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EXPERIENCES AND PROBLEMS OF WORKING WOMEN AS SALES GIRLS

AMNA IRAM KHAN Centre of Excellence in Gender Studies Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan

EXPERIENCES AND PROBLEMS OF WORKING WOMEN AS SALES GIRLS

AMNA IRAM KHAN Centre of Excellence in Gender Studies Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan Email: mannah303@gmail.com

Thesis submitted for the partial fulfillment of Degree of Masters in Gender studies Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad Pakistan

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgements Acronyms Abstract

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................. 1-5 Statement of the Problem ..............................................................................................2 Objectives .......................................................................................................................2 Significance of the Study ...............................................................................................2 Limitations of the Study ................................................................................................2 Conceptual or Operational Definitions .......................................................................3 Salesgirls ...................................................................................................................3 Experiences ..............................................................................................................3 Attitude ....................................................................................................................3 Problems ..................................................................................................................3 Perceptions ..............................................................................................................4 Locale ..............................................................................................................................4 Problems Faced During Field Work ............................................................................4 Overview of the Research .............................................................................................5

CHAPTER 2: LITERRATURE REVIEW ............................................................... 6-16 CHAPTER: 3 METHODS/ METHODOLOGY ..................................................... 17-21 Over View of Research Design....................................................................................17 Research Approaches ...................................................................................................... 17 Qualitative Research .............................................................................................17 Quantitative Research ...........................................................................................17 Research Methods .......................................................................................................18 In-Depth Interview...................................................................................................... 18 Observation ................................................................................................................. 18 Research Tools/Instruments ......................................................................................18 Open-Ended Questionnaire ....................................................................................18

Close-Ended Questionnaire ...................................................................................19 Research Techniques ..................................................................................................19 Rapport Building....................................................................................................19 Gatekeeper .............................................................................................................20 Key Informant ........................................................................................................20 Recording ..............................................................................................................20 Snowballing ......................................................................................................... 20 Research Ethics .........................................................................................................21 Sampling ......................................................................................................................... 21 Data Analysis .............................................................................................................21

CHAPTER: 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ..................................................... 22-55 Customers Attitude..................................................................................................22 Types of Customer .................................................................................................22 Customers Behavior towards Sales Girls .............................................................23 Differences in Attitude...........................................................................................24 This profession is acceptable for women in customers eye..................................28 Customers attitude during conversation ...............................................................30 Customers Perception ................................................................................................32 Perception of Customers about Women in Sales Profession .................................32 Perception of Customers about Women as Sales Managers and Womans Selling (Skills) ................................................................................................................................35 Perception of Customers about Women Job Hierarchies ......................................40 The customers related experiences and problems of sales

girls42

Over All Experiences ...........................................................................................42


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Customers oriented Experiences and dealing strategies .......................................42 Strategies and Tactics of dealing ...........................................................................43 Problems .......................................................................................................................46 Most difficult part of the job ..................................................................................46 Issues faced ............................................................................................................47 Challenges faced ....................................................................................................48 Difference between womens and mens working.................................................49 Women prefer this job because of: ........................................................................51 Women assigned on salesgirls positions because of: ..........................................53 Discussion......................................................................................................................55

CHAPTER: 5 KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS ........................................... 58Key Findings .................................................................................................................58 Attitude .................................................................................................................58 Perceptions .............................................................................................................58 Customers oriented experiences ............................................................................59 Problems ................................................................................................................60 Recommendations ........................................................................................................60 Way forward.................................................................................................................61 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................... ANNEXURE ........................................................................................................................

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1 This (sales) profession is suitable for women (mens and womens perception) TABLE 2 Women should come in this (sales) profession (mens and womens perception) TABLE 3 This (sales) profession is respectable according to our societal norms (mens and womens perception) TABLE 4 There is a clear difference between womens and mens selling (mens and womens perception) TABLE 5 Preference in interaction with salesgirls rather than salesmen (mens and womens perception) TABLE 6 Women are well received by both men and women as sales girls (mens and womens perception) TABLE 7 Women are more hard working compare to men (mens and womens perception) TABLE 8 Women have better selling skills (mens and womens perception) TABLE 9 Salesmen dominate or have upper hand over sales girls (mens and womens perception) TABLE 10 Women work mostly in low scales jobs (mens and womens perception)

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1 This (sales) profession is suitable for women (mens and womens perception) FIGURE 2 Should women come in this (sales) profession? (mens and womens perception) FIGURE 3 Is sales profession respectable according to our societal norms? (mens and womens perception) FIGURE 4 There is a clear difference between womens and mens selling (mens and womens perception) FIGURE 5 Customer prefer to interact with salesgirls rather than salesmen (mens and womens perception) FIGURE 6 Women (as sales girls) are well received by both men and women (mens and womens perception) FIGURE 7 Women are more hard working as compare to men (mens and womens perception) FIGURE 8 Women have better selling skills (mens and womens perception) FIGURE 9 Salesmen dominate or have upper hand over sales girls (mens and womens perception) FIGURE 10 Women work in low scales jobs (mens and womens perception)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost I am grateful to all my participants and I appreciate the time they spent with me from their busy schedule, without their cooperation this would not have been possible. I hold the deepest respect for my Center and university for giving me a chance to conduct this research study. My cordial appreciation goes to my supervisor Ms Kiran Nazir Ahmed for the valuable contribution of her time. I am pleased to thank Rizwan Ahmad Khan for his continuous help and guidance throughout my research work. My special and most humble thanks go to my parents for their love, prayers and support as well as my elder brother Shafique. I am also thankful to all my friends who granted me moral support. I am grateful to every person who prayed for my success especially Anam and Mehreen.

Amna Iram Khan.

ACRONYMS

HR FM DM ADM

Human Resource Floor Manager Department Manager Assistant Department Manager

ABSTRACT
This study explores the customers related experiences and problems of sales girls along with the customers attitude and the perceptions about them. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten sales girls working in METRO cash and carry in Islamabad and questionnaires were filled-up by thirty customers. Different attitude of customers towards salesgirls were found during this study. Another interesting finding was that with a change in customers age and gender there is a change in their attitude too. Men and women both show harsh attitude but men ask irrelevant questions and usually stare at salesgirls. Women customers related experiences were found to be different in nature; the working quality of sales girls is affected by sexual harassment and rude attitudes of customers. Problems which salesgirls had to face at work are low appreciation of their hard work and they are being made to perform jobs beyond their capacity.

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION


The aim of this paper is to highlight the relatively neglected voices and problems of salesgirls in Pakistan. I would therefore like to begin with a direct quote from a respondent:
Once I was fixing the stall with the help of my colleague, a man (costumer) came near us and pretended as he is talking on mobile phone. He discussed our faces and body figures and his words were too insulting, actually he wanted to make us hear that all foolishness. 1.

In Pakistan only 2.5 percent of the sales workers are women2 (Mirza, 2002: 8589). Sale industry is a quite new profession for women and it is easily available with good packages. Higher education is also not essential for this job so it is highly accessible for women. However, still womens participation in this profession is not enormous. First reason behind this fact can be that it is a new profession and people do not like sale industry and marketing as profession for women. They often do not consider it a respectful profession for women and they seem to suspect such women as weak characters because of their interaction with men, while women feel stigmatized for working along side men (Mirza, 2002: 26). Secondly, women of this profession are not taken seriously. The all important factor is women objectification. Consequently common perception is that women are not hired because of their skills but just because of their gender. Third problem, which is usually common for all working women, is sexual harassment. According to Mirza (2002: 26) As soon as a woman leaves her house and walk down the street the men raise their heads to stare at her. Due to these reasons women do not prefer to work outside their houses. Most women feel more secure working at home , working out side the home offers better wages and more self-confidence but women would have to face a negative attitude from people in the streets and at the job.

1 2

Statement by a respondent during the interview conducted for this research ( Labor force survey, 1993-94, Government of Pakistan1995a)

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM What are the experiences and problems of women working in sales industry of Pakistan?

OBJECTIVES To explore customer related experiences and problems of sales girls To explore customers attitude and perceptions about sales girls

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The topic customer related experiences of sales girls has been selected because this profession can improve the available opportunities for women and they can participate in workforce through this profession. But on the other hand, it is not considered a good profession for women so it is not easy for a woman to join it. A woman has to face different problems in working environment of sales industry, so this study can provide help to understand the nature and mechanism of these problems. The current research study will be useful for further academic research on problems of working women in sales profession. It will be useful to open new aspects for future researchers to apprehend research on sales girls. This research highlights diverse problems, experiences of sales girls and attitudes and perceptions of customers. This research study can provide some kind of awareness to readers about the issue.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Due to time constraints, the study was restricted and focused on the experiences and problems of girls in one shopping zone only, and the problems identified in this study may not necessarily apply to other regions. However, some of the cross cutting issues reported in this study, may apply to other regions.

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OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS

Salesgirls Main concept in objectives and research is salesgirl. The salesgirl is a young woman whose job is to help customers and sell things in a store and a woman who is employed to sell merchandise in a store or in a designated territory (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2009). In the research interviews were taken from those girls who were sales girls and who face the customers.

Experiences Experiences are the Direct personal participation or observation; actual knowledge or contact (Collins English Dictionary, 2003).

Attitude Attitude is the way a person views something or tends to behave towards it (Collins English Dictionary , 2003) and in the research the attitude is taken as the behaviour of the customers including their way of talking, their body posture, their way of looking and different styles or any thing which effect positively or negatively on sales girls work.

Problems In the research problems are taken as a state of difficulty that needs to be resolved (Farlex clipart collection, 2008) and any thing, matter, person, etc., that is difficult to deal with, solve, or overcome (Collins English Dictionary, 2003). This study also focuses on the problems of sales girls which they face in the firm.

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Perceptions Perception is the act of perceiving or the ability to perceive mental grasp of objects, qualities, etc. by means of the senses; awareness; comprehension (Webster's New World College Dictionary, 2010).

LOCALE This study has been conducted at Metro Cash and Carry in Islamabad. Metro has opened its franchise in Islamabad in 2008. It is the international leader in self-service wholesale, and opened its first outlet in Islamabad in Sector I-11/4, near the Railway Carriage Factory. It features more than 10,000 square meters of selling space and offers a comprehensive product range of more than 20,000 food and non-food articles. Around 80 percent of the goods on display originate from Pakistani producers and distributors. Each METRO Cash & Carry wholesale center employs 300 people from the local community3. ( 2008) PROBLEMS FACED DURING FIELD WORK During fieldwork in Metro Cash and Carry Islamabad researcher faced various other problems during her field work in locale. The first and the toughest task was to get permission from HR4 management of the firm. They had some confusion about the purpose and the sample selection criterion, so first management unit was clarified about the primary objective, nature and the methodology of the research. Then the next barrier was to convince Firms sale girls to participate in the research process. For this the role of key informant was very important. Through key informant the trust of sale girls was built and through friendly behavior the full and healthy participation of firms sale girls was made possible.

3 4

(METRO Cash & Carry Pakistan opens first wholesale center in Islamabad, 2008) (Human Resource)

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OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH After an introduction and understanding the nature of the problems which sales girls have to face in their working environment, next chapter is desk review of the previous research studies and relevant data on the problems and potential areas for women in sales industry. In this chapter the focus is on the issues like working womens rights, roles, value of their economic contribution and women in sales industry in different developing and developed countries. Methods and techniques are discussed in chapter three. Fourth chapter focuses on the results and discussions while chapter five focuses key findings and conclusion.

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW


The present literature review locates the womens roles, rights, and their participation in economic activities. It also focuses on women, marketing and sales industry under the patriarchal system. The next aspect discussed is the sales industry in the developed countries and under developed countries including the problems related to job such as harassment, job hierarchy, sexual division of labor and peoples negative attitude towards working women. R.N. Mathur (1989) has worked regarding the economic role of women and emphasized on the need for equality of right and opportunities of economic contribution. He presents three basic arguments: Women economic subjugation or dependent position is the result of a rigid distinction in mens and womens role in society and this leads to exploitation; The full benefit of development can only be realized with peoples participation i.e effective use of human resources and the economic role of women which cannot be isolated from the total framework of development; Socio-economic and political change creates a need to extend spheres of knowledge and activity of all members of a society. Modern trends in demographic and social change justify a redefinition overall of womens role today. The society is familiarly linked with its economic position which depends on rights, roles and opportunities in contribution of economic activities. The economic position of women is acknowledged as a sign that the society is progressing. However, this does not necessarily mean that all developments direct to improving womens economic position.

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Anonymous (n.d) 5 found strong agreement among marketers of both genders that women are experiencing success in marketing. In the survey results of this study, 80% believe women are experiencing a greater degree of success in marketing departments than in the past, 66% said their success in marketing is greater than in other departments. According to respondents (both men and women) of this survey, there are two main reasons that why are women good at marketing First, Women listen to

consumers better (because they are better listeners, generally). Fifty two percent of the men and 57% of the women cited this as a reason in the survey and almost 45% of the respondents asserted that women understand the importance of emotional connections to brands. Secondly, Women favor a collaborative approach, and longing to influence, but not command their colleagues, which is the best way to produce a successful marketing program. These reasons are mentioned by about 40% of the men respondents and over 50% of the women. Avila, R (n. d) Stated women may be better suited to handle sales positions than their men counterparts; in sales industry it is necessary to be really people oriented, and to have better listening skills and understand the client's wants and needs and women are generally better at this. Women have more potential to become salespeople and can therefore get a marvelous opportunity because of high pay and rapid advancement. Recent studies have found that some women have better selling skills and stronger listening skills as women are more nurturing and empathize better than men (Ransford, 1998). This study presents a comprehensive picture about the working of sales girls and their positions and it also clarifies that why men counterparts and customers harass women at the work place. It also explains that what type of attitude of customers is there and why men ask irrelevant questions, Simple answer is that just because they dont like this profession for women. In the context of women in sales industry under the patriarchal system, in this study the feminist labor market analysts claim that patriarchy is responsible for

Women In Marketing: Succeeding...Naturally: A Study of the Decision Making Styles of Marketing Executives: www.copernicusmarketing.com/.../women_success_in_marketing.pdf
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occupational sex segregation (Hartmann, 1981, 1976; Mitchell, 1974, 1971). The patriarchal system demotes women to low-paying, women-dominated jobs and if a new profession offers more benefits, only men move into it. However, according to Strober (1984), employers are also concerned with upholding mens benefits because they themselves are typically men and when women are hired into predominately mens jobs, gender stereotypes may obvious themselves in workplace cultures that exclude and isolate women (Antilla, 1995; Catalyst, 1995; Kanter and Stein, 1979). Hiring women into traditionally men jobs may threaten men workers' sense of masculinity, diminish their status, and raise fears that their earnings will decline (Williams, 1989). Now in the consequence of above discussed phenomenon, men workers may respond by harassing women colleagues, or by creating antagonistic and alienating work environments. Customers may also prefer sales workers of one sex or the other, particularly when the position requires technical knowledge or expertise about the products. According to Karene and Anderson (1967) some men do not like to discuss financial affairs with women, they have a feeling that no woman can know as much as a man might" (Karene and Anderson, 1967:5; reported in Thomas, 1990:189). Lawson (1993), in her study of car saleswomen, found that some customers responded to women salespersons by simply refusing to deal with them ("Get me a real salesman! What the hell are you doing here?"), or by asking saleswomen questions that they would not ask a salesman (e. g, "How much does the engine weigh?"). Customers may prefer saleswomen in certain contexts, assuming for example that women are more knowledgeable than men about clothing or house wares (Game and Pringle, 1983). Although these markets are expanding, however, these markets are inclined to be linked with lower earnings than others (Thomas, 1990) in some instances; there is a clear involvement between the sex of the salesperson, the gendered nature of products, and the sex composition of customers (Berheide, 1988; Bradley, 1989; Game and Pringle, Bellas and Coventry 1983, in Marcia L. Bellas and Barbara Thomas, 2001)

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Now moving towards some hidden ethical issues in sales profession, a research conducted by Ken, Tim, & Gene (2001) states that the sales profession suffer from a public perception that it has low standard of ethical behavior (Chonko, Tanner, and Weeks 1996; Dubiwky. Jalson, Michels, Kotabe, and Lim 1992; Singhapakdi; and Vite!! 1992) but Gender socialization theory suggests that women are trained to reason differently about ethical issues (Gilligan 1982; Mason and Mudrack 1996). Research among marketers has also shown that women rely more on ethical norms when making decisions (Hunt and Vasquez- Parraga 1993; Vitell and Singhapakdi 1993 in Ken, Tim, & Gene, 2001). According to Gilligan (1982) women seem to exhibit a greater ethic of caring than men and are more responsive moral issues (Chonko and Hunt 1985; Harris and Sutton 1995). As a result they react more ethically to marketing problems (Dawson 1992, 1997; Ferrel and Skinner 1988; Vital et al. 1993 in Ken, Tim, & Gene, 2001). Now we will move towards the matter of womans capability and suitability for different type of occupations. In this regard a survey was conducted to know about the stereotypical observation that womens special characteristics qualify and disqualify them for specific occupations and tasks. In this survey, one of the respondents the boss of a sales representative in an advertising firm asserted Women in this business do a hell of a lot better than guys do . Pretty women do better. Its selling the package. If its a nice package you buy it. (Pratt & Hanson, 1995) Above discussed issue opens a new discussion about the objectification of women at workplace. To answer this question Jennifer Argo6 has proved that a product becomes more desirable if an attractive member of the opposite sex is selling it. In the study, researchers found that clothing was rated more desirable if it had been touched or worn by an attractive member of the opposite sex. And some people said they would pay more for the item, even if it hadn't been washed. Jennifer Argo found that if the customer was of average attractiveness, the participant evaluated the shirt negatively. But if a shirt was touched by someone who was highly attractive and of the opposite gender, the customers evaluated the products higher and they were eager to drop more money on it and according to him The results show that its worth having highly attractive people work

A business professor and researcher of University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada

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there. Or if you cant, at least have the staff dress well and be well-groomed and maximize their potential (Joshi, 2007). Now he question arises that with in any working profession, what kind of internal environment usually can be found. In this regard a research conducted by Martin (2006) focused on employment, maintenance, training, promotion, compensation, and internal and external work environments. In this study basically authors asked sales professionals how work in out-of-the-office settings affects women's careers. This study present a mixed picture, with some showing gains for women (Morgan 1998; Petersen and Saporta 2004) and others showing women continuing to lag behind similar men (Morgan and Arthur, 2005; Noonan, Corcoran, and Courant forthcoming). An evaluation criterion for these jobs is highly efficient and formalized. Most companies assess performance for individuals in these jobs based on some measure of sales volume, whether or not the individual is compensated through commission or partial commission payments. Thus, women's performance evaluations to be less biased because the evaluation criteria are "objective" (Reskin, 2000). On the other hand, this is an occupation in which establishing and maintaining personal relationships with customers are of central importance. Sale is a field where women should not face many of the usual barriers to advancement, since performance can be measured objectively (Catalyst, 1995). But women often face problem of sexual harassment because on job women are force to maintain personal relationship with customers because informal socializing in out-of-the-office settings is seen as crucial to the success of any sales representative. Professional salespersons spoke at length about the importance of "cultivating" relationships with customers and using "entertainment" to do this. Informal socializing is goal oriented and instrumental for the sales representatives and the companies for which they work. The sales representatives in this study described working or "entertaining" in a number of out-of-the-office settings. Now here comes the real problem for women with in sales industry because out-of-the-office settings never suites them within our society.

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Now discussing the nature of harassment, the study differentiates between "hetero social" settings and homo social settings. The difficulties in hetero social settings present for women professionals range from simple gossip to harassment. Gossip is an especially common concern among saleswomen if they conduct lunches or dinners with colleagues. While some women sales professionals are sexually harassed in this hetero social, out-of-the-office work settings (Giuffre and Williams, 1994) Women professionals face particular obstacles to career advancement. In this case, these settings produce heterosexual relationships, where customers or colleagues view the saleswomen as potential sexual partners. As a result, women who work in these settings confront problems ranging from gossip to sexual harassment and have to do additional work to avoid this. In this study, women participants describe it as problematic, disgusting, and career inhibiting unwanted sexual advances or propositions, especially from customers and women in industrial and consumer goods were forced to engage in sexual banter, and women in a variety of industries reported that customers harassed them as a "test" (Catalyst, 1995). Now here comes an aspect that what are the experiences of women in sales industry in Asia and how those experiences vary with the variation in the nature of progress of countries. This study explores the women in sales industry in Asia. Comer (2001) focuses on China and explores three questions. First do salesmen and saleswomen in China hold gender stereotypes about women in sales management. Second do

salesmen and saleswomen in China perceive women sales managers to show traits that are generally associated with good managers? Third, do salesmen and saleswomen in China accept women as sales managers? The objective of this study is to determine the cultural readiness of salespeople in China to accept women into sales management positions. Comer states in his research that traditionally selling positions have been held by men because such jobs have long been regarded as being inherently masculine and women are seen as having no place in the masculine working world but now this shift has

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been noticeable in the industrial sales forces where women have proved themselves to be very capable salespeople. Piercy, Cravens, and Lane (1999, 2000) observed that women are well received by both men and women as sales managers and women sales managers utilize alternative control strategies that lead to improved job-related outcomes for their sales workforce (Comer and Jolson 1985, 1991). In oratory it is said that there is no difference between men and women, and revolutionary principle dictated that men and women managers would be equally accepted but the actual practice belies reality. Now in this review we turn to the issue of women and their working conditions in the Third World countries. The study is conducted by Humphrey and according to him no analysis of labor market or labor process could proceed without an explicit analysis of sexual division of labor. The problems women face in the labour market at the initial time must stop for integration into the market for labour power. Women are concentrated in unskilled jobs, while skilled jobs are monopolized by men. The sexes are widely segregated and management also viewed men and women workers in quite different terms, they appeared to modify their employment strategies to the sex of the workers, not the job performance (Ransford, 1998). Women workers may be less secure in their jobs, or might be less trainable or have less experience, or they might be easier to fire (Barron and Norris 1976). Above all women are excluded from the better jobs in order to increase men superiority. In her study Mirza (2002) states:
A strong sexualization of gender relations in Pakistan is manifested, first of all, in the public sphere where women, particularly younger ones, are constantly stared at. As soon as a woman leaves her house and walks down the street the men raise their heads to stare at her, even turn around when she has already passed by, and jog to their to make them aware to her presence. Under these conditions women feel uncomfortable in public, and generally very few women are seen in public life.

The public space is traditionally supposed to be a mans space in which a woman has no legitimacy to enter and the societal attitude was very negative towards these

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women because people would think that they are not good women. It was considered that these women have a bad moral character but within only four years so much changes has been taken place in the culture of Pakistan, during the last decade, a new trend has emerged in urban Pakistan that lower-middle-class women have increasingly entered the office sector and have started to work in middle level jobs that were regarded as exclusively men occupation. According to official figure, the women participation rate in the labor force in Pakistan is one of the lowest worldwide. Although in the latest labor force survey 19961997, informal sector activities have been included for the first time, the basic labor force participation rate for women in urban areas is only 5.9 percent, with 55.3 percent of the urban women workforce or 3 percent of all urban women engaged in informal activities7. 35% of the working women are belonged to the different category of the professions such as technicians, associate professionals, service workers and shop and market sales workers, craft and related trade workers, while according to labor force survey, 1993-94, about only 2.5 percent of the sales workers are women8. This survey focuses on the current employment level of women in apparel industry at different level of the firm. Its findings are that women employees are mostly signed up at low levels of hierarchy in the organizations. this might be because of low level of skill and education amongst women on account of cultural and opportunity barriers also in addition to company policies and facilities, company culture and attitude also play a key role in facilitating a higher women participation in the work force and women should have equal opportunity of being hired and promotion in the company and the current job satisfaction levels of women employees as the gender equality, wage satisfaction, be short of incidence of harassments, appreciation and good environment, preference of a woman supervisor etc (Haq, 2009). This research also outlines the barriers and restrictions and general social, cultural attitude and the work environment which is not appropriate. It explicates womens participation in workforce as cultural attitude that unless they should work there are

7 8

(Labour force survey 1998b) (Labour force survey 1995a)

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extenuating circumstances for women to go out of the house, otherwise women should focus on house hold chores because often their men do not allow women to work in factory or any other workplace and consider it better to starve than to live on a womans income. Men usually get very upset if a woman of their house wants to work. Work environment is also not conducive as women face the cat calls, stares sexual harassment and use of foul and abusive language is very common in factories etc (Haq, 2009). This study is linked to my research work to understand the reasons of lack of participation of women at workforce and the problems which they face during their job. It is also linked with my objectives of the study of exploring the experiences and problems of working women as sales girls. This study also gives a clear picture to know about the factors that creates these problems. In Pakistan womens mobility is restricted. Connection Action, 2006 conducted a study on the bus hostesses of Daewoo bus services. Its findings were that although working outside the home offers better wages and more self- confidence but women feel more secure to work at home rather than working alongside men. This is because women face a negative attitude from the people on the street and at the job. A small study was conducted on the hostesses of Daewoo bus services in Punjab and NWFP, and their reasons for joining this workforce were investigated. According to this research women preferred this job because they feel, it is secure job, 45% of hostesses said they started this job because they have pick and drop service while 25% stated because of safe working environment Most of the women said they work because of their financial needs and the 65% of the hostess told that the income and benefits are the main reasons for joining while only 15 % said they like this profession. According to a management officer women prefer this job because this work is more respectable than others ordinary offices job and mostly their work is not consider as respectable and people dont treat girls well and they also flirt with them. This profession is not without problems, according to hostess due to hierarchical relation few hostess progress to management position while boys who join it, rapidly progress to administration and management. There are no women in high levels so that women face some problems

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because if passengers misbehave, usually male officers do not take due action and ask irrelevant questions. About the customers behaviors different types of opinions were prevalent. one third of the women felt that travelers behaved well while most hostesses expressed that customers mistreated them. Some respondents said that customers behavior varies with the variation in the culture. About the issue of acceptability almost the same number declared those customers behaviors has improved over time. According to some, women themselves are the agents behind this change and some said that people have accepted them. While 25% felt that it had worsened. Now moving into future discussion about customers behaviour current study denotes, one hostess put it our training teaches us we must be nice to everyone, it is another thing that no one is nice to us. Mostly angry men, choosy aged and high society women are identified as those people who create a problem for hostess. The hostess deal with all these problems with silence because of their professionalism but they have adopt a hard attitude for youngsters because they routinely give them trouble. 50% of the women felt that customers express appreciation for their work while many hostesses expressed they have different responses for womens and mens behaviors as some men have a high level of appreciation for their work. They said that they would also allow their family members to do this job and women passengers said that they felt safer travelling alone and they can also share easily their problems with them. Lulla (2009) writes a womans (working in Bangalore petrol pump) comment:
In the beginning, many customers would pass comments. They dont do that now because women are more efficient in clearing vehicles than men, especially two-wheelers. Customers also listen to us and dont dare cut the line. Maybe because its shameful to be ticked off by a woman in public. I have to deal with all kinds of people. Some try to strike up a conversation, while others are too shy to even clearly state how many liters they want. Students on two-wheelers bother us the most by trying to lean close or brushing against us. Some older men are also like that. They try to flatter us by saying pretty women should not work at petrol pumps. The dangerous hours are after sunset. Not a day goes by without a driver soliciting us. We take things in our stride and try to ignore them. But there are days when I have asked lecherous customers if they dont have wives or sisters. That shuts them up. (Lulla, 2009)

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A petrol station in India is run entirely by women. In a sector of the job market that, conventionally, has been virtually solely dominated by men. The women are employed in all aspects of the petrol station's workings, from management to washing cars, filling the tanks and checking the oil and the tire pressures. At the entrance, a huge billboard displays women smiling in their uniforms. In all, around 30 young women work there and in doing so are challenging tradition. As one of the attendants said, When I first started working here, people used to ridicule me because I was doing a man's job," Another said that some male customers think that "because we are women, they can take advantage of us, or be rude to us, Some get really angry and shout abuse at us. But we have learned to deal with them" (Anonymous, 2005)9. Even some of the women customers are not entirely comfortable about being served by a woman as some women feel this job is not for women and they feel that a womans place is in the kitchen. As another attendant expresses that" I used to get nervous and wonder whether I could do the job. I also used to be terrified of working late nights. But I no longer feel like that." This review provides help to understand the customers behavior and the difference between men and women behaviors and also elucidates the reasons that why men are so rude towards sales girls and also about customers thinking mechanism about sale girls.

Sales soar at all_ women garage: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/433238, accessed on march 5,2010

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CHAPTER THREE METHODS/ METHODOLOGY

OVER VIEW OF RESEARCH DESIGN In this research study both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to gather data. It explored the experiences and problems of sales girls and customers attitude and perception about sales girls. The quantitatively data was gathered through close-ended questionnaire while in-depth interviews and in-depth observation were also used.

RESEARCH APPROACHES Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used.

Qualitative Research Approach The qualitative approach was used to gather data from the sales girls because qualitative approach was more appropriate to get detailed data about experiences and problems of sales girls. As qualitative methods are typically flexible, ask mostly openended questions, participants are free to respond in detail and the relationship between the researcher and the participant is often less formal10 so it provided great deal of help in gathering precised data from the field.

Quantitative Research Approach The quantitative approach was used to get the data from the customers because quantitative methods are fairly inflexible, surveys and questionnaires are used,

10

(Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collectors Field Guide, Module 1)

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researchers ask all identical questions in the same order11. The customers do not want to spend much time on in-depth interviews so it was useful method to collect required data.

RESEARCH METHODS In-depth Interview Ten in-depth interviews were conducted with the sales girls to explore their working experiences in that firm and also to know about the problems usually they face during their job, as Siegle said: In-depth interviewing is an interest in understanding the experience of other people and the meaning they make of that experience (Siegle n. d)."

Observation This method was used to know about the overall environment of that firm as Neill (2006) believes that: In observation, we are generally interested in individual behavior, social behavior, and the material environment so following this definition this method was used because through this method it was easy to get to get more authentic data and it also provided a clear picture of customers behavior.

RESEARCH TOOLS/INSTRUMENTS Open-Ended Questionnaire The open-ended questionnaire was used to conduct interviews with the sales girls it included series of fifteen questions, ten questions were included to know about the experiences and problems of the sales girls, while five questions were to explore the customers attitude and customers perception about sales girls. These questionnaires are characterized by the condition that respondents are free to reply in their own words rather than being limited for choosing from among a set of alternatives12.

11

12

(Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collectors Field Guide, Module 1) According to Superior DataWorks, LLC (1992)

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Close-Ended Questionnaire The close-ended questionnaire was used to know the perception of customers about sales girls because close-ended questionnaire is characterized by the condition that responses are limited to a set of given options or ranges13. The questionnaire was a series of ten questions which were asked to thirty customers of Metro. It was divided among fifteen women customers and fifteen men customers.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES Rapport Building This technique was used because rapport establishment is the vital component of the interviewing process for obtaining true and corrects information. It helps to develop mutual confidence and friendly atmosphere between the interviewer and the respondent in which the later opens up the inner-self before the former (Howard, 1994: 200). Through this process it was explained to people about purpose of research and the purpose of interviewing which made the respondents believe that the information gained, will be kept confidential and will not be excerpted everywhere. Participants trusted researcher and shared their views about the customers attitude, their working experiences as sales girls and also shared the problems usually they face during their job. The first day of field (almost seven hour) was spent with the participant in that firm for the sake of introduction. First of all the nature and purpose of the research was explained to HR (Human Resource) management of that firm and after their permission it was explained to informants, assuring subject that their confidentiality would be conserved. At first salesgirls were hesitant to express their thoughts and personal feelings because of their job insecurity but later they became familiar and provided proper information.

13

According to Superior DataWorks, LLC (1992)

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Gatekeeper With the support of gatekeeper it was easy to get permission of the Human Recourse management team, for this gatekeeper was needed, as Siegle describes: The gate keeper is the person who helps you gain access to the people you wishes to study.14 Gatekeeper was also one of the members of the HR management, so it was convenient to conduct research in that firm.

Key Informant With the cooperation of the key informants it was easy to know about the field, to search out the sample and introduced researcher in front of subjects. As Neuman, W.L said: An informant or key actor in the field research is a member with whom a field researcher develops a relationship and who tells about, or informs on, the field (Neuman, W.L, 1991: 361). There were two basic key informants first was one of the members of HR management and the second was a sales girl. Both of them introduced the researcher to participants and also guided about the locale. As Siegle believes that: The key informant knows the inside scoop and can point you to other people who have valuable information (Siegle n.d)15.

Recording This methodology is part of the audible arts. It helped to demonstrate work in more genuine mode. In current research study the tool of recording was applied to record the indepth interviews Snowballing Snowball sampling is often used to find and recruit hidden populations16. First four participants were met by the help of gate keeper and key informant who was from

14 15 16

http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/research/Qualitative/qualitativeInstructorNotes.html (ibid) (Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collectors Field Guide, Module 1)

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the HR management team but after this, remaining six participant were met with the help of snow balling technique.

RESEARCH ETHICS Research ethics were followed, and anonymity and confidentiality of the participants were respected and accurately recorded.

SAMPLING In the present study a simple random sampling was used as Hogan (2005: 7) said A simple random sample is free from sampling bias. Through simple random sampling ten sales girls and thirty customers (age 20-40) were selected.

DATA ANALYSIS Analysis was divided in two parts according to research objectives: To explore customers related experiences and problems of sales girls To explore customers attitude and perceptions about sales girls

For this analysis, data was gathered, through in-depth questionnaire. In this questionnaire ten questions were asked from sales girls about their experiences and problems at workplace and attitude and perception of customers were asked by using a close- ended questionnaire (asked from thirty customers) and five in depth questions (asked from ten sales girls).

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CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS


This analysis is divided in two parts according to research objectives. 1. To explore the customers attitude and perceptions about sales girls. 2. To explore the customer related experiences and problems of sales girls. In the first part, analysis is based on five open ended questions asked from ten sales girls and ten close ended questions from thirty customers to explore their perception about sales girls. In the second part I analyzed customer related experiences and problems of sales girls.

CUSTOMERS ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION ABOUT SALES GIRLS According to sales girls there are different types of customers with various behaviors. This part is divided into two sections. In the first section the customers attitudes toward sales girls is discussed while the second section discusses the customers perception about sales girls. This is presented by using graphs and visual presentations. CUSTOMERS ATTITUDE

Types of Customer According to salesgirls, two types of customer visit this firm; first are regular (purchaser) and the second are market people (sellers). Among these customers, some are literate, some illiterate, some are rude some are cool minded, some pass comments and talk about womans body gestures, some show ignorance while others are loafers. As according to a contributor: to handle some of them and to tell them about things is a big task.

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Customers Behavior towards Sales Girls Mostly three types of customers behaviors are found, first normal and friendly, second rude and harsh and the third type is ill-mannered.

Normal and Friendly According to participants some customers are good and normal and some are very nice and friendly, as a participant said behavior is good and friendly whereas some talk very politely.

Rude and Harsh According to five participants some customers quickly get angry, as in the view of a participant sometimes they are very nice, sometimes very rude, but most of them are very rude, they shout at us and according to another participant: Sometimes its friendly and sometimes its harsh, they dont want to concentrate, and show harsh attitude. Another aspect is that in the peak hours of business, most of the customers dont wait even for a second, if sales girls are busy they get angry and start shouting at them. A girl said: some customers have very bad attitude, even if we are busy they dont wait for one second they shout on us.

Offensive or Loafers Three sales girls were of the view point that when male customer stare at them they often get confused. As one of contributor said: they dont want to purchase anything they just come to stare at us, even some of them demand our cell numbers another participant said some ask us to entertain them and some demand our company for nothing.

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Differences in Attitude Gender wise Difference in attitudes This section is divided in to three sub-sections because of diversity and variety in opinions. First mens and womens positive attitude and second negative attitude while third the opinion of those who think that there is no difference in attitude.

Womens Positive Attitude

o Women talk politely Some contributors have the opinion that women usually talk politely because they are themselves women so they can understand the problems of women, as a participant said: Women talk nicely and politely because as women they can understand our problems so they know why we are here.

o Women talk to the point Some argued that women do not ask irrelevant questions as men used to ask, they demand to the point about their required things as a participant said: Usually women ask to the point about the product.

Womens Negative Attitude

o Women are mostly in hurry Most of the salesgirls said women dont listen much and mostly pretend to be in a hurry. They dont want to understand anything and have no patience, as a respondent said: Women are mostly in a hurry they buy the things and leave immediately; they have no patience and usually they dont pay attention.

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o Women misbehave Many salesgirls were of the view that mostly women dont treat them well, they usually call them rudely. Six sales girls argued that they call us as if we were their servant or personal employees, as a participant said: Women call us very rudely and behave badly another participant said: Women are mostly moody, if they are in good mood then they talk smoothly otherwise they dont.

Mens Positive Attitude

o Men are polite Women said that men are mostly polite and talk calmly as compared to women. One of the contributors said: Men are mostly polite, they talk smoothly.

o Men have time Participants were of the view that men usually dont pretend that they are in hurry, they pay attention and understand the things, as a respondent said: Men have enough time; they hear us out and make an effort to understand the things

o Men give respect Salesgirls said that men talk respectfully with them, as a respondent said: because of our gender some men talk to us respectfully.

Mens Negative Attitude

o Men ask irrelevant questions

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Salesgirls also said that male customers ask irrelevant questions about things/products as what is this? Why it is like this? Why you are here? A respondent said: Men ask irrelevant questions, and they ask about our personal life Sales girls were of the view that many male customers talk very harshly and rudely, most of the male customers are even abusive if they dont like their product, many show very harsh attitude if salesgirls tried to brief them about their product and most of them even quarrel with them, as a sales girl said: There are many males who start quarrelling with us if we tell them anything.

o Men do stare Sales girls expressed that mostly men continuously stare them and just because of this attitude sales girls often get conscious about their dresses and especially for their stoles (dupatta) as a result they can not do their work properly, as my respondent said: First men stare us up to down (head to foot) and then they talk to us.

No Difference For some salesgirls there were no differences in mens and womens attitude, as

according to my participant:
There is no difference in males and females attitude, its my third working year, I have no such experience that a male does something wrong with me, may be the difference exits in some girls self attitude so that the males misbehave with them.

According to another participant: No, there is not a big difference another also said: Its almost same; there is not too much difference in attitude.

Age wise Difference in Attitudes After conducting the interviews it seems that there is a big difference in attitude with the age of the people or customers because a large number of the women expressed that youngsters are mostly rude, while middle-aged people are mostly flirtatious, illmannered or loafers, and the old people are polite but also very difficult to handle.

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Old Age

o Difficult To Handle A large number of girls argued that mostly old age people are always very difficult to handle, because they cant understand, and they dont get satisfied easily, as my respondent said: Aged people continuously repeat same word and they cant understand easily, another said: Old aged mentally disturb us, they ask repeatedly and they have not enough sense to understand.

o Mostly Polite Another thing was noted that although aged were very difficult to handle but they were mostly very polite and talked very smoothly, as respondent said: Aged call us very politely; their behavior is too good because of their age, another said: Aged are very smooth to us.

Sometime Rude Five out of ten participants were of the view that sometimes old people are also

rude and show bad attitude if sales girl intercepts them, as a participant said: Sometimes aged shows harsh attitude they mind the things if we intercept them.

Middle age Mostly Misbehaving It was very surprising that a large number of sales girls believes that most of the

middle age people (especially aged 30- 40) are mostly flirtatious and loafers. They stare at these sales girls and they disturb and confuse them with their strange gazes and also waste their time, as a respondent said: Mostly uncle type people show very mean attitude (chachora pan), they have no realization, they come and start gossiping, another said: They act very ill-mannerly, they walk around us and try to force us to talk.

o Mostly Rude

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According to some salesgirls middle aged people are rude and talk roughly, and they scold them, as a respondent said: Middle aged people are mostly rude, they roughly talk to us, another said: Middle-age people call us badly and roughly.

o Sometime Polite A very few respondents argued that middle age are polite, as according to a respondent: Middle aged customers are mostly polite and helpful.

Youngsters Mostly Rude A large number of the sales girls said that: Youngsters are mostly harsh and

they show attitudes as a respondent said: Youngsters show attitude.

Mostly Misbehaving Four out of ten people said: Youngsters show stupidity and Youngsters take it

(this profession for women) as fun and they enjoy it.

Sometime Polite Two respondents argued that some youngsters are very nice and they usually talk

very nicely.

This profession is acceptable for women in customers eye? When it was asked from the sales girls that is this profession acceptable in the customers' eye or not? The different types of responses were found. Some said it is not acceptable, some said it depends on mental level of customer and some argued that people accept it but do not pay much respect. While some said it is somewhat acceptable. Overall, sales girls view point can be divided into five sections.

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Acceptable but not respectable people accept this profession for women but they dont give as much respect to

the sales if we compare it to sales boys, most of the girls said that if a boy works outside the four walls of home, people give him respect while if a girl works outside, people dont give her any respect and they think that these girls are of bad moral character, as one of my respondent said:
No they dont pay as much respect, may be in simple wording they think that we are clever, (chaalo larkian) bad and wrong girls but they dont think that if we are wrong girls so why do we struggle? Then we dont stand there for a long time, simply we take two or three hours and get money, but we know about the right and wrong.

Depends on mental level Many sales girls argue that it depends on a persons mental level if he has

thinking approach, there will be no difference in men and women working and if he is narrow minded, there will be a difference for him in men and women working, as my participant said:
Its all dependent on mental level, means if a person is literate so for him there will be no difference in men and women working and if a person is illiterate and have a narrow mind, there must be a difference for him.

Acceptable Seven out of ten said that it is acceptable and they also argued initially people

didnt consider it as a respectable profession, but now they take it as good profession, a participant said: Yes, I think it is acceptable and it depends on a person. In the start people took it wrong but gradually they accepted it.

Somewhat acceptable An overall viewpoint of participants which was found during this study was that,

this profession is somewhat acceptable for ordinary people. but they think that this should be accepted because according to their views this profession is better than other jobs, as

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one of the respondent said: This profession is not consider as good as many others, but it should be good because I think this profession is well more than banking and other official jobs another participant said: He has to accept, and it should be accepted, there are different thinking people, some consider it good while some not, and market people are usually less accepting.

Not acceptable Six out of ten sales girls were of the view that sales job is not acceptable.

Customers talk to them very harshly and behave very rudely and often people consider them lose-character women, as one of the participant stated:
Its not good, we do this because we need it, customers look with very harsh gaze, many come only for dealing while others only for flirt, this profession is not acceptable in society even zero percent, customers think we belong bad families, we come here because of our financial problems.

Another participant said: it is not my own experience but I have heard that about the girls who are in marketing, people usually do not consider them good girls. Peoples also pass comments on them, as my respondent said: Many customers visit and say dont know where they come from, they know about themselves or not.

Customers attitude during conversation Customers Who Come only for time pass Most customers come only for window shopping and they chat with these sales girls and just pass their time as my participant said: Some peoples come only for chatting, they are just actors

Customers ask about personals


Customers ask irrelevant questions especially for their personals they dont take them seriously as respondent said: They ask personal questions such as, why you do this job? They want explanations.

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Husbands attitude if they visit with their wives If customers come with their wives they talk in sober mode and usually show good attitude, otherwise they talk in very romantic undertones as my respondent said: They show normal attitude If they are with their wives otherwise they talk in poetic tone (shairana andaz)

They do complain It was observed that in big firms usually fresh stock comes, that is why there occurs an increase in prices, according to sales girls if a customer comes and if he/she only knows about the old market price, he/she starts quarreling with saleswomen on the matter of prices. Secondly customers usually complain about this issue to officers, DM, ADM or FM that the sales girls disturb them, as one of the participant said: Sometimes customers complain to our boss that we tease them.

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CUSTOMERS PERCEPTION Perception of Customers about Women in Sales Profession This profession is suitable for women According to my survey people have positive views towards this profession, on this account over all 70% people/customers were agreed that women should come in this profession.

o Perception of (men and women) customers Women customers were more optimistic than to men. 11 out of 15 women and 10 men said that this profession is suitable for women.
TABLE 1 This (sales) profession is suitable for women? Yes Answer 21 Percentages 70% No Answers 7 Percentages 23.33% Dont know Answers 2 Percentages 6.67%

FIGURE 1 This (sales) profession is suitable for women?

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Women should come in this profession? Overall 66.77% people said that women should come in this job, 13.34% people thought otherwise and 40% gave no response.

o Perception of males and female customers 8 out of 15 women said that women should come in this profession while 12 out of 15 men agreed that women should come in this profession.
TABLE 2 Women should come in this profession? Yes Answers 20 Percentages 66.67% Answers 4 No Percentages 13.33% Answers 6 Dont know Percentages 20%

FIGURE 2 Women should come in this profession?

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This profession is respectable according to our societal norms 33.34% people viewed this profession as respectable profession for women according to our societal norms while 56.67% said it is not respectable and 10% had no idea.

o Perception of males and female customers In this account five out of fifteen men and women equally agreed that this is respectful profession according to our societal norms.
TABLE 3 This profession is respectable according to our societal norms?

Yes Answers 10 Percentages 33.33% Answers 17

No Percentages 56.67% Answers 3

Dont know Percentages 10%

FIGURE 3 This profession is respectable according to our societal norms?

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Perception of Customers about Women as Sales Managers and Womans Selling (Skills) There is a clear difference in a womans selling and a mans selling In the answer of this question it is inspected that in general 63.33% people/customers accepted that there is a clear difference between a womans selling and a mans selling.

o Perception of (men and women) customers 12 out of 15 women customers felt that there is a clear difference between a womans selling and a mans selling. And 9 out of 15 men were also agreed.
TABLE 4 There is a clear difference a womans selling and a mans selling? Yes Answers 21 Percentages 70% Answers 7 No Percentages 23.33% Answers 2 Dont know Percentages 6.67%

FIGURE 4 There is a clear difference a womans selling and a mans selling?

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Prefer to interact with sales girl rather than sales boys In the response of this question it was scrutinized that in most cases people/customers ticked yes and they were 43.33% while 36.67% answered No and only 20% ticked on the option of Dont Know.

o Perception of males and female customers In the opinion of male and female customers it is measured that 7 out of 15 women customers preferred interaction with sales girl. 6 out of 15 men were agreed that they want to interact with sales girl rather than sales boys.
TABLE 5 Prefer to interact with sales girl rather than sales boys Yes Answers 13 Percentages 43.33% Answers 11 No Percentages 36.67% Answers 6 Dont know Percentages 20%

FIGURE 5 Prefer to interact with sales girl rather than sales boys

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Women are well received by both men and women as sales managers 50% peoples/customers approved that women are well received by both men and women as sales managers.

o Perception of males and female customers In the outcome of this analysis it is tinted that men customers were more positive than women customers. 10 out of 15 men said that women as sales person usually are good for both men and women while 5 out of 15 women answered it Yes.
TABLE 6 Women are well received by both men and women as sales managers

Yes Answers 15 Percentages 50% Answers 12

No Percentages 40% Answers 3

Dont know Percentages 10%

FIGURE 6 Women are well received by both men and women as sales managers

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Women are more hard working In general 60% people accepted it that women are hard workers opposite to 20% peoples who marked No and also 20% who ticked Dont Know.

o Perception of male and female customers In the conclusion of this question it is highlighted that 11 out of 15 women customers and 11 out of 15 men customers admitted that women are harder working in the other side 1 out of 15 women and 5 out of 15 men were disagreed, and the 3 out of 15 men and women have no argument on it.
TABLE 7 Women are more hard working Yes Answers 18 Percentages 60% Answers 6 No Percentages 20% Answers 6 Dont know Percentages 20%

FIGURE 7 Women are more hard working

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Females have better selling skills As a whole 50% people agreed to the point that females have better selling skills, comparatively 30% peoples disagreed and 20% peoples were clueless.

o Perception of males and female customers 9 out of 15 women customers and 6 out of 15 men customers agreed and 5 out of 15 women and 4 out of 15 men pointed on No and the 1 out of 15 women and 5 out of 15 men marked on Dont Know.
TABLE 8 Females have better selling skills Yes Answers 15 Percentages 50% No Answers 9 Percentages 30% Dont know Answers 6 Percentages 20%

FIGURE 8 Females have better selling skills

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Perception of Customers about Women Job Hierarchies Salesmen have upper hand over salesgirls 56.67% customer considered that salesmen have upper hand over sales girls and are dominating while 26.67% answered No and 66.67% showed no response.

o Perception of males and female customers 9 out of 15 women customers and 8 out of 15 men customers responded that salesmen are dominating or have upper hand over sales girls in additional 5 out of 15 women and 3 out of 15 men opposed it and the 4 out of 15 men and 1 out of 15 women have no idea.
TABLE 9 Salesmen have upper hand over salesgirls Yes Answers 17 Percentages 56.67% Answers 8 No Percentages 26.67% Dont know Answers 5 Percentages 16.67%

FIGURE 9 Salesmen have upper hand over salesgirls

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Women mostly work on low scales jobs Overall 70% purchasers believed that women do mostly low scales jobs whereas 16.67% replied No and 13.33% had no response.

o Perception of males and female customers 10 women customers and 11 out of 15 men customers felt that women usually do low scale jobs further 3 women and 2 out of 15 men rejected it and the 2 out of 15 men and women ticked on Dont Know.
TABLE 10 Women mostly work on low scales jobs Yes Answers 21 Percentages 70% Answers 5 No Percentages 16.67% Dont know Answers 4 Percentages 13.33%

Figure 10
Women mostly work on low scales jobs

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THE CUSTOMERS RELATED EXPERIENCES AND PROBLEMS OF SALES GIRLS This part is divided into two sub-sections, the first section discusses customers related experiences of sales girls and the second section has problems faced by sales girls.

OVER ALL EXPERIENCES When salesgirls were asked about their working experiences, four respondents

said it was very good. One other respondent said It was excellent and still its excellent while two respondents said its good and normal, 1 respondent said its bad and also 10% said it is very bad as one of respondent said My working experience is very bad because we face a lot of bad things.

Customers related Experiences and dealing strategies In this part the customers related experiences of some sales girls which they face by harsh and undignified customers is included.

Harsh and rude Customers Some sales girls shared their customers related working experiences

Dialogue box 1 A participant said: once I faced that type of customer who was very rude, actually the product which I sell, is a doctor suggested brand, once a doctor come to me and I was explaining him that this brand is doctor suggested, and its good for diabetics patience and over weighted/health conscious people etc, he started shouting that

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how can I say this all without written approval than I showed him it is approved from FDSA but he continuously shouted at me. Another said: Once a customer came and said to me, I have taken your parathas (oily-bread), I dont like these. Then I asked, what was wrong with them why you didnt like them then he shouted at me that I will not take it again etc, now whenever I see him, I feel bad

Undignified customers

Dialogue box 2
one of my participant shared her experience . Once I was fixing the stall with the help of my
colleague, a man (costumer) came near us and pretended as he is talking on mobile phone. He discussed our faces and body figures and his words were too insulting, actually he wanted to make us hear that all foolishness.

Strategies and Tactics of dealing There are some certain situations in which some customers lose their patience.

Most telling example is unavailability of product, according to respondent: Sometime


several products are available, and then customers start shouting that why this product is not available. In case a customer doesnt like the product most of the sales girls first talk to

them smoothly and softly to cool them and dont show anger and if they dont still agree then they tell to FM, DM, or ADM. But if there are specific customer whom they can deal as regular customers but if market people or whole sellers come then mostly sales girls do not handle them and let the boys handle them because these customers are tough to handle. While in regular selles mostly old age customers are very difficult to handle because they dont understand the things then they are handled respectfully and if a young customer comes who wants to tease them then we usually show no response and ignore him.

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Here some sales girls shared their dealing strategies to handle the customers: Dialogue box 3 Harsh and rude Customers Handle leniently According to a participant: A few days ago a customer came and said, why there is no place for sitting, I want to sit, and then I provided him a chair. If that type of customers come then we handle leniently and dont lose the temper Another participant said: If customers shout at us, we dont show any anger because customers have much importance for us, If they get angry then usually we say, ok sir, you are right etc. Another said: We try to make them calm and cool by talking leniently. One more said: We handle with care, very softly, very leniently, very smoothly, we say, its fine sir! As you wish, next time.

Take the help of management A participant said: We usually tell the FM or DM. Another said: First we try to deal with them in our own style; if they dont agree then we take the help of DM or ADM and floor manager. Whole sellers mostly deal by sales boys A participant expressed: If whole sellers come than we mostly take

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the help of sales men because sales boys can easily brief them about product. Dealing with aged customers if something they dont understand Another said: We brief them very politely, softly, and respectfully. Dealing with middle age customers if they get anger because of unavailability of product A girl said: We say to them, sir! Please, you dont get angry, we will inform you on phone when this product will be available. Undignified customers No response A girl expressed: Obviously, no response, if further he wants to obtain the information about any product then right, other wise it feels this person only wants to get frank then we ignore him. Dealing with young customers if they are loafers Another said: We neglect and ignore them because we are standing at that place where it is essential to ignore them.

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PROBLEMS

Most difficult part of the job receiving the stock Difficult part of the job is the receiving the stock from the outside. People take a lot of time and waste the time because there is a very strict security so going outside and then coming back is very tough job there, this wastes their time, as a participant said:
There is much strict security so because of that we cant come inside and go outside easily.

Picking the heavy carton and fixing the stock Picking up heavy cartons is a very difficult job because mostly the stocks are very

heavy. So usually Salesgirls want the help of their male counterparts. Sometime they do help but most of the time they refuse, as a participant said: Difficult is to fixed the stock, and pick the carton up because they are too much heavy and this is mens duty but we do it, and secondly most often when girls fix the stock many customers pass the comments on their body figure

No Appreciation Many sales girls said that they work equal to men but there is no appreciation for

them as a respondent said: It is difficult to bear if anyone shouts at us and says women

dont work properly while we work properly and come on time, another said: If we perform our duty well and still we have to listen the comments like you are not doing well then it becomes very difficult to handle. Appreciation mostly goes to men and if there happens some thing wrong then usually it is supposed that it must be done by the sales girls, as a girl said: We dont get as much appreciation and respect as other staff gets and we
are always degraded, another said: Men do not work properly, and they also forget to tag

the products,, we do most of work and moreover we face the anger too.

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Issues Faced People of the vicinity pass comments The street people pass the comments on them or harass them and also raise objections or stare them with strange gazes as they consider them wrong girls, as a participant said:
When we step out from our houses in the morning and return to home at evening we face thousands of people, when I come out to home, the people of my vicinity pass the comments so I cover my face with veil, neighbors ask, where your daughter goes daily on a daily basis a new issue is created.

Another said: We do eight hours job and come late to our homes; neighbors (muhale wale) look at us very strangely.

Traffic Pick and drop is the biggest problem and issue for Sales girls We face the

challenges related to traffic; mostly the traffic blocks because of busy roads, and then boss often rebukes , mostly they dont get vehicle and if they get it so there will be no place for their sitting as a participant said:
Pick and drop is not given so on this account the problem faces that some time conveyance is not available and usually there is no place of women sitting in vans and the boss also continuously call us that why you are not here yet and when will you come.

Second problem is the high fare of vans, taxis and buses, most of girls cant afford daily rent as a girl said: Obviously we cant afford two hundred rupees daily fare and the drivers and the peoples also dont treat well, another girl said: We have no pick and drop and secondly drivers etc look us with strange gazes.

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Unavailability of food or expensive rates of lunch Another thing which they face is unavailability of their lunch, because of high

lunch rates as a participant said: We face lunch problems because we cant afford one hundred and eighty rupees per head in term of food daily

Physical Few sales girls said that they work whole day in standing positions, while men do

not work properly, as a respondent said: We face physical issues, we continuously work whole day in standing position

Society doesnt accept it Many sales girls said that society doesnt accept women in this profession, so they

face the issues as the customers pass the comments on them and especially ogle at them. A participant said: Our society doesnt accept it as much that a girl work as boldly in market so according to this, we face issues that people ogle at but we ignore it.

Challenges faced Customers Most of the sales girls said that to face the customer, to handle the customers and to convince the customers about their product is the biggest challenge. As according to some salesgirls views: Dialogue box 4 To face the customer is the biggest challenge for me. To deal with customers and to brief them about product is a big issue. Challenges we face are mostly related to customers, some customers mistreat us, and the youngsters especially come there for this.

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To deal with customers, brief them about product, and if a customer gets angry, to cool them is a challenge

To complete the target


According to salesgirls a necessity for them is to complete the target within specific time

and it is the big challenge for them, according to a participant: To complete our products targets in time is a big challenge for us.

Relate to sales (unstable job)


A few number expressed that the challenges they face are related to their sales, because

there is no stability of their job they can be easily fired, as a participant explained it:
Mostly these are (challenges) related to sales, it is said to us that your job is permanent but in reality it is not, because whenever they want they can fire us, e.g. if I give them enough sales but if any other girl give them high sales they will hire her in place of me.

Difference between womens and mens working Most of the women said there is no difference between womens and mens working, they perform same as men but there are some external factors which affect womens working and according to some sales girls women work more than men.
Men gain the respect

Some women said that if a man works outside home, people pay respect to him and his work while if a woman work outside she is considered a wrong woman, as a girl said: If a man works so people pay him respect while if a woman works people taunt her that because she works outside she will be a bad girl.

Society gives preference to men

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According to a participant: I dont think there is any difference between womens and mens work, we do our duty equal to men but society gives preference to men according to this statement society creates the norms in which men always get benefits, on the other hand these norms are totally unfriendly towards women.

Women face harassment According to many girls women face harassment everywhere in street, on the way

to home, in buses vans and at workplace and it affects womens working ability and quality , as a woman said: There is difference between mens and womens working because no girl stares at a man or he doesnt face that type of gazes, but if a girl works she faces many peoples stares and comments another said: Mostly problems are faced by women because men work easily in open place while we have the tension of ourselves, our Stoll (dupatta), and surroundings.

Women work with responsibility Most of the women argued that women work more than men, as a respondent

said: It is always observed that women do more work than men, women execute their duties properly and with responsibility while men do not work properly, as a girl said: Men accomplish duty but not entirely, women do work with heart and men even forget to tag up the products another said: Women work more than men; men just march all over the place.

Men are sharp A few number of women said that there is difference. Men are mostly sharp so

that is why they handle the customers easily, a respondent argued: Usually customers make the salesgirls confused, but boys (salesmen) are clever they handle easily.

Men try to suppress women


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Many salesgirls said that if men and women work in same firm so it often happened that mostly men suppressed the women, as a girl said: Men pretend that they are more efficient and women feel that they are working under the male supervision, no matter they are on the same positions as another girl said We feel they are trying to drag pressure on us

Women prefer this job because

Safe work environment Mostly women prefer this job because of safe and comfortable job environment. It

shows that if environment is good for women, it will be easy for her to work and their work force participation will also increase. According to participants: Dialogue box 5 its my fourth year and I am still working there I feel comfortable myself here and secondly you should be good at yourself and one should not be given chance to do wrong. Environment of this firm is not as worse, it is quite better if we compare it to others stores. The job environment is good and also adequate for women.

Depends on Women A girl said: For a woman it depends on herself, another argued:
It depends on a woman and environment does carry herself, mostly it happens that if you talk to boys with smile so they take it wrong, everyone has their own vision, if you create an environment to take her in self-control so it will be good for a woman.

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While some said that it depends on confidence level of a woman. If she is confident, she can work, otherwise it will be difficult to handle, as a girl suggested: If a girl is confidant so she can come out

o Cameras A few number of women said that there are cameras fixed everywhere so that they feel themselves very secure because they have the feelings that no one can harm them, as a participant said: We are standing here in an open place and feel safe here more than offices jobs, here cameras are fixed everywhere, no one can do anything wrong.

o Security Most of the women said that they work there because there is good security system so that they feel themselves comfortable and secure, as a girl said: the thing which is very good is the security, if customers misbehave, we tell the securities, and then they handle the situation

Economic condition Many said that they are working here because of their economic condition

because there is no other earner in their home, as a girl said: We come here because of ours financial problems as there is no any other earner in our homes. Many women said that they dont like the women working out side of the home but they need this job so that they do this as respondent expressed: I personally dont like to work. I think women are suitable for home. I need this job because of my bitter economic condition; there is no earner in our home another said:
No, its not so easy, Its our need which forces us to come out of our homes so Im here and if financial condition of my home is stable or I have my own business or own a house so than may be I will never come out of my home, I prefer to start any kind of micro/ small business within the four walls of home, which give me a bit profit, because earning is too difficult when it comes to work outside home.

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Qualification is not necessary for this job Another big reason to join this job was that the education is not necessary for this

job so it can be got easily, as a participant said: Qualification is not as much important for this job so we get this job easily as compared to other banking and offices jobs.

Good package Most of the women mentioned that they get a very good package as compared to

other jobs such as teaching and one other thing is that other jobs demand high education level, as a girl said:
The main point is that the girls who come in marketing, their salary is mostly very good, as you see Im earning ten thousand rupees while if I do a job in any school etc, I cant earn more than three thousand rupees, sales promoters salary is good so because of this reason women come this field willingly.

Another said: Marketing salary is very good so that is why, women come.

Women assign on salesgirls positions because of Showoff and Attraction When asked why companies mostly assign the women for salesgirls position? The most frequent answer was to showoff and to attract others, so that the customer comes to a salesgirl and buy her product. As some respondent expressed: Dialogue box 6 May be through this, customers attraction can be achieved. It is for that to see the girls men feel attraction, they will come more and if there will be a boy so a big range of customers will not come as happily as for a girl.

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Its natural that men mostly get attracted towards women rather than men so maybe they hire women because of attraction. Salesgirls are hired for showoff and used as a decoration piece for attraction. Marketings first rule is that employer prefers to hire the women because first look always impresses the people so due to this reason he/she hires good looking girls.

o Focus on Dressing According to some salesgirls, women are mostly assigned for attraction so that some companies focus on sales girls dressing, as a girl said Companies focus on dressing so that people get attracted Companied force them to wear good dresses which they cant carry easily and they dont feel good, as one of my respondent said: some companies force to wear pant shirt which we cant wear freely in our society. A girl shared her experience:
I covered my head with scarf but my boss said to me, you have not come to perform Hajj or Umrah, on that day I went to washroom and took out it and wept a lot.

Ladies customers can easily ask about their necessities Many salesgirls have a positive attitude towards this profession and they

expressed another aspect that women are hired so that female customers can demand easily their required products, as a girl said: If there is a salesgirl, the ladies also can demand easily that products which they cant express straightforwardly in front of a sale boy and secondly a sales girl can easily interact with female compared to a salesman because most of female feel it bad as according to a participant: If there is a girl with her family she cant intercept with a salesboy freely, she must be get confused in front of him while if there will be a girl she can ask easily.

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Women have patience A few salesgirls raised another thing that women have more patience than men.

They can listen easily so that they are assigned for this job, as a respondent said: Women can deal very well; women have God gifted patience, and they tolerate all bad behaviors.

DISCUSSION Sales is a profession which does not need a high level of education or time intensive training however, women are reluctant to join this profession because sales is one of those professions that are socially stigmatized for women and considered less respectable. According to my survey most of the women said that if a man works outside of the home people pay respect to him and his work, while if a woman works outside she is considered morally bad, loose character women. Almost 56.67% customers said It is not a respectable profession according to our societal norms, analysis shows that this is all because of our societal gender division of labor which focuses that women should come in women s specific fields such as teaching and nursing etc, if a woman joins other profession, then she faces very negative attitude from men side. As salesgirls said that many male customers talks very harshly and rudely to them. Karene and Anderson (1967) gave the example of women in insurance companies some men do not like to discuss financial affairs with women they have a feeling that no woman can know as much as a man might (Marcia L. Bellas and Barbara Thomas, 2001 in Karene and Anderson, 1967: 5 reported in Thomas, 1990: 189). Lawson, in her study of car saleswomen, (1993: 11) found that some customers responded to women salespersons by simply refusing to deal with them ("Get me a real salesman! What the hell are you doing here?"). By looking at this statement it is obvious
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that men do not like to see women in this profession so that is why they show harsh attitude. Secondly, many salesgirls said that the most frequent problem which they faced during their job is Mens staring and this act affected their working quality. As my respondent said: First men mostly stare us up to down (head to foot) and than they talk with us. Mirza (2002: 26) also states:
In the public sphere where women are particularly younger ones, are constantly stared at. As soon as a woman leaves her house and walks down the street the men raise their heads to stare at her, even turn around when she has already passed by, and jog to their to make them aware to her presence. Under these conditions women feel uncomfortable in public, and generally very few women are seen in public life.

According to my view point, staring is a part of the visual sexual harassment and it is immensely disturbing for a womans mental health. This strategy is used by men to keep women out of the public sector. As stated previously, Haq (2009: 35) asserts that work environment is not conducive as women face the cat calls, stares and they are also harassed in the streets and within the office women frequently face sexual harassment and use of foul and abusive language is very common at work places. Another issue is that if women come outside they face negative attitude from men. It was found during the analysis that many salesgirls said that if men and women work in same firm then mostly men (sales boys) try to suppress women. A girl said: Men show themselves to be more efficient. Even if they are working at the same position, men feel that they know more and can boss around their women colleague. Another girl said We feel that they try to put pressure on us. Related to this Comer in his research states that traditionally selling positions have been held by men because such jobs have long been regarded as being inherently masculine (Comer and Jolson 1985, 1991). Another reason of harassment can be that hiring women into traditionally male jobs may threaten male workers' sense of masculinity, diminish their status, and raise fears that their earnings will decline (Williams, 1989). Many sales girls said that they worked as hard as mens work but there was no appreciation for them, only men get appreciation on the other if something goes wrong it is always assumed that it must be the mistake of the salesgirls. Ransford (1998: 1-2)

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points out that the sexes are widely segregated and management also viewed male and female workers in quite different terms, they appeared to modify their employment strategies to the sex of the workers, not the job performance. Secondly, most of the women said to pick the heavy cartons is a very difficult job, because mostly the stocks are very heavy then usually they need help of their male counterparts, some time they help but most of the time they refuse to help them. A participant said: It is very difficult to fix the stock, and take up the carton because they are too heavy and this is mens duty but we do it. On the other hand mostly when women fix the stock many customers pass comments on their body figure. This is the basic point that although women are never granted the equal opportunities as compare to men in the job sector but when it comes to jobs like lifting the cartons, the notion of equality raise dramatically.

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CHAPTER FIVE KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION


KEY FINDINGS Attitude According to the objective customers attitude I found three types of customers behavior first friendly second rude and harsh and third flirtatious. Secondly, there is a difference in gender and age wise attitude. It is explored that usually men and women both show harsh attitude but men mostly irritate the sales girls because they stare at them and also pass comments. Middle age people (especially age 30-40) can be very flirtatious in nature they try to harass the sales girls, and the young customers are very rude in nature while old age people are very polite but also very difficult to handle because they can not easily understand the things. Customers accept this profession for women but they do not pay the due respect to these working women because they considered them weak characters. Usually male customers pass comments on salesgirls body (figure) and some men often ask about their personal life.

Perception 70% customers said this profession is suitable for women. 66.67% customers said women should come in this profession.

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56.67% customers said that this profession is not respectable in their societal norms.

63.33% customers said that there is a clear difference between mens and womens selling.

43.33% prefer to interact with sales girl rather than sales men. 50% customers said that women are well received by both men and women as sales girls.

60% said women are more hard working. 50% customers said girls have better selling skills. 56.67% customers said that salesmen have upper hand and they dominate sales girls.

70% customers said women work mostly in low scale jobs.

Customers related Experiences According to their experiences some customers rebuke and shout at sales girls while others directly and indirectly harass them. The working quality of sales girls is massively affected by sexual harassment and rude attitudes of customers. Salesgirls are not in a position to show any harsh attitude if customers misbehave. Some sales girls prefer to do this job because of safe work environment and some because higher education is not a requirement for this job. While others join because of good packages and relatively high earnings.

Problems

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Women have to pick heavy carton and work equal to men but men gain the respect while there is no appreciation for women.

Sales girls face verbal, physical and gestural harassment.

RECOMMENDATIONS Women should be hired at large number on the management level so that they can understand the problems of salesgirls. It seems that very few women are hired in management, mostly there is only one woman in the masculine culture of management, so management does not give much importance to her single voice and decisions, she feels alienated and can not take the decisions on her own for the betterment of sales girls Sexual Harassment Act has been passed in Pakistan; however its implementation and use as a tool for the protection of salesgirls leave much to be desired. Some required on-job facilities such as pick and drop services and lunches should be provided. In Pakistan, there is lack of appropriate platform to understand and address the problems of sales women. This topic should be taken for future research so that the conditions and problems can come forth. Women should come in this profession at large, so that the societal stigmas attached to this profession can be diminished. For this public and private, both sectors should play a role to aware the people.

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WAY FORWARD Due to time constraint this study is limited to a broader overview of customers related experiences and problems of sales girls. There are many specific fields or issue can be taken up for further research such as: What is the attitude of the working womans own family towards her job? Secondly, what kind of problems women are facing regarding their men counterpart? What is the managements attitude towards sales girls? What is the nature of differences in the level of public appreciations towards sales boys and sales girls?

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. (4th ed). (2009). Houghton Mifflin Company. Arnst, C. (2010, 02 02). Are working women too Nice? Retrieved 03 10, 2010, from http://www.businessweek.com/careers/workingparents/blog/archives/2010/02/are_workin g_wom.html Collins English Dictionary. (1st ed) . (2003). Harper Collins Publishers. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Five qualitative approaches to inquary. In qualitative inquary and research design choosing among five approaches (53-84). Sage Publication. Dawson, L. M. (1997). Ethical Differences between Men and Women in the Sales Profession. Journal of Business Ethics , Vol. 16 ( No. 11), 1143-1152. Emerging trends in women's mobility, economic participation and empowerment in Pakistan: A case study of hostesses in Daewoo bus services. (2006). Connective Action. Farlex clipart collection. (2008). Princeton University, Farlex Inc. Haq, E. U. (2009). Current Status and Prospects of Female Employment in the Apparel Industry in Pakistan. SINDH: GEN-PROM project of UNDP. Hogan, M. (2005). Academics dictionary of Sociology. Howard, M. B. (1994). Social Sciences Research. Prentice Hall and INC. Joshi, M. (2007, December Sunday). Sexy salesgirls do actually boost sales. (Journal of Consumer Research). Retrieved 05 12, 2010, from http://www.topnews.in/sexysalesgirls-do-actually-boost-sales-29681. Ken, B., Tim, B., & Gene, B. (2001). The Moral Philosophy of Sales Managers and its Influnce on Ethical Decision Making. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management , 1- 17. Lulla. A. (2009, 11 31). Confession of a women petrol pump attendant. Retrieved 04 28, 2010, from http://www.openthemagazine.com/article/confessions/confessions-of-awoman-petrol-pump-attendant. Marcia, L. Bellas & Barbara, T. (2001, 03). Saleswomen, or Sales Workers? Determinants of the Sex Composition of Sales Occupations. Retrieved 05 06, 2010, from jstor: http://wwwjstor.org/stable/685030 Martin, L. A. (2006). Taking Women Professionals out of the Office: The Case of Women in Sales. Gender and Society , 20, 108-128.

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Mathur, R. (1989). Quality of Working Life of Women Construction Workers. New Dehli: Commonwealth Publishers. METRO Cash & Carry Pakistan opens first wholesale center in Islamabad. ( 2008, 04 tuesday).Retrieved0604,2010,from:http://www.metro.pk/servlet/PB/menu/1086570_l2/in dex.html Neill, J. ( 2006,07 05 ). Analysis of Professional Literature: Qualitative Research (Observations & Comparison of 2 Qual. Methods in 2 Studies). Retrieved 06 05, 2010, fromQualitativeResearchMethods:http://wilderdom.com/OEcourses/PROFLIT/Class7Qu alitative2.htm Neuman, W. L. (1991). Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. In Social Research Methods (pp. 99-171). Boston and London: Allyn and Bacon. Oxford English Dictionary. (2008). (11th ed). Oxford University Press. Pratt, G., & Hanson, S. (1995). Employer Practices, Local Labor Markets, and Occupational Segregation. In Gender Work and Space (pp. 157-184). London and New York: Routledge. Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collectors Field Guide, Module 1. (n.d.). (family health international) Retrieved 05 10, 2010, from Qualitative Research Methods Overview: http://www.fhi.org/NR/rdonlyres/etl7vogszehu5s4stpzb3tyqlpp7rojv4waq37elpbyei3tgm c4ty6dunbccfzxtaj2rvbaubzmz4f/overview1.pdf. Ransford, M. (1998, 5 14). Women transforming sales into a female-dominated career . (Ball State University) Retrieved 03 24, 2010, from http://www.bsu.edu/news/article/0,1370,-1019-444,00.html Sales soar at all_ women garage. (2005, 11 Friday). Retrieved 05 04, 2010, from BBC NEWS: http://news.bbc.uk/2/hi/south_asia4332382.stm Siegle, D. (n.d.). Principels and Methods in Educational Research. Retrieved 05 01, 2010, from Web-Base Course from the University of Connecticut: http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/research/Qualitative/qualitativeInstructorNotes.html Superior DataWorks, LLC. (1992). Retrieved http://www.superiordataworks.com/definitions2.htm 06 18, 2010, from

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GLOSSARY
Chachora Pan Showing a mean nature, ill-mannered nature A religious activity Clever girls Stole, shawl, scarf A religious activity Neighbours, vicinity, surrounding area Oily breads Poetic tone, romantic tone

Umrah Chalo Larkian Dupatta Hajj Muhale Wale

Parathas Shairana Andaz

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Annexure
Demographic Profile: Sex

1.

Age
Less than 18 19-30 31-40 Above 40

2.

Place of Residence

3.

Marital Status
Single Married Widow Separated Divorced

4.

Educational Qualification

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Illiterate Knowing writing Not knowing writing Knowing reading Not knowing reading Primary Middle Matriculation F.A/F.SC Graduation M.A/M.SC Above M.A/M.SC

5.

Religion/Sect
Muslim Christian Hindu Any other

6.

House type
1 2 3 4 Rent Government Personal Other

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7.

Income
5000 to 15,000 16,000 to 30,000 31,000 to 45,000 Above 46,000

8.

Family members
1to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 More than 15

1. Do you feel this profession (sales) is suitable for women? Yes No Dont know

2. Do you feel women are well received by both men and women as sales managers? Yes No Dont know

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3. Do you feel any difference between womens selling and mens selling? Yes No Dont know

4. Do you prefer to interact with sales girls as compare to sales boys? Yes No Dont know

5. Do you feel women should come in this profession? Yes No Dont know

6. Do you think, this profession is respectable according to our societal norms? Yes No Dont know

7. Do you feel sales men have upper hand and dominance when they work with sales women? Yes No Dont know

8. Do you feel that women are often haired at low level of job in sales profession? Yes No Dont know

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9. Do you feel women are hard working than men? Yes No Dont know

10. Do you feel women have better skills in selling commodities? Yes No Dont know

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE: 1. 3. 5. Sex: __________________ Age: __________________ 2. Place of Residence: ___________________ 4. Marital Status: _______________________

House type: ______________ 6. Occupational Status____________________ Religion/Sect: ______________ 8. Educational Qualification: ______________

9.

Income: ________________

10. Family members: _____________________

QUESTIONNAIRE: 1. What is customers behavior towards you? Is it positive or negative? 2. Mostly what type of customer visit your firm? 3. What is the difference between mens attitude and womens attitude when they negotiate? 4. Do you find harsh customers? How you deal with them? 5. Do you take help of a male counterpart or not? 6. Do you feel women's participation in sales profession is acceptable for customers? If No, explain why? 7. What kind of issues you mostly face during your job in this firm? 8. Do you think that job environment of this firm is women friendly?

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9. What type of challenges usually you face? 10. What is your working experience? 11. Do you think that there is any kind of difference in women's and men's working abilities? 12. Do you feel working pressure under the males supervision? Also clarify that why men are mostly on higher positions? 13. In your view why women are mostly hired on sales girls position? 14. Do you feel any difference in the behavior of different age customers? Or do you find that peoples behavior varies age vise? Probe=> is there any strategy to deal with them? 15. What is the easiest and most difficult part of your job?

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