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1. Squares of numbers ending with 5: (xy)2 = Eg: 352 = 1225 (3 * 4 = 12) 1152 = 13225 (11*12 = 132) 2.

Squares of numbers from 51 to 59: (5x)2 = Eg: 542 = 2916 (25+4 = 29, 42 = 16) 572 = 3249 (25 + 7 = 32, 72 = 49)

(x * (x+1))

25

(25+x)

x2

3. Squares of numbers from 26 to 75: (x)2 = (x 25) |50-x|2 (If the st square results in 3 digits, carry over leftmost to the 1 part) Eg: 432 = 1849 (43 25 = 18, |50 43|2 = 49) 712 = 5041 (71 25 = 46, |50 71|2 = 441, carry over 4 to 1st part, 46 + 4 = 50) This concept can be continued for numbers greater than 75 as well but for that, you need to remember squares of more than 25 numbers. 4. Multiplication of numbers such as (x5) * [(x+1)5]: (x+1)2 1 75 Eg: 35 * 45 = 1575 (42 1 = 15) 115 * 125 = 14375 (122 1 = 143) 5. Multiplication with 9s: (i) When no. of 9s are same as the other no.: (xyz) * 999 = (xyz 1) (9 x) (9 y) (10 z) (Subtract the last digit from10, rest all from 9) Eg: 47 * 99 = 4653 (47 1 = 46, 9 4 = 5, 10 7 = 3) 4853 * 9999 = 48525147 (4853 1 = 4852, rest similar as above) (ii) When no. of 9s are more than the other no.: (xyz) * 9999 = (xyz 1) 9 (9 x) (9 y) (10 z) (Insert the no. of extra 9s in between) Eg: 45 * 9999 = 449955 (45 1 = 44, 2 extra 9s, 9 4 = 5, 10 5 = 5) 345 * 9999 = 3449655 (iii) When no. of 9s are less than the other no.: (xyz) * 99 = (xyz 1 x) (9 y) (10 z) (Subtract the extra digits from the no. as well, take from left) (Dont consider the extra digits for subtraction from 9) Eg: 354 * 99 = 35046 [354 1 3(extra digit) = 350, 9 5 = 4, 10 4 = 6) 48367 * 999 = 48318633 (48367 1 48 = 48318, 9 3 = 6, 9 6 = 3, 10 7 = 3) 6. Approximate Division: Eg: 4021/203: Consider it as 4021/200(an error of 3). Its relatively simpler and the answer is roughly 20.1. Now to remove the error we created, we divide 3/203. We can do this through %ages. We know 1% of 203 ~ 2. Thus, 1.5% ~ 3(the error we have to remove). Now we find 1.5% of 20.1, roughly around 0.3. Now because we subtracted from 203 to create an error, we have to subtract from the result as well. So, 20.1 0.3 = 19.8. And the actual answer is, 19.81.. quite close, right??? Another Eg: 204/486:

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

204/500 ~ 0.408 (just do 204 * 2 = 408 and put adequate decimals) 14/486 1%~5 3 % ~ 14 3 % of 0.408 ~ 0.01224 ~ 0.01 0.408 + 0.01 (because we added to 486 to create an error) 0.409 (Actual answer 0.419, not very close but is still quite helpful, with slightly distant options. Atleast much better than normal division)

Just practice a few more problems like these and youll be able to get this right. This method is quite useful but you have to be quick with numbers. Keep trying!!! 7. Using digit sum to check accuracy of a problem: When doing either addition or multiplication, we can just check its correctness by calculating the digit sums of individual numbers and performing similar operations on them. When adding digits, you dont have to add 9s or any combination that add up to 9, its simply not required and keep on adding digits till you get a single digit.(Eg. 384 = 3 + 8 + 4 = 15 = 1 + 5 = 6) Eg: 24 * 37 = 888 2 + 4 = 6, 3 + 7 = 10 = 1 Thus, 6 * 1 = 6 8 + 8 + 8 = 24 = 2 + 4 = 6 Eg: 564 + 386 = 950 5 + 6 + 4 = 15 = 6 (5 + 4 need not be counted and you get 6 directly) 3 + 8 + 6 = 8 (same here, 3 + 6 not counted) 6 + 8 = 14 = 5 950 = 5 (9 not counted) Note that this method will only tell if you have erred in addition or multiplication. If both the checksums are identical, you maybe right, and thats not confirmed as there maybe other combinations giving the same checksum(like in case of 950, 959 will also give the same checksum of 5). But still atleast it can tell you if you have erred. Dont rely on this!!! Its just an add - on that I thought I should share.