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A thesis presented to the academic faculty By Sikander Hameed

BBA-8140

In partial fulfillment Of the requirements for the degree

Superior University Lahore

Declaration of originality
I hereby declare that the project is entirely my own work and that any additional source of information has been duly cited. I hereby declare that any internet sources published works from which I have quoted or draw references fully in the text and in the content list.

Signed

Date

..

Acknowledgements I would start with the name of my Allah Almighty who gave me strength, courage, ability and knowledge to complete this research successfully. I would like to thank and pay my all tributes to my beloved parents without their prayers this research could never be done.

DEDICATED TO

My beloved Parents And My Respectable Teachers

Abstract
The study examines the relationship between the dependent variable which is Recruitment and Selection Process and independent variables which are Recruitment Sources, Interview and Recruiter by analyzing the data. The study examines hypothesis that are used to explain the impact of Recruitment Sources, Interview and Recruiter on Re c ru i t men t and Selection Process Regression has prove the relationship between the these variables. For these study hundred samples has been used for the confirmation of results. I have use questionnaire for the data collection. I have use longitudinal research design.

The recruitment and selection process Impact of Recruitment Sources, Interview and Recruiters on Recruitment and Selection Process

Table of contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
Introduction Theories . 9 ..10

Chapter 2: literature review


Literature review ..18

Chapter 3: theoretical framework


Theoretical framework .. 28 .....35

Signification of study...................................................................................................................

Chapter 4: methodology
Methodology Chapter 5: Data analysis Missing values Descriptive analysis Frequency table Regression Scatter plot .. .. . .36 . .38 . .38

. .40 . .44 . ..45 .. .52

Chapter 6: conclusion
Questionnaires References

. ..56 . ..57 ......60

Chapter 1
Introduction Multi-level Staffing: Linking Individual Staffing to Organizational Effectiveness:

The reviews of recruitment and selection practices both identified a need for research showing business unit value/organizational impact. This is interesting given the most basic staffing assumption, one described in nearly every textbook written on the subject, is that recruiting and hiring better employees contributes to organizational effectiveness. If it does not, then why invest in staffing? However, there is actually little direct, empirical evidence testing this assumption (e.g., Ployhart, 2004; Saks, 2005; Taylor & Collins, 2000). Utility analysis may be helpful to estimate these effects, but they are only estimates that are limited to monetary outcomes and are frequently discounted by managers (Schneider, Smith, & Sipe, 2000). Practitioners and HR managers often have to go well beyond validity (and even utility/monetary estimates) to make a case that staffing ads strategic value to the firm. Likewise, from a theoretical perspective, it is discouraging there is not more direct, empirical evidence linking individual differences to organizational effectiveness. There is considerable staffing research at the micro (individual) level and some staffing research at the macro (organizational) level, but each discipline rarely considers processes, constructs, and influences outside its respective level. That is, micro- and macro-level research are both pri- marily single-level disciplines because their independent and dependent variables are contained within the same level of analysis (Ployhart, 2004). Micro (individual)-level research examines how individual differences (knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics; KSAOs) contribute to individual performance but assumes (or only estimates how) individual differences contribute to organizational value. Micro research is usually conducted from the perspective of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. Macro (organizational or business unit)-level research examines how HR practices (e.g., staffing) contribute to organizational performance but assumes that these practices have an effect because of their influence on employee KSAOs. Note that in macro research, these unit-level KSAOs are referred to as human capital and rarely measured. For example, research suggests that organizations using welldeveloped staffing practices have better performance (Huselid, 1995), but the focus is on the practice itself and not the specific human capital affected by the practice. Macro research is usually conducted from the perspective of strategy or strategic HR management (SHRM). If both micro and
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macro disciplines limited their implications to their respective levels, there would be no cause for concern. But both disciplines make inferences and assumptions that extend beyond their respective levels.

Theories
Organizations are inherently nested and hierarchical, for example, individuals are nested within business units such as departments or stores, which are in turn nested within the firm. Multi-level theory argues that ignoring such hierarchical structures can cause misleading interpretations and generalizations of within-level research findings (with cross-level fallacies being just one example). One important implication is that observations (e.g., employees) within a unit (e.g., store, organization) are likely to share similarities on particular KSAOs. This is known as no independence in statistical terms, and ignoring it can influence estimation of effect sizes and significance testing (Bliese, 2000). To connect levels, multi-level theory describes theoretical processes for both contextual effects and emergent effects. Contextual effects are top-down effects from higher to lower levels (e.g., changing an organizations HR practices changes the behavior of individual employees). Emergent effects are bottom-up effects from lower to higher levels. Kozlowski and Klein noted, A phenomenon is emergent when it originates in the cognition, affect, Ployhart / Staffing Review 885 behaviors, or other characteristics of individuals, is amplified by their interactions, and manifests as a higher-level, collective phenomenon (2000: 55). For example, a department that hires applicants on the basis of their conscientiousness should become composed primarily of highly conscientious people. Note that it takes time for bottom-up effects to occur; hence time must usually be a fundamental element in multi-level research (Kozlowski & Klein, 2000). The bottom-up process of emergence is the critical theoretical mechanism that unites micro and macro staffing research because it helps understand how individual differences in KSAOs contribute to unit-level differences. Kozlowski and Klein (2000) and Bliese (2000) described two different types of emergence that represent ends on a continuum. On one hand, composition models of emergence theorize that there is such high similarity (homogeneity) among lower level observations (employees) that the within-unit scores create a distinct aggregate-level construct. An example of a composition model is when employees share such highly similar perceptions about their organizations climate that a company-level climate variable is formed from the aggregation (mean) of employee climate perceptions.
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Multi-Level Staffing Models: Multi-level staffing models are based on the integration of traditional micro-level staffing research with macro-level strategy and SHRM research. Multi-level theory is used to fuse these disciplines and explicate how individual differences contribute to the formation of unit differences. Schneider et al. (2000) described the basics for such a model, and subsequent work by Ployhart and Schneider examined the practical (Ployhart & Schneider, 2002), theoretical (Ployhart, 2004), and methodological (Ployhart & Schneider, 2005) concepts necessary to build a multi-level staffing model linking micro and macro perspectives. Together, this research articulates how individual differences create organizational differences, how staffing practices might influence this process, and ultimately how practitioners can show the organizational value of staffing. This review summarizes the common arguments across these publications. Figure 1 illustrates the basic constructs and processes in multi-level staffing. Notice that there are two levels in Figure 1, the micro (individual) level and the macro (organizational) level (these levels are only illustrative, and multiple intermediate levels are possible). All of the arrows in Figure 1 are considered in multi-level staffing models, but as a point of comparison, the dashed arrows denote the relationships examined in traditional staffing research. As noted earlier, Figure 1 illustrates that these dashed arrows are each within a single level (micro or macro). The solid arrows in Figure 1 thus highlight the unique aspects of multi-level modeling. First, because time is a fundamental part of multi-level modeling, Figure 1 is drawn so that the starting time begins with the implementation of a staffing practice. The staffing practice represents a contextual (top-down) effect on the firms individual KSAOs because all potential employees within a relevant job will be recruited and assessed using the same staffing system.

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Organizational-level human capital contributes to the organizations performance, such that firms with higher quality human capital will outperform those with lesser quality human capital. This is known as human capital advantage in the macro literature (e.g., Boxall, 1996). Of course, there is another means through which individual-level KSAOs may contribute to macro-level Performance, and this is through better individual performance that collectively improves the effectiveness of the firm. Thus, through the processes of human capital emergence and human capital advantage, hiring more competent employees through the use of valid selection systems should contribute to better organizational performance. These points represent some important areas of departure between multi-level staffing models and traditional staffing models. First, multilevel staffing models allow researchers to hypothesize and test the assumptions in both micro and macro staffing disciplines. Micro research assumes better individual-level selection results in better organizational-level performance; macro research assumes HR practices influence organizational performance because the practices influence human capital. By developing theories of emergence, researchers can more carefully articulate the structure and function of specific types of human capital (e.g., composition or compilation models). Finally, multilevel staffing models take a different approach to demonstrating the economic utility of staffing than traditional forms of utility analysis. Specifically, multi-level staffing predicts that human capital is a key determinant of organizational performance.

Practical Recommendations and Implications for Organizational Effectiveness: Multi-level staffing models do not negate the importance of single-level recruitment and selection research. Rather, they seek to extend this work by articulating the linkages between individual differences and organizational/business unit differences. This is essentially the value challenge facing staffing managers and practitioners. In this sense, the model offers a way to demonstrate the value of staffing by examining the relationships between individual differences/human capitals with individual outcomes/unit-level outcomes. This is nearly the same methodology used in job attitude/customer satisfaction linkage research. Although at the unit level there is likely a need for control variables (e.g., size), and there is an obvious need for multiple units, most large organizations (and consultants) have ready access to these data (see Ployhart & Schneider, 2005). Ployhart and Schneider (2002, 2005) offered some tools for conducting and interpreting such a study, and Schmitt (2002) posed several practical questions to be considered (e.g., How does job analysis change?). Staffing practices should help an organization achieve its strategic goals and vision (nearly always
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expressed in unit-level terms), and the model offers a way to demonstrate that effect. Multi-level staffing also offers the opportunity to advance staffing theory. Also the best human capital predictors of business unit performance? Or, are certain manifestations of individual differences only predictive at higher levels (e.g., agreeableness does not show much validity at the individual level in technical jobs but in the aggregate may be predictive of business unit level processes such as communication and social capital). Given that modern work continues to shift toward team-based and knowledge-based structures, these collective processes become important determinants of performance. Similarly, consider that meta-analyses indicate cognitive ability tests are one of the most predictive selection methods available for most jobs do business units or entire firms staffed with more cognitively able people outperform those who do not? The study by Terpstra and Rozell (1993) is often cited to support such a claim, but their study only asked HR managers if they used ability testing and only asked them to self-report firm performance. How much of a validity difference must be found at the individual level to translate into business unit differences? Framing the debate around personality testing from this perspective might be a more compelling way to show the importance of personality.

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Theory Relevant to Structured Interviews:


Another conclusion is that theory has not played an important role in this area. Past research was much applied; it was conducted to solve practical problems rather than to test theory. This paper relied mainly on psychometric theory to explain the operation of structured interviews. However, other more content- (as opposed to measurement-) oriented theories may offer additional insight. For example, cognitive theory (Lord & Maher, 1991) might be used to consider underlying mechanisms. Structure may reduce information processing requirements and potential for overload, thus allowing interviewers to attend more fully to candidate responses (Arvey, 1995). Structure may also clarify the cognitive schemata used to interpret responses (Green, 1995), thus allowing responses to be classified and judged more systematically and accurately. Finally, Webster (1982) describes several interviewer decision making Models A conflict model explains how conflict and stress influence decision making, an information processing model explains decision making in terms of mathematical models, and an affect model explains the role of feelings and preferences in decision making. Structure might define the decision making task such that the influence of these processes may be lessened. The State of the Literature Reviews of the literature often note the lack of detail in most articles. This review is no exception. Most studies did not contain enough information to judge the level of structure on all components.. Much of it is old, clinical in orientation, conducted in ambiguous settings, or confounded in many ways. Studies tend to have small samples, simple criteria, restriction of range, and measures with modest reliability and unknown construct validity. These problems are troubling for meta analyses. Such techniques can correct for statistical limitations (e.g., sample, range, and reliability), but they cannot make precise comparisons between components of structure when information is lacking, components are confounded, or sufficient primary studies not conducted. An equally difficult issue is the unknown construct validity of many interviews. Interviews are measurement techniques that are not linked to particular constructs. If the content of interviews is unclear, meta-analytic results must be correspondingly ambiguous. To illustrate, meta-analyses have included clinical interviews. They differ from selection interviews in focus (i.e., maladjustment and psychopathology versus job performance) and time orientation (i.e., current identification versus future prediction). They also rely on complex clinical judgment that may not easily translate into practice for managers. Such studies should not be used in meta-analyses, or they should be analyzed separately (McDaniel et al.,1994). More attention should be given to what constructs are measured by
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interviews as well as how they are measured. Conclusion: Structured interviews are clearly superior psychometrically. Yet, administrative innovations, such as structured interviews, are rarely based on technical merit (Johns, 1993). Instead, researchers might have to emphasize environmental threats (e.g., low candidate quality), government regulations (e.g., EEO laws), or simple imitative or competitive processes to convince organizations to adopt them (Johns, 1993). In conclusion, the selection interview can be enhanced by using some of the many possible components of structure, and the improvement of this popular selection procedure should be a high priority for future research and practice. Theory, research, and practice (pp. 61-73). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Campion, M. A.(1988). Interdisciplinary approaches to job design: Eder, R. W. (1989). Contextualeffectsoninterviewdecisions. In R. W. Eder & G. R. Ferris (Eds.), The employment interview: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 113126). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Feild, H. S., & Gatewood, R. D. (1989). Developmentofaselectioninterview: A job content strategy. In R. W. Eder & G. R. Ferris (Eds.), The employment interview: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 145-157). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Kelley, H. H. (1967). Attributiontheoryinsocialpsychology. In D.Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 15 (pp. 192-238). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Lord, R. G., & Maher, K. J. (1991). Cognitivetheoryinindustrialandorganizationalpsychology. In M. D. Dunnette & L. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology: Vol. 2 (2nd ed., pp. 1-62). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Mumford, M. D., & Stokes, G. S. (1992). Developmental determinants of individual action: Theory and practice in applying background measures. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology: Vol. 3 (2nd ed., pp. 61-138). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Schneider, D. J. (1973). Implicitpersonalitytheory: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 79, 294-309.

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Chapter No 2 Literature review Recruitment and Selection It is the Management of various activities designed to enhance the effectiveness of an organizational Work Force in achieving the Organizational Goals. It comprises of Human Resource Management Process and its Strategic importance. This involves assessing the human resource needs associated with an Organizations Strategic plan and developing plans to meet those needs. The Staffing component includes attracting and selecting individuals for appropriate positions. Once individuals become part of the Organization, their ability to contribute effectively is usually enhanced by various development and evaluation efforts, such as training and periodic performance evaluations. Compensating employees is another important factor in the HRM process, because adequate rewards are critical not only to attracting but also to motivating and retaining valuable employees. Finally, managers must respond to various issues that influence work-force perceptions of the Organization and its treatment of employees.Organizations can adopt various HRM practices to enhance employee performance; first, efforts can focus on improving quality of the individuals hired, or on raising the skills and abilities of current employers, or on both (Delaney and Huselid, 1996). Drawing on the empirical & theoretical studies on HR practices (McDuffee, 1995; Way, 2002; Pfeffer, 1994; Guest et al, 2004 The rationale of selecting these practices lies in that these practices are consistently considered to be strategic and universalistic HR practices. Furthermore, most of the researchers argued that these practices will lead to performance mediating the relationship with job commitment and satisfaction (see for example, Boseli et al, 1997; Guest, 2001; Malhotra et al, 2007). Organizational commitment has been the subject of continued research interest for almost four decades because of its impact on individual performance and organizational effectiveness (Allen & Meyer, 1996; Beck & Wilson, 2000; Mowday, 1998). Social exchange (Blau, 1964) and reciprocity norms (Gouldner, 1960) provides the theoretical foundation of the employee organization relationship. According to exchange and reciprocity norms employee repay rewards received from the organization through increased commitment to organization which reinforce the exchange prevalent in the employee-employer relationship in mutually beneficial manner (Eisenberger et al, 1990; Haar & Spell, 2004). Allen and Meyer,1993, Angle,1983; Mowday et al , 1982;) .Jaisawal (1982) and Ogilive (1986) found relationship between specific practices such as performance
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evaluation, promotion policies, compensation ,benefits and effective commitment. Although overall commitment to organizations appears to be largely unrelated to job performance, it is possible that there is a relationship between commitments as a multi-dimensional phenomenon and performance. For example, Meyer, Paunonen, Gellately, Goffin and Jackson (1989) found that affective commitment is positively correlated with the measures of performance. Therefore, the findings of Meyer and his colleagues leads us to consider that certain dimensions of commitment might be associated with performance (Becker et al, 2001).
HR Practices Recruitment Training opportunities Growth opportunities Rewards Participation in Decision making Job Satisfaction Job Commitment

Job Performance

Most definitions of recruitment emphasize the organizations collective efforts to identify, attract, and influencethejobchoicesofcompetentapplicants. Organizational leaders are painfully aware that recruiting talent is one of their most pressing problems. Tight labor markets give applicants considerable choice between employers. Professional, information/knowledge-based, technical, and service occupations. Some reports indicate that nearly half of all employees are at least passively looking for jobs, and a sizable minority is continually actively searching (Towers Perrin, 2006). This is such a problem that many organizations actually face a greater recruiting challenge than a selection challenge. Selection will only be effective and financially defensible if a sufficient quantity of applicants apply to the organization. Compounding this challenge is that many organizations struggle with how to attract a diverse workforce. Thus, there is growing recognition that recruitingby itself and irrespective of selectionis critical not only for sustained competitive advantage but basic organizational survival (Taylor & Collins, 2000). Reflecting this importance, there have been several excellent reviews on
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recruitment (Breaugh & Starke, 2000; Highhouse & Hoffman, 2001; Rynes & Cable, 2003; Saks, 2005; Taylor & Collins, 2000). This review obviously does not provide the depth or detail of those reviews. Rather, this review selects the more recent developments with the greatest implications for organizational effectiveness. An excellent place to start the review is with the recruitment meta-analysis conducted by Chapman, Uggerslev, Carroll, Piasentin, and Jones (2005). They summarized 71 studies to estimate the effect sizes and path relationships between recruiting predictors (job/organizational attributes, recruiter characteristics, perceptions of recruitment process, perceived fit, perceived alternatives, hiring expectancies) and applicant attraction outcomes (job pursuit intentions, job/organization attraction, acceptance intentions, job choice). This meta-analysis helps organize and clarify a rather diverse literature, and there are many specific findings, with the key ones listed below: Perceptions of person-organization fit (PO fit) and job/organizational attributes were the strongest predictors of the various recruiting outcomes. The next strongest set of predict to tended to be perceptions of the recruitment process (e.g., fairness), followed by recruiter competencies and hiring expectancies. Interestingly, recruiter demographics or functional occupation showed almost no relationship to the recruitment outcomes. Gender and study context (lab-field) were the only two moderators found to be important (although others may exist that could not be tested). Interestingly, job/organizational attributes and justice perceptions were weighed more heavily by real applicants, suggesting lab studies may be primarily useful for studying early stages of recruitment. There was support for mediated recruitment models, such that recruitment predictors influence job attitudes and job acceptance intentions, which in turn influence job choice. Although acceptance intentions are the best proxy for actual job choice, they are an imperfect proxy. Discouragingly, actual job choice was studied infrequently and was poorly predicted. On the other hand, given the nominal nature of job choice measures, one must wonder how large this effect should be.Overall, there is good support linking many recruitment predictors to intention and perceptual criteria. The attributes of the job/organization and fit with the job/organization will influence intentions and (modestly) behavior. Hard criteria are infrequently studied, and when they are, the relationships are much smaller. We need to know how large these relationships could be, or can be, for the top predictors. Finally, demographics of both the applicant and recruiter seem to play a minor role, although individual differences may be more important. (Staffing in the 21st
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In todays complex business environment, effective recruiting is increasingly important. Recruitment is more complex activity than most managers think it is. It is not just involve in placing Ads or calling employment agencies but the recruitment efforts should make sense in terms of companys strategic plans (Dessler, 2005).

is a process of finding and attempting Job Candidates who are capable of effectively filling Job vacancies. Job description and Job Specification are important in the recruiting process because they specify the nature of Job and the qualification required of job candidates. Recruiting can be conducted internally and externally. Most vacant positions are filled through internal recruitment, the process of finding potential internal candidates and encouraging them to apply for and/or be willing to accept Organizational jobs that are open. One major method of recruiting internally is Job Posting. A practice whereby information about job vacancies is placed in conspicuous places in an Organization, such as on bulletin boards in Organizational newsletters. Skill Inventories and Replacement Planning are also used to locate candidates for Internal Recruitment. it is the process of finding potential External candidates and encouraging them to apply for and/or to be willing to accept Organizational jobs that are open. A variety of sources are available for obtaining External job candidates. Advertising, College recruiting programs, Employment agencies, and Referrals by Employees. One major issue related to External recruitment in the tendency of managers to provide the candidates with an overly positive view of the organization in order to attract new employees. Unfortunately this strategy can backfire. An alternative approach is Realistic Job Preview, a technique used during the recruiting process in which the job candidate is presented with a balanced view of both the positive and negative aspects of the job and Organization. Staffing is the set of activities aimed at attaching and selecting individuals for positions in a way that will facilitate the achievements of Organizational goals. A critical element in building competitive advantage through the Recruitment and Selection processes associated with staffing. The process of staffing employees in the organization consists of finding, evaluating and assigning individuals to work (Schneider & Schmilt, 1986; Dessler, 2005). Extensiveness of staffing refers to the extent that a firms staffing process uses information gathered from several

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selection devices (e.g. interviews, tests, work samples, etc.) to evaluate job candidates. Such process creates numerous barriers for job candidates and may result in the selection of individuals that possess superior skills and behaviour scripts (Dessler, 2005; Way and Thacker, 2001). Way (2002) argued that Extensiveness of staffing may enhance the firms ability to gain access to workforce that produce superior employee performance. Research has also shown that valid selection test are very useful in employee selection, and implementing an effective staffing process is positively correlated with organisational performance (Terpstra & Rozell, 1993; Martell & Caroll, 1995; Way, 2002). A sophisticated selection system tests a candidates potential for a position and decreases the organisations level of uncertainty when faced with an external candidate (Holzel, 1987). A stringent recruitment & selection system also gives those employees who are selected a sense of elitism, impart high expectations of performance, and conveys a message of the importance of people to the organization (Pfeffer, 1994). Incompatibility between individual and the organization can impede the achievement of necessary performance levels (Lado & Wilson, 1994); while an advanced staffing process can bring to the organisation employees who match the abilities of the present human resources and fit into existing interpersonal structure, at lower training costs (Fernandez, 1992). In addition, research has found that effective staffing (recruitment & selection) is positively correlated with organizational performance (Terpstra & Rozell, 1993).Personnel selection practices (e.g., interviews, ability and personality tests) continue to capture the most attention from staffing scholars. There are several comprehensive reviews of selection practices (e.g., Evers, Anderson, & Voskuijl, 2005; Schmitt, Cortina, Ingerick, & Wiechmann

2003), as well as discussions of research and practical applications (Guion & Highhouse2006 Ployhart, Schneider, & Schmitt, 2006; Ryan & Tippins, 2004).

The selection of candidates for membership of the Scientific Committee of FRA shall be advertised through a call for expressions of interest in accordance with the present

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procedures.The call for expressions of interest shall be published in the EU Official Journal (OJ), in relevant leading academic publications as well as the Agencys website. The closing deadline for submission of candidates expressions of interest shall be fixed six weeks after the above mentioned publication. The Director of the Agency shall prepare and organize the work for the pre-selection of the members of the Scientific Committee. He or she shall chair a pre-selection panel, composed of the Heads of Unit of the Agency and a person appointed for the purpose by the Council of Europe. Two members of the FRA Management Board may attend the preselection panel as observers. The pre-selection panel shall verify the eligibility of the candidates, in accordance with the eligibility requirements. Failure to comply with one of these requirements will result in the exclusion of the concerned candidate from the next steps of the selection process. The preselection panel shall then assess each eligible candidate according to the requirements for selection. It will draw up an Individual Assessment Form for each candidate which will include a short comment, highlighting the specific values/shortcomings of the person. The Director shall present the results of the pre-selection process to the FRA Executive Board, including information on the candidates deemed ineligible. The whole Recruitment and Selection Process must meet several criteria: 1. The process must be easy to understand for the target audience of the Recruitment and Selection Process. The process is not created for employees of HRM, the process is developed mainly for the managers in the organization. The managers are the most important clients of the Recruitment and Selection Process, 2. HRM has to follow the standard defined in the Recruitment and Selection Process. HRM cannot afford to draw the nice process maps and document flows in the organization and not to follow them. When HRM does not follow the rules defined, then HRM cannot expect the managers to define such a process. 3. HRM must be able to get a buy-in from the managers in the organization to use standards defined and to keep the process consistent. For example the graph illustrates one of the most common mistakes in the Recruitment and Selection Process. The HRM starts to fill the vacancy without a clear agreement about the profile and job content of the vacancy to be
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filled. This mistake takes a long time to correct and the whole cycle time of the recruitment gets too long and produces a confusion among all the participants in the process. The most important job of a Human Resources person is the selection and hiring/recruitment of employees. It cannot be faulted that the success of any firm depends on the quality of human resources or talents in that firm. This is why it is very important for any human resources expert to be very sure of hiring the right staff without compromising anything from the onset. The questions behind your mind while sourcing for talents should be can these staff deliver? What are their strengths? Can they fit into the corporate goal and objectives of the firm? What are their competencies? Can they be trained? Can they pursue the vision of the firm? What values are they bringing into the organization? Are they coming to use our firm as a learning ground and move on with their career somewhere else? Can we count on them to fit into the succession plan of the company? Etc. Answers to these questions and more are why selection and recruitment seems to be an onerous task. It cannot be argued that most applicants fake their qualifications and experiences just to impress interviewers and get the job. It is very important then for interviewers to look beyond the physical to determine how suitable an applicant is. This brings us to the issue of the competency analysis of those to be interviewed. Competency test is always one of the important selection strategies. This is because it goes beyond what eyes can see. It checks the behaviours of the applicants as well as their characteristics, which influences and drives their performance on the job. A competency can then be seen as the underlying characteristics of a person which enables him to deliver or not deliver superior performances in a given job, role or situation.The competency of a candidate can be seen in his Skills, educational qualifications, Knowledge, abilities, achievements, strengths, social roles, self image, Traits and Motives. Where the candidate's skills, educational qualifications, knowledge, abilities, achievements, strengths and weaknesses can be easily identified, his Traits and Motives are always hidden in the core of the candidate. The Motive and Traits of different candidates are always what separates the chaff from the juice. This then means that interviewers should pay more attention during selection exercises in the motives and traits of candidates more than their qualifications and experiences.When there is an opening in a firm, it is always very important for the Human resources department to check inwardly if there is any existing staff that can fit perfectly into that position. If none, the next step should be to look outwardly. While placing the advert, it is also

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very important for the HR person to know the job requirements for that position, the educational qualification needed, number of years of experiences on the job, the job description, the gender of the person needed etc. These will help in knowing the content of the advert placement. It is also always very important for the advert to specify that each candidate should have his profile and career summary in the first page of the resume. This will make the short-listing job simple. Bearing all these in mind, the selection and recruitment process will flow as easy as ABC. For a guide, a typical selection and recruitment process should follow the sequence below: Be aware that there is a vacancy / opening in your organization. Analyze the position/s requirements. Learn everything about the job, the processes, performance; the skills needed, the traits, the competencies, salary range etc. Vacancy announcement. Place the vacancy in your website as well as in one or two dailies as the case may be. Be sure the daily you are to use has wide readership. Start your short listing, having in mind the job description and requirements. Depending on the number you have in mind, shortlist many candidates for the pretest selection to give you a variety of choice. Conduct the test exercise (for entry job levels mostly). Prepare interview questions for the pre-screening interview. Conduct the pre-screening interview (to trim down the number of candidates.) Prepare more practical questions for the next stage of the interview. Make your selection and present to the Management for the final selection. Conduct your background checks/reference checks on the successful candidates. Recruit the successful candidates. Conduct employee orientation. Hand over a copy of the employee Handbook to each of them. Place them on probationary period before confirmation of appointments.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Ndunuju_Adiele

The traditional approach involves writing a comprehensive job description of the job to be filled. This enables the recruiter to know exactly what the purpose, duties and responsibilities for the vacant position will be and its location within the organization structure. The need for greater flexibility has led a number of organizations to replace the traditional job description with a concise list of bullet points or accountability statements often limited to a one-sheet paper. The traditional approach involves drawing up a personnel specification based on the job description,
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which identifies the personal characteristics required to perform the job adequately. Under the HRM banner there is greater emphasis on securing people with the right behavior and attitudes rather than focusing on immediate job requirements. Decisions on terms and conditions are made at various points in the process. Some of these are often not negotiated (for e.g. hours and rewards) until the final selection stages. There is a case for deciding the salary and other elements of the reward package before attracting candidates. A wide variety of recruitment methods
are available and they have their advantages and disadvantages. The resources available will influence the most appropriate method for any particular vacancy, the level of the post and its importance within the organization.In External recruitment encourage candidates to apply for and/or to be willing to

accept Organizational jobs that are open. A variety of sources are available for obtaining External job candidates. Advertising, College recruiting programs, Employment agencies, and Referrals by Employees. One major issue related to External recruitment in the tendency of managers to provide the candidates with an overly positive view of the organization in order to attract new employees. Unfortunately this strategy can backfire. An alternative approach is Realistic Job Preview, a technique used during the recruiting process in which the job candidate is presented with a balanced view of both the positive and negative aspects of the job and Organization.The traditional approach involves writing a comprehensive job description of the job to be filled. This enables the recruiter to know exactly what the purpose, duties and responsibilities for the vacant position will be and its location within the organization structure. The need for greater flexibility has led a number of organizations to replace the traditional job description with a concise list of bullet points or accountability statements often limited to a one-sheet paper. The traditional approach involves drawing up a personnel specification based on the job description, which identifies the personal characteristics required to perform the job adequately. Under the HRM banner there is greater emphasis on securing people with the right behavior ad attitudes rather than focusing on immediate job requirements. Decisions on terms and conditions are made at various points in the process. Some of these are often not negotiated (for e.g. hours and rewards) until the final selection stages. There is a case for deciding the salary and other elements of the reward package before attracting candidates.

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Recruitment and Selection Process


Scope 1.1 Purpose of the Procedure 2.0 Recruitment and Selection Framework 2.1 Overview of the process 3.0 Recruitment and Selection Provisions 3.1 Review the job and the need for it 3.2 Design Selection Process 3.2.1 Panel Composition 3.2.2 Selection Tests 3.2.3 Interview Questions 3.3 Advertising 3.3.1 Advertising of vacancies 3.4. Applications 3.5. Short-listing 3.6 Interviewing 3.6.1. Arrangements for interviews 3.7. Selection 3.7.1 Decision to Appoint 3.8 Offers Offer of employment 3.9 Other Requirements 3.9.1 Post interview feedback & notification to applicants

Purpose
Recruiting and selecting the right people is paramount to the success of the IPCC and its ability to retain a workforce of the highest quality. This Recruitment and Selection Procedure sets out how to ensure as far as possible, that the best people are recruited on merit and that the recruitment process is free from bias and discrimination

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Chapter 3 Theoretical Framework

Recruitment Sources Recruitment Interviews and Selection Process Recruiters

Independent Variable
Recruiters, Interviews, Recruitment Sources

Dependent Variable
Recruitment and Selection Process

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Managers hold the responsibility for ensuring this framework is followed. HR is available for advice and will assist in general administration of the recruitment process.

Design Selection Process Panel Composition:


All interviews for permanent posts must be conducted by a panel. The Manager is responsible for selecting interview panel members being mindful of: The requirement that the panel consists of at least two people, and if possible, is mixed in terms of race and gender.The requirement that at least one panel member has received training on recruitment and equal opportunities, normally limited to that provided by the IPCC. If not IPCC trained, the matter should be referred to Human Resources. The requirement that each panel member be familiar with anti-discrimination legislation The willingness and ability of potential panel members to attend all interviews for the duration of the recruitment process, to maintain consistency and to ensure fair treatment of all candidates. Panel members must be satisfied that their relationship with any candidate: Will not improperly influence their decision Will not give rise to suspicion about their motives

Selection Tests:
Where selection tests are a valid method of assessing a candidate (i.e. effectively measures the job criteria, is relevant, reliable, fair and unbiased also considering the predictive capacities of tests), they are an extremely useful tool and are recommended for use. Managers should seek advice from HR on the use of such tests .All psychometric tests used in selection must be developed, administered and interpreted by accredited people

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Interview Questions
Human Resources hold the IPCC Interview Guides that contain competency based interview questions. Managers need to ensure they contact Human Resources prior to interview to obtain copies of these guides.

Recruiting a Candidate Pool: Looking Inside:


Consider possible internal candidates with an interest in the post. Determine if the position level requires an external search

External Search advertising


Brief position description Minimum qualification s include information needed from candidate

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Running a Recruitment Campaign:


Once you have established realistic volunteer recruitment goals, completed the

position descriptions for your volunteer jobs, and thought through the reasons why people are motivated to volunteer, you are ready to launch a formal volunteer recruitment campaign. Here are the goals you need to concentrate on: Target the types of individuals best suited for your job descriptions. As much as possible focus on those who reside in close proximity to the projected volunteer work site. Convince people to volunteer to work with you instead of with another organization. Convincing and eye-catching informational materials are a must in recruitment. Some tools to consider using include:

PressReleases:-for the print media (a short and a long version) PublicServiceAnnouncements,TV,andRadioAnnouncements: - Public
Service Announcements (PSAs) and advertisements, for a few seconds or a few Lines (see appendices in ToolsSection).

Posters, billboards, and buttons: Your informational materials must be so clear that
readers will understand your programs volunteer needs, the job requirements, and job benefits. They must be attractive without appearing extravagant, since you are asking people to work for free. They must all be designed to make people act.

RecruitingfromthePublicatLarge: To recruit volunteers from the public at large, here are


the experiences of ombudsmen and other recruiters in the field.

Using Print Media: Major local daily newspapers, weekly/monthly publications,


and newsletters.

RunningAds. Before purchasing ads, ask for donated space. One ombudsman
coordinator recruited some of the program's best people through this sample ad: "Our ombudsman program wants highly professional people comfortable in resolving problems."
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The ad attracted a high number of health care professionals not involved previously in longterm care. UsingMediaPublicServiceOpportunities: Prepare Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Ask the radio or TV stations to give you assistance in preparing your PSA. Here is what one ombudsman said: Don't let timing stop you from recruiting. We sent out PSAs and recruited during the middle of the Christmas holidays. The response was tremendous volunteer forces were increased by 50 percent. As the saying goes: nothing ventured ... nothing gained. RequestingBusinessestoAdvertiseonBagsor

Wrappers: Request businesses in your Community to include an ad for your program when
they print their bags or wrappers Applications: A file will be set up for each individual vacancy and held in the recruitment Office containing the following: Application Form Job Description, person specification, KSF outline Terms & Conditions of Employment Information about the Department in which the vacancy exists should be provided by the Manager (if available). Any other relevant information, when an enquiry is received from an applicant without internet access, an application pack will be sent within 24 hours. Short listing: Equal Opportunity Monitoring Forms will be separated from the Application Forms prior to short listing and retained by the Recruitment Office The shortlist must be drawn up by minimum of two people, one of whom should be the recruiting manager. All panel members participating in short listing must be familiar with the job description, person specification and KSK outline. Short listing must be based only on the information given in the application, which is assessed against the criteria contained in the person specification and must be consistently applied to all candidates. A record of the assessment must be recorded on the Shortlist Record Form or on NHS Jobs. This is especially important in the event of any subsequent allegation of

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discrimination. If there are large numbers of candidates meeting all the criteria for the job, it will be necessary to examine the degree to which each candidate meets the essential criteria, and by short listing those candidates who, in their application, demonstrate the greatest ability to meet the criteria which can be tested at short listing stage. Any potentially suitable candidates who have disabilities with skills and abilities which broadly match the job description and person specification should also be short listed, whether internal or external candidates. In order to avoid allegations of favoritism, anyone involved in the selection process, which is connected by close friendship or is related to a candidate, must inform the appropriate HR Business Partner. Where there is a declared interest, following guidance from the HR Business Partner, a representative from HR may be included in the selection panel. Partner, a representative from HR may be included in the selection panel. In situations where there are internal candidates only, it is recommended that a third party not involved in the immediate area should be involved in the selection process and interview process. This will help to ensure, and be seen to ensure, that fairness is maintained and that a person is selected on merit. A late application will be a genuine reason for not short listing a candidate and only in very exceptional circumstances and in consultation with the HR Business Partner will a late application be considered. It is recommended that the maximum number of candidates per shortlistis six/eight. Interview Any person to person between two or more individuals with a specific purpose in mind is called Interview There are basically two types of Interviews.

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Structured Interviews
In which interviewer asks those questions which are pre- defined.

Unstructured Interviews:
In which interviewer asks those questions which are not pre- defined which ask randomly.

Arrangements for interviews Interviewing and selecting:


You may as well toss a coin Professor Eysenck's opinion on the validity of the interview as a selection device is well known. Nevertheless the interview seems likely to remain as the principle selection device despite its faults. To sharpen the effectiveness of the interview the panel should ask the candidate to give a presentation. This offers the chance for the candidate to show what they have achieved, show how they hope to fit in and illustrate their communication skills. The interviewer needs to posses three different skills Information gathering, to elicit the facts Interpreting and evaluating information, to consider what the facts mean. Decision making, to act on the facts and the analysis. Gathering the information, eliciting the facts. The right physical environment is important. Interviews require a quiet undisturbed room. If the interview is informal a circle of chairs of equal height and similar spacing may well be appropriate. If the interview is formal and held round a table. Spacing and lighting are also important. The candidate should not be asked to walk miles to their seat, nor blink into the silhouettes of the interview panel against a window. The chairman should make the candidate welcome introduce the panel by name, and say whom they represent The format of the interview should be outlined to the candidate. The interviewer needs to listeand to develop an interested and attentive interviewing style, with plenty of eye contact. Verbal reinforcement should be forthcoming from the interviewer. Silence can be used in a positive way to allow the candidate to develop their answers fully. Questions should be linked to what the candidate has said to elicit a flow of information. They should include

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Selection Decision to Appoint:


After interview process they require candidate is selected for a job. Panel members decide to hire that individual who is fulfilling the requirements.

Offers Offer of Employment:


Organization offers the job to the Individual.

Other Requirements: Post interview feedback & notification to applicants:


HR is responsible for providing all candidates with written notification of the outcome of their application. If feedback is requested from an unsuccessful short-listed candidate, the manager should provide a valid reason to the candidate for rejection together with constructive feedback. Written feedback will not normally be provided

Monitoring Recruitment and Selection (Reporting):


HR will monitor the recruitment processes to ensure they are not discriminatory and will provide statistical data to the Senior Executive Group on a regular basis.

The Significance of the Study:


The study will broaden our understanding the affect of independent variables which are Recruitment sources, Interview and Recruiters on the dependent variable which is Recruitment and Selection Process. Current study will add to existing body of knowledge by signifying. 1. 2. 3. 4. Recruitment and selection process importance Recruitment sources affects on Recruitment and selection process Interviews 3ffects on Recruitment and selection process Recruiters affects on Recruitment and selection process

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Chapter 4 The Methodology;


Keeping the requirements in mind, I use a longitudinal research design because data has been gathered after the great struggle of three months.

Sampling Technique and Sample;


For knowing the affect of Recruitment sources, Interviews and Recruiters on Recruitment and selection process a lot of effort has been put in the gathering of data. A sample of 200 employees has been used to conduct the study. I had got information one time within three months.

Participants:
Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to almost 11 organizations. Some organizations required approval from the organization head before participations

Research Questions:
Main Questions: Does Recruitment sources, Interviews and Recruiters effects on Recruitment and selection process? Sub Questions: 1. 2. 3. Does Recruitment sources affects on Recruitment and selection process Does Interviews affect on Recruitment and selection process. Does Recruiters affect on Recruitment and selection process.

Key Terms of the Study Defined:


Recruitment and selection process, Interviews, Recruiters.

Recruitment and Selection Process:


Recruitment and Selection Process is basically very simple but important process for any organization because all departments require Recruitment and Selection Process efficiency.
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In this process we have to things Recruitment and Selection, firstly company bring more and more candidates and then put them on the selection process after the selection of final candidate this process is completed.

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Chapter No 5 Data Analysis and Interpretation

Firstly, In Data Analysis and Interpretation Process, we should clearly write down the missing values which are left blank by the respondents.

Missing values: Statistics


Recruitment & selection process is effective for the organizational objectives? N Gender Valid 200 0 200 0 Recruitment & selection process increase efficiency in the organizational activities? 200 0 Recruitment Best and recruitment selection source process increase the depends on efficiency of recruitment the r & s sources? process? 200 200 0 0

Recruitment & selection process effect on all the organization departments? 200 0

Missing

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Statistics
Which is the best Better result source for of r & s can Different Which recruitment be increased Interviews methods of methods ? by R & s process are the basic interviews should be recruitment depends on filter of the r should be used for sources? interviews? & s process? used? recruitment? 200 200 200 200 200 200 Valid 0 0 0 0 0 0

Missing

Statistics
Better Result of R & S can be increase d by Intervie ws? N Valid 200 0 Missing

End results Recruiter Recruitment of R & S Recruiter behavior & Selection Process can should be should be Process Knowledgeab Neutral Better Result of be wrong depends on because of le and R & S can be towards Recruiters? Recruiters? Experience? candidates? increased by 200 200 200 200 200 0 0 0 0 0

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Descriptive Analysis:Descriptive Analysis refers to how will collect data and represent it in a form that we may be able to define the concrete proof of what we are trying to achieve through our study while considering numerical value which are authentic and calculated with reliable source of computation, in the following information through various mythological concerns have been posted with their interpretation.

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Gender

200

1.00

2.00

1.3950 .49008

Recruitment & Selection process is effective for the 200 organizational objectives? Recruitment & Selection process increase efficiency in 200 the organizational activities? Recruitment & Selection process effect on all he 200 organization departments? R & S Process depends on 200 recruitment sources? Best Recruitment Source increases the efficiency of the r 200 & s process? Which is the best source for 200 recruitment? Better result of R & S can be increased by recruitment 200 sources? R & S Process depends on 200 interviews? Valid n (list wise) 200

1.00

4.00

1.4250 .58831

1.00

4.00

1.6050 .65661

1.00

5.00

1.8350 .69295

1.00

5.00

1.8700 .84061

1.00

1.00

1.8850 1.37522

1.00

5.00

1.6950 .68139

1.00

5.00

1.6550 .88310

1.00

5.00

1.8950 .84709

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The whole table represents that questions description posted there are total 2oo respondents while their range of position answers on the data collection method (questionnaire) upon discussed question variable to variable differs among themselves maximum value represents last answering option choose by the respondents and minimum value represents most high end option chooses by an respondent in a particular category further mean values represents the overall computed calculation of the discussed data and standard deviation shows the possible variation among the question discussed.

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Interviews are the basic filter 200 of the R & S Process? Different methods of Interviews should be used? 200 Which methods should be used for Recruitment? 200 Better Result of R & S can be increased by Interviews? 200 R & S Process depends on Recruiters? 200 End results of R & S Process can be wrong because of 200 Recruiters? Recruiter should be Knowledgeable and 200 Experience? Recruiter behavior should be Neutral towards candidates? 200 Better Result of R & S can be increased by Recruiters? 200 Valid N (list wise) 200

1.00 1.00 1.00

1.00 5.00 5.00

1.9000 1.7000 1.7200

1.37091 .67993 .68112

1.00 1.00

5.00 5.00

1.6650 1.8700

.87556 .84061

1.00

4.00

1.9250

1.52017

1.00

5.00

1.6850

.68419

1.00 1.00

5.00 5.00

1.7100 1.6600

.68428 .87649

The whole table represents that questions description posted there are total 2oo respondents while their range of position answers on the data collection method (questionnaire) upon discussed question variable to variable differs among themselves maximum value represents last answering option choose by the respondents and minimum value represents most high end option chooses by an respondent in a particular category further mean values represents the overall computed calculation of the discussed data and standard deviation shows the possible variation among the question discussed.

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Frequency Table of all Nominal Questions


There are frequency tables of my all dependent and independent variables. My dependent variable is Recruitment and Selection. Independent variables are Recruitment Sources, Interview and Recruiters. Frequency of all the questions of my variables in my questionnaire is mentioned below

Gender
Frequency Valid Male Female Total 121 79 200 Percent 60.5 39.5 100.0 Valid percent Cumulative percent 60.5 39.5 100.0 60.5 100.0

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Regression
In this section, we will define the relationship between the dependent and independent variable. Dependent variable is Recruitment and Selection Process and Independent variables are Recruitment Sources, Interview and Recruiter

Hypothesis # 1:This research shows the relation between Recruitment and Selection Process and Recruitment Sources. There is no relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Recruitment Sources?

Ho

H1: There is relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Recruitment Sources?

Variables Entered/Removed
Model 1 Variables Entered Sources Variables Removed Method . Enter

a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Recruitment and Selection Process

Model Summary
Model 1 R .163a R Square .027 Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate .022 .45520

a. Predictors: (Constant), Sources From the above Table we can watch the affect of Recruitment sources on the Recruitment and Selection Process. For this, we will have to consider the value of adjusted R Square .The value of Adjusted R square will tell us that how much Recruitment Sources affects on Recruitment and Selection Process. So, it is clear that from the values of Adjusted R Square which is 0.022.So at the end we can say this that recruitment Sources affect on Recruitment and
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Selection Process 0.022 times.

ANOVA
Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 1.123 41.028 42.151 df 1 198 199 Mean Square 1.123 .207 F Sig. 5.419 .021a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Sources b. Dependent Variable: Recruitment and Selection Process

Coefficients
Un Standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) B 1.858 -.133 Std. Error .107 .057 -.163 Beta t Sig. 17.43 .000 1 -2.328 .021

Sources

a. Dependent Variable: Recruitment and Selection Process

Explanations:The table shows the relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Recruitment Source. Here significance level is .021.which is .021< 0.05.SO in this case Null Hypothesis (

Ho) is rejected and Alternative Hypothesis (H1) is Accepted.

So, at the end we can say that There is relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Interview.
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Model Summary
Model 1 R .163a R Square .027 Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate .022 .45520

a. Predictors: (Constant), Sources

From the above Table we can watch the affect of Recruitment sources on the Recruitment and Selection Process. For this, we will have to consider the value of adjusted R Square .The value of Adjusted R square will tell us that how much Recruitment Sources affects on Recruitment and Selection Process. So, it is clear that from the values of Adjusted R Square which is 0.022.So at the end we can say this that recruitment Sources affect on Recruitment and Selection Process 0.022 times.

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Regression between Recruitment and Selection process and Interview Hypothesis # 2:This research shows the relation between Recruitment and Selection Process and Interview.

Ho: There is no relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Interview? H1: There is relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Interview?

Variables Entered/Removed

Model 1

Variables Entered Interviews

Variables Removed .

Method Enter

a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Recruitment and Selection Process

Model Summary

Model R 1 .145a

R Square Adjusted R Square .021 .016

Std. Error of the Estimate .45655

a. Predictors: (Constant), Interviews b. From the above Table we can watch the affect of Interviews on the Recruitment and Selection
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Process. For this, we will have to consider the value of adjusted R Square .The value of Adjusted R square will tell us that how much Interviews affects on Recruitment and Selection Process. So, it is clear from the values of Adjusted R Square which is 0.016.So at the end we can say this Interview affect on Recruitment and Selection Process 0.016 times.

ANOVA
Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares .880 41.270 42.151 df 1 198 199 Mean Square F .880 .208 4.223 Sig. .041a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Interviews b. Dependent Variable: Recruitment and Selection Process

Coefficients
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) B 1.870 -.140 Std. Error .125 .068 -.145 Beta t Sig. 14.92 .000 7 -2.055 .041

Interviews

a. Dependent Variable: Recruitment and Selection Process

Explanation:The table shows the relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Interview. Here significance level is 0.041.which is 0.041<0.05.SO in this case Null Hypothesis (

Ho) is
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rejected and Alternative Hypothesis (

H1) is Accepted.

So, at the end we can say that There is relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Interview.

Regression between Recruitment and Selection process and Recruiter

Hypothesis # 3:This research shows the relation between Recruitment and Selection Process and Recruiter.

Ho: There is no relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Recruiter? H1: There is relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Recruiter?
Variables Entered/Removed
Model Variables Entered 1 Recruiter a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Recruitment and Selection Process Variables Removed . Method Enter

Model Summary
Model R 1 .168a R Square .028 Adjusted R Square .023 Std. Error of the Estimate .45485

a. Predictors: (Constant), Recruiter b. From the above table we can watch the affect of Recruitment sources on the Recruitment and Selection Process. For this, we will have to consider the value of adjusted R Square .The value
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of Adjusted R square will tell us that how much Recruitment Sources affects on Recruitment and Selection Process. So, it is clear that from the values of Adjusted R Square which is 0.023.So at the end we can say this that recruitment Sources affect on Recruitment and Selection Process 0.023 times.

ANOVA
Model 1 Residual Total Sum of Squares df Regression 1.186 40.964 42.151 1 198 199 Mean Square 1.186 .207 F 5.733 Sig. .018

a. Predictors: (Constant), Recruiter b. Dependent Variable: Recruitment and Selection Process

Coefficients
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Model 1 Recruiter B (Constant) 1.888 -.151 Std. Error .116 .063 -.168 Beta t 16.285 -2.394 Sig. .000 .018

a. Dependent Variable: Recruitment and Selection Process

Explanation:The table shows the relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Interview. Here significance level is 0.041.which is 0.018<0.05.SO in this case Null Hypothesis (

Ho) is
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rejected and Alternative Hypothesis (

H1) is Accepted.

So, At the end we can say that There is relationship between Recruitment and Selection Process and Interview.

Scatter plot
GRAPH
Now we discuss the relation between variables through Graphs. Firstly, we have the graph which is showing the relationship between Dependent variable Recruitment and Selection Process and independent variable Recruitment Sources. After applying the conditions, following conditions formed. This graph showing the linear relationship between both these variables. Similarly, most of the respondents response is falling in the side of independent variable. Most of the respondents mark on Agree, Strongly Agree. The graph shows the relationship between recruitment and selection process and recruitment sources is negative.

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In graph it has been clear that the value of R Sq Quadratic is 0.027 and value of R Sq Linear is 0.029.Now, we have the following calculation,

R Sq Quadratic 0.029 R Sq Linear -0.027. ______________________________________________________________________ Result 0.002 < 0.05----------------> Linear. If Result is less than 0.05 than it will be Liner or if it is greater than it will be Non Linear. Secondly, we have the graph which is showing the relationship between Dependent variable Recruitment and Selection Process and independent variable Interview. After applying the conditions, following graph formed. This graph showing the linear relationship between both these variables. Similarly, most of the respondents response is falling in the side of independent variable. Most of the respondents mark on Agree, Strongly Agree.

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The graph shows the relationship between recruitment and selection process and recruitment sources is negative.

From the graph, it has been clear that the value of R Sq Quadratic is 0.027 and value of R Sq Linear is 0.029. Now, we have the following calculation, R Sq Quadratic R Sq Linear Result 0.029 -0.021. 0.008 < 0.05----------------> Linear.

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From the graph, it has been clear that the value of R Sq Quadratic is 0.027 and value of R Sq Linear is 0.029. Now, we have the following calculation, R Sq Quadratic 0.068 R Sq Linear -0.027. _____________________________________________________ Result 0.041 < 0.05----------------> Linear. If Result is less than 0.05 than it will be Liner or if it is greater than it will be Non Linear.

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Chapter 6 Conclusion:This study suggest that when Recruitment and Selection Process is properly established and implemented then organization will must grow because all the employees will be according to the requirements Recruitment and Selection Process affects a lot on the organizational activities regaring its growth because if the people will be according t the requirements and skillful then cost will reduce and organization must grow. All the study has prove the fact there is directly and indirectly relationship is present between these variables and these variables affect on the Recruitment and Selection Process. All the independent variables are Recruitment sources, Intervies and Recruiters are all very important in the Recruitment and Selection Process because by the missing of any one factor there is chance the whole Recruitment and Selection Process will be affected by these factors. There are no doubt others factors also affect on the Recruitment and Selection Process but these are main and require more attention. That is why I choose these variables.

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Questionnaire
Name Gender
Dear Participants, I will be very thankful to you for this cooperation. The topic of this questionnaire is Recruitment and Selection Process. This questionnaire is for the research purpose. Its results will be used for analysis in Master Thesis. Please provide Information with confidence. Your information will not be disclosed. Q.1) Recruitment & Selection Process is Effective for the Organizational objectives? Strongly Agree Never Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree 5 Disagree

1 2 3 4 Q.2) R & S Process increase efficiency in the organization activities? Strongly Agree Never Agree Strongly Disagree

1 2 3 4 5 Q.3) Do you think best source increase the efficiency on all organization department? Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Never 1 2 3 4 5

Q.4) R & S Process depends on sources of Recruitment?

Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Strongly Disagree 3 Disagree 4 Never 5 Q.5) which is the best source for R & S Process? Internal 1 Electronic Media 2 Print Media 3 Consultants 4 others 5

Q.6) Better Result of R & S can be increase by Recruitment sources? Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Strongly Disagree 3 Disagree 4 Never 5

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Q.7) R & S Process depend on Interviews? Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Strongly Disagree 3 Disagree 4 Never 5

Q.8) Interviews are the basic filter of the R & S Process? Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Strongly Disagree 3 Disagree 4 Never 5 Q.9) Different methods of Interviews should be used? Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Strongly Disagree 3 Disagree 4 Never 5 Q.10) Which methods should be used for Recruitment? Structured 1 Unstructured 2 Problem questions 3 Case Study questions 4 others 5

Q.11) Better Result of R & S can be increase by Interviews? Structured 1 Unstructured 2 Problem questions 3 Case Study questions 4 others 5

Q12) Recruiter should be Knowledgeable and Experience? Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Strongly Disagree 3 Disagree 4 Never 5

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Q.13) R & S behavior depends on recruiter? Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Strongly Disagree 3 Disagree 4 Never 5 Q.14) End Result of R & S process can be wrong because of Recruiters? Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Strongly Disagree 3 Disagree 4 Never 5

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