_load is also 50 OHm. The voltage source generates a single voltage step 1V. What will be the voltage level on the load: a) 2V , because the reflected signal will be in-phase with the incident signal; b) 0.33V , because the voltage is devided between Z_source , Z_load and Z_transm.line; c) 0.5V , because the voltage is devided between Z_source and Z_load.

Draw a transistor schematic of NOR gate,it's layout and a cross section of the layout.

The silicon of a new device has memory leak. When all "0" are written into RAM, it reads back all "0" whithout any problem. When all "1" are written, only 80% of memory cells are read back correctly. What can be possibly the problem with the RAM?

Draw a CMOS inverter. Why does CMOS technology dominate in VLSI manufacturing?

What does CMOS stand for? VLSI? ASIC? This was in the series of quick questions in the interview at Analog Devices. We use these abbreviations daily, but not everyone remembers what they stand for.

Design a COMBINATIONAL circuit that can divide the clock frequency by 2. Design a 2bit up/down counter with clear using gates. (No verilog or vhdl) We have a circular wheel with half painted black and the other half painted white. There are 2 censors mounted 45 degree apart at the surface of this wheel( not touching the wheel) which give a "1" for black and "0" for white passing under them. Design a circuit to detect which way the wheel is moving. Can not assume any fixed position for start. We have a FIFO which clocks data in at 100mhz and clocks data out at 80mhz. On the input there are only 80 data bits in any order during each 100 clocks. In other words, a 100 input clock will carry only 80 data bits, and the other twenty clocks carry no data (data is scattered in any order). How big the FIFO needs to be to avoid data over/under-run.

Instead of specifying SETUP and HOLD time, can we just specify a SETUP time for '1' and a SETUP time for '0'? Here some hardware digital design specific questions, offered by Suhas: (1) When will you use a latch and a flipflop in a sequential design? (2) Design a 1-bit fulladder using a decoder and 2 "or" gates? (3) You have a circuit operating at 20 MHz and 5 volt supply. What would you do to reduce the power consumption in the circuit- reduce the operating frequency of 20Mhz or reduce the power supply of 5Volts and why? (4) In a nmos transistor, how does the current flows from drain to source in saturation region when the channel is pinched off? (5) In a SRAM circuit, how do you design the precharge and how do you size it? (6) In a PLL, what elements(like XOR gates or Flipflops) can be used to design the phase detector? (7) While synthesis of a design using synopsys design compiler, why do you specify input and output delays? (8) What difference do you see in the timing reports for a propogated clock and an ideal clock? (9) What is timeborrowing related to Static timing anaylsis in Primetime?

What is D-FF?

What is the basic difference between Latches and Flip flops? What is a multiplexer? How can you convert an SR Flip-flop to a JK Flip-flop? How can you convert an JK Flip-flop to a D Flip-flop? What is Race-around problem? How can you rectify it? Which semiconductor device is used as a voltage regulator and why? Explain an ideal voltage source? Explain zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown? What are the different types of filters? What is the need of filtering ideal response of filters and actual response of filters? What is sampling theorem? What is impulse response? Explain the advantages and disadvantages of FIR filters compared to IIR counterparts. What is CMRR? Explain half-duplex and full-duplex communication? Which range of signals is used for terrestrial transmission? Why is there need for modulation? Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission? Why we use vestigial side band (VSB-C3F) transmission for picture? When transmitting digital signals is it necessary to transmit some harmonics in addition to fundamental frequency? For asynchronous transmission, is it necessary to supply some synchronizing pulses additionally or to supply or to supply start and stop bit? BPFSK is more efficient than BFSK in presence of noise. Why? What is meant by pre-emphasis and de-emphasis? Explain 3 dB cutoff frequency? Why is it 3 dB, not 1 dB?

Explain ASCII, EBCDIC? How to manufacture the CMOS inverter? What are the advantages of using C band for satellite communication? What frequency bands are used in Satellite Communication? what is the difference between latch and flipflop?what is the main difference between 8085 and 8086 processors? What is the purpose of the package around a microprocessor silicon die? How can we identify how many states the ripple counter is having by looking at the figure as it can also have some invalid states? Design gray to binary code converter? What is a BCD? What are its advantages and disadvantages? Why is an excess-3 code is called an unweighted code?

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