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The History of Private Security By Chris Carson, eHow Contributor ? The concept of protection is as old as time.

The first time it rained, humans sought protection from the elements. Once people began engaging in criminal behavior, it wasn't long before the idea of security was born. 1. History o Archaeological evidence including cave paintings shows that early mankind was concerned with enforcing the social code and protecting life and property. Public law enforcement and private security were one and the same until the late 19th century. The earliest known written law is the Code of Hammurabi, written in about 2000 B.C., and the Old Testament of the Bible. In about 600 B.C. to 500 B.C., the Greeks devised systems to protect their highways and their rulers. During the reign of King Alfred in England (A.D. 872 to A.D. 901), the concept of "citizen's arrest" first appeared. The king also established standard punishments for certain offenses, including fines. Our modern sheriff's office has its roots in this period, as the king appointed "shire-reeves" to control the business of certain portions of the kingdom.


During the Middle Ages, significant advancement in the concepts of law and justice took place. The Magna Carta, which later became the foundation of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, was issued by King John. By the 18th century, the first plainclothes detective unit was formed and referred to as the Bow Street Runners. The beginning of today's police force began in 1829, when uniformed and salaried police officers were employed full time for the first time in history.

Private Security

Alan Pinkerton, with a background in police work, began the first private detective agency in the mid-19th century. His company was the first investigative agency able to function on a national level. Brinks Incorporated was formed in 1889 for the purpose of protecting payrolls and property. William J. Burns Inc. was formed in 1909 as a private detective agency and became the American Banking Association's investigative unit. These companies are referred to as the "Original Three." By 1914, the railroads had obtained authority to create their own security units that could act with full police powers.


During World War II, thousands of military men were trained in law enforcement and intelligence, and the allied countries established agencies to protect against espionage and

sabotage. The Cold War created the need for background investigations and security clearances, which provided civilian jobs for these highly trained individuals. Today

The United States today has more than 10,000 private security companies that bring in a revenue of more than $15 billion each year. Those employed by private security companies far outnumber public police employees, and the number of private security guards employed in the United States is expected to increase faster than that of other businesses.

Security is the degree of protection against danger, damage, loss, and crime. Security as a form of protection are structures and processes that provide or improve security as a condition. The Institute for Security and Open Methodologies (ISECOM) in the OSSTMM 3 defines security as "a form of protection where a separation is created between the assets and the threat". This includes but is not limited to the elimination of either the asset or the threat. Security as a national condition was defined in a United Nations study (1986)[citation needed], so that countries can develop and progress safely. Security has to be compared to related concepts: safety, continuity, reliability. The key difference between security and reliability is that security must take into account the actions of people attempting to cause destruction. Different scenarios also give rise to the context in which security is maintained:

With respect to classified matter, the condition that prevents unauthorized persons from having access to official information that is safeguarded in the interests of national security. Measures taken by a military unit, an activity or installation to protect itself against all acts designed to, or which may, impair its effectiveness.

History of photography
The word photography derives from the Greek words ph s (genitive: ph ts) light, and grphein, to write. The word was coined by Sir John Herschel in 1839. Photography is the result of combining several different technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BC.[1][2] In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments[3] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 1040) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[2][4] Albertus Magnus (1193/1206-1280) discovered silver nitrate, and Georges Fabricius (1516 1571) discovered silver chloride. Daniel Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1568. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729 1774) described what can be interpreted as photography.

Principles of Photography Simplicity - The simpler, the better Distractions - Avoid them! Cropping - Do this with the camera first. Capture the most important part of the picture - the part that makes the story. Your pictures need to have a variety of types of croppings. Perspective - Try to get interesting perspective that other photographers have not tried, or that you have not often seen. Bend your knees, and tippy-toe whenever necessary. Standing on a bench, chair, ladder, etc. can be an excellent helper. Lighting - Use natural lighting whenever you can. You want to create a mood with your lighting. Watch where you have shadows. Any indoor picture may need a flash. Action - Place yourself close to the action. Try to get people in action. Capture their daily activities. Sprts scenes lend themselves to fast action. When photographing sports, try to get as many faces as you can. Contrast - Try to get your blacks as black as possible and your whites as white as possible. Contrast small shapes with large shapes. Creativity - Create a new view of a common picture. See things in a way that you never noticed before. Crop your center of interest so that it is telling the whole story - showing faces, expressions, moods, movements, stances, situations, and experiences that we all share at one time or another. Find our likenesses and differences. Consistency - Be as consistent as you can. At first this will be difficult, but it will slowly start to make an impression on you when you do certain things the same that give you good pictures. Follow that, so your pictures are the best possible. Balance - Each picture has its own balance and should be pleasing to look at. It can be formally balalnced or informally balanced, but the basic principles of design apply here too. Try not to make something look like it is falling off the page, etc.

Components of the Criminal Justice System

The U.S. Criminal Justice System operates through five major components. If a crime cannot be resolved through local law enforcement, it progresses to the next step. The five components are: 1. Local Law Enforcement: If a citizen observes a crime, he will point out the offender to local law enforcement. The police force is the main component that brings criminals to the Criminal Justice System. Some crimes (such as speeding or trespassing) can be

resolved directly by the police with the issue of a ticket or fine. For more severe offenses that involve victims, the police turn to the court system for a fair trial. 2. Court Trial: Once the offender has entered into the legal system, a court trial is the next step for the criminal. The law enforcement officer or other witnesses present the facts and evidence of the case to the prosecutor. The prosecutor decides if charges should be filed for the violator. If there are charges filed, a court case will follow. 3. Court Case: The case is brought to a judge in a court of law. If the offenses are minor and the criminal is obviously guilty, the judge will often offer a sentence of punishment, and the court case will be over. However, if the offense is more involved or the criminal pleads "not guilty," an entire trial must follow. 4. Trial with Grand Jury: A grand jury is used in the court of law to hear both sides of the case and help determine guilt and punishment. Having a jury of peers oversee and rule on the court proceedings is important in the rights of the criminal because the jury is a third party uninvolved in law enforcement or in the lives of the victim or offender. 5. Decision and Punishment: Once the jury members have heard the case, they make a decision on whether the offender is guilty or innocent. If proven guilty, in most cases, the judge will deliver the sentence of punishment. In some instances, however, the jury will decide on the criminals punishment 6. No. 1) Procedural Law Substantive Law

Procedural laws are body of rules prescribing the Substantive law talks about the definition and regulation of form and order of enforcement. peoples duties, rights and power. Procedural laws cannot function independent of substantive laws. Procedural laws cannot decide the fate of the case. Substantive laws function independently. Substantive law tells us who will win the case and what compensation he is bound to get.




Procedure describes the process in which the case It defines handling of the case and how the crime is to be charged. should proceed. It is more about modus operandi of executing the It provides legal solution to the problem or the case. law. This law talks about the method in which the procedural laws are made and administered. Procedural laws deal with fairness and transparency of executing substantive laws. This law talks about the legal relationship between people themselves and with the state. Substantive laws stands in contrast to procedural laws, which prescribes the rules in which the court proceeds hearing the case.





Procedural laws refer to the fairness involved in resolving the disputes and related resources.

Substantive law defines the crime, punishment, rights and responsibilities of the case and related parties.


Procedural laws are connected with fundamental Substantive law identifies the stronger side of the case and the and natural justice. remedies available to either parties of the case. Procedural laws can also be applied to non legal contexts. A procedural law answers the how of a substantive law. Substantive laws apply only to a legal context.



A substantive law refers to all kinds of public and private laws.

Primary Goals of the Criminal Justice System The criminal justice system monitors the behavior of community members via government agencies such as the police/sheriff's departments, the courts and the state and federal prison systems. Law enforcement personnel patrol communities to ensure that neighborhoods remain safe, and U.S. citizens may report crimes they witness or personally experience. Suspected criminals are given fair trials in U.S. courts, and if convicted, sentenced to rehabilitation or incarceration.

Purpose of the Criminal Justice System

The concept of criminal justice exists because people commit crimes. Rules are established to provide and maintain order and freedom. When those rules are violated, society, to maintain its balance, must determine the consequences, depending on the severity of the violation. The purpose of a criminal justice system is to judge suspects' guilt or innocence and determine punishment when they are guilty of crimes.