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S.I.W.S Name: Nazreen Ansari. Subject: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. Class: F.Y.B.M.S. Roll no: 14003.

Submited to: Prof: VEENA MAM.

CONTENTS:
 Introduction.  What is global warming?  Causes of global warming.  Effects of global warming.  External forcing & greenhouse gases.  Climate models.  The global warmtng: deforestion &cimate change.  Global warming prediction.  Steps to reduce global warming.  Ngo supporting.  Conclusion.

WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING?

Global Warming is defined as the increase of the average temperature on Earth. As the Earth is getting hotter, disasters like hurricanes, droughts and floods are getting more frequent.

Over the last 100 years, the average temperature of the air near the Earths surface has risen a little less than 1 Celsius (0.74 0.18C, or 1.3 0.32 Fahrenheit). Does not seem all that much? It is responsible for the conspicuous increase in storms, floods and raging forest fires we have seen in the last ten years, though, say scientists. Their data show that an increase of one degree Celsius makes the Earth warmer now than it has been for at least a thousand years. Out of the 20 warmest years on record, 19 have occurred since 1980. The three hottest years ever observed have all occurred in the last ten years, even.

INTRODUCTION.

The phrase global warming refers to the documented historical warming of the Earth's surface based upon worldwide temperature records that have been maintained by humans since the 1880s. The term global warming is often used synonymously with the term climate change, but the two terms have distinct meanings.Global warming is the combined result of anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of greenhouse gases and changes in solar irradiance, while climate change refers to any change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the average and/or the variability of its properties (e.g., temperature, precipitation), and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer.

Global Mean Temperature over Land and Ocean (Jan-Dec). (Source: NCDC/NESDIS/NOAA) According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the decade of 1998-2007 is the warmest on record. The global mean surface temperature for 2007 is currently estimated at 0.41C/0.74F above the 1961-1990 annual average of 14.00C/57.20F. WMO states that among other remarkable global climatic events recorded in 2007, a record-low Arctic sea ice extent was observed which led to first recorded opening of the Canadian Northwest Passage. The United States National Climatic Data Center(NCDC), found that in 2006 "Globally averaged land temperatures were +0.78C (+1.40F) and ocean temperatures +0.45C (+0.81F) above average, ranking 4th and 5th warmest, respectively. The land and ocean surface temperatures for the Northern and Southern Hemisphere ranked 2nd and 6th warmest, respectively," since global temperature record monitoring began in 1880. The NCDC report states that "during the past century, global surface temperatures have increased at a rate near 0.06C/decade (0.11F/decade) but this trend has increased to a rate approximately 0.18C/decade (0.32F/decade) during the past 25 to 30 years. There have been two sustained periods of warming, one beginning around 1910 and ending around 1945, and the most recent beginning about 1976." The NCDC's Preliminary Annual Report on the Climate of 2007 (released December 13, 2007) states that: y "the global annual temperature for combined land and ocean surfaces for 2007 is expected to be near 58.0F and would be the fifth warmest since records began in 1880," and that y "the year 2007 is on pace to become one of the 10 warmest years for the contiguous U.S., since national records began in 1895."

Global in Situ Temperature Anomalies and Trends, Surface and Mid Troposphere (Jan-Dec). The NCDC 2006 report also described temperature trends aloft in the atmosphere measured over the past 50 to 60 years using balloon-borne instruments (radiosondes) and for the past 28 years using satellites. The report states that temperature data collected from approximately 5,000 to 30,000 feet above the surface indicate that 1958-2006 global temperature trends in the middle troposphere are similar to trends in surface temperature; 0.12C/decade for surface and 0.15C/decade for midtroposphere. On 2 February 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released the Summary For Policymakers (SPM), an executive summary of the first volume of its 4th Assessment Report entitled, "The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change." The IPCC Report documents that not only do the records show a warming trend during the past half century in landbased temperaturedata but also in global ocean temperature measurements. The increases in ocean temperatures indicate global warming trends are not an artifact of urbanization or the socalled "heat-island" effect. U.S. Trends

The NCDC Report also documents not only a long-term warming trend for the globe as a whole but also a warming trend for the contiguous United States. The Report documents that the 2006 average annual temperature for the contiguous U.S. was the warmest on record and nearly identical to the record set in 1998.

CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING.


In the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report scientists conclude that "warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level" and, furthermore, they conclude with "very high confidence (at least a 9 out of 10 chance of being correct) that the globally averaged net effect of human activities since 1750 has been one of warming" of the Earth's climate system.

Water in a boiling pot receives heat from an element or flame and loses heat via steam and radiative cooling. As with every environmental variable, there are multiple factors that contribute to the "warmth" of the Earth. Humans measure warmth as temperature which is a measure of the amount of heat contained in a physical object. One can envision this concept by thinking of a pot on a stove. As heat is applied to the pot from a flame or heating element, the temperature of the pot will increase. But heat will also begin escaping the pot in the form of steam and also through radiative and convective cooling from the top and the sides of the pot. Eventually the rates of both heat loss (cooling) and heat gain (warming) may stabilize and the heat then contained within the pot at an instantaneous point of time would be reflected in an equilibrium temperature. This equilibrium temperature could be measured directly but it also could be

calculated by determining all of the flux rates of heat entering (heating) and leaving (cooling) the pot. One way that climate scientists look at the warmth of the Earth's climate system is to calculate the annual average temperature of the surface of the Earth using temperature measurements systematically collected throughout the year from thousands of land- and ocean-based weather and observation stations. The observed trends in the Earth's annual average temperature is one of the factors leading to the scientific conclusion that the Earth is now in a period of global warming. In order to attempt to answer why the Earth is currently warming, scientists have conducted accountings of each of the fluxes of heat into (warming) and out of (cooling) the Earth's climate system. Since the measured data show that annual average temperatures of the Earth have been increasing in recent decades, the year-to-year annual flux of heat into the climate system must be greater than the annual flux of heat out of the system. By accounting for each of the fluxes of heat into and out of the system, scientists are able to assess which fluxes and processes are contributing to net annual warming of the Earth's surface. By conducting such accountings, scientists are able to quantify the influence that each natural and human factor has in altering the balance of incoming and outgoing energy in the Earthatmosphere system and can calculate an index of the importance of each of the factor as a potential climate change mechanism. Each of the factors are called climate drivers and the relative impact or index of each factor's importance to climate change is called itsradiative forcing.

EXTERNAL FORCINGS
External forcing refers to processes external to the climate system (though not necessarily external to Earth) that influence climate. Climate responds to several types of external forcing, such as radiative forcing due to changes in atmospheric composition (mainly greenhouse gas concentrations), changes in solar luminosity, volcanic eruptions, and variations in Earth's orbit around the Sun. Attribution of recent climate change focuses on the first three types of forcing. Orbital cycles vary slowly over tens of thousands of years and thus are too gradual to have caused the temperature changes observed in the past century.

GREENHOUSE GASES.
Main articles: Greenhouse effect and Radiative forcing For more details on this topic, see Atmospheric CO2.

Greenhouse effect schematic showing energy flows between space, the atmosphere, and earth's surface. Energy exchanges are expressed in watts per square meter (W/m2).

Recent atmospheric carbon dioxide(CO2) increases. Monthly CO2measurements display seasonal oscillations in overall yearly uptrend; each year's maximum occurs during theNorthern Hemisphere's late spring, and declines during its growing season as plants remove some atmospheric CO2. The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface. It was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and was first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. Existence of the greenhouse effect as such is not disputed, even by those who do not agree that the recent temperature increase is attributable to human activity. The question is instead how the strength of the greenhouse effect changes when human activity increases the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.Naturally occurring greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about 33 C (59 F). The major greenhouse

gases are water vapor, which causes about 3670 percent of the greenhouse effect;carbon dioxide (CO2), which causes 926 percent; methane (CH4), which causes 49 percent; andozone (O3), which causes 37 percent. Clouds also affect the radiation balance, but they are composed of liquid water or ice and so are considered separately from water vapor and other gases.Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs andnitrous oxide. The concentrations of CO2 and methane have increased by 36% and 148% respectively since 1750. These levels are much higher than at any time during the last 650,000 years, the period for which reliable data has been extracted from ice cores. Less direct geological evidence indicates that CO2 values higher than this were last seen about 20 million years ago. Fossil fuel burning has produced about three-quarters of the increase in CO2 from human activity over the past 20 years. Most of the rest is due to land-use change, particularly deforestation.CO2 concentrations are continuing to rise due to burning of fossil fuels and land-use change. The future rate of rise will depend on uncertain economic, sociological, technological, and natural developments. Accordingly, the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios gives a wide range of future CO2scenarios, ranging from 541 to 970 ppm by the year 2100 (an increase by 90-250% since 1750). Fossil fuel reserves are sufficient to reach these levels and continue emissions past 2100 if coal, tar sands or methane clathrates are extensively exploited. The destruction of stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons is sometimes mentioned in relation to global warming. Although there are a few areas of linkage, the relationship between the two is not strong. Reduction of stratospheric ozone has a cooling influence, but substantial ozone depletion did not occur until the late 1970s. Ozone in the troposphereEarth's atmosphere.

CLIMATE MODELS

Calculations of global warming prepared in or before 2001 from a range of climate models under the SRES A2 emissions scenario, which assumes no action is taken to reduce emissions and regionally divided economic development.

The geographic distribution of surface warming during the 21st century calculated by the HadCM3 climate model if a business as usual scenario is assumed for economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. In this figure, the globally averaged warming corresponds to 3.0 C (5.4 F). The main tools for projecting future climate changes are mathematical models based on physical principles including fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer. Although they attempt to include as many processes as possible, simplifications of the actual climate system are inevitable because of the constraints of available computer power and limitations in knowledge of the climate system. All modern climate models are in fact combinations of models for different parts of the Earth. These include an atmospheric model for air movement, temperature, clouds, and other atmospheric properties; an ocean model that predicts temperature, salt content, and circulation of ocean waters; models for ice cover on land and sea; and a model of heat and moisture transfer from soil and vegetation to the atmosphere. Some models also include treatments of chemical

and biological processes. Warming due to increasing levels of greenhouse gases is not an assumption of the models; rather, it is an end result from the interaction of greenhouse gases with radiative transfer and other physical processes in the models. Although much of the variation in model outcomes depends on the greenhouse gas emissions used as inputs, the temperature effect of a specific greenhouse gas concentration (climate sensitivity) varies depending on the model used. Global climate model projections of future climate most often have used estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). In addition to human-caused emissions, some models also include a simulation of the carbon cycle; this generally shows a positive feedback, though this response is uncertain. Some observational studies also show a positive feedbac. Including uncertainties in future greenhouse gas concentrations and climate sensitivity, the IPCC anticipates a warming of 1.1 C to 6.4 C (2.0 F to 11.5 F) by the end of the 21st century, relative to 19801999. Models are also used to help investigate the causes of recent climate change by comparing the observed changes to those that the models project from various natural and human-derived causes. Although these models do not unambiguously attribute the warming that occurred from approximately 1910 to 1945 to either natural variation or human effects, they do indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man-made greenhouse gas emissions. The physical realism of models is tested by examining their ability to simulate current or past climates. Current climate models produce a good match to observations of global temperature changes over the last century, but do not simulate all aspects of climate. Not all effects of global warming are accurately predicted by the climate models used by the IPCC. For example, observed Arctic shrinkage has been faster than that predicted.

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING.


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Sparse records indicate that glaciers have been retreating since the early 1800s. In the 1950s measurements began that allow the monitoring of glacial mass balance, reported to the WGMS and the NSIDC. It is usually impossible to connect specific weather events to global warming. Instead, global warming is expected to cause changes in the overall distribution and intensity of events, such as changes to the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation. Broader effects are expected to include glacial retreat, Arctic shrinkage including long-term shrinkage of Greenland ice sheet, and worldwide sea level rise. Some effects on both the natural environment and human life are, at least in part, already being attributed to global warming. A 2001 report by the IPCC suggests that glacier retreat, ice shelf disruption such as that of the Larsen

Ice Shelf, sea level rise, changes in rainfall patterns, and increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather events are attributable in part to global warming.Other expected effects include water scarcity in some regions and increased precipitation in others, changes in mountain snowpack, and some adverse health effects from warmer temperatures. Social and economic effects of global warming may be exacerbated by growing population densities in affected areas. Temperate regions are projected to experience fewer cold-related deaths but many more deaths from heat exposure. A summary of probable effects and recent understanding can be found in the report made for the IPCC Third Assessment Report by Working Group II.The newer IPCC Fourth Assessment Report summary reports that there is observational evidence for an increase in intense tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic Ocean since about 1970, in correlation with the increase in sea surface temperature (see Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation), but that the detection of long-term trends is complicated by the quality of records prior to routine satellite observations. The summary also states that there is no clear trend in the annual worldwide number of tropical cyclones. Additional anticipated effects include sea level rise of 0.18 to 0.59 meters (0.59 to 1.9 ft) in 20902100 relative to 19801999, new trade routes resulting from arctic shrinkage, possible thermohaline circulation slowing, increasingly intense, in some locations, (but less frequent) hurricanes and extreme weather events, reductions in the ozone layer, changes in agriculture yields, changes in the range of climate-dependent disease vectors. which have been linked to increases in the prevalence of malaria and dengue fever, and ocean oxygen depletion. Increased atmospheric CO2 increases the amount of CO2 dissolved in the oceans. CO2 dissolved in the ocean reacts with water to form carbonic acid, resulting in ocean acidification. Ocean surface pH is estimated to have decreased from 8.25 near the

beginning of the industrial era to 8.14 by 2004, and is projected to decrease by a further 0.14 to 0.5 units by 2100 as the ocean absorbs more CO2Heat and carbon dioxide trapped in the oceans may still take hundreds of years to be re-emitted, even after greenhouse gas emissions are eventually reduced. Since organisms and ecosystems are adapted to a narrow range of pH, this raises extinction concerns and disruptions infood webs.

7 STEPS TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING


1. Drive A Vehicle Which Is A Hybrid Or An Electric Powered Vehicle. The global warming problem has made transportation an even more important consideration. Traditional vehicles that use gasoline or diesel fuel have greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to global warming, but driving a hybrid or plug in electric car can reduce the emissions significantly. In the case of an electric car, as long as the electricity is obtained from alternative energy sources such as solar or wind power there are no emissions at all in the entire process. Driving a hybrid vehicle can reduce the carbon emissions which have global warming impacts by a large percentage. 2. Prevent Deforestation Efforts. Deforestation and global warming are closely connected. The trees in the forests on the planet are composed of around fifty percent carbon, and the forests act as huge carbon sinks and pump clean oxygen into the air. By reducing the carbon and other greenhouse gases in the air, the trees can slow down global warming and help keep the earth in better shape. Take all steps possible to stop deforestation, and to encourage replacing the depleted forests around the world whenever possible. 3. Plant Trees, Shrubs, And Other Plants. The global warming problem is getting worse, and recent news reports have shown an increase in temperature, severe storms, and ice melting from the ice shelves. Planting trees and other plants can help clean the air, trap carbon and other harmful greenhouse gases, and provide rich oxygen for the environment. Plants and trees can slow down global

warming and keep the changes caused by it to a minimum. By planting living things, you are taking a big step towards reversing the effects of global warming. 4. Use Renewable Alternative Energy Sources. Renewable alternative energy sources can have beneficial global warming impacts. These energy sources do not have large amounts of carbon emissions, and they are renewable. Sources such as solar power, wind power, municipal solid waste to energy, and others are renewable and can be collected without causing harm to the earth. Fossil fuels cause greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental damage, but alternative renewable energy sources do not. Using these sources of energy instead can make a big difference in the pace of global warming. 5. Use Energy Conservation Measures. Conserving energy can have large global warming impacts. Taking steps to conserve energy can help the global warming problem by causing less energy demand which must be met. These steps should include making sure your home is well insulated and your appliances are energy efficient. Turn off lights when you are not in a room, and install a programmable thermostat to help heat and cool your home more efficiently while conserving energy at the same time. Walk or ride a bike instead of driving if you are only going a short distance. 6. Use Biofuels Instead Of Traditional Fuels. Using biofuels in your vehicle can really help with the global warming problem. Biofuels offer many advantages when it comes to global warming impacts. These fuels have carbon emissions which are just a fraction of the carbon released by traditional fossil fuels, and they also do not release anywhere near the level of particulates and other pollutants either. This makes biofuels much more environmentally friendly, and these fuels contribute far less to global warming than

traditional fuels do. Using biofuels can allow you to help fight global warming in a big way. 7. Use Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs Instead Of Incandescent Light Bulbs. Changing your light bulbs to compact fluorescent light bulbs instead of using incandescent light bulbs can use about sixty percent less energy in your home each month, and this can add up in a big way. Switching all of the light bulbs in your home can save you tens of dollars or more each month on your electric bills, and you lower energy demand which helps to fight global warming.

THE GLOBAL CRISIS: DEFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE.

The earth is warming up, and the best available evidence points to the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases as the leading cause. Deforestation and climate change are intimately connected: Globally, deforestation releases nearly 2 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year, and is responsible for nearly 25 percent of man-made CO2 emissions. The destruction of the world's forests not only harms the communities that depend on them, but increasingly affects us all.

While the root causes of deforestation vary from region to region, there are some common solutions. Communities need seeds, training, and technical support in order to adapt long-standing cultural and agricultural traditions (such as gathering fuelwood in nearby forests and practicing slash-and-burn agriculture) to new realities. Starting nurseries and planting trees is part of this process. It is not too late. We are solution-oriented people. We have developed programs that work, which are restoring trees and forests to degraded lands. We are working with individuals, communities, and other organizations around the world with a shared vision for a positive change. We are a hands-on people-to-people program at the grassroots level, and we are leading by example. Join Us! There are many ways to get involved. Donations are gratefully accepted in any amount, and 10 cents plants a tree! We offer a free distance agroforestry training program. You can browse issues of our quarterly newsletter, or sign up for our monthly e-newsletter.

CONCLUSION.

The goal of all human beings is to live in joy and perpetual harmony with oneself and with the environment, to be able to enjoy life free of sorrows and fears. We approach this goal step by step over a series of incarnations. Let's compare this with classes in school or with a study at the university: Based on your performance within the current semester, you can either advance to the next higher level or you will have to repeat the current level until you meet a certain performance criteria. In a similar manner our behavior in daily life decides whether we approach the above mentioned goal of perpetual harmony with ourselves and with our environment or not. Hence it should become evident that harming or even destroying nature - i.e. our environment and basis of being - does at the very end hinder ourselves most: We harm or destroy exactly what we eventually wanted to get in unison and harmony with.

DIFFERENT STEPS FROM VARIOUS ORGANIZATION TO REDUCE THE EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING
Pioneering businesses across the Golden State are beginning to do their share to cut global warming pollution by being smarter about how they use energy and switching to clean, renewable energy sources. At the same time, they are finding that these strategies improve their competitiveness and help the bottom line cutting energy costs, reducing exposure to volatile fossil fuel and electricity prices, and attracting environmentally aware customers. This report highlights 12 such businesses or institutions and demonstrates the kinds of gains that can be had across California from an organized, statewide effort to reduce the state s global warming pollution. Altogether, the companies profiled below have reduced their global warming emissions by more than 100 million pounds per year while reducing their annual operating costs by more than $13 million. y Adobe Systems Incorporated, San Jose Adobe has implemented 45 energy efficiency and conservation projects at its headquarters in San Jose, from

installing more efficient lighting to reprogramming the central heating and cooling systems. Economic Benefits: Invested $1.1 million; reduced operating costs by just over $1 million per year. Global Warming Benefits: Cut carbon dioxide emissions by 16 percent (more than 11 million pounds) while increasing the number of employees. Westfield Corporation, locations statewide Westfield Corporation upgraded lighting systems at its seven San Diego-area shopping centers with more efficient technology, reducing electricity use by 19 percent. Westfield is nearing completion of a similar upgrade at 23 shopping centers nationwide. Economic Benefits: Expects to reduce energy paying off investment in less than 24 months. Global Warming Benefits: Nationwide, will reduce global warming pollution on the order of 40 million pounds per year. P-R Farms, Clovis In 2005, P-R Farms installed one of California s largest privately-owned solar photovoltaic systems on the roof of its packing house, where employees pack, store and ship over 1 million boxes of fruit per year.

Economic Benefits: Cost $3.2 million after rebates and credits; reduced monthly electricity bills by up to 80 percent; will reach full payback in 10 years. Global Warming Benefits: Prevents 1.6 million pounds of carbon dioxide emissions annually. San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) SANDAG s RideLink program assists employers and commuters with alternative transportation to and from work helping QUALCOMM win a 2nd place raking in EPA s Best Workplaces for Commuters Program. Economic Benefits: In fiscal 2006, RideLink estimates that it prevented nearly 2 million commuting trips, saving more than $50 million in fuel costs, reduced travel delays and other benefits. Global Warming Benefits: The reduced vehicle travel avoided 125 million pounds of carbon dioxide pollution. Bentley Prince Street, City of Industry Bentley Prince Street, California s largest commercial carpet manufacturer, reduced the amount of energy and resources used in carpet production, improved lighting efficiency, installed solar panels, purchased renewable energy credits and pursued a number of other projects to improve sustainability.