59 views

Uploaded by Raqeeb Rahman

- 17 LectureASM
- Newton Technology Journal: Volume 2, Number 2
- 10.1.1.37.307
- Computational Properties of Self-reproducing Growing Automata
- Coping With Fixed Point-Bry
- CH1-INTRODUCTIONTOFINITEAUTOMATA
- Complementing Buchi Automata
- Text Procng
- Aho Corasick(15)
- Lec 02 - Chapter_3 (Part_1)
- Arguments
- [Daniel I. a. Cohen] Introduction to Computer Theo(BookSee.org) 2
- Sys Ident 77
- Discrete Project
- axxom
- Lecture1.pdf
- Nash Equilibria of Packet Forwarding Strategies in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE 2006
- Dql Reference Guide En
- Lectures on the 6
- 901440 Lexical An

You are on page 1of 23

Reading: Chapter 1

Study of abstract computing devices, or machines Automaton = an abstract computing device

Note: A device need not even be a physical hardware!

Find out what different models of machines can do and cannot do The theory of computation

2

Father of Modern Computer Science English mathematician Studied abstract machines called Turing machines even before real computers existed Heard of the Turing test?

1930s Alan Turing studies Turing machines Decidability Halting problem

1940-1950s Finite automata machines studied Noam Chomsky proposes the Chomsky Hierarchy for formal languages 1969 1970Cook introduces intractable problems or NP-Hard problems Modern computer science: compilers, computational & complexity theory evolve

4

Or words

Languages: A language is a collection of sentences of finite length all constructed from a finite alphabet of symbols Grammars: A grammar can be regarded as a device that enumerates the sentences of a language - nothing more, nothing less N. Chomsky, Information and Control, Vol 2, 1959

A containment hierarchy of classes of formal languages

Regular (DFA)

Contextfree (PDA)

Contextsensitive (LBA)

Recursivelyenumerable (TM)

Finite Automata

Some Applications

Software for designing and checking the behavior of digital circuits Lexical analyzer of a typical compiler Software for scanning large bodies of text (e.g., web pages) for pattern finding Software for verifying systems of all types that have a finite number of states (e.g., stock market transaction, communication/network protocol)

action

On/Off switch

state

Start state

Transition

Intermediate state

Final state

8

Alphabet

An alphabet is a finite, non-empty set of symbols We use the symbol (sigma) to denote an alphabet Examples:

Binary: = {0,1} All lower case letters: = {a,b,c,..z} Alphanumeric: = {a-z, A-Z, 0-9} DNA molecule letters: = {a,c,g,t}

10

Strings

A string or word is a finite sequence of symbols chosen from Empty string is (or epsilon) Length of a string w is |w|

= number of characters in the string

Powers of an alphabet

k = the set of all strings of length k * = 0 U 1 U 2 U + = 1 U 2 U 3 U xy = concatentation of two strings x and y

11

Languages

L is a said to be a language over alphabet , if L is a subset of strings in * Examples:

The language of all strings consisting of n 0s followed by n 1s: {,01,0011,000111,} The set of strings of with equal number of 0s and 1s: {, 01,10,0011,1100,0101,1010,1001,}

no

12

Given a string w in *and a language L over , decide whether or not w is in L. Example: Let w = 100011 Q) Is w Language of equal number of 0s and 1s?

13

Structural expressions

Grammars Regular expressions

E.g., unix style to capture city names such as Palo Alto CA:

[A-Z][a-z]*([ ][A-Z][a-z]*)*[ ][A-Z][A-Z]

Start with a letter A string of other letters (possibly empty) Should end w/ 2-letter state code

14

Formal Proofs

15

Deductive Proofs

From the hypothesis or the given statement, to a conclusion statement (what we want to prove) Logical progression by direct implications Theorem 1: If x4, then 2xx2.

hypothesis conclusion

16

Theorem: If x is the sum of the squares of four positive integers, then 2xx2 Proof:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Given: x = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 Given: a1, b1, c1, d1 a21, b21, c21, d21 (by 2) x4 (by 1 & 3) 2x x2 (by 4 and previous theorem)

implies or follows

17

Quantifiers

For all or For every

Universal proofs Notation=?

There exists

Used in existential proofs Notation=?

Other notation:

Implication is denoted by =>

E.g., IF A THEN B can also be written as A=>B

18

Proving techniques

By contradiction

Start with a contradictory statement E.g., To prove (A and B => C or D), we could start with:

A and B and not(C or D) and show that could never happen

By induction

(3 steps) Basis, inductive hypothesis, inductive step

By contrapositive statement

If A then B == If not B then not A

19

Proving techniques

By counter-example Show an example that disproves the claim Note: There is no such thing called a proof by example! So when asked to prove a claim, an example that satisfied that claim is not a proof

20

If H then C:

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

21

If-and-Only-If statements

A if and only if B (A <==> B)

(if part) if B then A ( <= ) (only if part) A only if B ( => ) (same as if A then B)

i.e., A iff B

Example:

Theorem: Let x be a real number. Then floor of x = ceiling of x if and only if x is an integer.

One for the if part & another for the only if part

22

Summary

Automata theory & a historical perspective Chomsky hierarchy Finite automata Alphabets, strings/words/sentences, languages Membership problem Proofs: Deductive, induction, contrapositive, contradiction, counterexample If and only if Read chapter 1 for more examples and exercises Gradiance homework 1

23

- 17 LectureASMUploaded byshavali56
- Newton Technology Journal: Volume 2, Number 2Uploaded bypablo_marx
- 10.1.1.37.307Uploaded byOluponmile Adeola
- Computational Properties of Self-reproducing Growing AutomataUploaded byFacundo D Rodriguez
- Coping With Fixed Point-BryUploaded byRajesh Kumar
- CH1-INTRODUCTIONTOFINITEAUTOMATAUploaded byHemanth Kumar
- Complementing Buchi AutomataUploaded bymelisavivan
- Text ProcngUploaded byRadheshyam Gawari
- Aho Corasick(15)Uploaded byArabs Knight
- Lec 02 - Chapter_3 (Part_1)Uploaded byxyz 123
- ArgumentsUploaded byNicole Yap
- [Daniel I. a. Cohen] Introduction to Computer Theo(BookSee.org) 2Uploaded bybilal
- Sys Ident 77Uploaded byGinanjar Dika
- Discrete ProjectUploaded byMohamad Azakir
- axxomUploaded byIrzum Bin Mansoor
- Lecture1.pdfUploaded bySon T. Nguyen
- Nash Equilibria of Packet Forwarding Strategies in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE 2006Uploaded bysahathermal6633
- Dql Reference Guide EnUploaded bySergiu Botnaruc
- Lectures on the 6Uploaded bymamad
- 901440 Lexical AnUploaded byCorin Mihuț
- CS program file-1.docxUploaded byHritam Sharma
- Gateway ELCollateralPoolServiceUploaded bycuonglun
- Export to PDFUploaded byDoug
- math classUploaded byThe Witzbold
- command center - processing codeUploaded byapi-360229604
- Java PractUploaded byPurba Chakraborty
- ISC Class XII Computer Science Project JAVA ProgramsUploaded byTed
- TTC - Prove It - The Art of Mathematical ArgumentUploaded byCAROL_X1
- c-manual 10-11Uploaded byscmiguel
- Checker DesignChecker Design for On-line Testing for on-line TestingUploaded byAlaeddine Messaoudi

- Adcanced_VHF_Power_MeterUploaded byFrancisco J. Aguilera Higuerey
- Projection of Teachers Demand and Supply 2Uploaded bytaiyeiliasu
- cur 528 week 6 evaluation reportUploaded byapi-252328429
- IP6000Uploaded byIAMATMA
- Anu Tandon Resignation as DirectorUploaded byjaychandonkakhulasa
- (2) Daily Lesson PlanUploaded byJosephine Andrew
- msnd lesson plan v 1kgUploaded byapi-280132026
- ETL Error and Audit Log Process Using AUploaded byprakharmodi
- Army Aviation Digest - Mar 1971Uploaded byAviation/Space History Library
- Wireless Key LoggerUploaded bymarciodias2003
- Soil-Cement Inspector Manual PCAUploaded bychankawai28
- cybersecurityUploaded byapi-357125221
- Trick with MS WordsUploaded byAnony
- STANDARDS RELATING TO MEASUREMENT OF PETROLEUM FOR FISCAL PURPOSES AND FOR CALCULATION OF CO2-TAXUploaded bya_m_shiha
- Mohyedeen Telecom ETL ResumeUploaded byalqousi_muhieddine
- Aiken-Electric-Coop-Inc-Large-Power-Service---Rate-Schedule-"LP"Uploaded byGenability
- A methodology to control direct-fired furnaces.pdfUploaded byjandresb23
- Che 10405Uploaded byjim_joven
- Sumitomo Sh210 Ariza KodlariUploaded byAhmet
- m 02410421046Uploaded byram
- BP55-PembertonPigott.pdfUploaded bywatson123
- Calorimetry Inquiry ActivityUploaded bysrowley
- MAKALE-New Developments in FAA Airport PavementUploaded bygokhan
- Sales and Distribution AssignmentUploaded byscribd
- EventsPlanningChecklist-1107Uploaded byAftab Mohammed
- 08246573Uploaded byNilesh Hirani
- Lanzar-2010Uploaded byIkhsanul Asman
- Developing HR Strategy and MetricsUploaded byJablack Angola Mugabe
- 4th BAPC Slide IntanUploaded byIntan Najiha Shukri
- Quality Freight Services Ltd ISO 9001 Quality ManualUploaded bychahi