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RESONANCE

Resonance is defined as the condition in a circuit containing at least one inductor and one capacitor, when the supply voltage and the supply current are in phase. Thus at resonance the equivalent impedance of the circuit is purely resistive. Since the supply voltage and the supply current are in phase, the power factor of a resonant circuit is unity.

There are two types of resonant circuit series resonant circuit and parallel resonant circuit.

Consider the simple case of a coil L and a capacitor C connected in series as in figure.

Since L and C are in series, the same current will flow through L and C. The two voltages VL and VC will oppose each other. If the values of L and C are chosen such that inductive reactance XL is equal to the capacitive reactance XC at the given frequency, the value of impedance (XL XC) will be theoretically zero and a very high current will flow through the circuit. The circuit is then said to be resonant at this frequency. However in actual practice a coil will always have some resistance and the current flowing at resonance will be limited by the value of resistance R. LCR RESONANT CIRCUITS As mentioned earlier, a pure inductance is not obtainable in practice. Any coil will have some resistance depending up on the size of the wire used. Even the capacitance and connecting leads in an LC circuit will have resistance. So any resonant LC circuit is actually an LCR resonant circuit in which the resistance R plays an important part. In a series RLC circuit, the resonance may be produced by varying the frequency. Keeping L and C constant; otherwise resonance may be produced by varying either L or C for a fixed frequency.

The total impedance of the series circuit is, Z = R + j (XL XC) = R + j ( L (1/ C))

(1)

Let XL = XC at a frequency fr Hz, then the impedance of the network is purely resistive therefore resonance can be defined as the condition which exists when the impedance of the network is purely resistive.

In the circuit shown, if R = 120 Vs is 240V, 50 Hz and XL and XC each equal to 316 , the circuit will be resonant at this frequency. Then, Z = = 120

Actually the resistance 120 may be the sum of the resistance of the coil and the resistance placed externally in the circuit. These resistances are generally lumped together and shown as one resistance R for calculation purpose. Current,

Voltage across the coil, VL = I x XL = 2 x 316 = 632V Voltage across the capacitor, VC = I x XC = 2 x 316 = 632V These two voltages are equal but opposite as shown in figure 3.2b Note that the voltage developed across the coil VL and the voltage developed across the capacitor VC are several times greater than the applied voltage Vs. This phenomenon is called resonant voltage step up.

Impedance and phase angle of a series resonant circuit. The impedance of series RLC circuit is given by,

At zero frequency XC and thereby Z is infinite and XL is zero. As the frequency increases XC decreases and XL increases. Since XC is larger than XL at frequency below resonant frequency fr, Z decreases along with XC. At resonant frequency fr, XC = XL and Z = R. At frequencies above the resonant frequency fr, XL is larger than XC, resulting in an increase in Z. The variation of Z, XL and XC with frequency is shown in figure below.

At a frequency below the resonant frequency, the capacitive reactance is greater than inductive reactance and the angle of impedance is negative. As f approaches zero, the angle of impedance approaches -90o. At frequencies above fr, the inductive reactance exceeds capacitive reactance and the angle of impedance is positive and approaches +90o, as f >> fr. VARIATION OF IMPEDANCE AND CURRENT WITH FREQUENCY

The variation of impedance and current with frequency is as shown in figure above. At resonance frequency, capacitive reactance is equal in magnitude to inductive reactance, the impedance is minimum and hence the current is maximum. When the frequency is lower than the frequency of resonance, the capacitive reactance is greater than the inductive reactance. When the frequency is higher than the resonant frequency, the inductive reactance is greater. In either case, the impedance will be higher than that at resonance. Accordingly, the current will be maximum at resonant frequency and is less at frequencies higher and lower than the resonant frequency. BANDWIDTH OF A RLC CIRCUIT The bandwidth of any system is the range of frequencies for which the current or output voltage is equal to or greater than 0.707 of its maximum value. From the

response curve shown in figure 3.5, it can be seen that for the range of frequencies between f1 and f2 the output current is greater than 0.707 of its maximum value. .: Bandwidth BW = f2 f1

The power delivered to any circuit is I2R. At f1 and f2 the current I is 0.707 times Io. Therefore the power at these points is half of the maximum value which occurs at fr. Hence these points are called the half power points. At half power frequencies, the impedance of the circuit is,

At the lower half power frequency f1, the capacitive reactance exceeds the inductive reactance. Then,

where At the upper half power frequency f2, the inductive reactance exceeds the capacitive reactance. Then, where From (10)

Solving we get,

From (11)

Solving we get,

QUALITY FACTOR OF A COIL In practical resonant circuit, we have only a coil and a capacitor in series and the only resistance in the circuit will be the resistance of the coil. The quality factor, Q is the ratio of the reactance of the coil to its resistance

i.e;

Similarly,

From (22), (23) and (24), we find that at resonance, the voltage across L and C are equal to Q times the applied voltage Vs. This Q may be considerably greater than unity. Thus the voltage across L (or C) may be made greater than applied voltage. Because of this, the Q factor is sometimes referred to as the circuit magnification factor. From equations (21), (22), (23) and (24), it can be seen that (1) Q will be higher if R is low (2) There will be more resonant voltage step up in a high Q coil than in a low Q coil From equation (20),

From equation (21) and (26) it can be seen that, (1) A low value of R results in an increase in Q (2) A high value of Q means BW is low (3) A low bandwidth means a sharp response

Therefore by making Q high, series resonant circuit can be used to select one frequency and reject all other frequencies. A high Q circuit is more selective than a low Q circuit. A series resonant circuit is also known as an acceptor circuit as it can be used to obtain magnification of signals of a particular frequency only.

In a parallel resonant circuit, the inductance L and capacitance C are connected in parallel as in figure. Resonance will occur when the inductive reactance XL is equal to the capacitive reactance XC.

For fixed L and C, the resonance will occur at a frequency given by the formula,

The behavior of a parallel resonant circuit is exactly opposite to that of a series resonant circuit. Whereas the impedance of a series resonant circuit is minimum at resonance and the line current is high, the impedance of a parallel resonant circuit is maximum at resonance and the line current is minimum. Since the coil and the capacitor are connected in parallel, a current IL will flow through the coil and a current IC will flow through the capacitor. The values of these currents depend upon the inductive and capacitive reactances. At resonance these two currents are theoretically equal. The phasor diagram of the circuit is shown in figure.

The capacitive branch current leads the voltage by 90o and the inductive branch current lags the voltage by 90o. The two currents flow in opposite directions. This means that during half the cycle the capacitor discharges through the coil and the electric energy is stored in the form of magnetic field. During the other half cycle, the coil releases this electrical energy and charges the capacitor. Thus the coil and the capacitor pass current back and forth between them inside the resonant circuit. A coil has some resistance and the connecting leads also have some resistance. This resistance is kept very low. There can be very high currents flowing back and forth between the coil and the capacitor. There is always some loss of energy in the form of heat because of this resistance. This loss will be made up by a low current that will be supplied by the source. At resonance, the inductive and capacitive currents are equal but opposite to each other. The net result is zero current which means a very high resistance exists in the circuit. The current flowing between the capacitor and inductor is much higher than the current supplied by the source. Therefore, we have a resonant current step up in a parallel resonant circuit just as we have a resonant voltage step up in a series resonant circuit. In a practical resonant circuit the coil always has some resistance and the circuit will be shown in figure. The capacitor is assumed to be lossless. The lower the coil resistance in a parallel resonant circuit, the higher will be the resonant resistance and lower the line current drawn.

Figure below shows the resonance curve for a parallel resonant circuit. The resistance of a parallel resonant circuit is maximum at resonant frequency. At frequencies below the resonant frequency, most of the current flows through the coil and hence the parallel resonant circuit acts as a coil. Above the resonant frequency the circuit will act as a capacitor. The sharpness of the resonance curve depends on the Q of the coil. A high Q coil will yield a much sharper response curve than a low Q coil. The condition of parallel resonance is also known as a anti resonance. A parallel resonant circuit is also called a rejector circuit, as it can be used to reject a particular frequency.

PURE RLC CIRCUIT The parallel circuit consisting of pure elements is shown on figure.

where,

and

At = r, the capacitive and inductive susceptances are equal and Y = G. Thus at resonance, admittance is minimum and since I = VY, the current is also minimum. TWO BRANCH CIRCUIT

The circuit at resonance when the complex admittance is a real number: i.e; imaginary part is zero.

Frequency must be real positive number. Hence the circuit will have a resonant frequency r when RL2 > L/C and RC2 > L/C or RL2 < L/C and RC2 < L/C. When RL2 = RC2 > L/C, the circuit is resonant at all frequencies. COMPARISON BETWEEN SERIES & PARALLEL RESONANT CIRCUITS Series Resonance Effective impedance is minimum at resonance Source current is maximum at resonance Voltage magnification occurs Acceptor circuit Parallel Resonance Effective impedance is maximum at resonance Source current is minimum at resonance Current magnification occurs Rejector circuit

INTRODUCTION The single phase a.c.circuit contains a single alternating current and voltage wave. A single phase generator producing a single phase supply has only one armature winding. A two phase generator producing two phase voltage has two windings displaced by 90o and a three phase generator has three winding displaced by 120o. In general, a polyphase system has many phases or circuits, each phase having a single alternating voltage of equal magnitude and frequency but displaced from one another by equal electrical angles. Although several polyphase systems are possible the three [phase system is the most popular one. REASONS FOR USE OF 3 PHASE SYSTEMS Electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of 3 phase power. Homes and small establishments have single phase power but this merely represents a tap off from the basic three phase system. Advantages of 3 phase power over single phase power are: (1) For a given size of frame, a 3 phase generator or motor has greater output than that of a single phase generator. (2) 3 phase generators work in parallel without any difficulty. (3) 3 phase transmission line requires lesser amount of conductor material for transmitting the same amount of power over a single phase line. (4) 3 phase motors possess uniform torque whereas single phase motors possess a pulsating torque. (5) Polyphase induction motors are self starting motors whereas single phase a.c. motors are not self starting. ELEMENTARY 3 PHASE ALTERNATOR Figure shows an elementary 3 phase alternator. The three identical coils A, B and C are symmetrically placed in such a way that emfs induced in them are displaced by 120o (electrical) from one another. Since the coils are identical and are subjected to the same rotating field the emfs in them will be of same magnitude and frequency.

The equations of the three emfs are, eA = Em sin t eB = Em sin ( t 120o) eC = Em sin ( t 240o)

Figure shows the wave diagram of the three emfs and also the phasor diagram. It can be proved that the sum of the three emfs at any instant is zero. (1) e = eA + eB +eC = Em [ sin t + sin ( t -120o) + sin ( t 240o)] = Em [sin t + 2 sin ( t 180o) cos 60o] = Em [sin t 2 sin t cos 60o] = 0 2. Referring to the wave diagram the sum of the three emfs at any instant is zero. For example at the instant P, ordinate PL is positive while the ordinates PN and PH are negative. If the actual measurements are made it will be senn that PL+ (-PN) + (-PH) = 0 3. Since the three windings or coils are identical, EA = EB = EC = E in magnitude. As shown in figure resultant of EA and EB is Er and to its magnitude 2Ecos 60o = E. This resultant is equal and opposite to EC. Hence the resultant of the three emfs is zero. 4. Using complex algebra we can again prove that the sum of the three emfs is zero. Thus taking EA as reference phasor we have EA = E / 0o EB = E /-120o = E (-0.5 j0.866) EC = E /-240o = E (-0.5 + j0.866) EA + EB + EC = (E + 0j) + E (-0.5 j0.866) + E (-0.5 + j0.866) = 0

PHASE SEQUENCE The order in which the voltages in the three phases or coils reach their maximum or any instantaneous value is called the phase sequence or the phase order. Thus in figure the three coils A, B and C are producing voltages that are displaced by 120o (electrical) from one another. Referring to the waveform it is easy to see that voltage in coil A attains maximum positive value first, next coil B and then coil C. Hence the phase sequence is ABC. If the direction of rotation of the alternator is reversed, then the order in which the three phases attain their maximum positive value would be ACB. Hence the phase sequence is ACB. The three phases may be numbered (1,2,3) or lettered (A,B,C) or the three phases may be named after the three natural colors that is Red R, Yellow Y and Blue B. In this case phase sequence is RYB or RBY.

DOUBLE SUBSCRIPT NOTATION The double subscript notation is a very useful concept and may be found advantageous in the analysis of three phase systems. In this notation two letters are placed at the foot of the symbol for voltage or current. The two letters indicate the two points between which voltage or current exists and the order of the letters indicates the relative polarity of voltage or current during positive half cycle. Thus VRY indicates between points R and Y with point R being positive w.r.t Y during its positive half cycle. i.e. VRY = - VYR Again IRY indicates a current I between points R and Y and that its direction is from R to Y during its positive half cycle. Advantage of using double subscript notation is that the subscripts and the order of the subscripts describe the quantity completely. SYMMETRICAL AND BALANCED THREE PHASE SYSTEMS A system is aid to be symmetrical when the various voltages are equal in magnitude and are displaced from one another by equal angles. The system is balanced when the various voltages are equal in magnitude, the various currents are equal in magnitude and the phase angles are the same for each phase. METHODS OF CONNECTION OF THREE PHASE SYSTEM Since a voltage is generated in each coil, it may be considered as a source of voltage. The three coils together constitute a three phase system and each coil is a phase. Let a load be connected across each phase. The arrangement given in figure shows three loads supplied separately from three phase of a generator. The end of a coil where the current leaves may be called the starting end or simply the start. The other end where the current enters the coil is called the finishing end or simply the finish. The ends a,b,c are the starting ends while a,b,c are the finishing ends. The arrangement thus shown requires six wires to connect the loads. This is equivalent to three separate single phase systems. Such a system is called a three phase, six wire system. The number of connecting wires may be reduced by the interconnection of the phases to form a single three phase a.c. system.

There are two methods of interconnecting the three phases. These are called (1) Star (Y) and (2) Delta ( ) connections. 1. In Y connection, similar ends (start or finish) of the three phases are joined together within the alternator and the three lines are run from the other free ends as shown in figure. The common point N may or may not be brought out. If a neutral conductor is present it is called a three phase four wire system.

2. In connection, dissimilar ends (start or finish) of the phases are joined to form a closed mesh and the three lines are run from the junction points as shown in figure. In connection no neutral point exists and hence only a three phase three wire system can be formed.

In this method, similar ends of the three phases are joined together to form a common junction N called star or neutral point. The three line conductors are run from the three free ends and are designated as R, Y and B. The voltage between any line and the neutral point i.e; voltage across each winding is called phase voltage while the voltage between any two lines is called the line voltage. The currents flowing in the phase are called phase currents and those flowing in the lines are called the line currents. Phase sequence is RYB.

RELATION BETWEEN LINE AND PHASE VOLTAGES Figure shows a balanced 3 phase Y connected system in which the r.m.s. values of the emfs generated in the three phases are ERN, EYN and EBN. It is clear that the potential difference between any two line terminals i.e; the line voltage is the phasor difference between the potential of these terminals w.r.t neutral point i.e; VRY = ERN EYN VYB = EYN EBN VBR = EBN ERN

Considering lines R and Y the line voltage VRY is equal to the phasor difference of ERN and EYN. To subtract EYN from ERN reverse the phasor EYN and find its phasor sum with ERN as shown in the phasor diagram. The two phasors E RN and EYN are equal in magnitude and equal to Eph and 60o apart. VRY = 2Eph cos Similarly,

p VYB = 3E h p VBR = 3E h Hence in a balanced three phase Y connection. p 1. Line voltage = 3E h All line voltages are equal in magnitude but displaced by 120o from one another. 2. Line voltages are 30o ahead of their respective phase voltages.

3E h p

In Y connection each line conductor is connected in series to a separate phase as shown in figure. Therefore current in a line conductor is the same as that in the phase to which the line conductor is connected. Line current, IL = Iph

Figure shows the phasor diagram for a balanced lagging load, the phase angle being . hence in a balanced 3 phase Y connection. 1. Line current, IL = Iph 2. All line currents are equal in magnitude but displaced by 120o from one another. 3. The angle between the line currents and the corresponding line voltages is 30 o + , + if p.f. is lagging and -if p.f. is leading. Power

= 3

ph ph

I cos

V 3 x IL x cos

3

VL IL cos

cos is the power factor and is the phase difference between phase voltage and the phase current. POINTS TO REMEMBER 1. The three phase voltage (i.e. ERN, EYN, EBN) are equal in magnitude but displaced 120o from each other. The same is true for line voltages i.e. VRY, VYB and VBR. Such a supply system is called balanced supply system. 2. Line voltage = 3 x Phase Voltage. Thus Y connection enables us to use two voltages i.e. phase voltage and line voltage. 3. Line current = Phase current 4. For a 3 phase 4 wire star connected supply, the current I N in the neutral wire is the phasor sum of the three line currents. For a balanced load IN = 0. 5. The arrowheads alongside currents or voltages indicate their directions when they are assumed to be positive and not their actual direction at a particular instant. At no instant will all the three line currents flow in the same direction either outwards or inwards. This is expected because the three line currents are displaced 120o from one another. When one is positive, the other two might be negative or one positive and one negative. Thus at any instant current flows from the alternator through one of the lines to the load and returns through the other two lines or else current flows from the alternator through two lines and returns by means of third.

In this method of interconnection of the dissimilar ends of the three phase windings are joined together i.e; finishing end of one phase is connected to the starting end of the other phase and so on, to obtain mesh or delta as shown in figure. It may appear as if the three phases are short circuited on themselves. But that is not the case. The finishing end of one phase is connected to the starting end of the other phase so that the resultant voltage around mesh is the phasor sum of the three phase voltages. Since the three phase voltages are equal in magnitude and displaced 120 o from one another, their phasor sum is zero. Therefore no current can flow around the mesh when the terminals are open.

RELATION BETWEEN LINE AND PHASE VOLTAGES Since the system is balanced the three phase voltages are equal in magnitude but displaced by 120o from each other. From figure, its clear that only one phase winding is included between any pair of lines. Hence in delta connection VL = Vph. RELATION BETWEEN LINE AND PHASE CURRENTS Since the system is balanced, the three phase currents I R, IY and IB are equal in magnitude and displaced from each other by 120o. An examination of current shows that current in any line is equal to the phasor difference of the currents in the two phasors attached to that line. Current, IL = IR IB. The current in the line is the phasor difference of IR and IB. IL = I1 = IR IB = 2 Iph cos

60 = 2 Iph cos 30o = 2

3

Iph

3

The three line currents I1, I2 and I3 are equal in magnitude each being equal to

Iph.

Hence in balanced connection: 1. Line current = 3 Iph 2. All line currents are equal in magnitude but displaced by 120o from one another. 3. Line currents are 30o behind their respective phase currents.

ADVANTAGES OF STAR AND DELTA CONNECTED SYSTEMS In three phase system, the alternators may be star or delta connected. Also three phase loads may be star or delta connected. Following are the advantages: STAR CONNECTION

V

1. In star connection Vph = 3 . Since the induced emf in the phase winding of an alternator is directly proportional to the number of turns, a star connected alternator will require lesser number of turns than a delta connected alternator for the same line voltage. 2. For the same line voltage, a star connected alternator will require lesser amount of insulation. Due to the above reasons, three phase alternators are generally star connected. 3. With star connection, it is possible to use two levels of voltages, that is phase voltage and line voltage. 4. In star connection, neutral point may be earthed. Earthing of neutral permits the use of relays. DELTA CONNECTION 1. This type of connection is most suitable for rotary converters. 2. Most of the three phase induction motors are delta connected. 3. Three phase loads are generally delta connected. This is because of the flexibility with which load may be added or removed on a single phase which is more difficult with three phase star connected load.

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