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The Internet

History of the Internet The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored a project to develop a network technology that would allow researchers at various locations throughout the country share information and that would also be resistant to disruption. The result of this project, ARPANET, debuted in September 1969, connecting computers at four locations: UCLA The Stanford Research Institute UC Santa Barbara University of Utah

Over the next few years, the number of connected computers grew quickly, and in 1972, e-mail capability was introduced and quickly became the largest network application. In 1973, ARPANET was an international connection. In 1986, the National Science Foundation connected its large network, NSFnet, to ARPANET, and the resulting network became known as the Internet. Today, even as the Internet grows, it remains public, cooperative, and independent network. No single person company, institution or government agency owns or controls the Internet. ---------

The Internet, also called the Net, is a worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals. It is a global system of interconnected computer networks. It serves billions of users worldwide and consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope The World Wide Web, or Web, consists of a worldwide collection of electronic documents. Each electronic document on the web is called a webpage, which can contain text, graphics, audio, and video. A web page is a document, typically written in plain text combined with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web. A webpage has a unique address, called a URL (Uniform Resource Locator), or web address. It is a string of letters and symbols. A web page URL begins with http, which stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the means of communicating using links. Next is the domain name, an identification label of a website. The next part of the domain name is the top-level domain which represents the purpose of the organization or its country of origin. The last part of the URL, often the most complex, specifies the exact location of the web page on the host computer.
Top-level domain

UR L p
Protocol Host Computer Address (Domain name) Path, Directory, or Filename

Top-level domain - Identifies the type of organization associated with the domain name .com .org .mil .gov .mil .net .biz .edu

A website is a collection of related web pages and associated items, such as documents, pictures, stored on a Web server. A web server is a computer that delivers requested web pages to your computer. The same web server can store multiple Web sites.

A Web browser, or browser, is application software that allows users to access and view web pages. The more widely used browsers for PCs are Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome, Opera, and Safari. The first graphical browser was named Mosaic. A homepage refers to the first page that a website displays. The homepage usually provides information about the websites purpose and content. A hot list called Bookmarks, Favorites, stores favorite sites and their URLs. A plug-in is a software that can be added to a browser to enhance its functionality. Examples: Adobe PDF plugin, Quicktime browser plugin, Shockwave Flash plugin A search engine is a software that lets a user specify search terms; search engines find sites that fit those terms/keywords. Difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web

The Internet is a massive network of networks. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. The World Wide Web is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. The Web is just one of the ways that information can be disseminated over the Internet. The Internet, not the Web, is also used for e-mail, Usenet news groups, instant messaging and FTP. So the Web is just a portion of the Internet. Other Internet Services

E-commerce. Stands for Electronic Commerce. It refers to buying and selling over the Internet.

E-mail FTP. A File Transfer Protocol is a set of rules for computers who exchange copies of files over the Internet. Many users use FTP for faster uploads/downloads of large files. Usenet or a newsgroup is an informal network of computers that allow posting and reading of messages in newsgroups that focus on certain topics. Usenet Newsgroups are a globally shared/distributed set of online forums where users can post messages to each other. An abusive message attacking someone is called a flame. A flame war is an exchange of flames. A newsgroup moderator determines what messages are posted. Mailing Lists. A collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. The term is often extended to include the people subscribed to such a list, so the group of subscribers is referred to as "the mailing list", or simply "the list". Chatrooms. Online chat is a way of communicating by sending text messages to people in the same chat-room in real-time. Instant Messaging. A form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. Internet Telephony. Refers to communications services such as voice-messaging applications that are transported via the Internet instead of telephone lines. Also called VoIP (Voice over IP) Netiquette, which is short for Internet etiquette, is the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet; that is, it is the conduct expected of individuals while online. Examples: In Emails, newsgroups, chatrooms: Keep messages brief. Use proper grammar, spelling and punctuation Be careful when using sarcasm and humor, as it might be misinterpreted

Be polite. Avoid offensive language Read messages before you send it Use meaningful subject lines Do not use all capital letters, which is the equivalent of SHOUTING! Never read someones private email

Basic types of websites The following are the types of web sites based on the content and features offered (not distinct and can overlap) 1. Search engine, directories, yellow pages and portals These are some of the most popular types of web sites in the world. Some search engine companies, like Google or Gigablast, prefer to keep their homepage simple and stress on only one service, while Yahoo! and MSN have a more "portal" like look via which many services are pushed to the surfer like email, news etc. ex. Yahoo, Google, Bing, msn 2. Informational/Educational These are the types of web sites are dedicated to the purpose of providing information - whether free or paid. Offers challenging, exciting avenues for formal and informal teaching and learning. You can learn anything from learning a new language to even flying a plane Ex., 3. Entertainment Offers interactive and engaging environment Offer music, videos, sports, games, ongoing Web episodes, sweepstakes, chats and more 4. News contains newsworthy material including stories and articles relating to current events, life, money, sports, and the weather ex., 5. Advocacy Contains content that describes a cause, opinion, or idea Ex.,, 6. Company Website Most company web sites have just a few pages of information on the business, its services and clients. These are more like "online brochures" Ex.,, 7. Blog Short for Weblog, it is an informational Web site consisting of time-stamped articles, or posts, in a diary or journal formal, usually listed in reverse chronological order Ex. Blogger, wordpress, windows live spaces 8. Wiki A collaborative Web site that allows users to add to, modify, or delete the Web site content via their Web browser using a simplified markup language or a WYSIWYG text editor. Ex., 9. Social networking Facebook, Orkut, LinkedIn, Twitter have been the rage past couple of years. From helping you locate schoolmates and past colleagues to "microblogging". These web sites have a whole array of utilities and features with more being "invented" and added each day. 10.Online Shops/Auction Websites

The entire buying and selling takes place online. Online shops are not restricted to selling tangible products; they can also provide services and a good example of this would be travel Ex. Amazon,,

Multimedia on the Web Multimedia - Any application/presentation that combines text with graphics, animation, audio, video Elements of Multimedia Text Generally, text provides the important information. Text acts as the keystone tying all of the other media elements together. Graphics A digital representation of nontext information such as a drawing, chart, or photograph They can be photographs, drawings, graphs from a spreadsheet, pictures from CD-ROM, or something pulled from the Internet. Thumbnail a small version of a larger graphic Popular image formats: Jpg/jpeg (Joint Photographic Experts Group) A JPEG image is always in full color, or at least in a full range of grayscale values. highly compressed (which means that you can make a good-looking photograph with a small file size) but the compression is "lossy" Gif (Graphics Interchange Format) efficient because they're small and displays on all current graphical browsers without needing a special plug-in or taking up much CPU time. is an "indexed" format. This means that it uses a fixed list of colors (usually a fairly small number, like 256 or even less) Photographs converted to GIF will usually end up looking very poor, because the number of colors has to be reduced. Png - Portable Network Graphics format, and pronounced "ping" Generally higher in quality and size compared to jpeg Animation Appearance of motion created by displaying a series of still images in sequence Audio Includes music, speech, or any other sound Streaming process of transferring data in a continuous and even flow Popular sound file formats: Mp3 Moving Pictures Experts Group Audio Layer 3 (MPEG-3) WMA Windows Media Audio file format owned by Microsoft RA RealAudio Sound (supported by RealPlayer) Video Consists of full-motion images that are played back at various speeds Streaming Video allows you to view a longer or live video images as they download to your computer Media Players o software programs that can play audio and video files, both on and off the Web

o Popular media players include the Windows Media Player, RealPlayer, QuickTime
Player, and Flash Player Streaming - audio or video files are played as they are downloading, or streaming, into your computer. Sometimes a small wait, called buffering, is necessary before the file begins to play. Popular video file formats: AVI format (Audio Vidoe Interleave) file extension is .avi Windows Media format (Windows Media Video)- file extension is .wmv MPEG format (Moving Pictures Expert Group) - file extension is .mpeg or .mpg Quicktime format - file extension is .mov RealVideo Format - file extension is .rm or .ram Shockwave (Flash) format - file extension is .swf

Some applications of Multimedia: Educators use visual presentations to aide students in understanding lessons/topics Companies create interesting and creative advertisements that are considered as multimedia Multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry, especially to develop special effects in movies and animations Video games also use multimedia to enhance features and interactivity Multimedia for software interfaces are often done as a collaboration between creative professionals and software engineers. In various industries, multimedia helps in providing employee training, advertising and selling products all over the world In mathematical and scientific research, multimedia is mainly used for modeling and simulation. In Medicine, doctors can get trained by looking at a virtual surgery or they can simulate how the human body is affected by diseases spread by viruses and bacteria and then develop techniques to prevent it.