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# CHAFTEP - 5

## HEAT AND TEMFEPATUPE

SYLLABUS: Heut us u form of energy, Temperuture, dlfference between heut und
temperuture, dlrectlon of heut flow, condltlons of heut flow, scules of temperuture, unlts
of heut und converslon.

We may havefelt at some point in our lives the different sensations
i.e., hot, warm, very hot, cool, chilled, freezing etc. We feel warm when we
take bath after heating water up for some time. If the water is heated for long
on the stove, it becomes hot. If but, we feel cool i f we dip our fingers in tap
water usually. We feel chilled if we drink water stored in a refrigerator. The
situation inside a freezer is very cold or even freezing. So what creates all these
sensations?
In olden days (antiquity), physicists used to think when a hot water bowl is
emptied into a bowl containing cold water, a fluid from hot water enters the
cold water bowl and therefore hot water becomes cooler and cold water
becomes slightly hotter. Bothe waters would now create a similar sensation
now. They named the fluid as caloric. Later, our physicists understood that
the above statement is wrong. No fluid flows from hot object to cold object.
The reason for all the above situations is the flow of a form of energy
named Heat. We define Heat is a form of energy that creates a sensation of
hotness or coldness in us.
Addition of heat to a body (an object) will make it feel hotter and
Removal of heat from an object will make it feel colder.
So, when we dip our fingers in boiling water, we receive heat from it and
so we feel hotter. If we dip our fingers in tap water or water from the
refrigerator, we lose heat to it and so we feel cooler. How do you check if your
friend has fever or not? By touching his forehead or neck. If you feel hotter,
you will say that your friend might have fever. You receive heat from your
friend when you touch him/her.
So, we understand that the sensation of hotness or coldness in us is due
to the flow of heat into us or out of us. What makes heat to flow? When two
objects come into contact, what would be the direction of net heat flow? What
quantity or quality determines this?
For an illustration, consider two families A and B. Lets say A has 10 members
and B has 4 members. Assume the total income of A per month is 20000
rupees and that of B per month is 10000 rupees. Which family, would you say,
can spend more? We may think A has more income than B and therefore can
spend more than B. However, the spending ability does not depend on the
total income, but depends on the average income. Average income (also
known as percapita income) of A is Rs.2000/- and that of B is Rs.2500/- . So,B
has more average income than A. So B can spend more than A.
Similarly, as in the above example, when two objects are brought into
thermal contact (situation where heat can flow from one to another), the
object which has more average energy loses heat energy and the one which has
less average energy gains energy. This is determined by a quantity called
Temperature.
Temperature is a quantity that determines the degree of coolness or
hotness in a body. It gives a measure of average energy content of the
body. So, clearly the object which has more temperature is hotter than the
one which has less temperature. More temperature implies more average
energy and less temperature implies average energy.
A and B are two objects. A has more heat energy than B. can we say A
is hotter than B?
A and B are two objects. A is at more temperature than B. Can we say
A is hotter than B?
Let us put down certain points to distinguish between heat and
temperature.
HEAT TEMPERATURE
It is the form of energy that creates it is a quantity that determines the
sensation of hotness and coldness in degree of sensation (hotness or cold
body. ness.
2. Heat of a body is the total energy Temperature is a measure of average
Content of the body. energy content.

When two objects are brought into contact and they are at different
temperature, the object at higher temperature loses heat to the object at
lower temperature. So, heat always flows from hot body to cold body.

EXERCISE -1

1. Two objects A and B at temperatures 30`C and 20`C are brought into
contact. Heat flows from _________ to ________
(Ans: A to B)
2. Suji observed that we receive heat from the sun. So who is at a higher
temperature, we or the Sun?
(Ans: The Sun)
Think of a situation where an iron window is exposed to the sunlight all
through the day. If we touch it, we feel hotter than what we feel due to
the sun directly. The iron window also got heated by the sun directly. So,
why is it that the window feels hotter than the sun directly?

Consider some example situations as given below:
(i) Dipping our gingers in tap water feels less cooler than dipping in
freezing water. We understand that, in both cases the waters
temperatures are less than our bodys temperature and when we
dip our fingers in them, we lose heat and so we feel cooler.
However, the degree of sensation is different.

In the case of dipping fingers in tap water, the temperature difference
between our body and water is less. So, the degree of sensation is normal
(weak). But in the case of dipping fingers in freezing water, the
temperature difference between our body and water is more. So, the
degree of sensation is intense (strong). The intensity of sensation of
hotness or coldness depends on the difference in temperatures of bodies
in contact. As heat travels (flows) from hot body to cold body, the
temperature of hot body decreases and the temperature of cold body
increases.

So, during heat flow from hot body to cold body, the temperature
difference between them decreases and therefore the intensity of
sensation decreases (becomes weaker). The heat flow takes place till the
temperatures of both objects become equal.

Let us make conclusive statements from the discussions above:

1. Heat will always flow from hot body to cold body.
2. The intensity of sensation is dependent on the temperature difference
Of the bodies.
3. When heat flow happens, the hot body loses heat and the cold body
gains heat. During this, temperature of hot body decreases and that of
cold body increases.
4. So, during heat flow, temperature difference gets reduced. Heat flow
ceases when the temperatures of both bodies become equal. This state
is called Thermal Equilibrium.
5. Also, the amount of heat energy lost by the hot body during the mixing
process with cold body is equal to the amount of heat energy gained by
the cold body. This statement is called Principle of Mixtures.

SCALES OF TEMPERATURE:

Temperature is measured in several units. Anders Celsius, a Swedish
astronomer developed a scale (unit) to measure the temperature. This
unit of temperature is called `C (degree Celsius or degree centigrade).
According to this scale, the temperature at which ice melts into water
(melting point of ice) is taken as O`C and temperature at which water
boils to steam (boiling point of water) is taken as 100`C. The difference
between these fixed points (Melting Point of ice and Boiling point of
water) is divided into 100 parts, each part equal to a size of 1`C.

Earlier, another physicist named Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit had
proposed another scale of temperature by name `F (degree Fahrenheit).

According to this scale, the fixed points that are melting point of
ice and the boiling point of water are taken as 32`F and 212`F. The
difference between them is divided into 180 equal parts and so the size
of each part is 1`F.

O`C is equivalent to 32`F. Also 100 parts of each centigrade size is
equal to 180 parts of each Fahrenheit size. So, 1`C rise or fall in
temperature is same as 1.8 `F rise or fall in temperature. If O`C is
equivalent to 33.8`. And hence, the formula for conversion between
these two scales is as follow:

C = 5/9 (F-32) (or) F = 9C/5 + 32

Later, in the middle of nineteenth century, Lord Kelvin (William
Thomson). The unit of temperature is called Kelvin (K). This scale of
temperature is an absolute scale. According to this scale, the fixed
points that are, melting point of ice and the boiling point of water are
taken as 273.16 K and 373.16K. The difference between them is divided
into 100 equal parts and so the size of each part is 1 K.

O`C is equivalent to 273.16K. Also 100 parts each Celsius size is
equal to 100 parts of each kelvin size. So, 1 `C rise or fall in
temperature is same as 1 K rise or fall in temperature. If 0` C is
equivalent to 273.16k, then 1 `C would be 274.16 K. And hence, the
formula for conversion between these two scales is as follows:

C = K 273.16 or K= C + 273.16

Kelvin scale is used in all theoretical proofs and statements, but the
clinical practices make use of Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature
scales. Celsius or centigrade is the most widely used scale of
temperature.

Thermometer is the device used to measure temperature.

EXERCISE 2

3. Convert the following temperatures into scales F given against them:

(a) 40 `C = ------------------`F
(b) 68 `C = ------------------`C
(c) 140 `F = ----------------- K
(d) 125 K = ---------------- `C
(e) 298.16 K = --------------- `F
(f) 69 `C = --------------- K

(Ans: (a) 104 `F (b) 20 `C (c) 333.16 K (d) - 148.16 `C (e) 77 `F (f) 342.16K)

4. Which temperature has same magnitude in

(a) Celsius and Fahrenheit scales
(b) Kelvin and Fahrenheit scales (Ans: (a) -40 `C (b) 573.6K

5. Which temperature gases a magnitude in Kelvin two times its magnitude in
Celsius? (Ans: 273.16 `C)
6. A temperature rise of 10 `C is equivalent to ---------------- `F and -------K
Rise in temperature. (Ans: 18 `F; 10 K)

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UNITS OF HEAT:

Heat is energy. It is usually measured in terms of joules (J). This
the standard unit of heat energy, even though not the most commonly
used. The common unit of heat energy is the calorie (cal).

The conversion between joule and Calorie is done as follows:

1 Cal ~ 4.186J

~ 4.2J or 1 J ~ 1/ 4.2 cal

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-EXERCISE -3

7. How many joules of heat energy is equivalent to 12 calories?
(Ans: 50.4 J)
8. How many calories make 126 joules? (Ans: 30 cal)

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